Science.gov

Sample records for albuquerque riverside drain

  1. Estimation of hydraulic characteristics in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system using computer simulations of river and drain pulses in the Rio Bravo study area, near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roark, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation of the surface-water/ground-water interaction of the Rio Grande and the surrounding alluvium and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in an area near the Rio Bravo Bridge, south of Albu- querque, New Mexico. A set of existing wells and new wells were instrumented to monitor water levels in a section perpendicular to the Rio Grande on the east side of the river. Equipment to measure stream stage was installed at two sites--on the Albuquerque Riverside Drain and on the Rio Grande. A short-duration river pulse and a long-duration river pulse were used to stress the ground-water system while the changes in water levels were monitored. A ground- water flow-model simulation using the principle of superposition was used to estimate the hydraulic characteristics of the local ground-water system. Simulated horizontal hydraulic conductivities varied from 0.03 to 100 feet per day, and vertical hydraulic conductivities varied from 1.5 x 10-6 to 0.01 foot per day. The specific yield of layer 1 was estimated to be 0.3. Specific storage for layers 2 through 11 was 1.0 x 10-6. Water entering the model from the river along a 300-foot-wide cross section during simulation of the short-duration pulse averaged 7.46 x 10-3 cubic foot per second and during the long-duration pulse was 1.66 x 10-3 cubic foot per second. The average flux from the model to the drain during the short-duration pulse was 3.18 x 10-3 cubic foot per second. The average flux for the long-duration pulse was 7.14 x 10-3 cubic foot per second from the drain to the model.

  2. Groundwater hydrology and estimation of horizontal groundwater flux from the Rio Grande at selected locations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2009–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, Dale R.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Goeff J.M. Moret,; Jeffery A. Worthington,; Kimberly M. Bandy-Baldwin,

    2016-03-17

    The Albuquerque area of New Mexico has two principal sources of water: (1) groundwater from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, and (2) surface water from the Rio Grande. From 1960 to 2002, pumping from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system caused groundwater levels to decline more than 120 feet while water-level declines along the Rio Grande in Albuquerque were generally less than 40 feet. These differences in water-level declines in the Albuquerque area have resulted in a great deal of interest in quantifying the river-aquifer interaction associated with the Rio Grande.In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, acting as fiscal agent for the Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative Program, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer in the Albuquerque area of New Mexico. The study provides hydrologic data in order to enhance the understanding of rates of water leakage from the Rio Grande to the alluvial aquifer, groundwater flow through the aquifer, and discharge of water from the aquifer to riverside drains. The study area extends about 20 miles along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area. Piezometers and surface-water gages were installed in paired transects at eight locations. Nested piezometers, completed at various depths in the alluvial aquifer, and surface-water gages, installed in the Rio Grande and riverside drains, were instrumented with pressure transducers. Water-level and water-temperature data were collected from 2009 to 2010.Water levels from the piezometers indicated that groundwater movement was usually away from the river towards the riverside drains. Annual mean horizontal groundwater gradients in the inner valley alluvial aquifer ranged from 0.0024 (I-25 East) to 0.0144 (Pajarito East). The median hydraulic conductivity values of the inner valley alluvial aquifer, determined from slug tests, ranged from 30

  3. Concentrations of selected trace elements and other constituents in the Rio Grande and in fish tissue in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    The State of New Mexico and the Pueblo of Isleta have established surface-water standards for trace elements to control discharges of these contaminants. Before these standards can be meaningfully applied, however, ambient concentrations and loads of trace elements, principally arsenic, need to be determined in the Rio Grande and inflow sources. Arsenic concentrations also need to be determined in the edible portion of fish tissue because the Pueblo of Isleta standard for arsenic is based on fish consumption. Eighteen surface-water sampling sites on a reach of the Rio Grande from the Pueblo of San Felipe to Los Lunas, New Mexico, were sampled quarterly from October 1994 to August 1996. The sites include eight Rio Grande sites, one Jemez River site, five riverside drain sites, and four wastewater- treatment plant outfalls. Trace-element protocol was used to collect and process the samples. Field and laboratory quality-control samples were analyzed, and the results are included in this report. Fish-tissue samples were collected from four of the Rio Grande sites and the Albuquerque Riverside Drain, the Atrisco Riverside Drain, and three lakes at a recreational fishing area on the Isleta Indian Reservation. Arsenic in the Rio Grande is nearly all in the dissolved phase. There was little temporal change in arsenic concentration at the Rio Grande sites. The mean dissolved-arsenic concentration in the Rio Grande increased downstream from 1.8 micrograms per liter at the Pueblo of San Felipe to 3.6 micrograms per liter at Los Lunas. Mean dissolved-arsenic concentrations in the riverside drains were slightly higher (2.8 to 4.5 micrograms per liter) than those in the Rio Grande and were higher still in the wastewater-treatment plant outfalls (7.9 to 16.2 micrograms per liter) and the Jemez River (18.2 micrograms per liter). The mean total-arsenic concentration in fish-tissue samples from the Rio Grande and Albuquerque Riverside Drain was 14.53 micrograms per kilogram.

  4. Groundwater hydrology and estimation of horizontal groundwater flux from the Rio Grande at selected locations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2003-9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, Dale R.; McCoy, Kurt J.; More, Geoff J.M.; Worthington, Jeffrey A.; Bandy-Baldwin, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque, New Mexico, area has two principal sources of water: groundwater from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system and surface water from the San Juan-Chama Diversion Project. From 1960 to 2002, groundwater withdrawals from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system have caused water levels to decline more than 120 feet in some places within the Albuquerque area, resulting in a great deal of interest in quantifying the river-aquifer interaction associated with the Rio Grande. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative Program, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began a detailed characterization of the hydrogeology of the Rio Grande riparian corridor in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area to provide hydrologic data and enhance the understanding of rates of water leakage from the Rio Grande to the alluvial aquifer, groundwater flow through the aquifer, and discharge of water from the aquifer to the riverside drains. A simple conceptual model of flow indicates that the groundwater table gently slopes from the Rio Grande towards riverside drains and the outer boundaries of the inner valley. Water infiltrating from the Rio Grande initially moves vertically below the river, but, as flow spreads farther into the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer, flow becomes primarily horizontal. The slope of the water-table surface may be strongly controlled by the riverside drains and influenced by other more distal hydrologic boundary conditions, such as groundwater withdrawals by wells. Results from 35 slug tests performed in the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer during January and February 2009 indicate that hydraulic-conductivity values ranged from 5 feet per day to 160 feet per day with a median hydraulic-conductivity for all transects of 40 feet per day. Median annual horizontal hydraulic gradients in the Rio Grande inner valley alluvial aquifer ranged from 0.011 to 0

  5. Simulation of a long-term aquifer test conducted near the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.

    2001-01-01

    A long-term aquifer test was conducted near the Rio Grande in Albuquerque during January and February 1995 using 22 wells and piezometers at nine sites, with the City of Albuquerque Griegos 1 production well as the pumped well. Griegos 1 discharge averaged about 2,330 gallons per minute for 54.4 days. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the Griegos well field and the amount of infiltration induced into the aquifer system from the Rio Grande and riverside drains as a result of pumping during the test. The model was initially calibrated by trial-and-error adjustments of the aquifer properties. The model was recalibrated using a nonlinear least-squares regression technique. The aquifer system in the area includes the middle Tertiary to Quaternary Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group valley- and basin-fill deposits of the Albuquerque Basin. The Rio Grande and adjacent riverside drains are in hydraulic connection with the aquifer system. The hydraulic-conductivity values of the upper part of the Santa Fe Group resulting from the model calibrated by trial and error varied by zone in the model and ranged from 12 to 33 feet per day. The hydraulic conductivity of the inner-valley alluvium was 45 feet per day. The vertical to horizontal anisotropy ratio was 1:140. Specific storage was 4 x 10-6 per foot of aquifer thickness, and specific yield was 0.15 (dimensionless). The sum of squared errors between the observed and simulated drawdowns was 130 feet squared. Not all aquifer properties could be estimated using nonlinear regression because of model insensitivity to some aquifer properties at observation locations. Hydraulic conductivity of the inner-valley alluvium, middle part of the Santa Fe Group, and riverbed and riverside-drain bed and specific yield had low sensitivity values and therefore could not be estimated. Of the properties estimated, hydraulic conductivity of the upper part of

  6. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  7. Albuquerque's Environmental Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Joan; And Others

    This teachers' resource guide contains four sections in addition to an introduction. The first section is an interdisciplinary look at the major natural areas in and around Albuquerque. This is followed by a review of the city's cultural history and a glimpse into the interactions people of Albuquerque have had with their natural environment. The…

  8. 12. Riverside Avenue Bridge. Riverside, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Riverside Avenue Bridge. Riverside, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 30.26. (See HAER No. CT-13 for further documentation on this structure). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  10. Summary of Flow Loss between Selected Cross Sections on the Rio Grande in and near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veenhuis, Jack E.

    2002-01-01

    The upper middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, extends from the headwaters of the Rio Grande in southwestern Colorado to Fort Quitman, Texas. Most of the basin has a semiarid climate typical of the southwestern United States. This climate drives a highly variable streamflow regime that contributes to the complexity of water management in the basin. Currently, rapid population growth in the basin has resulted in increasing demands on the hydrologic system. Water management decisions have become increasingly complex because of the broad range of interests and issues. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, conducted paired flow measurements at two cross sections to determine cross-sectional loss in the Albuquerque reach of the Rio Grande. This report statistically summarizes flow losses in the Albuquerque reach of the Rio Grande during the winter nonirrigation season from December 1996 to February 2000. The two previous flow-loss investigations are statistically summarized. Daily mean flow losses are calculated for the winter nonirrigation season using daily mean flows at three selected Rio Grande streamflow-gaging stations.For the winter nonirrigation season cross-sectional measurements (1996-2000), an average of 210 cubic feet per second was returned to the river between the measurement sites, of which 165 cubic feet per second was intercepted by riverside drains along the 21.9-mile reach from the Rio Grande near Bernalillo to the Rio Grande at Rio Bravo Bridge streamflow-gaging stations. Total cross-sectional losses in this reach averaged about 90 cubic feet per second. Regression equations were determined for estimating downstream total outflow from upstream total inflow for all three paired measurement studies. Regression equations relating the three daily mean flow recording stations also were determined. In each succeeding study, additional outside variables

  11. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer unknown, ca. 1903-04. VIEW OF WORKERS AND BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION - Union Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Santa Anna River, west of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  12. Fogwater chemistry at Riverside, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. William; Collett, Jeff; Daube, Bruce; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    Fog, aerosol, and gas samples were collected during the winter of 1986 at Riverside, California. The dominant components of the aerosol were NH 4+, NO 3-, and SO 42-. Gaseous NH 3 was frequently present at levels equal to or exceeding the aerosol NH 4+. Maximum level were 3800, 3100, 690 and 4540 neq m -3 for NH 4+, NO 32- and NH 3(g), respectively. The fogwater collected at Riverside had very high concentrations, particularly of the major aerosol components. Maximum concentrations were 26,000 29,000 and 6200 μM for NH 4+, NO 3- and SO 42-, respectively. pH values in fogwater ranged from 2.3 to 5.7. Formate and acetate concentrations as high as 1500 and 580 μM, respectively, were measured. The maximum CH 2O concentration was 380 μM. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal were found in all the samples; their maximum concentrations were 280 and 120 μM, respectively. Comparison of fogwater and aerosol concentrations indicates that scavenging of precursor aerosol by fog droplets under the conditions at Riverside is less than 100% efficient. The chemistry at Riverside is controlled by the balance between HNO 3 production from NO x emitted throughout the Los Angeles basin and NH 3 emitted from dairy cattle feedlots just west of Riverside. The balance is controlled by local mixing. Acid fogs result at Riverside when drainage flows from the surrounding mountains isolate the site from the NH 3 source. Continued formation of HNO 3(g) in this air mass eventually depletes the residual NH 3(g). A simple box model that includes deposition, fog scavenging, and dilution is used to assess the effect of curtailing the dairy cattle feedlot operations. The calculations suggest that the resulting reduction of NH 3 levels would decrease the total NO 3- in the atmosphere, but nearly all remaining NO 3- would exist as HNO 3. Fogwater in the basin would be uniformly acidic.

  13. 16. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF MAGNOLIA AVENUE WITH ELECTRIC STREET CAR - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  14. 31. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer unknown, ca. 1900-1910. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF UNKNOWN PACKING HOUSE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  15. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer unknown, ca. 1916. VIEW OF VICTORIA AVENUE FROM COUNTRY CLUB PARK - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  16. 20. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), S.P. Tresslar, photographer and date unknown. EARLY VIEW OF UNLINED GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL. - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  17. 32. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF EARLY ROPE AND ROLL PONY SIZER - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  18. 7. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF VICTORIA AVENUE NEAR MYRTLE STREET - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  19. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF DUFFERIN AVENUE AND VEHICLE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  20. 19. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  1. 15. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF BARNS, STABLE AND FIELD EQUIPMENT, ARLINGTON HEIGHTS FRUIT COMPANY, EXACT LOCATION UNKNOWN - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  2. 17. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF MAGNOLIA AVENUE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  3. 30. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF SANTA FE RAILROAD TRACKS AND PACHAPPA AVENUE (COMMERCE STREET) LOOKING NORTH - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  4. 5. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF ARLINGTON HEIGHTS CITRUS GROVES - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  5. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF OSBORNE CAMP AND STABLES, ARLINGTON HEIGHTS FRUIT COMPANY - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  6. 18. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF MISSION INN, SEVENTH STREET ENTRANCE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  7. 11. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF WORKERS HARVESTING ORANGES IN GROVES - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  8. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../DEIS) for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder (RCF) Project. Interested parties are invited to comment..., 555 West 6th Street, San Bernardino, California 92410 Corona Public Library, 650 South Main...

  9. 76 FR 1150 - City of Riverside, CA; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Riverside, CA; Notice of Filing December 30, 2010. Take notice that on December 20, 2010, the City of Riverside, California (Riverside) filed a Petition for...

  10. 6. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historic Resources Department), photographer unknown, ca. 1902. VIEW OF ARLINGTON HEIGHTS CITRUS GROVES, VICTORIA HILL AND VICTORIA RANCH CHASE HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  11. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer unknown, October 1916. FORMER 'VICTORIA BRIDGE' (HOWE DECK TRUSS SUPPORTED BY TRESTLE) LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING STREETCAR AND THATCH-ROOFED, CANTILEVERED PEDESTRIAN PLATFORM - Victoria Bridge, Spanning Tequesquite Arroyo, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  12. Interpretive aeromagnetic map of the Eagle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Eagle Mountains Wilderness Study Area consists of about 49,723 acres in the southeastern and east-central part of the Eagle Mountains, Riverside County, California, just north of Interstate 10 about 170 mi east-southeast of Los Angeles. The western boundary of the WSA abuts Joshua Tree National Monument, the northern boundary skirts the Eagle Mountains mining district, and parts of the southern and eastern boundaries follow the Colorado River aqueduct. Principal access to the interior of the WSA is provided by jeep trails in Big Wash and an unnamed, major north-draining wash in the western part of the study area.

  13. Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) in order to highlight research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Albuquerque Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. These integrated program summaries include: Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils, Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soils, Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration, Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration, Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology, In Situ Remediation, Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration, Underground Storage Tank, Efficient Separations and Processing, Mixed Waste Integrated Program, Rocky Flats Compliance Program, Pollution Prevention Program, Innovation Investment Area, and Robotics Technology.

  14. Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  15. Drain vs No Drain After Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsujinaka, Shingo; Konishi, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    In colorectal surgery, drains are expected to prevent hematoma, fluid collection, or abscess formation, to act as an indicator of postoperative complication, or to minimize the severity of complication-related symptoms. Routine drainage has not been advocated by meta-analyses as they failed to demonstrate any benefit in reducing anastomotic leak rate, minimizing symptoms, or serving as a warning function. Moreover, some reports even showed that drain itself is an independent risk factor of anastomosis. The introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer surgery has given further concern to this controversial issue, that the use of drain decreased anastomotic failure rate and the need for surgical re-intervention. While controversy still remains, the choice of using drain is left to the individual surgeon's preference in daily practice. Therefore, surgeons should be well acquainted with purpose of drainage (prophylaxis, information, or treatment), characteristics (materials), clinical application of drain (type of drainage system, timing of removal), surgical outcomes after using drain (incidence of postoperative complication), and drain-related complications. If drains are used, careful observation with proper use is crucial for the management. It is important that the duration of drainage should not be inadequately extended. Any complications directly associated with the use of drain should be avoided. New concepts of drain have been proposed as diagnostic tool using biomarkers, and as preventive device against anastomotic leak. This article overviews the available, published data on the use of drain in colorectal surgery.

  16. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and... to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA... publication of this notice. ADDRESSES: Please send written comments to Ms. Amy Campbell, Southern...

  17. 78 FR 77448 - City of Riverside, California; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Riverside, California; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 11, 2013, City of Riverside, California submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): 2014...

  18. 75 FR 81604 - City of Riverside, California; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Riverside, California; Notice of Filing December 21, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, the City of Riverside, California submitted its annual revision to...

  19. 78 FR 936 - City of Riverside, California; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Riverside, California; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 17, 2012, City of Riverside, California ] submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Filing 2013...

  20. 2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  2. EPA, Albuquerque Work to Improve Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 23, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently awarded $151,996 to the city of Albuquerque to monitor fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5. These are particles found in smoke and haze that measure 2.5 micrometers or less in

  3. Escape from Albuquerque: An Apache Memorate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfeld, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Clarence Hawkins, a White Mountain Apache, escaped from the Albuquerque Indian School around 1920. His 300-mile trip home, made with two other boys, exemplifies the reaction of many Indian youths to the American government's plans for cultural assimilation. The tale is told in the form of traditional Apache narrative. (TD)

  4. RadNet Air Data From Riverside, CA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Riverside, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. View of elevated West Side (Joe Dimaggio) Highway, Riverside Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of elevated West Side (Joe Dimaggio) Highway, Riverside Park South, and Trump Place development from 71st to 66th streets. Shot taken from Pier 1 (Riverside Park South) looking southeast. Henry Hudson Parkway (HHP) starts just to the left of the view, one block north. 69th Street Transfer Bridge in center. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  6. 10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in Place and with 'Tower for Concrete' in the Background. The function of the 'tower for concrete' is uncertain, but may have to do with the transport of concrete from the point of mixing to the point of use (suggestion by NDOT Bridge Section personnel, February 1990). Original snapshot taken July, 1920. - Riverside Bridge, Spanning Truckee River at Booth Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  7. 76 FR 72001 - Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ..., at the BLM Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM, from 9 a.m.-4 p.m. The public may send written comments to the RAC, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM 87107. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gina Melchor, BLM Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM...

  8. 77 FR 70807 - Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ..., at the BLM Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM, from 9 a.m.-4 p.m. The public may send written comments to the RAC, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM 87107. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chip Kimball, BLM Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM...

  9. The Albuquerque carbon monoxide source apportionment study

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.

    1988-07-01

    At the request of the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division, a study was carried out to examine, in detail, the relative contribution of various combustion sources to ambient carbon monoxide in Albuquerque during the winter season evening hours. The two-month field study (January--February 1985) included aerosol and gas monitoring at two sites in the Albuquerque area. Source contributions to ambient carbon monoxide were determined by regression techniques using tracer elements and by carbon isotope measurements on collected carbon monoxide. Results from isotopic carbon analysis of carbon monoxide show that, on average, mobile sources contributed 68 percent and wood burning sources 32 percent to ambient carbon monoxide levels during winter season evening hours. Good agreement was found between results from carbon isotope and linear regression techniques used to estimate average source strengths. The study results point to the significance of both mobile and residential wood burning sources as contributors to ambient carbon monoxide levels. 1 ref., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Tiger Team assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. SNL, Albuquerque, is operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The environmental assessment also included DOE tenant facilities at Ross Aviation, Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation, and the Central Training Academy. The assessment was conducted from April 15 to May 24, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (ES H). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing ES H disciplines, management, self-assessments, and quality assurance; transportation; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal SNL, Albuquerque, requirements were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and SNL, Albuquerque management of ES H programs was conducted.

  11. Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory--50 years of global seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, C.R.; Peterson, Jon; Gee, Lind; Derr, John; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory is about 15 miles southeast of Albuquerque on the Pueblo of Isleta, adjacent to Kirtland Air Force Base. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory supports the Global Seismographic Network Program and the Advanced National Seismic System through the installation, operation, and maintenance of seismic stations around the world and serves as the premier seismological instrumentation test facility for the U.S. Government.

  12. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  13. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. 76 FR 30754 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside and Orange Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...: Riverside and Orange Counties, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed highway project in Riverside and Orange... in Riverside and Orange Counties. The State Route 91 Corridor Improvement Project proposes to...

  16. The Albuquerque City Center Schools. Program Evaluation, 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.; Panofsky, Carolyn

    The Albuquerque City Center Schools (ACCS) project, begun in 1983, was designed to increase the effectiveness of 12 schools in the Albuquerque High School cluster by creating a climate of high expectations, improving academic achievement, encouraging a climate of positive discipline, promoting student, community and private sector participation,…

  17. 15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  18. 14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  19. 18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  20. 16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  1. 17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  2. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  4. The Albuquerque High School Moonwatch Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Joel M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mid-1950s, a remarkable pair of high school teachers, Mrs. Vi Hefferan and (later) Mr. John Bartholdi, organized an astronomy club and Moonwatch satellite tracking team open to students from all Albuquerque high schools. The Albuquerque team distinguished itself as one of the best in the worldwide network. Among other tasks, they found some satellites that had been "lost" by professional trackers. The team provided a variety of interesting and exciting activities for science-interested students from the whole city. Among the most meaningful was the ability to make observations that were scientifically useful. By 1966 when I joined as a 10th grader, the excitement of the early days was gone but the sense of participation in a large and fascinating enterprise was still keen. I will discuss the techniques and technologies used to track satellites from the high school and from my front yard, including slide rules, rulers, telegrams, special delivery mail, short-wave radio time signals, tape recorders, stop watches, star maps, computers, and a five-inch rich-field "apogee" refractor. After a year of intense effort at satellite tracking for Moonwatch, I had the opportunity to visit a then-secret 48-inch Air Force satellite tracking telescope in southern NM in 1968. This event demonstrated the obsolescence of the amateur (though not amateurish!) techniques that we had been using and provided a fitting end to my participation as I left for college.

  5. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  6. Riverside English: The Spoken Language of a Southern California Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Allan A.; And Others

    This booklet points out some of the characteristics of the varieties of English spoken in Riverside and in the rest of California. The first chapter provides a general discussion of language variation and change on the levels of vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. The second chapter discusses California English and pronunciation and vocabulary…

  7. Validating the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory with Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kim, Jungeun; Benet-Martinez, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    An emerging body of empirical research highlights the impact of acculturative stress in the lives of culturally diverse populations. Therefore, to facilitate future research in this area, we conducted 3 studies to examine the psychometric properties of the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory (RASI; Benet-Martinez & Haritatos, 2005) and its 5…

  8. 78 FR 23951 - Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... the BLM Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM. The meeting is from 9 a.m.-4 p.m. The public may send written comments to the RAC, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM 87107. FOR... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory...

  9. 78 FR 69874 - Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM. The public may send written comments to the RAC, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM 87107. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chip Kimball, BLM Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Rd., Albuquerque, NM 87107, 505-761-8734. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the...

  10. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  11. RadNet Air Data From Albuquerque, NM

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Albuquerque, NM from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Pavement base drain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of a highway drainage system design was revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill material. The specified backfill material is a coarser crushed aggregate (pea gravel). An evaluation of the effects of these changes on pavement performance is given and the new pavement base drain system is compared to the older pipe foundation underdrain system at the same site.

  13. 76 FR 81836 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County's PSD permitting requirements for their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EPA is... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  14. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. ); Goodrich, M. )

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  15. 78 FR 78300 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Albuquerque, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Albuquerque VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Albuquerque, NM, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Albuquerque Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations within......

  16. 1983 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is located south of Albuquerque on Kirtland Air Force Base. Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1983. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.250 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 49,950 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides. 23 references, 6 figures, 15 tables.

  17. 1980 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Simmons, T.N.; Gray, C.E.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque is located south of the city on two broad mesas. The local climate is arid continental. Radionuclides are potentially released from five technical areas from the Laboratories' research activities. Sandia's environmental monitoring program searches for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. No activity was found in public areas in excess of that found in local background in 1980. The Albuquerque population receives only 0.11 person-rem (estimated) from airborne radioactive releases. While national security research is the Laboratories' major responsibility, energy research is a major area of activity. Both these research areas cause radioactive releases.

  18. Anza-Terwilliger study wells in Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morita, Andrew; Clark, Dennis A.; Martin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This digital data set contains the locations, water-level altitude, and water-level differences of 70 wells selected to document water-level changes between fall 2004 and spring 2005 in the Anza-Terwilliger area of Riverside County, California. The winter of 2005 was one of the wettest periods on record. Links to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information Systems Website (NWISWeb) have been established to interactively view recent water-level information via the internet by clicking on a specific well.

  19. Radiogenic Risk of Malignant Neoplasms for Techa Riverside Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Akleyev, A. V.; Krestinina, L. Y.; Preston, D. L.; Davis, Faith; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Startsev, N. V.; Napier, Bruce A.; Ron, E.

    2008-11-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste into the Techa River from the Mayak PA in the 1950s, residents of the riverside villages were for decades exposed to external and internal radiation resulting from consumption of locally produced food and river water. Presented in the paper is a brief description of the radiation conditions, organization of medical follow-up of the exposed population, principles for dose estimation, epidemiological analyses of cancer mortality and incidence for residents of the Techa RIverside villages. The estimates of excess relative risk of radiation-related leukemia and solid cancer mortality and incidence obtained for members of the Techa River cohort point to a clear-cut dependence of the rates on radiation exposure. Attributive risk of cancer incidence characterizing the proportion of radiation-related cancer cases among the total cancers was comparable with that for mortality: 3.2% derived for cancer incidence and 2.5% for cancer mortality. Based on the non-CLL leukemia excess relative risk (ERR) estimates calculated using the linear dose-effect model and the nature of the cohort, it was estimated that 31 (60%) out of 49 leukemia death cases (with the exclusion of 12 cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia) can be related to a long-term radiation exposure due to the contamination of the Techa River.

  20. Albuquerque Public Schools Teacher's Guide to Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    Preparation of teachers and students for their one-day trip to the Albuquerque Public Schools' Outdoor Education Center is outlined. Topics covered include: orientation program; general preparation considerations; course of study; map of site; vocabulary; activity evaluation sheet; and a supplementary book list. Geology, biology, safety…

  1. Evaluation of the Albuquerque Indian School Motivational Environment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiat, Albert B.; And Others

    In order to evaluate the impact of a token economy behavior modification program implemented from 1970-71 in the Albuquerque Indian School (AIS), a secondary institution, a five-member evaluation team assessed standardized test results, behavioral data, and student and staff attitudes. A battery of tests (Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, SRA…

  2. 1995 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1996-09-01

    This 1995 report contains data from routine radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration and various waste management programs at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included.

