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Sample records for albuquerque seismological laboratory

  1. Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory--50 years of global seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, C.R.; Peterson, Jon; Gee, Lind; Derr, John; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory is about 15 miles southeast of Albuquerque on the Pueblo of Isleta, adjacent to Kirtland Air Force Base. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory supports the Global Seismographic Network Program and the Advanced National Seismic System through the installation, operation, and maintenance of seismic stations around the world and serves as the premier seismological instrumentation test facility for the U.S. Government.

  2. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory Data Quality Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringler, A. T.; Hagerty, M.; Holland, J.; Gee, L. S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has several efforts underway to improve data quality at its stations. The Data Quality Analyzer (DQA) is one such development. The DQA is designed to characterize station data quality in a quantitative and automated manner. Station quality is based on the evaluation of various metrics, such as timing quality, noise levels, sensor coherence, and so on. These metrics are aggregated into a measurable grade for each station. The DQA consists of a website, a metric calculator (Seedscan), and a PostgreSQL database. The website allows the user to make requests for various time periods, review specific networks and stations, adjust weighting of the station's grade, and plot metrics as a function of time. The website dynamically loads all station data from a PostgreSQL database. The database is central to the application; it acts as a hub where metric values and limited station descriptions are stored. Data is stored at the level of one sensor's channel per day. The database is populated by Seedscan. Seedscan reads and processes miniSEED data, to generate metric values. Seedscan, written in Java, compares hashes of metadata and data to detect changes and perform subsequent recalculations. This ensures that the metric values are up to date and accurate. Seedscan can be run in a scheduled task or on demand by way of a config file. It will compute metrics specified in its configuration file. While many metrics are currently in development, some are completed and being actively used. These include: availability, timing quality, gap count, deviation from the New Low Noise Model, deviation from a station's noise baseline, inter-sensor coherence, and data-synthetic fits. In all, 20 metrics are planned, but any number could be added. ASL is actively using the DQA on a daily basis for station diagnostics and evaluation. As Seedscan is scheduled to run every night, data quality analysts are able to then use the

  3. Computers at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, J.

    1979-01-01

    The Worldwide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) is managed by the U.S Geological Survey in Albuquerque, N. Mex. It consists of a global network of seismographs housed in seismic observatories throughout the world. An important recent addition to this network are the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) which combine a borehole seismometer with a modern digital data recording system. 

  4. Tiger Team assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. SNL, Albuquerque, is operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The environmental assessment also included DOE tenant facilities at Ross Aviation, Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation, and the Central Training Academy. The assessment was conducted from April 15 to May 24, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (ES H). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing ES H disciplines, management, self-assessments, and quality assurance; transportation; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