  3. External dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of Techa riverside residents.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Volchkova, A Yu; Timofeev, Y S; Fattibene, P; Wieser, A; Ivanov, D V; Krivoschapov, V A; Zalyapin, V I; Della Monaca, S; De Coste, V; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R

    2016-11-01

    This study summarizes the 20-year efforts for dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of the Techa riverside residents exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of radionuclide releases into the river in 1949-1956. It represents the first combined analysis of all the data available on EPR dosimetry with teeth of permanent residents of the Techa riverside territory. Results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of 302 teeth donated by 173 individuals living permanently in Techa riverside settlements over the period of 1950-1952 were analyzed. These people were residents of villages located at the free-flowing river stream or at the banks of stagnant reservoirs such as ponds or blind river forks. Cumulative absorbed doses measured using EPR are from several sources of exposure, viz., background radiation, internal exposure due to bone-seeking radionuclides ((89)Sr, (90)Sr/(90)Y), internal exposure due to (137)Cs/(137m)Ba incorporated in soft tissues, and anthropogenic external exposure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of different sources of enamel exposure and to deduce external doses to be used for validation of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). Since various EPR methods were used, harmonization of these methods was critical. Overall, the mean cumulative background dose was found to be 63 ± 47 mGy; cumulative internal doses due to (89)Sr and (90)Sr/(90)Y were within the range of 10-110 mGy; cumulative internal doses due to (137)Cs/(137m)Ba depend on the distance from the site of releases and varied from 1 mGy up to 90 mGy; mean external doses were maximum for settlements located at the banks of stagnant reservoirs (~500 mGy); in contrast, external doses for settlements located along the free-flowing river stream did not exceed 160 mGy and decreased downstream with increasing distance from the site of release. External enamel doses calculated using the TRDS code and derived from the EPR measurements were

  4. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  5. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  6. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey and City of Albuquerque hydrologic investigations program

    SciTech Connect

    McAda, D.

    1995-12-31

    The US Geological Survey and Albuquerque have been cooperating in data collection programs and interpretive studies since 1982. The paper presents summaries on recently completed and ongoing projects, detailing the objectives, principal investigator, period of the project, and reports released or reports in progress on each study. Project names are: Ground-water-level monitoring network in the Albuquerque Basin; Water budget of the Rio Grande flood plain in the Albuquerque area; Modeling of groundwater flow in the Albuquerque Basin; Continuation of ground water flow modeling in the Albuquerque Basin; Evaluation of methods to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, near Albuquerque; Aquifer compaction and land subsidence in the Albuquerque, NM area; Aquifer test at the Griegos Well Field, Albuquerque, NM; Quality of urban stormwater runoff; Rio Grande water quality; Determining accurate concentrations and loads of trace elements and other selected chemical constituents in the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, NM; Digital geophysical-log data base; and Water quality data for the Albuquerque Basin.

  7. U.S. EPA Announces $749,000 for UC Riverside to Research Reclaimed Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded $749,631 to the University of California, Riverside to study the human and ecological health impacts of water reuse and conservation practices. University researchers will use t

  8. 1982 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; Simmons, T.N.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1983-04-01

    Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitter, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1982. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.170 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 50,400 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides.

  9. Validating the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory with Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Kim, Jungeun; Benet-Martínez, Verónica

    2011-06-01

    An emerging body of empirical research highlights the impact of acculturative stress in the lives of culturally diverse populations. Therefore, to facilitate future research in this area, we conducted 3 studies to examine the psychometric properties of the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory (RASI; Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005) and its 5 subscales in a total sample of 793 self-identified Asian American participants. The reliability and validity of RASI scores and the hypothesized 1-factor higher order model (with 1st-order factors Language Skills, Work Challenges, Intercultural Relations, Discrimination, and Cultural Isolation) of the RASI were examined in Study 1. The RASI higher order structure and score validity and reliability were examined across different generational groups in Study 2. The stability of RASI scores over a 3-week period was examined in Study 3. Overall, findings from these studies support the hypothesized structure of the RASI and indicate that this brief instrument provides reliable and valid acculturative stress scores. In addition, results suggest that RASI items are interpreted in an equivalent manner across different generations of Asian American individuals. Implications for research and assessment are discussed.

  10. Geohydrology of the Anza-Terwilliger area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Anza-Terwilliger area consists of about 96 square miles (24-9 square kilometres) in the upper parts of the Santa Margarita River and Coyote Creek drainage basins in Riverside County, Calif., about 90 miles (145 kilometres) southeast of Los Angeles. This report deals with geology, steady state and transient state of ground water, net depletion of ground water, surface-water flow, precipitation, chemistry of water, land and water use, and gravity data for the Anza-Terwilliger area. The data indicate that the rate of ground-water depletion ha's accelerated since 1950. Pumping depressions adjacent to the Cahuilla Indian Reservation have increased the hydraulic gradient and are.causing water beneath the reservation to flow toward these depressions. Total depletion of ground water since 1950 is about 14,000 acre-feet (17.3 cubic hectometres). Chemical analyses indicate that the ground water in local areas contains concentrations of nitrate above that recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for human consumption.

  11. No drain, autologous transfusion drain or suction drain? A randomised prospective study in total hip replacement surgery of 168 patients.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Graham; Carmont, Michael R; Bing, Andrew J F; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Alcock, Robert J; Graham, Niall M

    2010-10-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial to assess the differences in the use of a conventional suction drain, an Autologous Blood Transfusion (ABT) drain and no drain, in 168 patients. There was no significant difference between the drainage from ABT drains ( mean : 345 ml) and the suction drain (314 ml). Forty percent of patients receiving a suction drain had a haemoglobin level less than 10 g/dL at 24 hours, compared to 35% with no drain and 28% with an ABT drain. Patients that had no drains had wounds that were dry significantly sooner, mean 3.0 days compared to a mean of 3.9 days with an ABT drain and a mean of 4 days with a suction drain. Patients that did not have a drain inserted stayed in hospital a significantly shorter period of time, compared with drains. We feel the benefits of quicker drying wounds, shorter hospital stays and the economic savings justify the conclusion that no drain is required after hip replacement.

  12. Geothermal studies at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, L.; Grant, B.

    1981-05-01

    Due to an effort by government installations to discontinue use of natural gas, alternative energy sources are being investigated at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico. New Mexico has geologic characteristics favorable for geothermal energy utilization. Local heat flow and geochemical studies indicate a normal subsurface temperature regime. The alluvial deposits, however, extend to great depths where hot fluids, heated by the normal geothermal gradient, could be encountered. Two potential models for tapping geothermal energy are presented: the basin model and the fault model.

  13. Allsky Airglow Imagery from Albuquerque, NM; TOMEX 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    Allsky imager of OH Meinel and O2 Atmospheric emission bands were observed for the TOMEX rocket campaign from Albuquerque, NM, along with the Na/wind temperature lidar. Motion analysis of imagery describes a main wave propagating from the NW but other secondary waves appear from the NE to present a quasi chaotic wave field. The main wave had a typical horizontal wavelength of a several 10s of km and a period of less than15 minutes. The instrinsic wave parameters of the high frequency waves will be presented.

  14. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board. (a) Identification of Plan. Albuquerque-Bernalillo... County Air Quality Control Board on November 9, 2005. (b) Identification of Sources. The plan applies to... County Air Quality Control Board that commenced construction prior to May 30, 1991, and have not...

  15. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Board. 62.7856 Section 62.7856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board. (a) Identification of Plan. Albuquerque-Bernalillo... County Air Quality Control Board on November 9, 2005. (b) Identification of Sources. The plan applies...

  16. 75 FR 68447 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County, NM; Interstate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Albuquerque/Bernalillo Air Quality Control Board (AQCB) is responsible for the portion of the New Mexico SIP... Quality Standards (NAAQS) as it applies to Albuquerque/Bernalillo County. The revision addresses one... deterioration of air quality in any other state; and (3) interference with measures required to...

  17. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Board. 62.7856 Section 62.7856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board. (a) Identification of Plan. Albuquerque-Bernalillo... County Air Quality Control Board on November 9, 2005. (b) Identification of Sources. The plan applies...

  18. 75 FR 44731 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County, NM; Interstate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... nonattainment of the ozone and PM 2.5 NAAQS in any state. The Albuquerque/ Bernalillo Air Quality Control Board..., the New Mexico Air Quality Control Act allowed the establishment of the Albuquerque/ Bernalillo County... deterioration of air quality in any other state; and (3) interference with measures required to...

  19. 76 FR 68385 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Quality Control Act, the joint Air Quality Control Board (AQCB) ordinances, and the Albuquerque/Bernalillo... Mexico Air Quality Control Act, and to require local air pollution sources to comply with air quality... the NMAC, the joint air quality control board ordinances, and the Albuquerque/ Bernalillo County...

  20. 40 CFR 81.83 - Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.83 Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) is revised to... Air Quality Control Region. 81.83 Section 81.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. 77 FR 58032 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...: EPA is approving submittals from the Governor of New Mexico for the City of Albuquerque/Bernalillo... appointment, at the City of Albuquerque, Environmental Health Department--Air Quality Division, One Civic...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  2. Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosols in Southern California During the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside (SOAR-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient sampling was conducted in Riverside, California during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside to characterize the composition and sources of organic aerosol using a variety of state-of-the-art instrumentation and source apportionment techniques.

  3. Mercury pollution and childhood in Amazon riverside villages.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M C N; Crespo-López, M E; Vieira, J L F; Oikawa, T; Guimarães, G A; Araújo, C C; Amoras, W W; Ribeiro, D R; Herculano, A M; do Nascimento, J L M; Silveira, L C L

    2007-01-01

    Mercury is a hazardous metal responsible for environmental contamination and human intoxication. Methylmercury, a very toxic organic compound, bio-accumulates through food chain, and is responsible for chronic mercury exposure of riverside Amazonian communities with a diet rich in fish. Uncertainties about the reference exposure dose that could have damaging consequences for nervous system development makes necessary the biomonitoring of these Amazonian populations, especially children. In this work, a comparative study was performed in exposed and non-exposed children living in the Amazon. A total of 168 children were analyzed to find possible correlations between gender, age, location, and hair mercury content. For each location, no statistically significant differences (P<0.05) were detected for gender and age versus mercury content. However, mean mercury levels in hair samples may indicate a tendency of boys to average higher hair concentrations. Also, in the community with highest levels of mercury, the limit of 10 micro g/g of mercury was surpassed by 65% of 2-6 years and 50% of 7-12 years children but only by 27% of 0-1 year babies, pointing to a lower bioaccumulation and/or the existence of a protection mechanism in babies. Log normal distributions of mercury concentrations for each location showed that children from populations under influence of gold mining activity contain the highest mercury levels in hair samples, though this intoxication may have decreased when compared to previous studies. Knowledge originated by this monitoring will better assist in the development of prevention strategies and government actions targeting the mercury contamination of Amazonian environment.

  4. 76 FR 76802 - Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Doc No: 2011-31547] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0646] Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II... Interest Notice is hereby given that Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P., 45 Rockefeller Center, New York, NY... (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P. proposes to...

  5. 76 FR 76802 - Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Doc No: 2011-31548] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0646] Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II... Interest Notice is hereby given that Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P., 45 Rockefeller Center, New York, NY... (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P. proposes to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  7. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  8. Summary of urban stormwater quality in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storms, Erik F.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Locke, Evan A.; Stevens, Michael R.; Romero, Orlando C.

    2015-01-01

    The stormwater quality in Albuquerque was compared with that of six other Western U.S. cities (Phoenix, Arizona; Tucson, Arizona; Las Vegas, Nevada; Denver, Colorado; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Boise, Idaho) for selected constituents. In general, water-quality data for stormwater samples from these six other Western U.S. cities were similar to water-quality data for the stormwater samples from the Albuquerque outfalls. Median concentrations for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and bacteria (E. coli and fecal coliform) in stormwater samples from the Albuquerque outfalls, as a whole, were higher than those in samples from the other Western U.S. cities except for Las Vegas.

  9. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  10. 1994 Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Wiggins, T.; White, B.B.

    1995-09-01

    This 1994 report contains data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum off-site dose impact from air emissions was calculated to be 1.5 x 10{sup -4} millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.012 person-rem during 1994 from the laboratories` operations. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  11. 1993 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.A.; Cheng, C.F.; Cox, W.; Durand, N.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Lauffer, F.; Lincoln, M.; McClellan, Y.; Molley, K.

    1994-11-01

    This 1993 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0016 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile (80 kilometer) radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.027 person-rem during 1993 from the laboratories operations, As in the previous year, the 1993 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  12. Dental morphology and ancestry in Albuquerque, New Mexico Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Willermet, C M; Edgar, H J H

    2009-01-01

    The term "Hispanic" groups people from Central and South America and the Caribbean, combining disparate cultures, languages, and ancestry, and masking biological differences. Historical and current admixture patterns within these populations and with indigenous and European-, African-, and/or Asian- derived populations complicate the biological picture. Although "Hispanic" has little biological meaning, it is used widely in epidemiology, disease management, and forensics as a biologically significant group. An interdisciplinary approach combining historical, cultural, and biological data can characterize regional and temporal differences between Hispanic populations. We examined biological distances with a population of central New Mexico Hispanics, as a case study of the local specificity of population history. We collected dental morphological trait frequencies from samples of recent Albuquerque-area Hispanic Americans and several ancestral and contemporary groups. To explore regional admixture patterns we calculated biological distances using the modified Mahalanobis D(2) statistic. Our results indicate that Albuquerque Hispanics are more similar to their European and African ancestral groups than to Native Americans in New Mexico. Additionally, their affinity to Native Americans is greater with prehistoric rather than contemporary samples. We argue that these results reflect a local rather than pan-Hispanic admixture pattern; they underscore that populations are better understood at the local and regional levels. It is undesirable to make sweeping biological generalizations for groups known to be geographically and genetically disparate. This research is part of a growing trend in biological research concerning Hispanics and other groups-an emphasis on local samples, informed by historical, cultural, and biological factors.

  13. Citrus Research Board-sponsored review of the University of California Riverside citrus breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In October 2015 the Citrus Research Board (CRB) assembled a panel of experts to review the Citrus Research Board-sponsored Citrus Research and Genetics Programs at University of California Riverside (UCR). The panel consisted of: Gennaro Fazio, USDA/ARS, Geneva, NY; Maria Angeles Forner-Giner, Insti...

  14. Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kross, Carolyn Sue

    In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

  15. 78 FR 1130 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with...

  16. 76 FR 31685 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Riverside Fairy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service... chemistry (dissolved solutes, alkalinity, salinity, and temperature) and length of time vernal pools are..., p. 5). Riverside fairy shrimp are typically found in water temperatures ranging between 50 and...

  17. 77 FR 12543 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Riverside Fairy Shrimp

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... listing. The necessary conditions for vernal pool presence--Mediterranean climate, topographic depressions... Riverside fairy shrimp were present and persisted in suitable seasonal depression wetlands with appropriate...-ponding along coastal mesas or in valley depressions) with certain underlying soils (Bauder and...

  18. 75 FR 13303 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Management (BLM), Palm Springs--South Coast Field Office, proposes to sell a parcel of public land consisting of approximately 119.37 acres in Riverside County, California to the City of Palm Springs for the... sent to the Field Manager, Bureau of Land Management, Palm Springs--South Coast Field Office, 1201...

  19. 19. View to the north of Riverside Avenue. AZ196(J. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View to the north of Riverside Avenue. AZ-196(J. C. Gatti House) at left Part of AZ-197 (Shannon Copper Company Store) can be seen in group of buildings at right - Clifton Townsite, Confluence of Chase Creek & San Francisco River, Clifton, Greenlee County, AZ

  20. 75 FR 7029 - Lonza, Inc., Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Lonza, Inc., Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange, and Synerfac; Conshohocken, PA; Notice...

  1. 75 FR 878 - Lonza, Inc. Riverside Plant; Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section Custom Manufacturing Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Lonza, Inc. Riverside Plant; Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section Custom Manufacturing Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange, and Synerfac; Conshohocken, PA; Notice of...

  2. 77 FR 59244 - Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside County, CA; Notice of Intent

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside County, CA; Notice of Intent... public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in... assignment of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) responsibilities from DOT to Caltrans pursuant...

  3. 75 FR 28055 - General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... existing visitor facilities and park operations, management of natural and cultural resources... National Park Service General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside... Management Plan (GMP) for Joshua Tree National Park, California. The new GMP will update the...

  4. Rogue Community College Student Satisfaction Survey, Winter 2000. Management Report: Redwood and Riverside Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Nancy

    The Annual Student Satisfaction Survey at Oregon's Rogue Community College (RCC) allows the school to measure achievement in services, classes, and facilities. Three hundred and eleven students responded to this winter 2000 survey. Findings include: (1) seventeen percent of all respondents at the Redwood and Riverside campuses were very satisfied…

  5. 75 FR 7031 - Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 8, 2010, the petitioners...

  6. 76 FR 21040 - Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated March 23, 2011, a State of...

  7. EPA Approves New Mexicos Air Plan for Albuquerque-Bernalillo County

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 29, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved revisions to the Albuquerque/Bernalillo County, NM, State Implementation Plan (SIP), which ensures air quality standards are maintained by regulations of the Clean Air

  8. Meetings and Events for Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  9. Rainfall-runoff in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area: Measurements, analyses and comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.E.; Ward, T.J.; Kelly, T.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years like many other cities in the Southwestern United States. While the US population grew by 37% between the 1970 and 2000 censuses, the growth for Albuquerque was 83%. More people mean more development and increased problems of managing runoff from urbanizing watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Albuquerque Arroyo Metropolitan Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA) and the City of Albuquerque has maintained a rainfall-runoff data collection program since 1976. The data from measured precipitation events can be used to verify hydrologic modeling. In this presentation, data from a representative gaged watershed is analyzed and discussed to set the overall framework for the rainfall-runoff process in the Albuquerque area. Of particular interest are the basic relationships between rainfall and watershed runoff response and an analysis of curve numbers as an indicator of runoff function. In urbanized areas, four land treatment types (natural, irrigated lawns, compacted soil, and impervious) are used to define surface infiltration conditions. Rainfall and runoff gage data are used to compare curve number (CN) and initial abstraction/uniform infiltration (IA/INF) techniques in an Albuquerque watershed. The IA/INF method appears to produce superior results over the CN method for the measured rainfall events.

  10. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs.

  11. Education and Outreach at the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, L.; Bolton, H. F.; Hutt, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Education and Outreach effort at the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) over the past decade has evolved into an exciting program that provides many new educational opportunities in seismology and related science, engineering, and mathematics. Our target audience includes K-12, post-secondary, undergraduate, graduate, continuing education and the general public. With an emphasis on reaching young people, our major goal is to provide to the local community an increased understanding, awareness and appreciation of the relevance of Earth science and technology in daily life. A broadened base of public support for science helps enable us to stimulate the intrinsic curiosity of youngsters who may find science and technology exciting and challenging. Our programs capitalize on the natural interests of young students in earthquakes, volcanoes, magnetism and other scientific fields. Our hands-on interactive presentations foster a students sense of inquiry and increase their knowledge of science. We see an increased amount of confidence displayed by young students as they begin to understand basic scientific principles. We attempt to increase scientific literacy within the community and help create a new generation of students with a greater understanding of the opportunities in Earth science. We outline recent Earth science and Career Day presentations we have made at numerous elementary schools. Many of these presentations are made both in English and Spanish. Also featured are other cooperative bilingual projects that have been coordinated with the New Mexico Museum of Natural History, the National Atomic Museum and the New Mexico State Fair.

  12. Risk factors for “late-to-test” HIV diagnosis in Riverside County, California

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Aaron T.; Napier, Rachaline; Brown, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients diagnosed late in the course of HIV infection are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes and are more likely to transmit HIV to others. Using the CDC's definition for AIDS, we analyzed case report data from persons diagnosed with AIDS within 12 months of an HIV diagnosis (“late-to-test”) in Riverside County, CA, between 2009 and 2014. Of 1385 HIV cases, 422 (30.5%) were late-to-test. Factors associated with late-to-test were: having no insurance (P = 0.005), being Hispanic (P = 0.002) and being between 45 and 64 years of age (P < 0.001). Females (P = 0.013) and those in the eastern region of Riverside County (P = 0.002) were less likely to be late-to-test. In the absence of universal HIV testing, interventions to decrease late testing are needed. PMID:27684873

  13. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  14. Risk factors for "late-to-test" HIV diagnosis in Riverside County, California.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Aaron T; Napier, Rachaline; Brown, Brandon

    2016-09-01

    Patients diagnosed late in the course of HIV infection are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes and are more likely to transmit HIV to others. Using the CDC's definition for AIDS, we analyzed case report data from persons diagnosed with AIDS within 12 months of an HIV diagnosis ("late-to-test") in Riverside County, CA, between 2009 and 2014. Of 1385 HIV cases, 422 (30.5%) were late-to-test. Factors associated with late-to-test were: having no insurance (P = 0.005), being Hispanic (P = 0.002) and being between 45 and 64 years of age (P < 0.001). Females (P = 0.013) and those in the eastern region of Riverside County (P = 0.002) were less likely to be late-to-test. In the absence of universal HIV testing, interventions to decrease late testing are needed.

  15. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  16. Diurnal and seasonal variability of gasoline-related volatile organic compound emissions in Riverside, California.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Drew R; Harley, Robert A; Miller, Angela M; Goldstein, Allen H

    2009-06-15

    On- and off-road mobile sources are the dominant contributors to urban anthropogenic volatile organic compound (AVOC) emissions. Analyses of gasoline samples from California for both summer and winter indicate significant differences in liquid fuel and vapor chemical composition due to intentional seasonal adjustments. Ambient concentrations of 55 VOCs were measured via in situ gas chromatography in the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR) during both summer and fall. A chemical mass balance analysis was used to differentiate vapor pressure-driven VOC emissions from other motor vehicle-related emissions such as tailpipe exhaust. Overall, fuel vapor emissions accounted for 31 +/- 2% of gasoline-related VOC in Riverside; California's emission factor model similarly estimates 31% of gasoline-related VOC emissions are fuel vapor. The diurnal pattern of vapor pressure-driven VOC source contributions is relatively stable around 10 microg/m3, while whole gasoline (i.e., tailpipe) contributions peak at approximately 60 microg/m3 during the morning commute. There is no peak in whole gasoline source contributions during the afternoon, due to rapid dilution associated with high mixing heights and wind speeds in the Riverside area. The relationship between estimated gasoline-related VOC and observed carbon monoxide concentrations in this study is similar to California's 2005 emission inventory; we calculated a VOC to CO mass ratio of 0.086 +/- 0.006 (95% CI) compared to 0.097 in the emission inventory for all gasoline-related sources.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  8. Monitoring and analysis of combined sewer overflows, Riverside and Evanston, Illinois, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Andrew M.; Hornewer, Nancy J.; Johnson, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected and analyzed flow data in combined sewer systems in Riverside and Evanston, northeastern Illinois, from March 1997 to December 1999. Continuous 2- and 5-minute stage and velocity data were collected during surcharged and nonsurcharged conditions at 12 locations. Mass balances were calculated to determine the volume of water flowing through the tide-gate openings to the Des Plaines River and the North Shore Channel and to determine the volume of water flowing past the sluice gate to the deep tunnel. The sewer systems consist of circular pipes ranging in diameter from 0.83 feet to 10.0 feet, elliptical siphon pipes, ledges, and tide and sluice gates. Pipes were constructed of either brick and mortar or concrete, and ranged from having smooth surfaces to rough, pitted and crumbling surfaces. One pipe was noticeably affected by water infiltration from saturated ground. During data analysis, many assumptions were necessary because of the complexity of the flow data and sewer-system configurations. These assumptions included estimating the volume of water entering an interceptor sewer at the ''Gage Street pipe'' at Riverside, the effect of infiltration on the ''brick pipe'' at Riverside, and the minimum velocity required for the meter to make an accurate velocity determination. Other factors affecting the analysis of flow data included possible non-instrumented sources of inflow, and backwater conditions in some pipes, which could have caused error in the data analysis. Variations of these assumptions potentially could cause appreciable changes to the final massbalance calculations. Mass-balance analysis at Riverside indicated a total inflow volume into chamber 3 of approximately 721,000 cubic feet (ft3) during April 22-26, 1999. Outflow volume to the Des Plaines River at Riverside through the tide gate was approximately 132,000 ft3; outflow volume to the deep tunnel through the

  9. Unsteady draining flows from a rectangular tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Lawrence K.; Hocking, Graeme C.

    2007-08-01

    Two-dimensional, unsteady flow of a two-layer fluid in a tank is considered. Each fluid is inviscid and flows irrotationally. The lower, denser fluid flows with constant speed out through a drain hole of finite width in the bottom of the tank. The upper, lighter fluid is recharged at the top of the tank, with an input volume flux that matches the outward flux through the drain. As a result, the interface between the two fluids moves uniformly downwards, and is eventually withdrawn through the drain hole. However, waves are present at the interface, and they have a strong effect on the time at which the interface is first drawn into the drain. A linearized theory valid for small extraction rates is presented. Fully nonlinear, unsteady solutions are computed by means of a novel numerical technique based on Fourier series. For impulsive start of the drain, the nonlinear results are found to agree with the linearized theory initially, but the two theories differ markedly as the interface approaches the drain and nonlinear effects dominate. For wide drains, curvature singularities appear to form at the interface within finite time.

  10. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population.

  11. 77 FR 7655 - Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P... Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P. proposes to provide equity security financing to Employment Law Training,...

  12. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), March AFB, Riverside, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-28

    of rv P9 Apr 66 1. Located 1950 ft down and 625 Sa cam -toff centerline of rnwy 31. 1 2. Located150fdonad00e Sa Sme ae 10 Ar6 ofte 1500 ft down and...73.4ARCH AFB CA/RIVERSIDE t7 0?- 5 JUl 4PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE ’soo-2goo IFR OM HOURLY OBSERVATIONSt 4o.6 74.1 Sl5 1 5 -- 8.0 90.~ 91.4-Q. 9I .4

  13. The University of Albuquerque Adult Education Program. Final Report, 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Univ., NM.

    The University of Albuquerque established a degree program for adults which includes (1) a time shortened concept, (2) a seminar format in the general education program which allows the adult students an opportunity to question, critique, discuss, and engage in scholarly dialogue with seminar preceptors, (3) a flexible schedule that allows adult…

  14. Albuquerque Integration Model (AIM) Outreach Project. Final Performance Report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Special Preschool, NM.

    This final report documents the accomplishments and activities of the Albuquerque Integration Model (AIM) Outreach Project, designed to stimulate the awareness of parents and health care and education professionals regarding serving young handicapped children in settings which include their nonhandicapped peers. Progress in 14 project objectives…

  15. The Beginnings of Career Education in the Albuquerque Public Schools, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This federally funded exemplary career education project involved 35 Mini-Grant programs conducted within 24 elementary and middle schools in the Albuquerque Public Schools. Project highlights are described, noting the favorable impact of innovative career awareness activities upon disadvantaged Indian students, their parents, and the community.…

  16. Albuquerque Public Schools Diploma Granting High Schools Dropout Report 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Patrick

    This paper presents dropout data for Albuquerque public schools in the 1984-85 school year. Following a brief introduction, the report consists of five statistical tables: (1) dropout rate summary; (2) dropout rates by grade level; (3) dropout rates by gender; (4) dropout rates by ethnicity; (5) dropout rates by reason for dropping out. (KH)

  17. Albuquerque Integration Outreach Project. Final Performance Report, July 1, 1981-June 30, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Gail C.

    The final report details results of the Albuquerque Integration Outreach Project, designed to increase awareness about serving young handicapped children in mainstream settings. The performance section presents data on seven project objectives, including developing a project brochure, conducting awareness workshops, disseminating research results…

  18. Evaluation of School Uniform Policy at John Adams and Truman Middle Schools for Albuquerque Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Deborah L.

    A uniform policy at two Albuquerque middle schools became a reality as a result of parent initiative. Parents provided input through attending meetings and a fashion show, serving on the uniform task force, completing surveys, voting, and revisiting the policy. Parents not only initiated the development of the policy, but were active participants…

  19. Albuquerque Public Schools 1984-1985 Chapter 1 Needs Assessment Survey. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaemper, Jack; Morse, Kathy

    Instructors, advisors, students, parents, and others involved in the elementary and secondary level Chapter 1 project of the Albuquerque Public Schools were surveyed to ascertain which program services they felt were most needed. Results, based on information from 3,567 individuals, provided the following needs, presented in rank order: (1)…

  20. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight: Artistic Homes, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-22

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Artistic Homes of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Standard features of their homes include advanced framed 2x6 24-inch on center walls, R-21 blown insulation in the walls, and high-efficiency windows.

  1. Report on the First Conference on Navajo Orthography: Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 2-3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Sirarpi

    1996-01-01

    At the first Conference on Navajo Orthography held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1969, participants agreed upon a uniform orthography for Navajo developed by William Morgan and Robert Young and recommended development of a Navajo adult literacy program. Participants included representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Navajo Tribal Council…

  2. Technological In-Migration and Curricular Change; Educational Politics in Albuquerque, 1945-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, William M., Jr.; Burlingame, Martin

    The impact of a large in-migration of scientists and technicians on the educational policies of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, public school system from 1945 to 1965 was investigated for the purpose of analyzing the educational politics of a system related to an increasing tempo of demands for a more academic curriculum. A case study design which…

  3. 76 FR 54799 - Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Negative... resulted in a negative determination based on the findings that Section 222(a) of the Trade Act of 1974, as... the administrative record, I affirm the original notice of negative determination of eligibility...

  4. 76 FR 59334 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... (SIP) that was submitted by the Governor of New Mexico to EPA on December 15, 2010. The proposed SIP... greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to the SIP Narrowing Rule, 75 FR 82536, starting on January 2, 2011, the approved Albuquerque/Bernalillo County SIP's PSD requirements for GHG apply at the thresholds specified...

  5. Financial administration of work for nonfederal sponsors, DOE Field Office (AL), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office, Albuquerque (AL) is responsible for managing and controlling nonfederally sponsored work done by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The audit objective was to determine whether the funding of, and accounting for, work done under a 1984 funds-in agreement and work for others in Fiscal Year (FY) 1989 complied with laws, regulations, and policies.

  6. EPA, Albuquerque Water Utility Agree to Penalties for Sewage Overflows and E. Coli Violations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (March 22, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) have agreed to a settlement for violations of the Clean Water Act. ABCUWA will pay a civil penalty of $33

  7. Evaluation of the geothermal resource in the area of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jiracek, G.R.; Swanberg, C.A.; Morgan, P.; Parker, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    Factors indicating a potential geothermal resource near Albuquerque are: (1) nearby volcanoes active as recently as 120,000 years ago, (2) gravity interpretation indicating a potential reservoir averaging 1.5 km thickness, (3) high heat flow near the city, (4) warm waters (>30/sup 0/C) in municipal wells, (5) recent seismicity indicating active faulting, thereby, allowing the possibility of deep hydrothermal circulation, (6) high shallow (<30 m) temperature gradients (>100/sup 0/C/km) discovered in our drillholes, (7) deeper (<500 m) gradients from water wells exceeding 80/sup 0/C/km, and (8) chemical analyses of 88 groundwater samples yielding estimated base reservoir temperatures as high as 190/sup 0/C. An area of elevated shallow temperature gradients (less than or equal to 140/sup 0/C/km) was discovered a few kilometers west of Albuquerque by our 69 hole drilling program. Resistivity, magnetic, and gravity measurements combined with computer modeling suggests that heated ground water is forced closer to the surface here by flow over a buried ridge. A well drilled nearby yielded the highest recorded temperature in the Albuquerque area at its maximum depth (32.8/sup 0/C at 364 m). The deep gradient is 35/sup 0/C/km. An oil test well close by reported large volumes of water at 1 km; therefore, the possibility of a low temperature (>50/sup 0/C) geothermal resource exists west of Albuquerque at less than 1 km depth.

  8. 77 FR 30900 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... incurred by the Department in implementing the New Mexico Air Quality Control Act, the joint Air Quality... administrative expenses incurred by the Department in implementing the New Mexico Air Quality Control Act, the joint Air Quality Control Board (AQCB) ordinances, and the Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

  9. 78 FR 9828 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Explanation effective date New Mexico Administrative Code (NMAC) Title 20--Environment Protection, Chapter 11--Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board * * * * * * * Part 8 (20.11.8 NMAC) Ambient Air... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico;...

  10. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS New Mexico Landfill Gas Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.7856... County Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Designated Pollutant Plan, as adopted by the Albuquerque/Bernalillo... all existing municipal solid waste landfills under the jurisdiction of the...

  11. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS New Mexico Landfill Gas Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.7856... County Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Designated Pollutant Plan, as adopted by the Albuquerque/Bernalillo... all existing municipal solid waste landfills under the jurisdiction of the...

  12. SEEPAGE, a new MODFLOW DRAIN package.

    PubMed

    Batelaan, O; De Smedt, F

    2004-01-01

    The prediction of the location of ground water discharge areas is a key aspect for the protection and (re)development of ground water-dependent wetlands. Ground water discharge areas can be simulated with MODFLOW using the DRAIN package by setting the drain level equal to the topography, while the conductance is mostly set to an arbitrary high value. However, conceptual and practical problems arise in the calculation of the ground water discharge by the DRAIN package as calculated water tables above the land surface, difficult parameterization of the conductance, and large water balance errors. To overcome these problems, a new SEEPAGE package for MODFLOW is proposed. The basic idea of this package is an adaptable constant head cell. It has a variable head, unless the ground water rises above the seepage level, in which case it has a constant head cell. The estimation of the ground water discharge location along a homogeneous, isotropic, linear sloping profile is used to verify the model and to compare it to the DRAIN solution. In an application to three basins in Belgium, it is shown that the SEEPAGE package can be used in combination with the DRAIN package in situations where an upper boundary for a free water table and additional resistance for drainage is required. It is clearly demonstrated that the identification and delineation of regional ground water discharge areas is more accurate using the SEEPAGE package.

  13. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  14. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  18. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  19. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  4. Estimation of water flux in urban area using eddy covariance measurements in Riverside, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerette, D.; Liang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Micrometeorological methods can direct measure the sensible and latent heat flux in specific sites and provide robust estimates of the evaporative fraction (EF), which is the fraction of available surface energy contained in latent heat. Across a vegetation coverage gradient in urban area, an empirical relationship is expected between EF and vegetation coverage, which provides the opportunity to quantify regional water flux. Here we deployed three eddy covariance (EC) systems to quantify the relationship between EF and vegetation coverage. First, two continuous systems were deployed at an industrial area with very low vegetation cover and another located in the orange orchid in Riverside, CA, to quantify the temporal dynamic of EF for the endpoints. Second, a mobile EC system was deployed to quantify the spatial distribution of EF across a gradient of vegetation coverage, during the summer time in Riverside, CA. These data showed the EF in high vegetation cover is 31.16±3.99%, but at the lower vegetation cover site EF is only 16.48±5.40%, which about 2 times lower in EF than the area with high vegetation cover. These results derived from the EC measurements provide essential data to quantify the temporal and spatial water fluxes in urban area and are needed to better understand and manage urban water use in response to drought.

  5. Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Ana; Pacheco-Ferreira, Heloisa; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela G.; Carvallo, Renata; Cardoso, Nathália; Perez, Maurício; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS) on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury. PMID:25992169

  6. 77 FR 37762 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Order Amending Marketing Order 987

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Order Amending Marketing Order 987 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Marketing Agreement and Order No. 987 (order), which regulates the handling...

  7. 76 FR 34618 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Five amendments to Marketing Agreement and Order No.987 which regulates the handling of...

  8. 75 FR 28650 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... market value of $77,000. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713), at not less than the appraised fair market value... acres in Riverside County. The appraised fair market value is $77,000. The public land is identified...

  9. APPLICATION OF PSCF TO PMF-MODELED SOURCES OF PM2.5 IN RIVERSIDE USING 1-HR AVERAGED DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from semi-continuous instruments employed during a sampling campaign in Riverside, CA in July-August 2005 was used in a PMF2 analysis and sixteen sources were identified. Factors attributed to being primarily from local automobile emissions, local diesel emissions, wood comb...

  10. 78 FR 78349 - Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on December 17, 2013, pursuant to sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act (FPA);...

  11. Comparison of Postoperative Drain Insertion versus No Drain Insertion in Thyroidectomies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Asma S.; Al-Sulaimani, Al-Anood K.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A thyroidectomy is a frequently performed surgical procedure which can result in life-threatening complications. The insertion of a drain after a thyroidectomy has been suggested to prevent such complications. This study aimed to evaluate the use of surgical drains following thyroidectomies in relation to postoperative complications and mass sizes. Methods This retrospective case-control study included all thyroidectomies conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, from January 2011 to December 2013. Length of hospital stay, readmission, postoperative complications and mass size were evaluated. Results During the study period, 250 surgeries were carried out on 241 patients. The majority of patients were female (87.2%). Drains were inserted postoperatively after 202 surgeries (80.8%) compared to 48 surgeries (19.2%) without drains. A total of 32 surgeries (12.8%) were conducted on patients with thyroid masses <1 cm, 138 (55.2%) on those with masses between 1–4 cm and 80 (32.0%) on those with masses >4 cm. The association between drain use and mass size was not significant (P = 0.439). Although postoperative complications were more prevalent in patients with drains, the relationship between these factors was not significant (P >0.050). Length of hospital stay was significantly longer among patients with postoperative drains (P <0.010). Conclusion The routine insertion of drains after thyroid surgeries was found to result in longer hospital stays and did not reduce rates of post-thyroidectomy complications. Thyroid mass size should not be used as an indicator for the insertion of a drain after thyroidectomy. PMID:28003893

  12. Variability of soil organic carbon reservation capability between coastal salt marsh and riverside freshwater wetland in Chongming Dongtan and its microbial mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Li, Yanli; Wang, Lei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Le, Yiquan; Wu, Jihua

    2012-01-01

    Two representative zones in Chongming Dongtan which faced the Yangtze River and East China Sea respectively were selected to study the variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) reservation capability between coastal wetland and riverside wetland in the Chongming Dongtan wetland as well as its mechanism by analyzing soil characteristics and plant biomass. The results showed the SOC content of riverside wetland was only 48.61% (P = 0.000 < 0.05) that of coastal wetland. As the organic matter inputs from plant litter of the coastal wetland and riverside wetland were approximately the same, the higher soil microbial respiration (SMR) of riverside wetland led to its lower SOC reservation capability. In the riverside wetland, the high soil microbial biomass, higher proportion of beta-Proteobacteria, which have strong carbon metabolism activity and the existence of some specific aerobic heterotrophic bacteria such as Bacilli and uncultured Lactococcus, were the important reasons for the higher SMR compared to the coastal wetland. There were additional differences in soil physical and chemical characteristics between the coastal wetland and riverside wetlands. Path analysis of predominant bacteria and microbial biomass showed that soil salinity influenced beta-Proteobacteria and microbial biomass most negatively among these physical and chemical factors. Therefore the low salinity of the riverside area was suitable for the growth of microorganisms, especially beta-Proteobacteria and some specific bacteria, which led to the high SMR and low SOC reservation capability when compared to the coastal area.

  13. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  14. 77 FR 24767 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...The EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County, New Mexico submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on July 28, 2011 addressing the regional haze requirements for the mandatory Class I areas under 40 CFR 51.309. The EPA is proposing to find that these revisions and associated rules meet the requirements of the Clean......

  15. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: A sunbelt city rapidly outgrowing its aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Turin, H.J.; Gaume, A.N.; Bitner, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, is located along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico, at an elevation of 5280 feet. Albuquerque`s climate reflects its high desert setting; average annual precipitation in the basin is only 8 to 10 inches. The Albuquerque metropolitan area is part of the rapidly growing {open_quotes}sunbelt{close_quotes} region of the southwestern United States and is undergoing rapid development. The municipal, industrial, and residential water needs of the entire population are currently met by groundwater, while agricultural needs within the basin are met by surface water diverted from the Rio Grande. While the city is blessed with an extremely productive aquifer, current metropolitan area annual groundwater extractions of 170,000 acre-feet far exceed the sustainable yield of the aquifer. Continued drawdown will lead to greater pumping costs, ground surface subsidence problems, and eventual aquifer depletion. At the same time, industrial and non-point-source contamination and naturally occurring arsenic levels are raising concerns about groundwater quality. New Mexico water law has required the City to acquire surface water rights and allocations on the Rio Grande sufficient to offset estimated losses from the river induced by the City`s groundwater extraction. It has become increasingly clear that the induced recharge had been greatly overestimated, and that the City is thus not actually consuming its surface water as intended. The City, in cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies, has explored a variety of conjunctive use proposals, all designed to permit the City to use its surface water more directly. The City Council is presently considering a strategy calling for full use of the city`s surface water resources and creation of a groundwater drought reserve. Implementation of this strategy will require regulatory approval and major capital investment, both of which require political support.

  17. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T−1), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  18. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  19. Characterizing urbanization, and agricultural and conservation land-use change in Riverside County, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiongwen; Li, Bai-Lian; Allen, Michael F

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring trends in urbanization and land use related to population growth and changing social and economic conditions is an important tool for developing in land use and habitat conservation policy. We analyzed urbanization and agricultural land-use change in Riverside County, California from 1984 to 2002, comparing maps every two years on the basis of aerial photographs. Matrix analysis combined with information theory was applied to study land type conversion. Results showed that the total area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" increased the most whereas total area of "Prime Farmland" decreased most. Land-use characterized as "Grazing Land,"Farmland of Local Importance," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance" also decreased. Mean patch size also decreased for "Grazing Land,"Water Area,"Other Land," and "Prime Farmland." The diversity of land types decreased dramatically after 1992. Urbanization patterns were different among three city groups (Riverside City, Coachella Valley, and Blythe), indicating the different times for "leapfrog" development in the three areas. Furthermore, the unpredictability and change in composition of land use increased after 1996 due to intensified urbanization. If the current driving forces continue, our model projects that in 2020 the area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" may increase between 25% and 39% in comparison with 2002. Percentages of most agricultural land types are projected to decrease, especially "Farmland of Local Importance,"Prime Farmland," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance." If the county's goal is to preserve agricultural lands and natural biodiversity, while maintaining sustainable development, current land-use policies and practices should be changed. This study demonstrates new useful methods for monitoring and detection of change of land-use processes.

  20. Background radiation in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A., area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookins, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    Background radiation levels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area are elevated when compared to much of the United States. Soil K, U, and Th are somewhat elevated compared to average values in this country and generate roughly 60 mrem per year to the average resident. Cosmic ray contribution, due to the mean elevation of 5,200 ft above sea level, is 80 mrem/yr—well over the average for the United States. Thirty percent of the homes in Albuquerque contain indoor radon levels over the EPA action level of 4 pCi/ℓ compared to 10 12 percent of homes for the entire United States. Indoor radon contributes about 100 300 mrem/yr. Food, beverages, and x-ray doses are assumed at an average-equivalent for the United States and locally yield 96 mrem/yr. Total contributions from other minor sources (color TV, coal, weapons fallout, etc.) are under 10 mrem/yr. Thus total background radiation received by Albuquerque residents is about 330 530 mrem/yr, well in excess of the rest of the United States. The spread in mrem values is due to variations in the contribution from indoor radon.

  1. Description of piezometers installed in the Duranes well field area, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1993, the aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of ground-water/surface-water interactions. Twenty-one piezometers were installed during January and February 1997 at five sites in the Duranes well field area in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to allow for concentrated collection of hydraulic-head data. This concentrated collection of shallow hydraulic-head data may lead to a better understanding of the effects of ground-water production on the Rio Grande near a City of Albuquerque well field. Each piezometer was installed in a hole augered by a rig using hollow-stem auger flights. All piezometers are constructed of flush-joint polyvinyl chloride casing with 5-foot polyvinyl chloride screens. The uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing is covered by a steel casing with a locking lid. Driller's logs and geophysical logs were collected from the deepest hole and piezometer, respectively, at each site. This report describes the piezometers installed and presents initial water- level data for all piezometers.

  2. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  3. Denaturated proteins: Draining effect and molecular dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondos, A.

    2010-09-01

    Using equations derived from the synthetic macromolecules, we calculate the dimensions in solution of the denaturated proteins. For these calculations, we use a value for the Flory’s parameter Φ obtained from an equation established for the polymers presenting a draining effect, and which is lower than the value of 2.6×10 23 (cgs) generally used. The obtained values for the dimensions of the denaturated proteins (end to end distance, statistical segment length and relation from the end to end distance and the number of residue) using the method proposed here are in good agreement with the values obtained from Flory and co-workers. On the contrary, the values obtained in this work are different from the values proposed by other authors who do not take into account the draining effect and use a value for Φ equal to 2.6×10 23.

  4. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  5. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  6. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  8. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  9. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  10. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained Jackson-Pratt Drain Fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Namyslowski, Jan; Halin, Neil J.; Greenfield, Alan J.

    1996-11-15

    A retained intraabdominal Jackson-Pratt drain fragment was percutaneously retrieved using an inflated angioplasty balloon that had been maneuvered inside of the drain lumen over a hydrophilic-coated steerable guidewire.

  11. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGES

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  12. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  13. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  14. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  15. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  16. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  17. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  18. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  19. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  20. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a...

  2. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  3. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  4. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  5. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  6. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  7. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  8. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  9. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  10. 14 CFR 27.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 27.999 Section 27.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  11. Is Drain Tip Culture Prognostic of Surgical Site Infection? Results of 1380 Drain Tip Cultures in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ryohei; Jinno, Tetsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hirao, Masanobu; Muneta, Takeshi; Okawa, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a prognostic value of drain tip culture for surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip arthroplasty. A total of 1380 closed suction drain tips cultured after removal in primary total hip arthroplasty were included in this study. Drains were removed in 12-72 hours after surgery. Drain tip cultures were positive in 11 cases (0.8%). SSI was found in 4 cases (0.3%), where the drain tip cultures were all negative. The sensitivity of drain tip culture for infection after surgery was 0%, and the specificity was 99.7%. We concluded that, drain tip culture cannot be prognostic for SSI after total hip arthroplasty. Routine use of drain tip culture is not supported.

  12. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) was updated to include new information on the hydrogeologic framework (Hawley, J.W., Haase, C.S., and Lozinsky, R.P., 1995, An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin: Proceedings of the 39th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, November 3-4, 1994, p. 37-55). An additional year of ground-water-withdrawal data was appended to the simulation of the historical period and incorporated into the base for future projections to the year 2020. The revised model projects the simulated ground-water levels associated with an aerally enlarged occurrence of the relatively high hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of the Santa Fe Group east and west of the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area and north to Bernalillo. Although the differences between the two model versions are substantial, the revised model does not contradict any previous conclusions about the effect of City of Albuquerque ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Rio Grande or the net benefits of an effort to conserve ground water. Recent revisions to the hydrogeologic model (Hawley, J.W., Haneberg, W.C., and Whitworth, P.M., in press, Hydrogeologic investigations in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1992-1995: Socorro, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Open- File Report 402) of the Albuquerque Basin eventually will require that this model version also be revised and updated.

  13. The 'first' instead of the 'oldest'. St. John's Riverside, in Yonkers, N.Y., markets its history.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2002-01-01

    St. John's Riverside Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y., built an integrated campaign upon its long history. Using billboards, print ads, bus shelters, radio and TV it touted its 130-plus years and its long history of firsts. Its integrated campaign proclaimed these "firsts." It specifically targeted its marketing to middle to upper-middle income residents of the surrounding area, particularly females between ages 25 and 54.

  14. Public health assessment for AT and SF (Albuquerque), Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, Region 6. Cerclis No. NMD980622864. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe (AT&SF) tie treatment plant is an abandoned wood-preserving facility in the South Valley area of Albuquerque, New Mexico. During the period in which the plant operated, wood products (such as railroad ties, bridge timbers, fence posts, etc.) were treated with a solution of creosote and oil. As a result of this practice, volatile organic compounds have been released to the soil and groundwater at the site. The primary environmental pathway is groundwater. A risk of exposure via ingestion of water from private wells may exist for residents in the vicinity. There is also a possible threat to municipal water if contamination in the shallow aquifer is drawn to lower depths.

  15. Draining skin lesion from a desert poodle.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Sylvie; Rich, Lon J; Meinkoth, James H; Cowell, Rick L

    2005-01-01

    A 16-month-old intact female Poodle in Arizona had a history of intermittent coughing of a few weeks duration. Coccidiomycosis antibody screening test results were negative for immunoglobulin (Ig) M, but were positive (1:64) for IgG. Fine needle aspiration specimens of a draining lesion on the right palmar front foot contained large numbers of neutrophils, many of which contained bacteria, and lower numbers of macrophages. A few small structures also were observed, 2-5 microm in diameter with thin, nonstaining capsules and small, round to oval densely aggregated, eccentric nuclei. Cytologic findings were consistent with septic pyogranulomatous inflammation with Coccidiodes immitis endospores. Fungal culture of a sample from the draining lesion yielded white growth with barrel-shaped arthroconidia. Identification of the organism as C immitis was confirmed by a commercial DNA probe test. Although coccidioidomycosis often is diagnosed by microscopic identification of C immitis spherules in cytologic specimens, in this case only endospores, which are released from mature spherules, were observed. In cases of suspected coccidiodomycosis, the unique morphology of endospores may be useful in making a cytologic diagnosis.

  16. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  17. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%. PMID:15375452

  18. Project DEEP STEAM: fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The Fourth Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam generator program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, Air Force Plant Number 83, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION AND DATA i C-I Ground- Water Quality Data C-2 Analytical Results for Soil Samples Taken in the Vicinity of Hazardous Waste ...SAMPLING LOCATIONS 3-33 FIGURE 3.19 SAN JOSE WELL FIELD 3-36 FIGURE 3.20 LOCATION OF WATER WELLS 3-41 FIGURE 4.1 HAZARDOUS WASTE STORAGE AREAS 4-15...type waste water is discharged into the Albuquerque sewage system. The waste water treatment facility is 3 located approximately one mile northwest of

  20. Degradation of drained peat soils in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambalov, N. N.

    2009-04-01

    According to Belarusian classification, the drained peat soils with peat layer less then 30 cm and containing organic substance less then 50% are degraded soils. Degraded peat soils made up 190.2 thousand hectares in 2001 from a total area of 1062,2 thousand hectares of drained peat soils for agriculture in Belarus, but the process of degradation is prolonging now and it is expected, that their area will be extended additionally on 12 % till 2020. The degradation of peat soils is most widespread in the region of Polesie, where the area of degraded soils makes up already several thousand hectares in some administrative districts. The degradation of peat soils takes place jet locally on the comparatively not big plots but on the very many places. There is the threat of joining up of the existing now spots of degraded soils in the near future, and the new spots of degraded soils will appear in a very big amount as well. The large tracts of land will appear in the nearest 20-30 years and may be earlier. The degradation of drained peat soils proceeds step by step, and three morphological groups of new soils are forming depending on degree of humification of organic matter, namely: raw humic, humus-fibrous and humus peat soils. The complicated soil complexes with many alternating soil plots containing organic substance both more than 50 % and from 2 till 50 % are forming within one field in result of degradation. For the reason given above a rather not uniform structure of soil cover with unsatisfactory micro relief, big differences of aquatic, thermal and nutritious regimes is forming on agricultural fields, that leads to the substantial decrease of their productivity. In this connection big expanses will require to the rearrangement of drainage systems and leveling of soil fertility within every such field. A fertility of drained peat soils with the depth of peat layer more then 1 m has been estimated as 69 points, with the depth of peat layer 0.3-0.5 m as 62 points

  1. River and groundwater level fluctuation analysis after barrage construction in riverside, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Keon Ha; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Kyung Hee; Seom Bae, Jong

    2016-04-01

    Changes in river have brought to the change of groundwater hydrogeology and water quality. Also, the understanding of the interaction of groundwater and surface water is essential for the managing of effective water resource. In case of South Korea, there is increasing the interest of groundwater development and management in riverside through large river maintenance projects lately. The river water level was elevated than in the past and it is expected to the changes in the interaction between the existing groundwater and surface. This study analyzed the relationship between surrounding river water level and groundwater level in the 91 locations of groundwater observation wells, also was supposed to classify the similar pattern of groundwater by performing multivariate analysis. At the result of factor analysis, it is shown that the high and low factor in correlation between river water level and groundwater level were caused by receiving the significant external influence. In the result of cluster analysis, the middle and upper area of river were similar to the fluctuation pattern with river water level and groundwater level and the downstream area of river was shown with a low correlation. This is due to the characteristic showing a distribution of the alluvium in various types at the downstream area in compared to middle and upper area. In the future, the research is undergoing to analyze the time series of a point in time to account for the external influences of the effects on the groundwater level.

  2. Groundwater flooding vulnerability assessment in riverside alluviums of Nakdong River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, kwangsoo; Lee, Seunghyun; Kwon, Mijin; Kim, Deoggeun

    2016-04-01

    Soil wetting or inundation due to rising groundwater table can cause groundwater flooding in the riverside alluvium and also affect the scale of surface water flooding. There is possible to occur the flooding of lowland by falling the groundwater level at heavy rain and is important to evaluate the vulnerability and the prediction of groundwater problem. Three groups (safe, intermediate, and vulnerable) are classified by using groundwater flooding vulnerability index(FVI) which is calculated using groundwater level's time series measured at each monitoring well. A prediction model for the classification is developed by using a discriminant analysis based on the correlation between the original groups and physical features (topography, soil, sediment layer distribution, soil drainage, and groundwater level-related features). And we have created a groundwater flooding vulnerability GIS Map. This research results is possible to policy support of establishment of flooding providing the flooding vulnerability technique using the groundwater occurring the damage came from the fluctuation of groundwater level by the water level change of river and the effect of rainfall. Also, in conjunction with the existing flooding/drought map, it improve the accuracy of groundwater flooding/drought prediction, and it becomes possible to respond the water sources, water level down by using the evaluation system in flooding/drought.

  3. Engineering excellence in breakthrough biomedical technologies: bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jane S; Rodgers, V G J

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside (UCR), was established in 2006 and is the youngest department in the Bourns College of Engineering. It is an interdisciplinary research engine that builds strength from highly recognized experts in biochemistry, biophysics, biology, and engineering, focusing on common critical themes. The range of faculty research interests is notable for its diversity, from the basic cell biology through cell function to the physiology of the whole organism, each directed at breakthroughs in biomedical devices for measurement and therapy. The department forges future leaders in bioengineering, mirroring the field in being energetic, interdisciplinary, and fast moving at the frontiers of biomedical discoveries. Our educational programs combine a solid foundation in bio logical sciences and engineering, diverse communication skills, and training in the most advanced quantitative bioengineering research. Bioengineering at UCR also includes the Bioengineering Interdepartmental Graduate (BIG) program. With its slogan Start-Grow-Be-BIG, it is already recognized for its many accomplishments, including being third in the nation in 2011 for bioengineering students receiving National Science Foundation graduate research fellowships as well as being one of the most ethnically inclusive programs in the nation.

  4. Water resources of the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation and vicinity, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, Anthony; Moyle, W.R.; Dana, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    Additional water for irrigation is needed by the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation, Riverside County, California. Water in the area is derived from precipitation, which averages 12 inches annually, on three subbasins nearly surrounding the 17-square-mile reservation. No ground water flows in from outside the area. A supply well that taps sandy material overlying the pre-Tertiary basement complex showed a specific capacity of 0.4 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. Estimates of specific yield for material encountered during drilling of three wells and a test hole ranged from 5 to 10 percent. A gravity survey outlined the thickest section of the aquifer in the Vandeventer Flat area, and test wells are proposed to determine its potential well yield. Damming streams to retain runoff (about 1,500 acre-feet per year, and more during periods of heavy precipitation) is also proposed. Analyses of water from the supply well and five major springs showed that ground water is suitable for irrigation except at Sulphur Spring, where the percent sodium of 97 exceeds recommended maximums, and at Bull Canyon Spring, where the specific conductance of 1,300 micromhos indicate a salinity hazard. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  6. Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Coronary Artery Fistula Draining into the Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jihyun; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Dae-Hee; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of 48-year-old male who presented with coronary artery fistula draining into left ventricle. Transthoracic echocardiography showed abnormal blood flow draining into left ventricle, with enlarged coronary arteries and multiple vascular structures around ventricular myocardium. Coronary computed tomography revealed dilatation of entire left coronary artery which was wrapping around left ventricle, and draining into the posterior side of left ventricle. He did not undergo any invasive treatment, because he was not symptomatic. PMID:24753806

  8. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  9. Acoustic metric of the compressible draining bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-10-15

    The draining bathtub flow, a cornerstone in the theory of acoustic black holes, is here extended to the case of exact solutions for compressible nonviscous flows characterized by a polytropic equation of state. Investigating the analytical configurations obtained for selected values of the polytropic index, it is found that each of them becomes nonphysical at the so called limiting circle. By studying the null geodesics structure of the corresponding acoustic line elements, it is shown that such a geometrical locus coincides with the acoustic event horizon. This region is characterized also by an infinite value of space-time curvature, so the acoustic analogy breaks down there. Possible applications for artificial and natural vortices are finally discussed.

  10. Magnetotelluric data in the middle Rio Grande basin, Albuquerque volcanoes, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    The population in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe region of New Mexico is rapidly growing. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Middle Rio Grande Basin is the main source of municipal water for the greater Albuquerque metropolitan area. The capacity of this aquifer is more limited than previously thought (Thorn et al., 1993). The Middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined hydrologically and used here, is the area within the Rio Grande Valley extending from Cochiti Dam downstream to the community of San Acacia (Figure 1). Because approximately 600,000 people (40 percent of the population of New Mexico) live in the study area (Bartolino, 1999), water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depends on accurate assessment and protection of the region’s groundwater resources. An important issue in defining the ground water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the other sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift.

  11. Integration of RGB "Dust" Imagery to Operations at the Albuquerque Forecast Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuell, Kevin; Guyer, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program has been providing unique Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite imagery to its operational partners since 2005. In the early years of activity these RGB products were related to a True Color RGB, showing what one's own eyes would see if looking down at earth from space, as well as a Snow-Cloud RGB (i.e. False Color), separating clouds from snow on the ground. More recently SPoRT has used the EUMETSAT Best Practices standards for RGB composites to transition a wide array of imagery for multiple uses. A "Dust" RGB product has had particular use at the Albuquerque, New Mexico WFO. Several cases have occurred where users were able to isolate dust plume locations for mesoscale and microscale events during day and night time conditions. In addition the "Dust" RGB can be used for more than just detection of dust as it is sensitive to the changes in density due to atmospheric moisture content. Hence low-level dry boundaries can often be discriminated. This type of imagery is a large change from the single channel imagery typically used by operational forecast staff and hence, can be a challenge to interpret. This presentation aims to discuss the integration of such new imagery into operational use as well as the benefits assessed by the Albuquerque WFO over several documented events.

  12. Minimally invasive surgical technique for tethered surgical drains

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Shane R; Satpathy, Jibanananda; Waligora, Andrew C; Ugwu-Oju, Obinna

    2017-01-01

    A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.

  13. Preliminary geologic map of the Fontana 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-418 is a digital geologic data set that maps and describes the geology of the Fontana 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California. The Fontana quadrangle database is one of several 7.5’ quadrangle databases that are being produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP). These maps and databases are, in turn, part of the nation-wide digital geologic map coverage being developed by the National Cooperative Geologic Map Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). General Open-File Report 03-418 contains a digital geologic map database of the Fontana 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file (fon_map.ps) to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. An Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file (fon_grey.eps) created in Adobe Illustrator 10.0 to plot the geologic map on a grey topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 4. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. the Readme file; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fon_met.txt b. The same graphics as plotted in 2 and 3 above.Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following

  14. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  15. Preliminary geologic map of the Perris 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Alvarez, Rachel M.

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-270 contains a digital geologic map database of the Perris 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. A Readme file b. The same graphic as described in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc.

  16. Geologic map of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map and map database of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 double-precision coverages of the various elements of the geologic map 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram and a Description of Map Units 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes, in Appendix I, data contained in lkvw_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive, contained in five INFO data tables (.rel) (see Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized). No paper map is included in this report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Lakeview 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  17. Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, Albuquerque Public Schools, Fall 1987: District Report. Grades 3, 5, and 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Sandra

    Each spring the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) battery is administered to students throughout New Mexico as part of the State Department of Education mandated assessment program. This report contains information regarding 1987 test results for Albuquerque Public School (APS) students in grades 3, 5, and 8 on the CTBS, a standardized,…

  18. Title IX Program Evaluation: Corresponding with FY 98 Application for Grants. Albuquerque Public Schools, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Curt

    Title IX and Johnson O'Malley services were provided to 1,495 Native American students at 10 Albuquerque (New Mexico) elementary, middle, and high schools and the Homework Center during the 1997-98 school year. The five goals of the Title IX program were to provide: (1) intervention assistance for students, in which students, parents, and staff…

  19. Deconstructing the Myths: A Research Agenda for American Indian Education (Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 14-15, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    This report outlines a comprehensive research agenda for Indian education from the Native perspective. It resulted from a meeting held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in April 2000, planned by a national steering committee of Indian education researchers, administrators, and association executives. The introduction describes four traits of research in…

  20. "Healthful P.E." Albuquerque Public Schools--Lovelace Physical Fitness Pilot Program and "Healthful P.E." Evaluation Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenwurm, Jerry; Phillipp, Annette

    Results of two evaluations of a 3-year physical fitness pilot program, developed by the Lovelace Medical Foundation and the Albuquerque Public Schools to upgrade the health and physical fitness status of adolescent students, are presented. Adolescent risk factors addressed by the project are discussed, including smoking, substance abuse, poor…

  1. Proceedings of the 1978 National Conference on Technology for Energy Conservation (Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 24-27, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Transfer, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This publication contains the proceedings of the National Conference on Technology for Energy Conservation held in January 1978, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The 112 papers included are organized under the following topics: (1) Legal Considerations; (2) Energy from Biomass; (3) Energy Conservation in Agriculture; (4) Status of Energy Conservation;…

  2. Stormwater Management for TMDLs in an Arid Climate: A Case Study Application of SUSTAIN in Albuquerque, New Mexico - report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study for the Albuquerque, New Mexico area was conducted under contract with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development using the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Integration Analysis (SUSTAIN). The effort focuses on inve...

  3. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  4. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national…

  5. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  6. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  7. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  8. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  9. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  10. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  11. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  12. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  13. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  14. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  15. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  16. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  17. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  18. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  19. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  20. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  1. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  2. Slowing the brain drain: FAIMER education programs.

    PubMed

    Burdick, William P; Morahan, Page S; Norcini, John J

    2006-11-01

    Migration of physicians has produced serious shortages in many developing countries. The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) is attempting to show this international brain drain through creation of faculty development programs for medical school faculty from developing countries in order to strengthen medical education and help build a sustainable discipline of medical education. The goals of these programs are to allow Fellows to acquire basic skills in medical education, skills in leadership and management, and build a strong community of practice. Acquisition of these skills will improve medical education in their home country, stimulate growth of the field of medical education, and improve opportunities for professional advancement. Three programs currently exist: the FAIMER Institute, a two year fellowship with residential and distance learning components; International Fellowships in Medical Education, which funds selected Institute alumni to obtain masters degrees in medical education; and FAIMER regional institutes, which use the principles and structure embedded in the FAIMER Institute to build faculty development programs overseas. Evaluation of FAIMER programs indicates approximately one-third of Fellows have been promoted, and that a community of medical educators is being created in many developing countries which may promote retention of these physicians.

  3. Thermophoresis of polymers: nondraining vs draining coil.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Konstantin I; Köhler, Werner

    2014-06-10

    Present theories for the thermophoretic mobility of polymers in dilute solution without long-ranged electrostatic interaction are based on a draining coil model with short-ranged segment-solvent interaction. We show that the characteristic thermophoretic interaction decays as r(-2) with the distance from the chain segment, which is of much longer range than the underlying rapidly decaying binary van der Waals interaction (∝ r(-6)). As a consequence, thermophoresis on the monomer level is governed by volume forces, resulting in hydrodynamic coupling between the chain segments. The inner parts of the nondraining coil do not actively participate in thermophoresis. The flow lines penetrate only into a thin surface layer of the coil and cause tangential stresses along the surface of the entire coil, not the individual segments. This model is motivated by recent experimental findings for thermoresponsive polymers and core-shell particles, and it explains the well-known molar mass independent thermophoretic mobility of polymers in dilute solution.

  4. Dual diaphragm tank with telltale drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuthill, Wallace C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A fluid storage and expulsion system comprising a tank with an internal flexible diaphragm assembly of dual diaphragms in back-to-back relationship, at least one of which is provided with a patterned surface having fine edges such that the diaphragms are in contact along said edges without mating contact of surface areas to thereby form fluid channels which extend outwardly to the peripheral edges of the diaphragms is described. The interior wall of the tank at the juncture of tank sections is formed with a circumferential annular recess comprising an outer annular recess portion which forms a fluid collection chamber and an inner annular recess portion which accommodates the peripheral edge portions of the diaphragms and a sealing ring in clamped sealing relation therebetween. The sealing ring is perforated with radially extending passages which allow any fluid leaking or diffusing past a diaphragm to flow through the fluid channels between the diaphragms to the fluid collection chamber. Ports connectable to pressure fittings are provided in the tank sections for admission of fluids to opposite sides of the diaphragm assembly. A drain passage through the tank wall to the fluid collection chamber permits detection, analysis and removal of fluids in the collection chamber.

  5. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  6. Calendar year 2004 annual site environmental report:Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Wagner, Katrina; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2004. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004a). (DOE 2004a).

  7. Department management of the Ross Aviation, Inc. , contract aircraft major spare parts inventory, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-26

    The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the Department of Energy's (Department) management of its contract with Ross Aviation, Inc. (Ross) provided reasonable assurance that the inventory of aircraft major spare parts at Ross was economical and efficient. The audit disclosed that approximately $447,000 (acquisition and interest carrying costs) of low-use major spare parts was excessive. Internal control deficiencies which fostered the excessive inventory included: (1) Ross had set stock levels without considering such factors as consumption or projected needs; and (2) the Department had not reviewed inventory quantities when appraising Ross' property management. The Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) agreed to take the corrective actions recommended in the report.

  8. Remote measurement of NO2 in the brown cloud over Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franzblau, E; Popp, C J; Prestbo, E W; Marley, N A; Gaffney, J S

    1993-02-01

    Remote measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were recorded in the 'brown cloud' over Albuquerque, NM, using absorption spectroscopy in the winter of 1987-88 and summer of 1989. The NO2 burdens (optical densities) measured in this manner were found to be in excess of 100 ppm-m. These long pathlength measurements correspond to total concentrations of approximately 5-10 ppb over the integrated observation pathlengths, which ranged from 10-20 km. These concentrations compare well with single location, independent NO x analyses. Using two correlation (absorption) spectrometers simultaneously, it was shown that the NO2 distribution is not uniform over the city and can change on the order of minutes in the boundary layer late in the day, demonstrating the advantages of NO2 optical measurements for assessing the location and extent of urban nitrogen dioxide levels in the boundary layer.

  9. Verification testing of the PKI collector at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.; Pond, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    Verification testing of a solar collector was undertaken prior to its operation as part of an industrial process heat plant at Capitol Concrete Products in Topeka, Kansas. Testing was performed at a control plant installed at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNLA). Early results show that plant performance is even better than anticipated and far in excess of test criteria. Overall plant efficiencies of 65 to 80 percent were typical during hours of good insolation. A number of flaws and imperfections were detected during operability testing, the most important being a problem in elevation drive alignment due to a manufacturing error. All problems were corrected as they occurred and the plant, with over 40 hours of operation, is currently continuing operability testing in a wholly-automatic mode.

  10. Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, B.D.; Connell, S.D.; Hawley, J.W.; Stone, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

  11. Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Roberts, Christine M; Glass, Gregory E

    2007-06-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area.

  12. Urban Habitat Evaluation For West Nile Virus Surveillance In Mosquitoes In Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Christine M.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  13. Paleoearthquake recurrence on the East Paradise fault zone, metropolitan Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon

    2000-01-01

    A fortuitous exposure of the East Paradise fault zone near Arroyo de las Calabacillas has helped us determine a post-middle Pleistocene history for a long-forgotten Quaternary fault in the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Mapping of two exposures of the fault zone allowed us to measure a total vertical offset of 2.75 m across middle Pleistocene fluvial and eolian deposits and to estimate individual surface-faulting events of about 1, 0.5, and 1.25 m. These measurements and several thermoluminescence ages allow us to calculate a long-term average slip rate of 0.01 ± 0.001 mm/yr and date two surface-faulting events to 208 ± 25 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. The youngest event probably occurred in the late Pleistocene, sometime after 75 ± 7 ka. These data yield a single recurrence interval of 133 ± 26 ka and an average recurrence interval of 90 ± 10 ka. However, recurrence intervals are highly variable because the two youngest events occurred in less than 75 ka. Offsets of 0.5-1.25 m and a fault length of 13-20 km indicate that surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes on the East Paradise fault zone had probable Ms or Mw magnitudes of 6.8-7.0. Although recurrence intervals are long on the East Paradise fault zone, these data are significant because they represent some of the first published slip rate, paleoearthquake magnitude, and recurrence information for any of the numerous Quaternary faults in the rapidly growing Albuquerque-Rio Rancho metropolitan area.

  14. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.

    2000-11-01

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical

  15. Preliminary geologic map of the Elsinore 7.5' Quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold; Digital preparation: Alvarez, Rachel M.; Burns, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-281 contains a digital geologic map database of the Elsinore 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in els_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  16. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  18. Tiny biomedical amplifier combines high performance, low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1965-01-01

    Transistorized, portable, high performance amplifier with low power drain facilitates biomedical studies on mobile subjects. This device, which utilizes a differential input to obtain a common-mode rejection, is used for amplifying electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals.

  19. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (right) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (left) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  20. Ethics and policy of medical brain drain: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Eszter; Buyx, Alena

    2013-10-25

    Health-worker migration, commonly called "medical brain drain", refers to the mass migration of trained and skilled health professionals (doctors, nurses, midwives) from low-income to high-income countries. This is currently leaving a significant number of poor countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, with critical staff shortages in the healthcare sector. A broad consensus exists that, where medical brain drain exacerbates such shortages, it is unethical, and this review presents the main arguments underpinning this view. Notwithstanding the general agreement, which policies are justifiable on ethical grounds to tackle brain drain and how best to go about implementing them remains controversial. The review offers a discussion of the specific ethical issues that have to be taken into account when deciding which policy measures to prioritise and suggests a strategy of policy implementation to address medical brain drain as a matter of urgency.

  1. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  2. MODULATING STORM DRAIN FLOWS TO REDUCE STREAM POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogen and toxic chemical concentrations above the chemical and toxicity water quality standards in creeks and rivers pose risks to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Storm drains discharging into these watercourses often contribute significantly to elevating pollutant concen...

  3. Enteric bacterial translocation after intraperitoneal implantation of rubber drain pieces.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Andersson, R; Ljungh, A; Wang, X D; Bengmark, S

    1993-05-01

    To study the kinetics and mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the gut after intraperitoneal (IP) implantation of prosthetic materials, different sizes of rubber drain pieces were intraperitoneally implanted in the rat, followed by evaluation of ileal mucosal permeability after 2 days and of the occurrence of bacterial translocation and gut oxygen extraction at various time points. Enteric bacteria translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes and disseminated to systemic organs (liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys), the portal vein, and inferior vena cava 2, 4, and 6 h after IP implantation of rubber drain pieces with 10-, 7-, and 3-cm2 areas, respectively, and subsequently to the IP rubber drain piece and the peritoneal cavity on the 2nd postoperative day. The incidence of translocation correlated with the size of the implanted material and time after implantation. The gut oxygen extraction increased significantly after IP implantation of 7- and 10-cm2 rubber drain pieces. The ileal mucosal permeability was enhanced in the groups implanted with 7- and 10-cm2 drain pieces. Thus, bacterial translocation occurs already in the early period after IP implantation of rubber drain and increased with time. The increased gut oxygen extraction implies that the gut is susceptible to IP inflammatory stimulation, and the enhanced ileal permeability suggests that the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract is compromised, which might facilitate bacterial translocation.

  4. Geologic Map of the Albuquerque 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Cole, James C.

    2007-01-01

    The Albuquerque 30' x 60' quadrangle spans the Rio Grande rift between the Colorado Plateau and Great Plains geologic provinces, and includes parts of the Basin and Range and Southern Rocky Mountain physiographic provinces. Geologic units exposed in the quadrangle range in age from Early Proterozoic schist and granite to modern river alluvium. The principal geologic features of the area, however, chiefly reflect contractional folding and thrusting of the Late Cretaceous Laramide orogeny and the Neogene extension of the Rio Grande rift. Significant parts of the history of the rift in this region are displayed and documented by the geology exposed in the Albuquerque quadrangle. Post-Laramide erosion, beginning at about 60 Ma, is recorded by the Diamond Tail and Galisteo Formations (upper Paleocene and Eocene) that are preserved in the Hagan Basin and around the uplifted margins of the younger Rio Grande rift. Intermediate volcaniclastic deposits of the Espinaso Formation (upper Eocene and Oligocene) were shed in and around the contemporaneous volcanic-intrusive complexes of the Ortiz porphyry belt in the northeastern part of the quadrangle. The earliest fluvial sediments attributed to extension in the Rio Grande rift in this area are the Tanos and Blackshare Formations (upper Oligocene and Miocene) in the Hagan Basin, which indicate extension was underway by 25 Ma. Farther west, the oldest rift-filling sediments are eolian sand and interdune silty deposits of the Zia Formation (lower to middle Miocene). Major extension occurred during the Miocene, but subsidence and sedimentation were highly irregular from place to place. Parts of three rift sub-basins are known within the Albuquerque quadrangle, each basin locally as deep as about 14,000 ft, separated by less-extended zones (structural horsts) where the rift fill is much thinner. The geometry of these early, deep rift sub-basins suggests the primary extension direction was oriented northeast-southwest. Significant

  5. Summary of water-quality data for City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells, 1988-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindberg, William E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque has collected and analyzed more than 5,000 water-quality samples from 113 water-supply wells in the Albuquerque area, including many drinking-water supply wells, since May of 1988. As a result, a large water-quality data base has been compiled that includes data for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, carbon, volatile organic compounds, radiological constituents, and bacteria. These data are intended to improve the understanding and management of the ground-water resources of the region, rather than demonstrate compliance with Federal and State drinking-water standards. This report gives summary statistics for selected physical properties and chemical constituents for ground water from wells used by the City of Albuquerque for drinking-water supply between 1988 and 1997. Maps are provided to show the general spatial distribution of selected parameters and water types around the region. Although the values of some parameters vary substantially across the city, median values for all parameters included in this report are less than their respective maximum contaminant levels in each drinking-water supply well. The dominant water types are sodium plus potassium / carbonate plus bicarbonate in the western part of the city and calcium / carbonate plus bicarbonate in the eastern part of the city.

  6. Low-flow water-quality and discharge data for lined channels in Northeast Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, R.L.; McBreen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The water resources of the Albuquerque metropolitan area are under increasing scrutiny by Federal and State regulators. Because of a lack of available low-flow data for use in addressing potential water-quality problems, a project was established to collect low-flow water-quality and discharge data. The project was initiated under a current cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority. This report summarizes hydrologic data for that project collected between October 31, 1990, and September 3, 1994, at three sites in the lined channel network in northeast Albuquerque. The data collection network consisted of three sampling sites on Campus Wash, Embudo Arroyo, and the North Floodway Channel. The sites on Campus Wash and the North Floodway Channel were established at existing continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations; the Embudo Arroyo site was established at the site of an abandoned streamflow-gaging station. Data presented include site descriptions, instantaneous stream discharges measured at the time of sampling, and the results of the chemical analyses of the water-quality samples.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Van Geet, O.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California. The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.13/kWh and incentives offered by Southern California Edison under the California Solar Initiative. According to the assessment, a government-owned, ground-mounted PV system represents a technically and economically feasible option. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  8. Methane fluxes on pristine, drained and restored boreal spruce swamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Markku; Minkkinen, Kari; Nieminen, Mika; Maanavilja, Liisa; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-05-01

    Successful restoration of peatlands drained for forestry means that all the processes of pristine mires are present in the restored peatlands. Methanogen communities are usually disturbed by the lowering of water table by drainage and previous studies have found only slow recovery of methane emissions on restored peatlands. We made methane flux measurements on pristine, drained and restored conditions boreal spruce swamps. Restoration measures had taken place approximately 10 years before our measurement campaign. The measurement plots on the drained and restored sites included drainage ditches and the disturbed soil beside the ditch as well as the undisturbed mid-strip area. Water table was measured from wells near the flux measurement plots. Seven sites were sampled twice per month for one growing season with eight sampling plots grouped in four locations per site in total. The locations were placed on a line perpendicular to the mire edge on the pristine sites and a drainage ditch on the drained and restored sites. The highest mean water level was recorded on the restored sites, and the lowest on the drained sites. The restored sites showed high fluxes from all measurement plots. The fluxes from the pristine and drained sites were much smaller and did not differ significantly from each other. The highest fluxes were measured from the drainage ditches on both the drained and restored sites. The pristine sites showed high relative spatio-temporal variation in the flux, partly explained by changes in the water table level. No effect of measurement plot distance from the mire edge was discernible on the pristine sites.

  9. Application of IR remote sensing technology for monitoring of intersection CO concentrations in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, W.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the preliminary testing of an infrared (IR) remote sensor (GASCOFIL) for the detection of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near the intersection of San Mateo Drive and Menaul Drive in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 11, 1993. The goal of this test was to demonstrate the effectiveness of GASCOFIL as an in-situ monitor for studying the time dependent distribution of CO at intersections. In order to measure the concentration of CO, the sensor viewed a crossroad path seven feet above Menaul Drive three hundred and fifty feet from the center of San Mateo Drive. The sensor was positioned ten feet from a gas and aerosol-monitoring station equipped with an EPA approved point CO monitor. GASCOFIL produced real time data that showed variations in CO levels that correlated with traffic light cycles. Variations in the CO concentration due to individual vehicles were also recorded. A two hour average of the GASCOFIL CO concentration data taken through rush hour was six percent lower than CO data taken from an EPA point sensor adjacent to the intersection. The small percentage variance between the two averages might be due to the separation and size difference of the sample volumes. GASCOFIL measured variations and peaks in the CO concentration not seen by the EPA sensor because it had a faster time response and its sample volume was closer to the vehicular sources.

  10. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  11. Proximal potentially seismogenic sources for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    Recent geologic and geophysical investigations within the Albuquerque Basin have shed light on the potentially seismogenic sources that might affect Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), a multi-disciplinary research and engineering facility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper presents a summary of potentially seismogenic sources for SNL/NM, emphasizing those sources within approximately 8 kilometers (km) of the site. Several significant faults of the central Rio Grande rift transect SNL/NM. Although progress has been made on understanding the geometry and interactions of these faults, little is known of the timing of most recent movement or on recurrent intervals for these faults. Therefore, whether particular faults or fault sections have been active during the Holocene or even the late Pleistocene is undocumented. Although the overall subdued surface expression of many of these faults suggests that they have low to moderate slip rates, the proximity of these faults to critical (e.g., nuclear) and non-critical (e.g., high-occupancy, multistory office/light lab) facilities at SNL/NM requires their careful examination for evaluation of potential seismic hazard.

  12. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Wet Drained Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Arnold, K.; Weslien, P.; Nilsson, M.; Hånell, B.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ditching has commonly been used in order to improve forest productivity on wet soils. When wet soils are drained the methane emissions, which are usually substantial from wetlands, decrease and the uptake of carbon dioxide by the vegetation increases. However, there is also an increase in the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from the soil. The sizes of the fluxes depend on drainage depth and soil fertility. We have performed a study with the objective to examine the effect of tree species composition and site fertility on greenhouse gas emissions from drained temperate forest ecosystems. The fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were measured during two years in seven temperate forest sites, one open mire, one undrained alder swamp, both to be used for comparison, and five drained forest sites of different fertilities covered with different tree species. The drained sites, chosen to represent the most common tree species in Sweden, were two spruce sites of different fertility, three sites dominated by pine, alder and birch respectively. All drained sites had a mean groundwater depth between 14 and 26 cm. Fluxes were measured with dark static chambers, ten chambers at each site. Gas samples were collected every week during summer and every month during the wintertime. The annual methane emissions (presented as means of all chambers +/- standard error) were much larger from the undrained sites, between 50 +/- 19.2 and 126 +/- 34.7 kg/ha compared to 0 +/- 1.5 to 17 +/- 8.3 kg/ha from the drained sites. The fluxes of carbon dioxide from the soil were higher at the drained sites but as most twice as large as from the undrained sites (8 +/- 1.6 ton/ha from the mire and 16 +/- 1.9 ton/ha from the drained alder during the first year of sampling). The emissions of nitrous oxide were highest from the drained alder site, 11 +/- 3.8 kg/ha the first sampling year and 7 +/- 2.9 the second. At all other sites the emissions were approximately 10 times

  13. Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M; Brum, D E

    2015-07-01

    A 1-year-old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3-week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18-month period. The smaller non-operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement.

  14. Equivalent mechanical model for liquid sloshing during draining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Ma, Xingrui; Wang, Tianshu

    2011-01-01

    For a spacecraft draining liquid fuel during a continuous thruster maneuver, a brief equivalent method is proposed to model the time-varying properties of liquid sloshing for dynamics and control design. The sloshing liquid during draining is equivalent to a set of mechanical model with variable parameters. The model parameters for sample filling ratios are determined by an efficient finite element method according to equivalent principles, while the parameters for other filling ratios are obtained by piecewise linear interpolation. Using the proposed model, forces and torques acted on a Cassini shaped tank by the inside liquid during draining are investigated undergoing several typical motions. Verifications and comparative studies are done with Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, which confirm the accuracy of the brief model while the sloshing amplitude is small and the flow rate is low.

  15. Relations between drained and undrained moduli in anisotropic poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loret, Benjamin; Rizzi, Egidio; Zerfa, Zohra

    2001-11-01

    Although the knowledge of the drained moduli is often assumed to define the material coefficients of elastic fluid-saturated porous media, it is not sufficient. Resorting to the properties of the constituents is possible but may not be satisfactory due to lack of accuracy. On the other hand, the mechanical information contained in the undrained moduli is complementary to that provided by the drained moduli but is also overabundant. The compatibility relations between these two types of moduli are examined for several classes of anisotropic solid skeletons and the information required from the undrained moduli is exactly defined through a spectral analysis of the dyadic difference in tensor compliances. A switch of the results is possible if the undrained moduli are given instead of the drained moduli. An incomplete data set of material coefficients for a transverse isotropic shale is treated as an example. Considerable simplifications arise for a particular form of anisotropy defined by a second order fabric tensor.

  16. Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Timothy J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at

  17. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Stone, B.D.; Shroba, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley. The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47-40 ka. Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90-98 ka (based on dated basalt flows). Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka). The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1.47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft (Primero Alto) above the modern flood-plain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  18. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed.

  19. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Mahan, Shannon; Stone, Byron D.; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley . The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47–40 ka . Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90–98 ka (based on dated basalt flows) . Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka) . The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1 .47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft. (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft. (Primero Alto) above the modern floodplain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  20. Scaling of lowered source/drain (LSD) and raised source/drain (RSD) ultra-thin body (UTB) SOI MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xia; Huang, Ru; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yangyuan

    2005-03-01

    Ultra-thin body (UTB) SOI MOSFETs are considered as one of most promising candidates for deca-nano-scale regimes. The device characteristics of two different UTB MOSFETs with raised source/drain (RSD) and lowered source/drain (LSD), respectively, are investigated with DC and AC considerations. The results suggest that LSD-UTB SOI MOSFETs show better control of the off-state leakage current, about one order of magnitude lower than that of RSD-UTB MOSFETs. The short-channel effect (SCE) and drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL) effect are more effectively suppressed in LSD-UTB MOSFETs. And the intrinsic delay of LSD-UTB device is smaller than that of RSD-UTB as a result of the greatly reduced parasitic capacitance. In addition, the LSD-UTB MOSFETs demonstrate better scaling capability than RSD-UTB MOSFETs. And LSD-UTB can greatly relax the requirement for silicon body thickness by ˜60%.

  1. Paleoearthquakes and Eolian-dominated fault sedimentation along the Hubbell Spring fault zone near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, S.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Hubbell Spring fault zone forms the modern eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift in the Albuquerque basin of north-central New Mexico. Knowledge of its seismic potential is important because the fault zone transects Kirtland Air Force Base/Sandia National Laboratories and underlies the southern Albuquerque metropolitan area. No earthquakes larger than ML 5.5 have been reported in the last 150 years in this region, so we excavated the first trench across this fault zone to determine its late Quaternary paleoseismic history. Our trench excavations revealed a complex, 16-m-wide fault zone overlain by four tapered blankets of mixed eolian sand and minor colluvium that we infer were deposited after four large-magnitude, surface-rupturing earthquakes. Although the first (oldest) rupture event is undated, we used luminescence (thermoluminescence and infrared-stimulated luminescence) ages to determine that the subsequent three rupture events occurred about 56 ?? 6, 29 ?? 3, and 12 ?? 1 ka. These ages yield recurrence intervals of 27 and 17 k.y. between events and an elapsed time of 12 k.y. since the latest surface-rupturing paleoearthquake. Slip rates are not well constrained, but our preferred average slip rate since rupture event 2 (post-56 ka) is 0.05 mm/yr, and interval slip rates between the last three events are 0.06 and 0.09 mm/yr, respectively. Vertical displacements of 1-2 m per event and probable rupture lengths of 34-43 km indicate probable paleoearthquake magnitudes (Ms or Mw) of 6.8-7.1. Future earthquakes of this size likely would cause strong ground motions in the Albuquerque metropolitan area.

  2. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  3. Beyond Draining the Swamp: Urban Development and Counterterrorism in Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    OranRabat Casablanca Lisbon Madrid Gibraltar In Salah Agadir Meknes Fes Tangier Marrakech Morocco and Surrounding Area Dalzell: Beyond Draining the...17 October 2004 in Rabat, Casablanca, JSOU Report 06-9 Marrakech , Oujda, Meknes, and Fes. By June 2005 they totaled 4,000 officers. In 2006, the

  4. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  5. JMU Refuses to Let Money Go down the Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia has embarked on a rational means to reduce energy costs and provides a sustainable approach to student housing. The investment to install a Drain Water Heat Recovery system (DWHR) at Wayland Hall is estimated to pay for itself in less than three years but will provide dividends for over 40.…

  6. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  7. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  8. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  9. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  10. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  11. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among…

  12. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  13. Factors that Affect Drain Indwelling Time after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uslukaya, Ömer; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Gümüş, Metehan; Bozdağ, Zübeyir; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Gümüş, Hatice; Kaya, Şeyhmus; Gül, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Objective The most common procedure to prevent seroma formation, a common complication after breast and axillary surgery, is to use prophylactic surgical drains. Ongoing discussions continue regarding the ideal time for removing drains after surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate factors that affect drain indwelling time (DIT). Materials and Methods From 2014 to 2015, a total of 91 consecutive patients with breast cancer were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatment methods, histopathologic features of the tumor, size of removed breast tissue (BS), tumor size (TS), number of totally removed lymph nodes (TLN), and metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), whether they had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the DIT were retrospectively recorded from the hospital database. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years, and the mean DIT was 4.8 days. The mean size of breast removed was 17.3 cm and tumor size was 4.7 cm, and the mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was 3.3, and mean total number of lymph nodes was 14.1. Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherahpy had longer DIT. There was a positive correlation between the BS, TS, TLN, MLN, length of hospital stay, and DIT. Linear regresion analysis revealed that the BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy were independent risk factors for DIT. Conclusion DIT primarily depends on BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy. A policy for the management of removing drains to prevent seroma formation should thus be individualized.

  14. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  15. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the…

  16. 7. DRAIN TUNNEL PORTAL. THE WATER FLOWS IN A DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DRAIN TUNNEL PORTAL. THE WATER FLOWS IN A DITCH BENEATH TIMBER LAGGING, WHICH SUPPORTS THE MINE CAR TRACKS. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  17. Diasporic and Discursive Eruptions in the New Zealand Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Human and social capital discourses attempt to explain New Zealand's brain drain. Solutions related to each discourse involve offering incentives for returning or creating links so that expatriates can contribute to their homeland from abroad. Establishing such "diaspora networks" might be the role of adult education. (Contains 43…

  18. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  19. 38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking south from north side of the basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  3. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  4. At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump pumps, looking north. This level contains the "art gallery" which features graffiti from the 1940s-1990s. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  6. An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

    2005-12-01

    The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer

  7. Chemical composition of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Collin P.; Cory, Rose M.

    2015-10-01

    Northern circumpolar permafrost soils contain roughly twice the amount of carbon stored in the atmosphere today, but the majority of this soil organic carbon is perennially frozen. Climate warming in the arctic is thawing permafrost soils and mobilizing previously frozen dissolved organic matter (DOM) from deeper soil layers to nearby surface waters. Previous studies have reported that ancient DOM draining deeper layers of permafrost soils was more susceptible to degradation by aquatic bacteria compared to modern DOM draining the shallow active layer of permafrost soils, and have suggested that DOM chemical composition may be an important control for the lability of DOM to bacterial degradation. However, the compositional features that distinguish DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils, and relate these compositional differences to its susceptibility to biological degradation. DOM was leached from the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of soils within the Imnavait Creek watershed on the North Slope of Alaska. DOM draining both soil layers was characterized in triplicate by coupling ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, 13C solid-state NMR, and optical spectroscopy methods with multi-variate statistical analyses. Reproducibility of replicate mass spectra was high, and compositional differences resulting from interfering species or isolation effects were significantly smaller than differences between DOM drained from each soil layer. All analyses indicated that DOM leached from the shallower organic mat contained higher molecular weight, more oxidized, and more unsaturated aromatic species compared to DOM leached from the deeper permafrost layer. Bacterial production rates and bacterial efficiencies were significantly higher for permafrost compared to organic mat DOM

  8. Plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system near Albuquerque, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin in central New Mexico covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground water from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system of the Albuquerque Basin is the principal source of water for municipal, domestic, commercial, and industrial uses in the Albuquerque area, an area of about 410 square miles. Ground- water withdrawal in the basin has increased from about 97,000 acre-feet in 1970 to about 171,000 acre-feet in 1994. About 92 percent of the 1994 total was withdrawn in the Albuquerque area. Management of ground water in the Albuquerque Basin is related to the surface water in the Rio Grande. Because the aquifer system is hydraulically connected to the Rio Grande and water in the river is fully appropriated, the ability to reliably estimate the effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the river is important. This report describes the components of the Rio Grande/Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area and the data availability and data and interpretation needs relating to those components, and presents a plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. The information needs related to the components of the river/aquifer system are prioritized. Information that is necessary to improve the understanding or quantification of a component in the river/aquifer system is prioritized as essential. Information that could add additional understanding of the system, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of the system, is prioritized as useful. The study elements are prioritized in the same manner as the information needs; study elements designed to provide information considered necessary to improve the quantification of the system are prioritized as essential, and those designed to provide information that would add additional understanding of the system, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of the system, are prioritized as useful.

  9. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  10. Factors predictive of increased surgical drain output after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

    PubMed Central

    Basques, Bryce A.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Golinvaux, Nicholas S.; Yacob, Alem; Varthi, Arya G.; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify factors that are independently associated with increased surgical drain output in patients who have undergone ACDF. Summary of Background Data Surgical drains are typically placed following ACDF to reduce the risk of complications associated with neck hematoma. The orthopaedic literature has repeatedly challenged the use of surgical drains following many procedures, and there are currently no guidelines for determining which patients are most likely to benefit from drain placement after ACDF. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent elective ACDF with surgical drain placement at a single academic institution between January 2011 and February 2013 were identified using billing records. Patient information was abstracted from the medical record. Patients were categorized based on normal or increased total drain output, with increased drain output defined as total drain output ≥ 50th percentile (30mL). A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which factors were independently associated with increased drain output. Results A total of 151 ACDF patients met inclusion criteria. Total drain output ranged from 0 mL to 265 mL. The average drain output for this cohort was 42.3 ± 45.5 mL (mean ± standard deviation). Among all patients in the study, 80 patients had increased drain output (drain output ≥ 50th percentile or 30 mL). Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors of increased drain output: age ≥ 50 years (Odds Ratio [OR] = 3.9), number of levels (2 levels, OR = 2.7; 3–4 levels, OR = 17.0), and history of smoking (OR = 2.8). One patient developed a postoperative neck hematoma while a drain was in place. Conclusion Patients with the above-identified factors associated with increased drain output may benefit most from surgical drain placement after ACDF. Nonetheless, neck hematoma is still possible even with drain use. PMID:24480948

  11. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction and Lease of New Facilities for the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Secure Transportation (Albuquerque Transportation and Technology Center), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    other operational functions (i.e., FAF WC). • NNSA, NA-15, Kirtland Operations (KO) - Provides engineering and design for modifications of...collection would be via sheet drainage to engineered storm drains. 2.3.3 Alternative 3- Construct and Lease New Facilities at the Mesa Del Sol East Site...collection in the area is generally via sheet drainage. With planned development of the area, sheet drainage will give way to engineered storm drains where

  12. Effect of heat stress on endotoxin flux across mesenteric-drained and portal-drained viscera of dairy goat.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Xue, B; Wang, K; Li, S; Li, Z

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of heat stress on endotoxin flux across mesenteric-drained and portal-drained viscera of dairy goats. Three Saanen first lactation dairy goats were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and carotid, and were kept in thermal-neutral and then heat stress environment, for examining the effect of heat stress on endotoxin absorption and redox status. Average net absorption of endotoxin (EU/h) across mesenteric-drained viscera (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) during the whole period of heat stress increased by 279.05% and 227.92% in relation to thermo-neutral period. Plasma concentration of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) in mesenteric and portal vein, and that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mesenteric vein, increased significantly during heat stress. Main conclusions were: (i) net absorption of endotoxin in portal vein is mainly from non-mesenteric tissues both in heat stress and in thermo-neutral condition; (ii) heat stress may lead to the significant decrease in plasma SOD, GSH-Px, CAT flux across PDV and MDV, and the significant increase in endotoxin flux across PDV and MDV; and (iii) the increase in gastrointestinal permeability in dairy goats during heat stress may not be induced by the increase in oxidative stress.

  13. Surface Water and Groundwater Nitrogen Dynamics in a Well Drained Riparian Forest within a Poorly Drained Agricultural Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrients in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well-drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a ri...

  14. Temporal evolution of exposure to mercury in riverside communities in the Tapajós basin, from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M C N; Farripas, S S M; Oikawa, T; Costa, C A; Amoras, W W; Vieira, J L F; Silveira, A J A; Lima, A C M; Souza, G S; Silveira, L C L

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the temporal evolution of mercury exposure in two riverside communities, Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, downstream of gold mining areas in the Tapajós basin, Brazilian Amazon. The quantification of mercury in hair sample was made by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the period between 1994 and 2010. In São Luiz do Tapajós the mercury exposure varied, in log units, from the peak of 1.21 ± 0.03 μg/g in 1996 to 1.16 ± 0.07 μg/g in 2007. Mercury exposure in Barreiras varied, in log units, from 1.25 ± 0.04 μg/g in 1994 to 1 ± 0.03 μg/g in 2010, peaking in 1995 at 1.25 ± 0.06 μg/g. Total mercury concentration found in both communities had no statistical differences across the years (p > 0.05) and they were higher than non-mercury exposed communities in Brazil and in South America. We concluded that the mercury exposure in the Tapajós basin is more than regulatory levels or higher than the general population.

  15. Use of airborne remote sensing to detect riverside Brassica rapa to aid in risk assessment of transgenic crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Luisa M.; Mason, David C.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2009-11-01

    High resolution descriptions of plant distribution have utility for many ecological applications but are especially useful for predictive modeling of gene flow from transgenic crops. Difficulty lies in the extrapolation errors that occur when limited ground survey data are scaled up to the landscape or national level. This problem is epitomized by the wide confidence limits generated in a previous attempt to describe the national abundance of riverside Brassica rapa (a wild relative of cultivated rapeseed) across the United Kingdom. Here, we assess the value of airborne remote sensing to locate B. rapa over large areas and so reduce the need for extrapolation. We describe results from flights over the river Nene in England acquired using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) imagery, together with ground truth data. It proved possible to detect 97% of flowering B. rapa on the basis of spectral profiles. This included all stands of plants that occupied >2m square (>5 plants), which were detected using single-pixel classification. It also included very small populations (<5 flowering plants, 1-2m square) that generated mixed pixels, which were detected using spectral unmixing. The high detection accuracy for flowering B. rapa was coupled with a rather large false positive rate (43%). The latter could be reduced by using the image detections to target fieldwork to confirm species identity, or by acquiring additional remote sensing data such as laser altimetry or multitemporal imagery.

  16. Rapid large-scale deployment of tuberculosis testing in a high school - Riverside County, California, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Cameron; Cole, Barbara; Saruwatari, Kimberly; Leon, Ramon

    2015-06-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), can spread from person to person through the air, which can make contact investigations particularly complex in heavily populated settings such as schools. In November 2013, a student (the index patient) at a southern California high school with approximately 2,000 students and staff members was diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Because of an unexpectedly high number of positive tuberculin skin test results in the initial contact investigation, testing was extended to the entire school population, which had to be completed before the end of the school term. A total of 1,806 persons were tested in 24 hours. The rapid testing of the entire population of a high school is unusual and led to widespread media attention and community concern, requiring close coordination among branches of the County of Riverside Department of Public Health, local governments, and the school district. The testing resulted in identification of two additional cases of TB; in addition, 72 persons underwent treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI). This incident demonstrates the importance of a coordinated emergency response in a large-scale deployment of rapid testing, including efficiently focused resources, organized testing operations, and effective media relations.

  17. Infiltration and quality of water for two arroyo channels, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.

    1995-01-01

    Selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were studied to collect information about the amount and quality of infiltration through arroyo channels. Infiltration rate was calculated for selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo based on instantaneous streamflow-loss volumes, wetted channel area, and instantaneous evaporation rates measured during 1988-92. Infiltration rates at Grant Line Arroyo ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 foot per day, and at Tijeras Arroyo from 2.28 to 30 feet per day. The evaporation rate ranged from one-tenth of 1 percent to 2 percent of the infiltration rate. Infiltration rates differed with the location of the reach isolated for measurement and with the time of day of the infiltration-rate measurement. Differences in intrinsic permeability of the sediments may be the most important factor affecting spatial variations in infiltration. The most important factor affecting temporal variations in infiltration may be the temperature of the water and sediment where infiltration occurs. Annual evaporation rates were greatest over saturated stream sediments and ranged from 802 to 1,025 millimeters per year or from 31.57 to 40.35 inches per year. Annual evaporation rates were least over unsaturated, unvegetated soil and ranged from 174 to 291 millimeters per year or from 6.85 to 11.46 inches per year. Annual evapotranspiration rates over grasses or shrubs or both were about one-half the rates over saturated stream sediments. Rates were similar for Grant Line and Tijeras Arroyos. The land- surface vegetation, availability of water at the land surface, availability of energy to enable a change of state from water to vapor, existence of a vapor concentration gradient, and a turbulent atmosphere to carry the vapor away may be the factors that determine the amount of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Water in Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo met U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking

  18. Aeromagnetic expression of faults that offset basin fill, Albuquerque basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, M.R.; Minor, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over the Albuquerque basin show widespread expression of faults that offset basin fill and demonstrate that the aeromagnetic method can be an important hydrogeologic and surficial mapping tool in sediment-filled basins. Aeromagnetic expression of faults is recognized by the common correspondence of linear anomalies to surficial evidence of faulting across the area. In map view, linear anomalies show patterns typical of extensional faulting, such as anastomosing and en echelon segments. Depths to the tops of faulted magnetic layers showing the most prominent aeromagnetic expression range from 0 to 100 m. Sources related to subtler fault expressions range in depths from 200 to 500 m. We estimate that sources of the magnetic expressions of the near-surface faults likely reside within the upper 500-600 m of the subsurface. The linear anomalies in profile form show a range of shapes, but all of them can be explained by the juxta-position of layers having different magnetic properties. One typical anomaly differs from the expected symmetric fault anomaly by exhibiting an apparent low over the fault zone and more than one inflection point. Although the apparent low could easily be misinterpreted as representing multiple faults or an anomalous fault zone, geophysical analysis, magnetic-property measurements, and geologic considerations lead instead to a "thin-thick model" in which magnetic layers of different thickness are juxtaposed. The general geometry of this model is a thin magnetic layer on the upthrown block and a thick magnetic layer on the downthrown block. The thin-thick model can be represented geologically by growth faulting and syntectonic sedimentation, where relatively coarse-grained sediment (which is more magnetic than fine-grained material) has accumulated in the hanging wall. This implies that the aeromagnetic data have potential for mapping growth faults and locating concentrations of coarse-grained material

  19. Verification Survey of Rooms 113, 114, and 208 of the Inhalation Toxicology Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-06-25

    The objectives of the verification survey were to confirm that accessible surfaces of the three laboratories meet the DOE’s established criteria for residual contamination. Drain pipes and ductwork were not included within the survey scope.

  20. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  1. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  2. A Report of the Final Session of the National Bilingual/Bicultural Institute (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 28-December 1, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Elias R., Comp.

    Attending the National Bilingual Bicultural Education Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico on November 28-December 1, 1973, were 1,300 representatives from 25 states. Among the institute's objectives were: (1) to review present and pending state bilingual bicultural education legislation and appropriations; and (2) to develop new directions for…

  3. Proceedings: National Indian Bilingual Education Conference (1st, Albuquerque, N.M., April 17-19, 1973). Curriculum Bulletin No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebert, Robert

    This conference report was a finale to the first National Indian Bilingual Education Conference (NIBEC) and a prelude to the second. The first conference was inspired in part by a 1972 meeting called by the U.S. Office of Education in Denver for participants in the Indian Title VII programs. The report covers the first NIBEC held in Albuquerque,…

  4. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  5. Education as Power. Report of Americans for Indian Opportunity Title IV, Part A, Technical Assistance Conference (Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 4-6, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    Included in this report on the 1977 Title IV Part A Technical Assistance conference held in Albuquerque are: (1) a descriptive narrative of conference events; (2) a summary of the 120 evaluation responses; and (3) the resolutions adopted by conference participants as a specific vehicle to make their concerns known to the Office of Indian Education…

  6. Concentrations and loads of selected trace elements and other constituents in the Rio Grande in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Todd; Taylor, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Pueblo of Isleta and the New Mexico Environment Department have established water-quality standards for the Rio Grande, which flows through Albuquerque, New Mexico. Trace-element concentrations historically have been greater than maximum permissible concentrations allowed by these standards. It is not known if these concentrations are due to sources from the Albuquerque metropolitan area or are from natural or other sources outside Albuquerque. Accurate water-quality data with lower reporting limits than have been previously available were collected, and instantaneous concentrations and loads were calculated for trace elements and other constituents in the Rio Grande during high-flow and low- flow conditions. Seven sampling sites were selected upstream from, in, and downstream from metropolitan Albuquerque. Concurrent streamflow measurements were made at the time of sampling to determine suspended-sediment loads. Samples were analyzed separately for trace elements dissolved in water (less than 0.4 micrometer in diameter) and for those contained in suspended sediment (greater than 0.1 micrometer in diameter). Sample collection and processing, analytical methods, and quality control are discussed.

  7. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Public Hearing. Report of the Proceedings (Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  8. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Public Meeting. Report of the Proceedings (Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 27, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  9. Novel combination combining J-Vac and VAC sponge for draining a rectal wound.

    PubMed

    Durai, R; Ng, P C H

    2010-01-01

    Active drains, which work by negative pressure, require a closed space for retaining the vacuum. Here the authors describe their novel technique of combining a J-Vac drain and the sponge of a vacuum assisted closure dressing pack to drain a rectal wound. This modification may be useful for rectal wounds and anastomotic leaks.

  10. Effects of drain doping concentration on switching characteristics of tunnel field-effect transistor inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the modulation of drain doping concentration (N drain) on alternating current (AC) switching characteristics of a tunnel filed-effect transistor (TFET) inverter, the characteristics of TFETs with various N drains are analyzed rigorously through mixed-mode device and circuit TCAD simulations. As the N drain gets decreased, the drain current (I D) becomes reduced and the gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) reflects the entire gate capacitance (C GG) at a lower gate voltage (V G), which leads to the degradation of falling/rising delay in TFET inverters. These phenomena are explained successfully by the change of quasi-Fermi energy in the drain (E F_drain) as a function of V G. The E F_drain rises dramatically from when tunneling current starts to flow from the source in the n-type TFET with low N drain. As a result, drain-side channel inversion occurs at a lower V G due to the reduction of the energy barrier between the E F_drain and the conduction band edge of the channel.

  11. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  12. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  13. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  14. Liquid draining shut-off induced geyser and slosh wave excitation at suction dip during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid during draining have been investigated. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity to lower reduced gravity, and also that the liquid residual increases as the flow rates of liquid increase during the courses of liquid hydrogen draining. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by strong geyser are developed for surge-related flowfields at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off. Slosh wave excitation, during the liquid hydrogen shut-off, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in spacecraft moment of inertia.

  15. Weathering of Mine Tailings Deposited on the Riverside and Related Impact of Heavy Metals on the River Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Kim, Y.; Kim, B.; Jeon, S.; Kim, M.

    2006-12-01

    The weathering of ore minerals is very important because it controls the migration and distribution of toxic heavy metals in the geologic environment. In general, the soils, stream water, and groundwater are severely polluted near abandoned mines. The tailings can be also moved away by natural or anthropogenic ways to the other sites and it can cause severe environmental problems especially in river near the urban areas. In Bonghwa area, Korea, the red deposits of weathered mine tailings are easily found, which are considered to be removed by flood from the abandoned mine and deposited on the riverside of the upper stream of Nakdong river more than ten years ago. We studied the weathering of deposited mine tailings and their impact on the rive water. To study the mineral compositions and weathering products in the tailing deposits, XRD and SEM with EDS were used. Quartz and feldspar with minor amount of mica were main primary minerals identified in the deposits. It was very hard to characterize some poor crystalline secondary minerals formed by weathering of ore minerals. Gypsum was identified as major sulfate minerals with minor component of bannite. From EDS analysis, Fe oxide and sulfate probably goethite and schwertmannite were the main iron minerals, indicating schwertmannite was precipitated first and transformed into goethite later by the removal of sulfate. Heavy metals such as As and Pb were detected from some secondary precipitates, probably due to the adsorption or coprecipitation with iron minerals. Mn oxide was the major secondary minerals composing black layers in the deposits. As and Pb in precipitates indicate that galena and arsenopyrite may be the main constituents of ore minerals in addition to pyrite. The behaviors of heavy metals and their influences on the river water are particularly controlled by secondary minerals and those relationship will be discussed with the results of the sequential extraction and secondary mineral compositions.

  16. Analytical results of a long-term aquifer test conducted near the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico, with a section on piezometric-extensometric test results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Conde R.; Heywood, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, is interested in gaining a better understanding, both quantitative and qualitative, of the aquifer system in and around Albuquerque. Currently (2000), the City of Albuquerque and surrounding municipalities are completely dependent on ground-water reserves for their municipal water supply. This report presents the results of a long-term aquifer test conducted near the Rio Grande in Albuquerque. The long-term aquifer test was conducted during the winter of 1994-95. The City of Albuquerque Griegos 1 water production well was pumped continuously for 54 days at an average pumping rate of 2,331 gallons per minute. During the 54-day pumping and a 30-day recovery period, water levels were recorded in a monitoring network that consisted of 3 production wells and 19 piezometers located at nine sites. These wells and piezometers were screened in river alluvium and (or) the upper and middle parts of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In addition to the measurement of water levels, aquifer-system compaction was monitored during the aquifer test by an extensometer. Well-bore video and flowmeter surveys were conducted in the Griegos 1 water production well at the end of the recovery period to identify the location of primary water- producing zones along the screened interval. Analytical results from the aquifer test presented in this report are based on the methods used to analyze a leaky confined aquifer system and were performed using the computer software package AQTESOLV. Estimated transmissivities for the Griegos 1 and 4 water production wells ranged from 10,570 to 24,810 feet squared per day; the storage coefficient for the Griegos 4 well was 0.0025. A transmissivity of 13,540 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0011 were estimated from the data collected from a piezometer completed in the production interval of the Griegos 1 well.

  17. Commission Review of a Proposal by Riverside Community College District To Convert the Norco Educational Center to College Status. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the California Community College Board of Governors. Commission Report 04-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report reviews a proposal by the Riverside Community College District and the California Community College Chancellor's Office to convert the Norco Education Center to college status. The center is situated in the western section of Riverside County on 144 acres of land that had been occupied by the U.S. Navy until it was donated by the…

  18. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  19. Role of Routine Subhepatic Abdominal Drain Placement following Uncomplicated Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Routine abdominal drainage after laparoscopy cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Reason for draining is to detect early bile/blood leak and allow CO2 insufflate during laparoscopy to escape via drain site thereby decreased shoulder tip pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting. But some studies show no difference in post-operative nausea /vomiting/pain between drain and no drain group. Aim To assess the role of drains following uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College and Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. Hundred patients of symptomatic gallstones satisfying the selection and exclusion criteria, undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this study, 50 cases with drains in right subhepatic space (Group I) and 50 cases without drains (Group II). Both groups were compared in terms of post-operative shoulder pain, analgesic requirement, nausea and vomiting, hospital stay and analgesic requirement in patient with drains and without drains. SPSS version 16.0 (Chi-Square Test and Fisher-Exact Test) were used for statistical analysis. Results In this study, average operative time in both the groups was same (p-value 0.977). There was more incidence of nausea /vomiting in no drain group than in drain group. Shoulder tip pain was lower in drain group in first 12 hours post-operative. However, after 12 hours, drain group had higher shoulder tip pain than no drain group. Analgesic requirement was higher in no drain group upto 12 hours after which it was higher in drain group (statistically not significant). In terms of hospital stay patients in drain group had a longer stay in hospital as compared to no drain group (2.96 vs 2.26; p <0.001 statistically significant). Conclusion Use of drains in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not advantageous; its role in reducing post

  20. Mexican immigrant women's perceptions of health care access for stigmatizing illnesses: a focus group study in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Russell H; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D

    2008-08-01

    This study examines attitudes of Mexican female immigrants to Albuquerque, New Mexico, regarding barriers to health care access in the United States and Mexico for stigmatizing and non-stigmatizing illnesses and moderating effects of social support. Native Spanish speakers conducted three focus groups (in Spanish) lasting two hours with seven to eight participants. Focus groups were transcribed, translated, and coded. Frequency data were calculated by number of times concepts or themes were raised. Comparisons of barriers to health care access were made between U.S. and Mexican cultures. The majority (86%) of comments on barriers for non-stigmatizing illnesses implicated U.S. culture; the majority (90%) for stigmatizing illnesses implicated Mexican culture. Social support for stigmatizing illnesses was discussed. Participants discussed important issues of health care access for stigmatizing illnesses that may have implications for this population's health status. Greater attention should be paid to stigma and social support in future empirical studies.

  1. Hydrology and hydraulics of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Heini; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Treatment wetlands are globally used for wastewater purification purposes. In Finland, these wetlands are commonly peatland-based and are used to treat runoff from peat extraction sites and peatland forestry. Wetlands are also used for polishing municipal wastewaters and mining waters. In peat extraction the structures are usually called overland flow areas (OFAs), which are traditionally established on pristine peatlands. However, nowadays establishing of new peat extraction sites is guided to drained peatland areas due to the Finnish Peat Use Strategy, which leads difficulties to find undisturbed peatland area for OFA. Therefore treatment wetlands have had to construct also on drained peatland areas. In drained areas peat physical properties have changed due to oxidation and subsidence and the water flow pathways differs from OFAs flow patterns, which maybe have effect on purification results. Thus in the present study we aim to clarify the hydrology and hydraulic properties of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatland areas. For this purposes, 20 treatment wetlands on drained peatland areas across Finland were detailed measured for peat hydraulic conductivity. In selected areas, runoff was continuously monitored, flow distribution at treatment areas was studied and water residence times measured with tracer tests using potassium iodide (KI). Generally, in the study areas, the ditches had been completely blocked, partly blocked e.g with peat dams or not blocked at all. The ditches were located partly parallel to the flow direction and partly perpendicular to it. The distribution of water to the wetlands has been implemented in many different ways e.g. by distribution ditch or by perforated pipes. Based on the results, in majority of the wetlands, the peat drainage has clearly affected the hydraulic properties of wetlands, but not on all sites. In more than half of the wetlands (12), the median hydraulic conductivity of peat drastically decreased at the

  2. Drain current local variability from linear to saturation region in 28 nm bulk NMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsori, T. A.; Theodorou, C. G.; Haendler, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the impact of the source - drain series resistance mismatch on the drain current variability in 28 nm bulk MOSFETs. For the first time, a mismatch model including the local fluctuations of the threshold voltage (Vt), the drain current gain factor (β) and the source - drain series resistance (RSD) in both linear and saturation regions is presented. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the influence of the source - drain series resistance mismatch is attenuated in the saturation region, due to the weaker sensitivity of the drain current variability on the series resistance variation. The experimental results were further verified by numerical simulations of the drain current characteristics with sensitivity analysis of the MOSFET parameters Vt, β and RSD.

  3. Bulk Friction Angles in Dry, Drained, and Saturated Gravel Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holo, S.; Palucis, M. C.; Lamb, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of capillary action and lubrication of grains on bulk friction angles through tilting chute experiments. In each experiment, we screed a bed of 5mm gravels in 65cm long x 18cm wide tilting chute with fixed roughness and slowly tilted the chute until a granular avalanche occurred. We performed these experiments under three conditions: with dry grains, with a bed that had been submerged and subsequently drained such that no water occupied the pore space, and with the entire apparatus submerged under water such that the bed is saturated. In addition, for each of these cases, we performed experiments with 5, 10, and 15cm bed thicknesses. In the dry case, the bed failed at ~ 41º, and bed thickness did not have a significant effect on failure angle. In the drained case, friction angles increased from 46.5º to 50.9º with increasing bed thickness. In the submerged case, the bed failed at angles not significantly different than those from the dry case, and they did not vary with bed thickness. The increase in friction angles between the dry and drained cases suggests that addition of the water induces a cohesive effect on the grains. Because the pore pressure from the saturated bed removes capillary effects but retains lubrication effects, the submerged case data suggest that capillary action is primarily responsible for the observed increases in friction angle and effects from grain lubrication are negligible. Further study is ongoing to fully understand the effect of capillary action on bulk friction angles in unsaturated gravel and why it appears to increase with bed thickness.

  4. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow.

  5. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  6. Laparoscopic primary repair and isoperistaltic endoluminal drain for Boerhaave's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prete, Francesco; Pezzolla, Angela; Nitti, Paolo; Prete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave syndrome (BS), is a rare and potentially lethal pathological condition. BS recognition is difficult, while rapidity of diagnosis, along with extension of the lesion, affects type and outcome of treatment. BS was classically treated by thoracotomy, but laparoscopic (LS), thoracoscopic (TS) surgery, and nonsurgical procedures as endoscopic stent positioning or use of glues have been described. Still, there is no model treatment, and selection of the most appropriate therapeutic procedure is complex in the absence of standardised criteria. We successfully managed a patient affected with BS by LS approach and present our experience along with a review of treatment options so far described. Our treatment integrated positioning of an oesophageal isoperistaltic endoluminal drain (IED), that we routinely use in oesophageal sutures at risk of leakage, and of which there is no previous report in the setting of BS. A 68 year old man presented to our attention with true BS, suspected on chest-abdominal CT scan and confirmed by upper GI contrast swallow test, showing leakage of hydro-soluble contrast from the lower third of the oesophagus. Of note, pleural cavities appeared intact. We performed an urgent laparoscopy 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Laparoscopic toilet of the inferior mediastinum and dual layer oesophageal repair with pedicled omental flap were complemented by positioning of IED, feeding jejunostomy and two tubular drains. The patient had a slow but consistent recovery where IED played as a means of oesophageal suture protection, until he could be discharged home. We think that, when integrity of the pleura is documented, LS should be priority choice to avoid contamination of the pleural cavities. We have to consider every type of oesophageal repair in BS at risk of failure, and every means of protection of the suture is opportune. In our patient the oesophageal suture, covered with a flap of omentum

  7. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.

  8. Sewer and drain swabbing as a means of investigating salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R. W. S.; Price, T. H.

    1970-01-01

    The use of gauze swabs in drains or sewers to clarify the path followed by a salmonella from source to human host has been reviewed in the light of experience gained in Cardiff over 15 years. This period has seen a marked change in attitudes to salmonella epidemiology in that infected food is now regarded as of greater importance than infected food handlers. In these 15 years, butchers, abattoirs and knackers' yards, markets and bakehouses have been monitored. In the bakehouse survey the existence of staff infection was demonstrated by sewage examination. Sewage investigation has also been used to show frequent entry of salmonellas into households in a residential estate. The estate was carefully chosen to exclude salmonellas from industrial sources and shops. The frequent finding of infection in this sewage implies that a commonly consumed heavily infected food item is involved. The wide range of serotypes isolated suggests an animal usually fed on infected animal feed. Poultry and pigs are put forward as animals liable to spread salmonellosis to man. It is hoped that clarification of the salmonella pathway may eventually lead to measures likely to prevent the transmission of infection to man. It is also suggested that swabs placed in abattoir drains serve as an economical method of obtaining warning of a persistent build-up of contamination. The persistence of a serotype in an abattoir is not infrequently followed by human infection. PMID:5276333

  9. Device for Catheter Placement of External Ventricular Drain

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Jae-Min; Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2016-01-01

    To introduce a new device for catheter placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This device was composed of three portions, T-shaped main body, rectangular pillar having a central hole to insert a catheter and an arm pointing the tragus. The main body has a role to direct a ventricular catheter toward the right or left inner canthus and has a shallow longitudinal opening to connect the rectangular pillar. The arm pointing the tragus is controlled by back and forth movement and turn of the pillar attached to the main body. Between April 2012 and December 2014, 57 emergency EVDs were performed in 52 patients using this device in the operating room. Catheter tip located in the frontal horn in 52 (91.2%), 3rd ventricle in 2 (3.5%) and in the wall of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in 3 EVDs (5.2%). Small hemorrhage along to catheter tract occurred in 1 EVD. CSF was well drained through the all EVD catheters. The accuracy of the catheter position and direction using this device were 91% and 100%, respectively. This device for EVD guides to provide an accurate position of catheter tip safely and easily. PMID:27226870

  10. Rupture of draining foam films due to random pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zebin; Narsimhan, Ganesan

    2007-02-27

    A generalized formalism for the rupture of a draining foam film due to imposed random pressure fluctuations, modeled as a Gaussian white noise, is presented in which the flow inside the film is decomposed into a flow due to film drainage and a flow due to imposed perturbation. The evolution of the amplitude of perturbation is described by a stochastic differential equation. The rupture time distribution is calculated from the sample paths of perturbation amplitude as the time for this amplitude to equal one-half the film thickness and is calculated for different amplitudes of imposed perturbations, film thicknesses, electrostatic interactions, viscosities, and interfacial mobilities. The probability of film rupture is high for thicker films, especially at smaller times, as a result of faster growth of perturbations in a thick film due to a smaller disjoining pressure gradient. Larger viscosity, larger surface viscosity, higher Marangoni number, and smaller imposed pressure fluctuation result in slower growth of perturbation of a draining film, thus leading to larger rupture time. It is shown that a composite rupture time distribution combining short time simulation results with equilibrium distribution is a good approximation.

  11. Independent technical review and analysis of hydraulic modeling and hydrology under low-flow conditions of the Des Plaines River near Riverside, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, Thomas M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Hortness, Jon E.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a streamgage and published daily flows for the Des Plaines River at Riverside since Oct. 1, 1943. A HEC-RAS model has been developed to estimate the effect of the removal of Hofmann Dam near the gage on low-flow elevations in the reach approximately 3 miles upstream from the dam. The Village of Riverside, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources (IDNR-OWR), and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-Chicago District (USACE-Chicago) are interested in verifying the performance of the HEC-RAS model for specific low-flow conditions, and obtaining an estimate of selected daily flow quantiles and other low-flow statistics for a selected period of record that best represents current hydrologic conditions. Because the USGS publishes streamflow records for the Des Plaines River system and provides unbiased analyses of flows and stream hydraulic characteristics, the USGS served as an Independent Technical Reviewer (ITR) for this study.

  12. Estimated subsidence in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in Southern California for a postulated water-level lowering, 1965-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, Ben Elder

    1971-01-01

    One of the alternate plans for water utilization being considered by the California Department of Water Resources in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in southern California involves partial mining of ground water during the period 1965-2015, and consequent substantial lowering of water levels. The Department wants to know whether land subsidence would be a problem as a result of the postulated lowering. To answer this question, to the extent that leveling control permits, the present study has been made at the request of and in cooperation with the State of California.At a few locations in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas, comparable water-level decline and subsidence data are available from which rough estimates can be made of subsidence that would occur as a result of the postulated lowering from 1965 to 2015. Limited leveling control, and apparent discrepancies in the data, preclude accurate determination of amounts of subsidence caused by historic water-level decline.Based on 1965-2015 water-level changes postulated by the California Department of Water Resources and on available subsidence/head decline ratios, as much as 6 feet of subsidence might occur northeast of the San Jacinto fault between Loma Linda and San Bernardino, in an area of more than 350 feet of projected water-level decline. Also, as much as 1.5 feet of subsidence might occur in the vicinity of Ontario.

  13. Can riverside seismic monitoring constrain temporal and spatial variations in bedload transport during a controlled flood of the Trinity River?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, M. E.; Schmandt, B.; Gaeuman, D.

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the utility of riverside seismic monitoring for constraining temporal and spatial variations in coarse bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers we collected seismic data during a dam-controlled flood of the Trinity River in northern California in May 2015. This field area was chosen because the Trinity River Restoration Project conducts extensive monitoring of water and sediment transport, and riverbed morphology to guide management of the river with the goal of improving salmon habitat. Four three component broadband seismometers were collocated with water discharge and bedload physical sampling sites along a ~30 km reach of the Trinity River downstream of the Lewiston Dam. Arrays with 10-80 cable-free vertical component geophones were also deployed at each of the four sites in order to constrain spatial variability and amplitude decay of seismic signals emanating from the river. Nominal inter-station spacing within the geophone arrays was ~30 m. The largest geophone array consisted of 83 nodes along a 700 m reach of the Trinity River with a gravel augmentation site at its upstream end. Initial analyses of the seismic data show that ground velocity power from averaged from ~7 - 90 Hz is correlated with discharge at all sites. The array at the gravel injection site shows greater high frequency (>30 Hz) power at the upstream end where gravel was injected during the release compared to ~300 m downstream, consistent with bedload transport providing a significant source of seismic energy in addition to water discharge. Declining seismic power during a ~3 day plateau at peak discharge when physical sampler data shows decreasing bedload flux provides a further indication that the seismic data are sensitive to bedload transport. We will use the array data to back-project the seismic signals in multiple frequency bands into the channel to create maps of the time-varying spatial intensity of seismic energy production. We hypothesize that the greatest seismic

  14. Results of a shallow seismic-refraction survey in the Little Valley area near Hemet, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Little Valley, a small locally named valley southeast of the city of Hemet in Riverside County, California, is being evaluated for development of a constructed wetland and infiltration area as part of a water-resources management program in the area. The valley is a granitic basin filled with unconsolidated material. In August 1993 and June and July 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a seismic-refraction survey consisting of four lines northwest of the valley, eight lines in the valley, and six lines northeast of the valley. Two interpretations were made for the lines: a two-layer model yielded an estimate of the minimum depths to bedrock and a three-layer model yielded the most likely depths to bedrock. Results of the interpretation of the three-layer model indicate that the unsaturated unconsolidated surface layer ranges in thickness from 12 to 83 feet in the valley and 24 to 131 feet northeast of the valley. The mean compressional velocity for this layer was about 1,660 feet per second. A saturated middle layer was detected in some parts of the study area, but not in others--probably because of insufficient thickness in some places; however, in order to determine the "most likely" depths to bedrock, it was assumed that the layer was present throughout the valley. Depths to this layer were verified on three seismic lines using the water level from the only well in the valley. Data for additional verification were not available for wells near Little Valley. The bedrock slope from most of Little Valley is down toward the northeast. Bedrock profiles show that the bedrock surface is very uneven in the study area. The interpreted most likely depth to bedrock in the valley ranged from land surface (exposed) to a depth of 176 feet below land surface, and northeast of the valley it ranged from 118 to 331 feet below land surface. Bedrock depths were verified using lithologic logs from test holes drilled previously in the area. On the basis of a measured mean

  15. Carbon balance of a drained forested bog in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkkinen, Kari; Penttilä, Timo; Ojanen, Paavo; Lohila, Annalea

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of a drained forested peatland in southern Finland were measured over multiple years, including one with severe drought during growing season. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) was measured with an eddy covariance method from a tower above the forest. Soil and forest floor CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured from the strips and from ditches with closed chambers. Biomasses and litter production were sampled, and soil subsidence was measured by consequtive levelings of the peat surface. The data were used to estimate the ecosystem C pools and annual fluxes of carbon and GHGs of the peatland and to analyse the impact of periodical drought on the carbon fluxes. The drained peatland was a strong sink of carbon dioxide in all studied years. Soil CO2 balance was estimated by subtracting the carbon sink of the growing tree stand from NEE, and it showed that also the soil was a sink of carbon in all studied years. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased the sink through decreased GPP. Drought also decreased the ecosystem respiration, including soil respiration. Decreasing water table thus did not increase, but rather decreased CO2 efflux from the peat soil. The site was a small sink for CH4, even when emissions from ditches were included. N2O emissions were small from all surfaces. Despite of the continuous carbon sink, peat surface subsided slightly (1.4 mm a-1) during the 10-year measurement period, which is interpreted to mean mainly compaction, rather than oxidation of the peat. It is concluded that this drained peatland acts as a continuous soil C sink similarly to an undrained peatland. The reason may be the relatively small water-level drawdown compared to an undrained situation, the consequently rather small changes in plant community structure and the significantly improved tree stand growth and litter production. The consequences of continuing production forestry vs. restoration of the site on the

  16. Why Cannot Suction Drains Prevent Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Ki; Kim, Jin Woo; Yi, Seong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (POSEH) is different from spontaneous or post-spinal procedure hematoma because of the application of suction drains. However, it appeared that suction drains were not effective for prevention of POSEH in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that POSEH can be caused by hypercoagulability. Methods This was an experimental study. One hundred fifty milliliters of blood was donated from each of the 12 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery and infused into 3 saline bags of 50 mL each. One of the 3 bags in each set contained 5,000 units of thrombin. All of them were connected to 120 ± 30 mmHg vacuum suctions: drainage was started 8 minutes after connection to the vacuum system for 12 normal blood bags (BV8) and 12 thrombin-containing blood bags (TBV8) and 15 minutes after connection for the remaining 12 normal blood bags (BV15). The amount of initial and remaining hematoma at 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after vacuum application were measured by their weight (g). The primary endpoint was the difference between BV8 and TBV8. The secondary end point was the difference between BV8 and BV15. Results The remaining hematoma in TBV8 was significantly greater than that in BV8 at all measurement points: 46.3 ± 12.4 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.000) at 20 minutes; 33.0 ± 8.2 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 (p = 0.000) at 120 minutes; and 26.1 ± 4.0 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.000) at 24 hours after vacuum application. The remaining hematoma of BV15 was significantly greater than that of BV8 at all measurement points: 30.0 ± 12.0 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.002) at 20 minutes; 24.2 ± 7.6 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 at 120 minutes (p = 0.002); and 22.2 ± 6.6 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.004) at 24 hours after vacuum application. Conclusions With a suction drain in place, the amount of remaining hematoma could be affected by coagulability. Thrombin-containing local hemostatics and the length of time elapsed before the

  17. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. The network currently (2014) consists of 125 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2014) measures and reports water levels from the 125 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 125 sites through water year 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014).

  18. RF power FinFET transistors with a wide drain-extended fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Ming; Chiu, Chia-Sung; Huang, Guo-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsueh, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Min-Cheng; Chang, Edward Yi

    2017-04-01

    Drain-extended FinFET transistors for RF power applications have been fabricated and is presented in this paper. Power FinFETs with a wide drain extension are proposed to reduce the drain resistance. Compared with conventional drain-extended FinFETs, our proposed new devices exhibit lower on-resistances and better high-frequency performances while keeping a similar breakdown voltage. The enhancements of the on-resistance and peak cutoff frequency are 16 and 56%, respectively, under an optimal drain-extension layout. These experimental results suggest that FinFET transistors with a wide drain extension could be used for RF power applications, increasing the possibility of integrating RF power parts into future FinFET system-on-a-chip technologies.

  19. Results from the fielding of the Bio-surveillance Analysis, Feedback, Evaluation and Response (B-SAFER) system in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Forslund, David; Umland, Edith; Brillman, Judith C; Joyce, Ed; Froman, Philip; Burr, Tom; Judd, Stephen L; Picard, Richard; Wokoun, Doug; Joner, Mike; Sewell, C Mack

    2003-01-01

    Public health authorities need a surveillance system that is sensitive enough to detect a disease outbreak early to enable a proper response. In order to meet this challenge we have deployed a pilot component-based system in Albuquerque, NM as part of the National Biodefense Initiative (BDI). B-SAFER gathers routinely collected data from healthcare institutions to monitor disease events in the community. We describe initial results from the deployment of the system for the past 6 months

  20. Use of air-pressurized slug tests to estimate hydraulic conductivity at selected piezometers completed in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.; Thorn, Conde R.

    2000-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque Public Works Department, Water Resources Management (City), is interested in quantifying aquifer hydraulic properties in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area to better understand and manage water resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In 1998, the City and the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative program to determine hydraulic properties of aquifer material adjacent to screened intervals of piezometers in the Albuquerque area. Investigators conducted slug tests from March 8 through April 8, 1999, to estimate hydraulic conductivity of aquifer material adjacent to the screened intervals of 25 piezometers from 11 nested- piezometer sites in the Albuquerque area. At 20 of the piezometers, slug-test responses were typical; at 2 piezometers, tests were prematurely terminated because the tests were taking too long to complete; and at 3 piezometers, test responses were oscillatory. Methods used to estimate hydraulic conductivity were the Bouwer and Rice method or the Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos method for most tests; the Shapiro and Greene method for prematurely terminated tests; and the van der Kamp method for oscillatory tests. Hydraulic-conductivity estimates ranged from about 0.15 to 92 feet per day. In general, the smaller estimated values are associated with fine-grained aquifer materials and the larger estimated hydraulic-conductivity values are associated with coarse- grained aquifer materials adjacent to the screened intervals of the piezometers. Hydraulic-conductivity estimates ranged from 0.15 to 8.2 feet per day for aquifer materials adjacent to the screened intervals at 12 piezometers and from 12 to 41 feet per day for aquifer materials adjacent to the screened intervals at 10 piezometers. Hydraulic-conductivity estimates at four piezometers were greater than 41 feet per day.

  1. Results from Fielding of the Bio-Surveillance Analysis, Feedback, Evaluation and Response (B-SAFER) System in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, David; Umland, Edith; Brillman, Judith C.; Joyce, Ed; Froman, Philip; Burr, Tom; Judd, Stephen L.; Picard, Richard; Wokoun, Doug; Joner, Mike; Sewell, C. Mack

    2003-01-01

    Public health authorities need a surveillance system that is sensitive enough to detect a disease outbreak early to enable a proper response. In order to meet this challenge we have deployed a pilot component-based system in Albuquerque, NM as part of the National Biodefense Initiative (BDI). B-SAFER gathers routinely collected data from healthcare institutions to monitor disease events in the community. We describe initial results from the deployment of the system for the past 6 months. PMID:14728347

  2. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  3. Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with SUPERLINK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 11 System-Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with...System-Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) ERDC/CHL TR-14-11 September 2014 Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with...loadings and pollution abatement. A subsurface storm drain model, called SUPERLINK, has been incorporated into GSSHA to allow the model to

  4. Energy capability enhancement for isolated extended drain NMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidong, Nie; Jin, Wu; Xiaohui, Ma; Zongguang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Isolated extended drain NMOS (EDNMOS) transistors are widely used in power signal processing. The hole current induced by a high electric field can result in a serious reliability problem due to a parasitic NPN effect. By optimizing p-type epitaxial (p-epi) thickness, n-type buried layer (BLN) and nwell doping distribution, the peak electric field is decreased by 30% and the peak hole current is decreased by 60%, which obviously suppress the parasitic NPN effect. Measured I-V characteristics and transmission line pulsing (TLP) results show that the on-state breakdown voltage is increased from 28 to 37 V when 6 V Vgs is applied and the energy capability is improved by about 30%, while the on-state resistance remains unchanged.

  5. The chronically draining ear. Notes on management in the office.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, J L

    1966-07-01

    THERE ARE THREE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSISTENCE OF DISCHARGE FROM A CHRONICALLY DRAINING EAR: Moisture, opportunistic bacteria, and debris and diseased tissue. In most cases, the discharge may be temporarily controlled or eliminated by office treatment:* Instruction of the patient in aural hygiene and impressing upon him the importance of avoiding getting water in the ear.* Thorough cleaning of the ear, by the physician initially, and by the patient as frequently as necessary to keep the ear free of discharge.* Antibiotics, used locally rather than systemically, and usually in the form of a powder applied by the patient daily at home.* Culture and sensitivity tests when the problem does not respond to routine office treatment as outlined.

  6. [Retroprostatic cyst draining ejaculatory ducts with secondary obstructive azoospermia].

    PubMed

    Sarkis, P; Nawfal, G; Salloum, L; Kamel, G; Zanati, M; Saad, E; Karam, R; Chemaly, A

    2013-12-01

    Obstructive azoospermia constitutes 35 to 40% of azoospermia. Etiologies may be acquired or rarely congenital. Congenital utricular or Mullerian duct cyst may result in compression of ejaculatory ducts. However, they must be differentiated from exceptional wolffian or urogenital cysts, which are located at the same site but in which ejaculatory ducts may drain inside. We report a case of retroprostatic duct cyst diagnosed during work up of male infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the drainage of both ejaculatory ducts inside and the presence of a thin canal ended blindly in the wall of prostatic urethra. Transurethral resection guided by MRI has been performed resulting in urethral drainage of the cyst, relieving of obstruction and normalization of spermogramm.

  7. Wettable Ceramic-Based Drained Cathode Technology for Aluminum Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.N. Bruggeman; T.R. Alcorn; R. Jeltsch; T. Mroz

    2003-01-09

    The goal of the project was to develop the ceramic based materials, technology, and necessary engineering packages to retrofit existing aluminum reduction cells in order to reduce energy consumption required for making primary aluminum. The ceramic materials would be used in a drained cathode configuration which would provide a stable, molten aluminum wetted cathode surface, allowing the reduction of the anode-cathode distance, thereby reducing the energy consumption. This multi-tasked project was divided into three major tasks: (1) Manufacturing and laboratory scale testing/evaluation of the ceramic materials, (2) Pilot scale testing of qualified compositions from the first task, and (3) Designing, retrofitting, and testing the ceramic materials in industrial cells at Kaiser Mead plant in Spokane, Washington. Specific description of these major tasks can be found in Appendix A - Project Scope. Due to the power situation in the northwest, the Mead facility was closed, thus preventing the industrial cell testing.

  8. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  9. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  10. Ground displacements caused by aquifer-system water-level variations observed using interferometric synthetic aperture radar near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Galloway, Devin L.; Stork, Sylvia V.

    2002-01-01

    Six synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images were processed to form five unwrapped interferometric (InSAR) images of the greater metropolitan area in the Albuquerque Basin. Most interference patterns in the images were caused by range displacements resulting from changes in land-surface elevation. Loci of land- surface elevation changes correlate with changes in aquifer-system water levels and largely result from the elastic response of the aquifer-system skeletal material to changes in pore-fluid pressure. The magnitude of the observed land-surface subsidence and rebound suggests that aquifer-system deformation resulting from ground-water withdrawals in the Albuquerque area has probably remained in the elastic (recoverable) range from July 1993 through September 1999. Evidence of inelastic (permanent) land subsidence in the Rio Rancho area exists, but its relation to compaction of the aquifer system is inconclusive because of insufficient water-level data. Patterns of elastic deformation in both Albuquerque and Rio Rancho suggest that intrabasin faults impede ground- water-pressure diffusion at seasonal time scales and that these faults are probably important in controlling patterns of regional ground-water flow.

  11. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2012), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA), currently (2012) measures and reports water levels from the 126 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2012.

  12. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and about a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2010), the network consists of 124 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a small-diameter subwell usually nested within a larger well). To better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use, this report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2010.

  13. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and of about 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2011), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer and is often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths). This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2011 to better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use.

  14. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande began. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2013), the network consists of 123 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2013) measures and reports water levels from the 123 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 123 sites through water year 2013.

  15. Preferential flow estimates to an agricultural tile drain with implications for glyphosate transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, W.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural subsurface drains, commonly referred to as tile drains, are potentially significant pathways for the movement of fertilizers and pesticides to streams and ditches in much of the Midwest. Preferential flow in the unsaturated zone provides a route for water and solutes to bypass the soil matrix and reach tile drains faster than predicted by traditional displacement theory. This paper uses chloride concentrations to estimate preferential flow contributions to a tile drain during two storms in May 2004. Chloride, a conservative anion, was selected as the tracer because of differences in chloride concentrations between the two sources of water to the tile drain, preferential and matrix flow. A strong correlation between specific conductance and chloride concentration provided a mechanism to estimate chloride concentrations in the tile drain throughout the storm hydrographs. A simple mixing analysis was used to identify the preferential flow component of the storm hydrograph. During two storms, preferential flow contributed 11 and 51% of total storm tile drain flow; the peak contributions, 40 and 81%, coincided with the peak tile drain flow. Positive relations between glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] concentrations and preferential flow for the two storms suggest that preferential flow is an important transport pathway to the tile drain. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  16. Analysis of the impedance field of saturated MOSFETs and drain thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kie-Young

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the velocity saturation region (VSR) on the impedance field of proto-type MOSFET devices, which operate in the saturation region, was investigated to analyze the drain thermal noise. An enhanced impedance field for the drain thermal noise was derived based on the well-known physical analyses of MOSFET noise. The mechanism of the VSR in inducing the drain thermal noise has been explicated by using a self-consistent equivalent circuit model of the saturated MOSFETs. This alternative description was found to be consistent with the analytical derivation. The present analysis has been demonstrated to be consistent with the behavior of empirical drain thermal noise.

  17. A prospective randomised study of drains in infra-peritoneal rectal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Brown, S R; Seow-Choen, F; Eu, K W; Heah, S M; Tang, C L

    2001-08-01

    Although increasing evidence suggests that prophylactic drainage after intra-peritoneal colorectal anastomoses is unnecessary, drains for infra-peritoneal rectal anastomoses, where the leak rate is higher, are widely employed still. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prophylactic drainage after anastomosis below the peritoneal reflection. All patients attending one specialist unit over an 8-month period for elective rectal cancer resection with an infra-peritoneal anastomosis were randomised to drainage or no drainage. The incidence of anastomotic leak and complications specific to the drain as well as other complications were compared. Fifty-nine patients were analysed (31 with drain). Twenty-five of the drained and 16 of the no-drain patients had a defunctioning stoma (p=ns). The groups were comparable for demographic data, operation and anastomotic height from the anal verge. There were three leaks (10%) in the drain group and five leaks (18%) in the no-drain group (p=ns). There were 2 (7%) patients in each group with a clinical leak. There were no specific drain complications and the incidence of other complications was similar in both groups. In conclusion, this study supports the contention that there is no difference in morbidity with or without the use of a drain for infra-peritoneal anastomoses.

  18. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  19. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  20. Tracing reclaimed water in the Menifee, Winchester, and Perris-South ground-water subbasins, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    As a component in the management of water resources in the Menifee, Winchester, and Perris-South subbasins in Riverside County, California, ponds are operated by the Eastern Municipal Water District for the temporary storage of reclaimed water that is produced by several regional water-reclamation facilities. A primary goal of this study was to evaluate the potential for using various ground-water constituents or characteristics as tracers of reclaimed water that has infiltrated from the storage ponds into the ground water in the three subbasins. A secondary goal was to estimate the degree to which the infiltrated reclaimed water has mixed with the native ground water. The evaluation of potential tracers and the estimation of mixing focused on data from wells located relatively close to the ponds. The most useful constituents and characteristics for evaluation of the fate and mixing of reclaimed water in the Menifee, Winchester, and Perris-South subbasins are major-ion composition, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, ultraviolet absorbance (UV-A), chloride concentration, and boron/chloride ratio plotted against chloride concentration. Emphasis in this study was placed on evaluating the utility of UV-A as a tracer and boron/chloride ratios in estimating the fraction of reclaimed water in ground water. In the Menifee subbasin, major-ion data, stable isotopes, chloride, UV-A, and boron/chloride ratio are all useful in identifying reclaimed water, and the results based on these indicators are consistent with each other. The results suggest that values of UV-A greater than or equal to 0.007 indicate the presence of reclaimed water in the Menifee subbasin. Ground-water samples with UV-A greater than 0.007 are estimated to consist of about 75 to 100 percent reclaimed water, on the basis of chloride-mixing calculations and boron/chloride-versus-chloride mixing calculations. In the Winchester subbasin, results based on the same factors used in the Menifee subbasin are

  1. Geologic map and digital database of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses part of the northern Eagle Mountains and part of the south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults in the Eagle Mountains and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. In and adjacent to the Conejo Well quadrangle, faults of the northwest-trending set displace Miocene sedimentary rocks and basalt deposited on the Tertiary erosion surface and Pliocene and (or) Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on the oldest pediment. Faults of this system appear to be overlain by Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on younger pediments. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Conejo Well database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a point coverage

  2. Geologic map and digital database of the Porcupine Wash 7.5 minute Quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Porcupine Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses parts of the Hexie Mountains, Cottonwood Mountains, northern Eagle Mountains, and south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle and Cottonwood Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle and Hexie Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Porcupine Wash database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a scanned topographic base at a scale of 1:24,000, and (5) attribute tables for geologic units (polygons and regions), contacts (arcs), and site-specific data (points). The database, accompanied by a pamphlet file and this metadata file, also includes the following graphic and text products: (1) A portable document file (.pdf) containing a

  3. Reconnaissance of hydrology, land use, ground-water chemistry, and effects of land use on ground-water chemistry in the Albuquerque-Belen basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey began regional assessments of groundwater contamination in 14 areas, one of which was the Albuquerque-Belen basin. Groundwater recharge occurs along the basin margins. Groundwater discharge occurs as evapotranspiration in the Rio Grande valley, pumpage, and groundwater flow to the Socorro basin. Open-space land use, which primarily is used for grazing livestock, occupies the majority of the basin. In the Rio Grande valley, agricultural and residential land uses are predominant; in the area near Albuquerque, the land also is used for commercial, institutional , and industrial purposes. The Albuquerque-Belen basin was divided into seven zones on the basis of water chemistry. These water-chemistry zones indicate that large variations in water chemistry exist in the basin as the result of natural processes. Groundwater in the majority of the Albuquerque-Belen basin has a relatively low susceptibility to contamination because the depth to water is > 100 ft and there is virtually no natural mechanism for recharge to the groundwater system. Groundwater in the Rio Grande valley has a relatively high susceptibility to contamination because the depth to water is generally < 30 ft and there are many types of recharge to the groundwater system. Changes in land use may cause changes in the chemical composition of recharge to the groundwater system. The relatively large concentrations of dissolved iron in the Rio Grande valley near Albuquerque may result from the change from agricultural land use to residential land use. Recharge associated with agricultural land use is relatively oxidized because the water is in equilibrium with the atmosphere, whereas recharge associated with residential land use (onsite waste-disposal effluent) is relatively reduced and has larger concentrations of organic carbon, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. The constituents in the onsite waste-disposal effluent could cause reducing conditions in

  4. Industrial-hygiene survey report of General Electric Company, Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 18-24, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Boeniger, M.F.

    1990-12-01

    A walk through survey was conducted at the General Electric Company (SIC-3079), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to obtain information on the extent of exposure to 4,4{prime}-methylenedianiline (101779) (MDA) during hand layup work with preimpregnated graphite fabric while making molded jet engine parts, to obtain information on the elimination of MDA in the urine of potentially exposed workers, and to identify deficiencies in the handling of MDA and to offer recommendations for improving worker protection. A total of 210 worker urine samples was taken. Other samples taken included air samples, samples of glove washings, surface wipe samples, shoe samples, and bulk samples. From the data obtained it was possible to estimate the primary sources of exposure and their relative importance. Comparing the mass of airborne MDA inhaled with the amounts measured in the urine the following day suggested that skin contact was a significant contributory route of exposure. The author states that further efforts should therefore be made to reduce this exposure. Such efforts would include the selection of better personal protective equipment and improved work practices. Possible engineering modifications would be limited due to the manual nature of the work involved.

  5. Description of piezometer nests and water levels in the Rio Grande Valley near Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Bullard, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four piezometers were installed from mid-October 1984 to mid-January 1985 in two sections of the Rio Grande valley near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Each cross section is comprised of four piezometer nests and each nest is comprised of three piezometers completed at different depths. The purpose of this report is to describe the piezometers nests and present some of the water level data collected from the piezometers. The piezometers were drilled using the hydraulic rotary method. The piezometers were completed with 5 feet of 60-slot wire-wound stainless steel well screen and flush joint PVC well casing. The description of each piezometer nest consists of the location of the particular piezometer nest; a figure showing the location, depth altitude, and station identification number of the piezometers in each nest; and a driller 's log, geophysical logs, and description of the well cuttings from the deepest borehole in each piezometer nest. Water level altitudes generally increased from February until June 1985 in the piezometers in the Rio Bravo section. Water level altitudes in piezometers completed at different depths in a particular nest are about the same in all of the Rio Bravo nests and in the Montano 1 nest. In several of the piezometer nests, especially the Montano nests, water level altitudes decrease with depth. (USGS)

  6. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  7. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination: Rio Grande aquifer system in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Heywood, Charles E.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Albuquerque, New Mexico (hereafter referred to as “the study well”). The study well produces about 3,000 gallons of water per minute from the Rio Grande aquifer system. Water samples were collected at the study well, at two other nearby public-supply wells, and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the study well. Untreated water samples from the study well contained arsenic at concentrations exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrate also were detected, although at concentrations at least an order of magnitude less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary influences on the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Albuquerque: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer), (2) groundwater development (introduction of manmade recharge and discharge sources), (3) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer, and (4) seasonal pumping stresses. Concentrations of the isotope carbon-14 indicate that groundwater from most sampled wells in the local study area is predominantly water that entered, or recharged, the aquifer more than 6,000 years ago. However, the additional presence of the age tracer tritium in several groundwater samples at concentrations above 0.3 tritium units indicates that young (post-1950) recharge is reaching the aquifer across broad areas beneath Albuquerque. This young recharge is mixing with the thousands-of-years-old water, is migrating to depths as great as 245 feet below the water table, and is traveling to some (but not all) of the public-supply wells sampled. Most groundwater samples containing a

  8. Childhood lead exposure associated with the use of kajal, an eye cosmetic from Afghanistan - Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-11-22

    Lead is a toxic metal that damages blood cells, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the developing nervous system. The risk for lead exposure causing subsequent cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits is especially high among toddlers because of their hand-to-mouth activities and their higher absorption of ingested lead compared with adults. In January 2013, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) received a report from an Albuquerque clinic of a refugee child aged 20 months (patient 1) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) of 27.0 µg/dL (CDC reference value = 5.0 µg/dL). Medical staff informed NMDOH that the child and family used kajal, a traditional eye cosmetic brought from Afghanistan, their country of origin. Further investigation revealed that patient 1's brother, aged 4 months (patient 2), also had an elevated BLL of 33.5 µg/dL. Laboratory analysis of kajal used by the family showed a lead content of 54%. These two cases highlight the potential for lead poisoning among refugee populations in the United States and call attention to contaminated consumer products as a source of lead exposure. Physicians who provide health services to refugee and immigrant children should be aware of this potential exposure. Health-care providers who routinely screen refugee and immigrant children for elevated BLLs should consider asking questions about the use of traditional eye cosmetics.

  9. High-resolution aeromagnetic data, a new tool for mapping intrabasinal faults: Example from the Albuquerque basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys flown over the Albuquerque basin, New Mexico, demonstrate that aeromagnetic methods can successfully map concealed and poorly exposed faults in sediment-filled basins. This is the first known use of aeromagnetic data as an aid to surficial mapping and hydrogeologic studies in a basin. Aeromagnetic maps show detailed fault patterns within the basin fill that revise the structural view of the basin. Concealed faults are more numerous and more closely spaced than expected. The Hubbell Springs fault is the central splay of three generally north-striking fault splays that can be traced for nearly 50 km. The splays converge on the north and may represent the southern extension of the Tijeras fault, contradicting the proposed southwest extension of the Tijeras fault across the basin. In profile view, the linear aeromagnetic anomalies associated with faults show a variety of signatures. One signature has potential for mapping fault-controlled sedimentation in the subsurface because it identifies increases in magnetic, likely coarse-grained, material in the hanging walls of faults.

  10. Estimated 2012 groundwater potentiometric surface and drawdown from predevelopment to 2012 in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Rachel I.; McKean, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico were met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In response to water-level declines, the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began diverting water from the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project in December 2008 to reduce the use of groundwater to meet municipal demand. Modifications in the demand for water and the source of the supply of water for the Albuquerque metropolitan area have resulted in a variable response in the potentiometric surface of the production zone (the interval of the aquifer, from within about 200 feet below the water table to 900 feet or more, in which supply wells generally are screened) of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Analysis of the magnitude and spatial distribution of water-level change can help improve the understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies’ efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ABCWUA, has developed an estimate of the 2012 potentiometric surface of the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. This potentiometric surface is the latest in a series of reports depicting the potentiometric surface of the area. This report presents the estimated potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of water year 2012 and the estimated changes in potentiometric surface between predevelopment (pre-1961) and water year 2012 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from selected piezometers are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were

  11. Source/Drain Engineering for High Performance Vertical MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamoto, Takuya; Endoh, Tetsuo

    In this paper, Source/Drain (S/i>/D) engineering for high performance (HP) Vertical MOSFET (V-MOSFET) in 3Xnm generation and its beyond is investigated, by using gradual S/i>/D profile while degradation of driving current (ION) due to the parasitic series resistance (Rpara) is minimized through two-dimensional device simulation taking into account for gate-induced-drain-leakage (GIDL). In general, it is significant to reduce spreading resistance in the case of conventional Planar MOSFET. Therefore, in this study, we focused and analyzed the abruptness of diffusion layer that is still importance parameter in V-MOSFET. First, for improving the basic device performance such as subthreshold swing (SS), ION, and Rpara, S/D engineering is investigated. The dependency of device performance on S/D abruptness (σS/D) for various Lightly Doped Drain Extension (LDD) abruptness (σLDD) is analyzed. In this study, Spacer Length (LSP) is defined as a function of σS/D. As σS/D becomes smaller and S/D becomes more abrupt, LSP becomes shorter. SS depends on the σS/D rather than the σLDD. ION has the peak value of 1750µA/µm at σS/D =2nm/dec. and σLDD=3nm/dec. when the silicon pillar diameter (D) is 30nm and the gate length (Lg) is 60nm. As σS/D becomes small, higher ION is obtained due to reduction of Rpara while SS is degraded. However, when σS/D becomes too small in the short channel devices (Lg =60nm and Lg =45nm), ION is degraded because the leakage current due to GIDL is increased and reaches IOFF limit of 100nA/µm. In addition, as σLDD becomes larger, larger ION is obtained in the case of Lg =100nm and Lg =60nm because channel length becomes shorter. On the other hand, in the case of Lg =45nm, as σLDD becomes larger, ION is degraded because short channel effect (SCE) becomes significant. Next, the dependency of the basic device performance on D is investigated. By slimming D from 30nm to 10nm, while SS is improved and approaches the ideal value of 60mV/Decade, ION

  12. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  13. Population Dynamics of Blood-Fed Female Mosquitoes and Comparative Efficacy of Resting Boxes in Collecting them from the Northwestern Part of Riverside County, California

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Tejbir S; Williams, Gregory W; Haynes, Bryan W; Dhillon, Major S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testing of blood-fed mosquitoes plays an integral role in arbovirus surveillance and in understanding its interaction mechanisms between host, vector and reservoir. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two different traps (gravid and resting boxes) for collection of blood-fed mosquitoes in the northwestern part of Riverside County. Materials and Methods: Three trapping sites were selected in the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District of Riverside County, California. At each site resting boxes and gravid traps were set; and mosquitoes were collected on a weekly basis between July-December 2009. Mosquitoes were transported over blue ice, identified up to species level on chill table, and classified as male, female and blood-fed females. Results: During this study period, 3953 mosquitoes (826 blood-fed females) belonging to three different genera and eight species were collected; resting boxes collecting maximum number (seven) of mosquito species. Overall as well as individually in each trap kind, the most abundant mosquito species collected was Cx. quinquefasciatus. The proportion of blood-fed females of the Culex species collected in resting boxes was 28.8 times more, while of blood-fed females of Cx. quinquefasciatus was 32.2 times more than the proportion collected from gravid traps. Conclusions: Overall, the proportion of blood-fed female mosquitoes collected for each species trapped was highest in resting boxes. Additionally, resting boxes showed the advantage of extremely low running and maintenance cost; generation of no hazardous waste; quick turnaround time in terms of mosquito collection per man-hour spent; and they were less prone to vandalism or thefts. PMID:23599612

  14. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  15. Effect of surface inlet type on suspended sediment transported through a subsurface drain tile system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the Prairie Pothole Region, subsurface tile and surface inlets are used to remove water from low-lying or poorly-drained soils. Open inlets are being increasingly converted to buried inlets in which perforated tile is placed in a trench of rock (i.e., a French drain) and buried below a la...

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes of drained organic and flooded mineral agricultural soils in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drained organic soils for agriculture represent less than 1% of the area used for crops in the United States (US). However, emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from microbial oxidation of drained organic soils offsets almost half of the contributions that carbon sequestration of other cropping systems ...

  17. Treatment of phosphorus transported from tile and ditch-drained agricultural fields using sorption materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many flat, poorly drained soils, such as the Delmarva Peninsula, the upper Midwest, and certain areas of Europe such as Denmark and Netherlands, have been extensively drained through the construction of artificial drainage ditches and tiles to allow agriculture and other human activities. In additi...

  18. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain...

  19. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain...

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drains system design description (SYS 18)

    SciTech Connect

    TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-05-11

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the effluent drain system (EFS), which supports removal of water from the process bay floors. The discussion that follows is limited to piping, valves, components, and the process bay floor drain retention basin.

  1. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  2. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  3. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  4. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  5. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  6. An Exact Solution to the Draining Reservoir Problem of the Incompressible and Non-Viscous Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seok-In

    2009-01-01

    The exact expressions for the drain time and the height, velocity and acceleration of the free surface are found for the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid. Contrary to the conventional approximate results, they correctly describe the initial time dependence of the liquid velocity and acceleration. Torricelli's…

  7. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Register a final rule regarding the revocation of the prior definition of ``unblockable drain.'' (76 FR... revocation of the definition of unblockable drain covers,'' dated March 30, 2012. Commission staff's summary... circumstances (131 comments). Comment: Members of the American Hotel & Lodging Association, the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  9. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  10. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  11. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    PubMed

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  12. Post-Caesarean Drain Placement - Minor Procedure Leading to Major Complication

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Richa; Guleria, Kiran; Suneja, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Intra abdominal drain insertion in doubtful cases has been practised since many years. It may be associated with certain minor as well as major complications like drain site haemorrhage, infection, intestinal perforation and even visceral herniation from the site. Herein, we report a case of 28-year-old unbooked G2P1L1 at 33 weeks gestation with previous caesarean, who underwent Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS) in view of breech presentation in labour. On sixth postoperative day, tubular structure herniation through the drain site was observed. She was undertaken for laparotomy and fallopian tube herniation through the drain site was confirmed. Ipsilateral salpingectomy was done. Thus, drain placement lead to prolonged hospital stay and maternal morbidity.

  13. Novel attributes and design considerations of source and drain regions in carbon nanotube transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Ahmadmiri, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    Source and drain regions are inseparable sections of carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) whose parameters are effective for CNTFET performance. For the first time in this paper, design considerations of source and drain regions are presented by developing a two-dimensional (2-D) full quantum simulation. The simulations have been done by the self-consistent solution of 2-D Poisson-Schrödinger equations, within the nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism. The effects of varying the source and drain parameters are investigated in terms of on-off current ratio, transconductance characteristics, drain conductance, and subthreshold swing. Simulation results demonstrate that we could improve the CNTFET performance with proper selection of the source and drain parameters.

  14. Carbon export by rivers draining the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Material exports by rivers, particularly carbon exports, provide insight to basin geology, weathering, and ecological processes within the basin. Accurate accounting of those exports is valuable to understanding present, past, and projected basin-wide changes in those processes. We calculated lateral export of inorganic and organic carbon (IC and OC) from rivers draining the conterminous United States using stream gaging and water quality data from more than 100 rivers. Approximately 90% of land area and 80% of water export were included, which enabled a continental-scale estimate using minor extrapolation. Total carbon export was 41–49 Tg C yr−1. IC was >75% of export and exceeded OC export in every region except the southeastern Atlantic seaboard. The 10 largest rivers, by discharge, accounted for 66% of water export and carried 74 and 62% of IC and OC export, respectively. Watershed carbon yield for the conterminous United States was 4.2 and 1.3 g C m−2 yr−1 for IC and OC, respectively. The dominance of IC export was unexpected but is consistent with geologic models suggesting high weathering rates in the continental United States due to the prevalence of easily weathered sedimentary rock.

  15. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  16. Modelling bacterial water quality in streams draining pastoral land.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rob; Rutherford, Kit

    2004-02-01

    A model has been developed to predict concentrations of the faecal bacteria indicator E. coli in streams draining grazed hill-country in New Zealand. The long-term aim of the modelling is to assess effects of land management upon faecal contamination and, in the short term, to provide a framework for field-based research. A daily record of grazing livestock is used to estimate E. coli inputs to a catchment, and transport of bacteria to the stream network is simulated within surface and subsurface flows. Deposition of E. coli directly to streams is incorporated where cattle have access to them, and areas of permanent saturation ('seepage zones') are also represented. Bacteria are routed down the stream network and in-stream processes of deposition and entrainment are simulated. Die-off, both on land and in water, is simulated as a function of temperature and solar radiation. The model broadly reproduces observed E. coli concentrations in a hill-country catchment grazed by sheep and beef cattle, although uncertainty exists with a number of the processes represented. The model is sensitive to the distance over which surface runoff delivers bacteria to a stream and the amount of excretion direct to streams and onto seepage zones. Scenario analysis suggests that riparian buffer strips may improve bacterial water quality both by eliminating livestock defaecation in and near streams, and by trapping of bacteria by the riparian vegetation.

  17. Observations of magnetite dissolution in poorly drained soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Arruda, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolution of strongly magnetic minerals is a common and relatively rapid phenomenon in poorly drained soils of the central United States, resulting in low magnetic susceptibility (MS). Low Eh reducing conditions are primarily responsible for magnetic mineral dissolution; a process likely mediated by iron-reducing bacteria in the presence of soil organic matter. Based on transects across drainage sequences from nine sites, natural magnetic minerals (>5 ??m) extracted from surface soil consist of 54% ?? 18% magnetite, 21% ?? 11% titanomagnetite, and 17% ?? 14% ilmenite. Magnetite and titanomagnetite dissolution, assessed by scanning electron microscopy on a 0-to-3 scale, inversely correlates with surface soil MS (r = 0.53), a proxy for soil drainage at studied transects. Altered magnetite typically displays etch pits 5 ??m) include 26% ?? 18% anthropogenic fly ash that also exhibits greater dissolution in low MS soils (r = 0.38), indicating detectable alteration can occur within 150 years in low Eh soils. Laboratory induced reduction of magnetite, titanomagnetite, and magnetic fly ash, with a citrate-bicarbonate- dithionite solution, resulted in dissolution textures similar to those of in situ soil particles. Although experiments indicate that reductive dissolution of magnetite can occur abiotically under extreme conditions, bacteria likely play an important role in the natural environment. ?? 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  18. Replace low-voltage bushings without draining transformer

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Low-voltage, draw-lead bushings that can be removed from the transformer without draining the tank are difficult to design because of the high current. That`s why most transformers are shipped with the low-voltage bushings in place. A new design of split-conductor bushing now makes it possible to have draw-lead bushings on both the high- and low-voltage sides. Keys to the new design are the two-part split conductor - which can be broken into two parts at a point close to the bushing`s mounting flange - and the multiple-spring electrical contact with the bushing`s top terminal. When a new transformer is shipped, only the bottom half of the split conductor is in place - connected to the transformer winding through an oil-immersed lead. In the field, the top conductor top is bolted into place and the bushing lowered over the full-length conductor. 6 figs.

  19. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF{sub 6} and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF{sub 4} in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry.

  20. An 40Ar/39Ar age for Geomagnetic Instability Recorded at the Albuquerque Volcanoes and Pringle Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.; Jicha, B. R.; Kirby, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Geissman, J. W.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2005-12-01

    The timing and frequency of short-lived geomagnetic events, including excursions and aborted reversal attempts, provide important observational constraints on models of geodynamo behavior as well as calibration points for stratigraphic and paleoclimatic age models derived from marine sediments. The number of potential geomagnetic events during the Quaternary period has proliferated as more detailed paleodirectional and paleointensity data have emerged from sediments worldwide. Yet, determining ages for these events remains a challenge because astronomical dating of sediment cores is subject to assumptions and non-systematic errors that are difficult to quantify and vary from core to core. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology applied to lava flows or ash falls that record geomagnetic excursions can yield radioisotopic ages sufficiently precise to verify individual events, test correlations among seemingly disparate events, and quantify periods between events. Seventeen furnace incremental heating experiments on 100-200 mg groundmass samples from six sites in the transitionally magnetized basalt of the Albuquerque Volcanoes yield an isochron of 211 ± 22 ka* that is within error of previous K-Ar (155 ± 94 ka) and U-Th isochron (156 ± 58 ka) age determinations, but is 3 to 4 times more precise. At Pringle Falls, Oregon, Ash D was deposited during the onset of an excursion recorded by a lacustrine sediment sequence. Sixteen laser incremental heating experiments on 20-40 mg samples of plagioclase crystals from Ash D gave 64 concordant plateau age points that define an 40Ar/39Ar isochron of 211 ± 13 ka which is an order of magnitude more precise than the isochron (198 ± 118 ka) associated with the published plateau age from a single plagioclase age spectrum (221 ± 20 ka). Although the Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) recorded by the Albuquerque Volcanoes lies near, bot not on, the VGP path of the Pringle Falls excursion, these two sites are 15 arc degrees apart and need not record

  1. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  2. Low-flow appliances and household water demand: an evaluation of demand-side management policy in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Price, James I; Chermak, Janie M; Felardo, Jeff

    2014-01-15

    Residential rebate programs for low-flow water devices have become increasingly popular as a means of reducing urban water demand. Although program specifics vary, low-flow rebates are available in most U.S. metropolitan areas, as well as in many smaller municipalities. Despite their popularity, few statistical analyses have been conducted regarding the effects of low-flow rebates on household water use. In this paper, we consider the effects of rebates from the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA). Using panel regression techniques with a database of rebate recipients, we estimate the marginal effects of various low-flow devices on household water demand. Results indicate a negative correlation between household water use and the presence of most low-flow devices, after controlling for water price and weather conditions. Low-flow toilets have the greatest impact on water use, while low-flow washing machines, dishwashers, showerheads, and xeriscape have smaller but significant effects. In contrast, air conditioning systems, hot water recirculators, and rain barrels have no significant impact on water use. We also test for possible rebound effects (i.e. whether low-flow appliances become less-effective over time due to poor rates of retention or behavioral changes) and compare the cost effectiveness of each rebate using levelised-costs. We find no evidence of rebound effects and substantial variation in levelised-costs, with low-flow showerheads being the most cost-effective device under the current ABCWUA rebate program. The latter result suggests that water providers can improve the efficiency of rebate programs by targeting the most cost-effective devices.

  3. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO2 evolution in 80 d respectively.

  4. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions.

  5. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily L; Kulik, Tobias B; Keyrouz, Salah G; Zipfel, Gregory J; Warren, David K

    2017-02-21

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD) DESIGN Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 SETTING Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients with an EVD were included. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. METHODS We reviewed the charts of patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. RESULTS We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 cases of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture-positive cases and 11 cases based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were gram-positive commensals (79.2%); however, 45% showed growth of only 1 colony on 1 piece of media. Approximately 60% of the ventriculitis cases by the NHSN definition met the Honda criteria, approximately 56% met the Gozal criteria, and 23% met Citerio's definition. Cases defined using Honda versus Gozal definitions had a moderate agreement (κ=0.528; P<.05) whereas comparisons of Honda versus Citerio definitions (κ=0.338; P<.05) and Citerio versus Gozal definitions (κ=0.384; P<.05) had only fair agreements. CONCLUSIONS The agreement between published ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-6.

  6. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  7. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  8. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  9. Comparison of methods for placing and managing a silastic drain after pulmonary resection.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takayuki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Rei; Katayama, Tatsuya; Ito, Simon; Hatooka, Shunzo; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    We have been using a silastic drain [Blake drain (BD)] after pulmonary resection by different placement methods and reviewed the daily amount of drainage in each patient. A 19-Fr BD was placed for each of 110 patients. First, a drain was inserted from the anterior chest wall and the tip reached the dorsal part of the diaphragm [anterior-to-posterior (AP)]. For the others [posterior-to-anterior (PA); n=37], we inserted a drain from the lower intercostal space, turned it around the apex and placed its tip in the lower front. Patients in the AP group included those placed under a water seal (AP-WS; n=43) or suction (AP-SC; n=30). The reference group consisted of 68 patients with a 32-Fr plastic drain during the same period [conventional drains (CD)]. The amount of drainage on the day of surgery in the PA group was significantly higher than that in the AP-WS group (P<0.0001) and similar to that in the CD group (P=0.54). The mean amount of drainage on postoperative day 1 and total amounts accumulating during drain placement showed no significant differences between the four groups. A BD placed using a PA approach with suction might be efficient for drainage.

  10. Sewage exfiltration as a source of storm drain contamination during dry weather in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    Separating storm drains and sanitary sewers is expected to control sewage pollution, for example, from combined sewer overflows, and to reduce excessive stormwater flow to wastewater treatment plants. However, sewage contamination has been found in such separated storm drain systems in urban areas during dry-weather flow. To determine whether transmission of sewage is occurring from leaking sanitary sewers directly to leaking separated storm drains, field experiments were performed in three watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Areas with high and low risks for sewage exfiltration into storm drains were identified, and rhodamine WT (RWT) dye pulses were added to the sanitary sewers. RWT was monitored in nearby storm drain manholes using optical probes set up for unattended continuous monitoring. Above-background RWT peaks were detected in storm drains in high-risk areas, and multiple locations of sewage contamination were found. Sewage contamination during the field studies was confirmed using the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH DNA markers. This study is the first to provide direct evidence that leaking sanitary sewers can directly contaminate nearby leaking storm drains with untreated sewage during dry weather and suggests that chronic sanitary sewer leakage contributes to downstream fecal contamination of coastal beaches.

  11. Quantification of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains using a water balance approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuxin; Yin, Hailong; Li, Huaizheng

    2014-07-15

    To make decisions about correcting illicit or inappropriate connections to storm drains, quantification of non-stormwater entries into storm drains was performed using a water flow balance approach, based on data analysis from 2008 to 2011 in a separate storm drainage system in a Shanghai downtown area of 374 ha. The study revealed severe sewage connections to storm drains; meanwhile, misconnections between surface water and storm drains were found to drive frequent non-stormwater pumping discharges at the outfall, producing a much larger volume of outfall flows in a short period. This paper presented a methodology to estimate quantities of inappropriate sewage flow, groundwater infiltration and river water backflow into the storm drains. It was concluded that inappropriate sewage discharge and groundwater seepage into storm drains were approximately 17,860 m(3)/d (i.e., up to 51% of the total sewage flow in the catchment) and 3,624 m(3)/d, respectively, and surface water backflow was up to an average 28,593 m(3)/d. On the basis of this work, end-of-storm pipe interceptor sewers of 0.25 m(3)/s (i.e., 21,600 m(3)/d) would be effective to tackle the problem of sewage connections and groundwater seepage to storm drains. Under this circumstance, the follow-up non-stormwater outfall pumping events indicate misconnections between surface water and storm drains, featuring pumping discharge equivalent to surface water backflow; hence the misconnections should be repaired. The information provided here is helpful in estimating the magnitude of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains and designing the necessary pollution control activities, as well as combating city floods in storm events.

  12. Lagrangian water quality dynamics in the San Luis Drain, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmar, E. C.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Henson, S. S.; Borglin, S. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    Integration of temporal changes in biological and water quality constituents during downstream transport is critical to understanding aquatic ecosystem and biogeochemical dynamics of rivers, estuaries, and the near- coastal waters into which rivers flow. Changes in chemical, physical, and biological water quality constituents during downstream transport can be evaluated by following a specific parcel of water, known as a Lagrangian study. The objective of this study was to differentiate changes in water quality constituents occurring within a parcel of water as it travels downstream to the changes observed at a fixed sampling location. We sampled a parcel of agricultural drainage water as it traveled downstream for 84 h in a concrete-lined channel (San Luis Drain in San Joaquin Valley) with no additional water inputs or outputs. The Lagrangian sampling occurred in August 2006 and June 2007. Data from the Lagrangian study was compared to data collected at a fixed point using an automatic pump sampler and water quality sonde. Fluorescence (a measure of algal pigments), dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and conductivity were measured every 30 minutes, as well as collecting grab samples every 2 h for nutrient and suspended sediment analyses. Sinusoidal diel (24 h) patterns were observed for dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature within the parcel of water. Algal pigments, nutrients, suspended solids, and turbidity did not exhibit sinusoidal diel patterns, generally observed at a fixed sampling location. The diel patterns observed indicated changes that would occur during downstream transport. Algal pigments showed a rapid day time increase during the first 24 to 48 h followed by a plateau or decrease for the remainder of the study. Algal growth was apparent each day during the study, as measured by increasing dissolved oxygen concentrations, in spite of non-detectable phosphate concentrations (<5 ppb) and nearly complete consumption of soluble silica during the 2007

  13. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  14. Geologic map of the west half of the Blythe 30' by 60' quadrangle, Riverside County, California and La Paz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Blythe 30' by 60' quadrangle is located along the Colorado River between southeastern California and western Arizona. This map depicts the geology of the west half of the Blythe quadrangle, which is mostly in California. The map area is a desert terrain consisting of mountain ranges surrounded by extensive alluvial fans and plains, including the flood plain of the Colorado River which covers the easternmost part of the area. Mountainous parts of the area, including the Big Maria, Little Maria, Riverside, McCoy, and Mule Mountains, consist of structurally complex rocks that range in age from Proterozoic to Miocene. Proterozoic gneiss and granite are overlain by Paleozoic to Early Jurassic metasedimentary rocks (mostly marble, quartzite, and schist) that are lithostratigraphically similar to coeval formations of the Colorado Plateau region to the east. The Paleozoic to Jurassic strata were deposited on the tectonically stable North American craton. These rocks are overlain by metamorphosed Jurassic volcanic rocks and are intruded by Jurassic plutonic rocks that represent part of a regionally extensive, northwest-trending magmatic arc. The overlying McCoy Mountains Formation, a very thick sequence of weakly metamorphosed sandstone and conglomerate of Jurassic(?) and Cretaceous age, accumulated in a rapidly subsiding depositional basin south of an east-trending belt of deformation and east of the north-trending Cretaceous Cordilleran magmatic arc. The McCoy Mountains Formation and older rocks were deformed, metamorphosed, and locally intruded by plutonic rocks in the Late Cretaceous. In Oligocene(?) to Miocene time, sedimentary and minor volcanic deposits accumulated locally, and the area was deformed by faulting. Tertiary rocks and their Proterozoic basement in the Riverside and northeastern Big Maria Mountains are in the upper plate of a low-angle normal (detachment) fault that lies within a region of major Early to Middle Miocene crustal extension. Surficial

  15. Super natural killer cells that target metastases in the tumor draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Chan, Maxine F; Li, Jiahe; King, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor draining lymph nodes are the first site of metastasis in most types of cancer. The extent of metastasis in the lymph nodes is often used in staging cancer progression. We previously showed that nanoscale TRAIL liposomes conjugated to human natural killer cells enhance their endogenous therapeutic potential in killing cancer cells cultured in engineered lymph node microenvironments. In this work, it is shown that liposomes decorated with apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and an antibody against a mouse natural killer cell marker are carried to the tumor draining inguinal lymph nodes and prevent the lymphatic spread of a subcutaneous tumor in mice. It is shown that targeting natural killer cells with TRAIL liposomes enhances their retention time within the tumor draining lymph nodes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. It is concluded that this approach can be used to kill cancer cells within the tumor draining lymph nodes to prevent the lymphatic spread of cancer.

  16. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Zynamon, Anatol; von Flüe, Markus; Peterli, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside. PMID:23862093

  17. Improvised chest tube drain for decompression of an acute tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Eric D

    2004-05-01

    A case of a woman presenting with an acute tension pneumothorax during a Navy humanitarian mission in East Timor is presented. The patient was treated at a local rural clinic run by our medical team. Prompt insertion of a chest tube saved the woman's life; however, there were no chest tube drains available. A field chest tube drain constructed out of an IV bag, a sterile water bottle, and tubing provided an adequate underwater seal and drain. Because of the remote location and limited resources, standard prehospital chest tube management had to be modified. A brief review of simple and tension pneumothoraces and management along with a description of the field chest tube drain is presented.

  18. Successful Removal of Malpositioned Chest Drain Within the Liver by Embolization of the Transhepatic Track

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, Paul; Waheed, Umeer; Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-15

    The insertion of a chest drain catheter for the management of a pneumothorax in an 82-year-old woman resulted in the unusual complication of liver penetration. The position of the drain was assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan. Because the patient was hemodynamically stable and no damage to major vessels was seen on computed tomographic scan, the patient was treated in a nonoperative manner. A procedure was performed under controlled conditions using techniques used during transhepatic liver biopsies but with the addition of a balloon catheter. Embolization of the liver track was performed during chest drain removal. The drain was successfully removed without the complication of bleeding in a patient unsuitable for a general anesthetic.

  19. Microbial activity and dissolved organic carbon production in drained and rewetted blanket peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallage, Z. E.; Holden, J.; Jones, T.; McDonald, A. T.

    2009-04-01

    Heightened levels of degradation in response to environmental change have resulted in an increased loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the drainage waters of many peatland catchments across Europe and North America. One significant threat to peatland sustainability has been the installation of artificial drainage ditches, and although recent restoration schemes have pursued drain blocking as a possible strategy for reducing degradation and fluvial carbon losses, little is known about how such processes influence the intimate biological systems operating within these soils. This paper investigates how disturbance, in the form of drainage and drain blocking, influences the rate of microbial activity within a peat soil, and the subsequent impact this has on DOC production potential. Peat samples were extracted from three treatment sites (intact peat, drained peat and drain-blocked peat) in an upland blanket peat catchment in the UK. Microbial activity was measured via laboratory experimentation that incorporated the use of an INT-Formazan dehydrogenase enzyme assay to assess the level of electron transport system (ETS) activity occurring within each treatment. Drainage significantly lowered the height of the water table relative to the intact peat, whilst drain blocking successfully rewetted the peat, having raised the height of the water table relative to the drained site. Mean microbial activity rates at the drained site were found to be 33 % greater than the undisturbed intact peat and almost double that of the restored, drain-blocked site. These results correspond well with previously published data observing significantly greater DOC concentrations in the pore waters of the drained site and significantly lower concentrations at the blocked site, relative to the intact peat. Data from the drain-blocked treatment also provides evidence contrary to the commonly quoted hypothesis that an enzyme-latch reaction may be sustained in drained peat, even once it has

  20. Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 34, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2013 1367 Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain Ze...density of 2×1012cm−2. Index Terms— Antimonide semiconductors, metal source/drain (S/D), Ni-GaSb, p-channel MOSFET . I. INTRODUCTION ANTIMONIDE-based...channel MOSFETs [3], [4], performance of III–V p- MOSFETs traditionally lagged behind. Recently, high-performance antimonide p- MOSFETs have been

  1. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  2. Results of well-bore flow logging for six water-production wells completed in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Conde R.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last several years, an improved conceptual understanding of the aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, New Mexico, has lead to better knowledge about the location and extent of the aquifer system. This information will aid with the refinement of ground-water simulation and with the location of sites for future water-production wells. With an impeller-type flowmeter, well-bore flow was logged under pumping conditions along the screened interval of the well bore in six City of Albuquerque water-production wells: the Ponderosa 3, Love 6, Volcano Cliffs 1, Gonzales 2, Zamora 2, and Gonzales 3 wells. From each of these six wells, a well-bore flow log was collected that represents the cumulative upward well-bore flow. Evaluation of the well-bore flow log for each well allowed delineation of the more productive zones supplying water to the well along the logged interval. Yields from the more productive zones in the six wells ranged from about 70 to 880 gallons per minute. The lithology of these zones is predominantly gravel and sand with varying amounts of sandy clay.

  3. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  4. High Resolution Modeling of Tile-Drained Controls on Ecohydrologic Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Woo, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tile drains are widely used in the Midwestern United States to improve the productivity of poorly drained agricultural fields. Since tile drain reduces vadose zone soil moisture by lowering the water table, and its outlets feed directly into streams and ditches, tile flow can affect various hydrologic, biotic and biogeochemical processes in the watershed. However, the effects of tile flow on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics at scales dominated by microtopographic variability, such as depression and roadside ditches, remain poorly understood. Here we present an explicit model of tile flow and incorporate into the integrated ecohydrologic-flow model, MLCan-GCSFlow, to investigate the impacts of tile drain on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics in intensively managed agricultural fields at lidar-resolution scales. Explicit coupling between subsurface and tile flow is obtained by modifications of variably saturated Richards equation to capture the impacts of tile drain on soil moisture. The coupling between subsurface and overland flow is obtained by prescribing a boundary condition switching approach at the top surface of the computational domain. Model results for study sites in Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) show the significance of tile drain flow on the vertical and spatial soil moisture distribution and coupled surface - sub-surface flow dynamics.

  5. Quantifying the proportion of tile-drained land in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Ulrike; Volk, Martin

    A considerable reduction in the nutrient and pesticide inputs into the rivers and lakes of Germany is required in order to meet the “good ecological status” as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Subsurface tile drainage systems are one of the main pathways for such diffuse nutrient and pesticide inputs. However, the simulation of water and matter fluxes under tile-drained land on the landscape scale is still problematic in many countries, mainly due to a lack of data about the existing drainage systems. The present study examines for the first time whether an existing method to calculate the usually unknown proportions of tile-drained areas could be transferred to a large river basin, for which minimal data about drained areas is available. The study area was the Saale river basin (24,000 km 2) in central Germany, with a broad variety of soils and site characteristics. The share of tile-drained areas in the Saale river basin was calculated to be 11% of the agricultural area. Apart from that, the calculated proportion of tile-drained areas corresponded satisfactory with the statistical data of the meliorated areas of the former German Democratic Republic. The successful application of the promising method is considered as an important step towards the calculation of the proportion of tile-drained areas for the whole Germany and Europe.

  6. The interaction of heavy metals and nutrients present in soil and native plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae on the riverside in the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Rodolfo E; García, Ileana V; de Cabo, Laura; Weigandt, Cristian F; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the contamination by heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn), and nutrients (N, P) in soils and native plants, and the effect of the concentration of those elements with the density of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) spores in soil and colonization in roots from the riverside of the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (MRRB). The concentration of metals and nutrients in soils and plants (Eleocharis montana, Cyperus eragrostis, Hydrocotyle bonariensis) increased from the upper sites (8 km from headwaters) to the lower sites (6 km from the mouth of the Riachuelo River) of the basin. AM-colonization on the roots of H. bonariensis and spore density in soil decreased as the concentrations of metals in soil and plant tissues increased from the upper to lower sites of the basin within a consistent gradient of contamination associated with land use, soil disturbance, population, and chemicals discharged into the streams and rivers along the MRRB. The general trends for all metals in plant tissue were to have highest concentrations in roots, then in rhizomes and lowest in aerial biomass. The translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors decreased in plants which grow from the upper sites to the lower sites of the basin. The plants tolerated a wide range in type and quantity of contamination along the basin by concentrating more metals and nutrients in roots than in aboveground tissue. The AM spore density in soil and colonization in roots of H. bonariensis decreased with the increase of the degree of contamination (Dc) in soil.

  7. Geoelectric resistivity sounding of riverside alluvial aquifer in an agricultural area at Buyeo, Geum River watershed, Korea: an application to groundwater contamination study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Hee; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2007-12-01

    Twenty profiles of vertical electric soundings (VES) were obtained in a riverside alluvium at the Buyeo area, South Korea, to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The combination of the VES data with the borehole data provided useful information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. The vestige of an ancient river channel (e.g. oxbow lake) was identified on the resistivity profiles by the lateral continuation of a near-surface perched aquifer parallel to the river. Such a perched aquifer is typically developed in the area with a clay-rich silty surface alluvium which prohibits the infiltration of oxygen. Therefore, groundwater below the oxbow lake shows a very low nitrate concentration and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. The distribution of water resistivity is correlated with that of measured total dissolved solids concentration in groundwater, while the earth resistivity of the aquifer shows a significant spatial variation. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of the aquifer is mainly controlled by the soil type rather than by the water chemistry in the study area.

  8. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated.

  9. No-drain DIEP Flap Donor-site Closure Using Barbed Progressive Tension Sutures

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Lee, Michael; Teotia, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of progressive tension sutures has been shown to be comparable to the use of abdominal drains in abdominoplasty. However, the use of barbed progressive tension sutures (B-PTSs) in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap donor-site closure has not been investigated. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with DIEP flap reconstruction in a 3-year period at 2 institutions by 2 surgeons. Patients were compared by method of DIEP donor-site closure. Group 1 had barbed running progressive tension sutures without drain placement. Group 2 had interrupted progressive tension closure with abdominal drain placement (PTS-AD). Group 3 had closure with only abdominal drain placement (AD). Data collected included demographics, perioperative data, and postoperative outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients underwent DIEP reconstruction (25 B-PTS, 25 PTS-AD, and 25 AD). Patient characteristics—age, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking status, and chemotherapy—were not significantly different between groups. Rate of seroma was 1.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 4%, AD = 0%), wound dehiscence 16% (B-PTS = 8%, PTS-AD = 16%, AD = 24%), and umbilical necrosis 5.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 0%, AD = 16%). No hematomas were observed in any patients. No statistically significant difference was found between complication rates across groups. Conclusions: Use of B-PTSs for abdominal closure after DIEP flap harvest can obviate the need for abdominal drains. Complication rates following this technique are not significantly different from closure using progressive tension suture and abdominal drain placement. This practice can prevent the use of abdominal drains, which can promote patient mobility, increase independence upon discharge, and contribute to patient satisfaction. PMID:27200234

  10. The contribution of drained organic soils to the globally emitted greenhouse gases and emission hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Key words: organic soils, peatlands, drainage, emissions, globally Peatlands cover only 3% of the global land surface. Some 15% of these peatlands have been drained for agriculture, forestry and grazing, which leads to the release of huge amounts of carbon. The '2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands' (IPCC 2014) offers up-to-date default emission factors for different land use types on organic soil and thus enables proper reporting. For this, realistic area data of drained organic soils are needed at a national scale. We analysed the drained organic soil areas and related emissions as reported to the UNFCCC in 2014 for several Nordic-Baltic countries . The analysis revealed that the areas often seem to be underestimated and that several countries use outdated emission factors. The re-assessment of the drained area and the application of the IPCC (2014) default emission factors resulted in 5-10 x higher emissions from drained organic soils for some countries. Out of 9 Nordic-Baltic countries only 1 country seems to have overestimated the drainage related organic soil emissions. If adopting the default emission factors from IPCC (2014) globally, the emissions from drained and degrading organic soils (~ 1,600 Mt CO2-eq.) amount to almost double the amount of CO2 emissions from aviation, even when emissions from peat fires are not included . By far the top single emitter of drained peatland related greenhouse gases is Indonesia, followed by the European Union and Russia. 25 countries are together responsible for 95% of global emissions from peatland drainage, excluding fires. Fires raise the importance of particularly Indonesia and Russian Federation. In 25 countries emissions from peatland degradation are over 50% of the emissions from fossil fuels and cement production combined, hence peatland emissions are of national significance.

  11. Role of drains in laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis at a busy county hospital.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Andrea M; Skinner, Ruby; Jones, Amber; Chung, Ray; Martin, Maureen

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has become the treatment of choice for acute appendicitis with equal or better outcomes than traditional open appendectomy (OA). LA in patients with a gangrenous or perforated appendicitis carries increased rate of pelvic abscess formation when compared with OA. We hypothesized routine placement of pelvic drains in gangrenous or perforated appendicitis decreases pelvic abscess formation after LA. Three hundred thirty-one patients undergoing LA between January 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. Patients with perforated or gangrenous appendicitis were included. Group I had a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain(s) placed and Group II had no JP drain. Data included patient demographics, emergency department laboratory values and vital signs, and computed axial tomography scan findings, intra-abdominal or pelvic abscess postoperatively, interventional radiology drainage, and length of stay. Clinic follow-up notes were reviewed. One hundred forty-eight patients were identified. Forty-three patients had placement of JP drains (Group I) and 105 patients had no JP drain (Group II). Three patients (three of 43 [6%]) in Group I developed pelvic abscess and 21 of 105 (20%) patients in Group II developed pelvic abscesses requiring subsequent drainage. This was statistically significant. Patient demographics, temperature, and mean white blood count before surgery were similar. Presurgery computed tomography (CT) with appendicolith and CT with abscess were more prevalent in Group I. The use of JP drainage in patients with perforated or gangrenous appendicitis during LA has decreased rates of pelvic abscess. This was demonstrated despite the drain group having appendicolith or abscess on preoperative CT.

  12. Impacts of drain blocking on the aquatic carbon export from a UK peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry; Carfrae, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Drainage ditches, which have historically been used across UK peatlands, provide a rapid pathway for carbon export between terrestrial and aquatic systems, potentially reducing or reversing the net uptake of carbon by peatlands. Currently, considerable investment is being made in Scotland to restore drained peatlands with the aim of raising water tables, restoring active vegetation cover, enhancing carbon uptake and reducing carbon losses via the aquatic pathway. However, monitoring of restoration and its impact is often restricted by a lack of pre-restoration data and typically does not cover the full range of fluvial carbon species. Drain blocking was carried out in March 2015 at the Auchencorth Moss peatland, SE Scotland, which has an extensive record of fluvial carbon measurements (from 2007 to present day). This study combines an intensive 12 month field monitoring campaign, during and after drain blocking works, with the long-term record to investigate the impacts of drain blocking on the dissolved and gaseous carbon export via the aquatic pathway. Post-restoration, concentrations and fluxes of all stream water dissolved and gaseous carbon species were in the range of values measured over the period 2007 to present; with no significant change in the 12 months post-restoration. The results from this study indicate that the drain blocking works did not have a significant impact on the concentration or speciation of carbon exported via the aquatic pathway which can be attributed to the largely overgrown nature of the drains and the large inter- and intra-annual variability in the system. This study raises questions on the suitability of some peatlands for drain blocking and the pre- and post-restoration monitoring required to accurately assess the impacts of peatland restoration activities.

  13. Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM)

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  14. Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM)

    DOEpatents

    Ewsuk, Kevin G.; Arguello, Jr., Jose G.

    2006-01-31

    A method of designing a primary geometry, such as for a forming die, to be used in a powder pressing application by using a combination of axisymmetric geometric shapes, transition radii, and transition spaces to simulate the geometry where the shapes can be selected from a predetermined list or menu of axisymmetric shapes and then developing a finite element mesh to represent the geometry. This mesh, along with material properties of the component to be designed and powder, is input to a standard deformation finite element code to evaluate the deformation characteristics of the component being designed. The user can develop the geometry interactively with a computer interface in minutes and execute a complete analysis of the deformation characteristics of the simulated component geometry.

  15. WORKING CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH AND ACTIVITY IN THE LANGUAGE ARTS FOR THE PRE-PRIMARY/PRIMARY CULTURALLY DIVERSE NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILD (ALBUQUERQUE, JUNE 4-6, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMOKER, DAVID

    A WORKING CONFERENCE, SPONSORED BY THE SOUTHWESTERN COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY, INC., WAS HELD IN ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO ON JUNE 4-6, 1967 TO BRING TOGETHER PERSONS INTERESTED IN RELATED RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN THE AREA OF LANGUAGE ARTS FOR PRE-PRIMARY AND PRIMARY, CULTURALLY DIVERSE, NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILDREN. PARTICIPANTS INVITED…

  16. On the extraction of the external drain and source resistors and effective channel length in Si-MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of drain/source resistance and effective channel length (Leff) of the silicon MOSFET in the linear drain current region. Leff is expressed as a function of drain/source resistance, drain current, threshold voltage, drain voltage, and body-effect coefficient. Using this definition, an additional component of drain/source resistance in the linear drain current region, inversion charge reduction resistance (RΔQ), is introduced which results from the influence of drain/source resistors, internal source/body voltage and drain voltage on the total inversion charge. Finally, a new method for extraction of the drain/source resistance is developed. In this method several parameters that have impact on device behavior are considered. The parameters include gate voltage dependency, short channel effects, and poly gate length dependency. The results presented here are not only very useful for accurate device modeling and characterization, but are also vital to better understanding of the device physics. Furthermore, they can describe shortcomings of the other methods which use devices of different gate lengths. The extracted linear model provides less than 1.07% and 3.3% average absolute error and maximum error, respectively, for all seven devices under test over the gate voltage range of 0.75-2 V.

  17. Dressings and drains in posterior spine surgery and their effect on wound complications.

    PubMed

    Andrew Glennie, R; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically search, critically appraise and summarize published randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT examining the effect of drains and dressings on wound healing rates and complications in posterior spine surgery. The use of post-operative drains and the type of post-operative dressing is at the discretion of the treating surgeon with no available clinical guidelines. Drains will theoretically decrease incidence of post-operative hematoma and therefore, potentially decrease the risk of neurologic compromise when the neural elements have been exposed. Occlusive dressings have more recently been advocated, potentially maintaining a sterile barrier for longer time periods post-operatively. A systematic review of databases from 1969-2013 was undertaken. All papers examining drains in spine surgery and dressings in primary healing of surgical wounds were included. Revman (version 5.2; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) was used to test for overall treatment effect, clinical heterogeneity and risk of bias. Of the papers identified, 1348 examined post-operative drains in spine surgery and 979 wound dressings for primary wound healing of all surgical wounds. Seven studies were included for analysis for post-operative drains and 10 studies were analyzed for primary wound healing. The use of a post-operative drain did not influence healing rates and had no effect secondarily on infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-2.30). We were not able to establish whether surgical drains prevent hematomas causing neurologic compromise. There was a slight advantage to using occlusive dressings versus non-occlusive dressings in wound healing (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.44-3.02). Incisional vacuum dressings as both an occlusive barrier and superficial drainage system have shown promise for wounds at risk of dehiscence. There is a relatively high risk of bias in the methodology of many of the

  18. Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of

  19. Water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a drained heavy clay soil: 1. Preferential flow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haria, A. H.; Johnson, A. C.; Bell, J. P.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1994-12-01

    The processes and mechanisms that control pesticide transport from drained heavy clay catchments are being studied at Wytham Farm (Oxford University) in southern England. In the first field season field-drain water contained high concentrations of pesticide. Soil studies demonstrated that the main mechanism for pesticide translocation was by preferential flow processes, both over the soil surface and through the soil profile via a macropore system that effectively by-passed the soil matrix. This macropore system included worm holes, shrinkage cracks and cracks resulting from ploughing. Rainfall events in early winter rapidly created a layer of saturation in the A horizon perched above a B horizon of very low hydraulic conductivity. Drain flow was initiated when the saturated layer in the A horizon extended into the upper 0.06m of the soil profile; thereafter water moved down slope via horizontal macropores possibly through a band of incorporated straw residues. These horizontal pathways for water movement connected with the fracture system of the mole drains, thus feeding the drains. Overland flow occurred infrequently during the season.

  20. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-07-24

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.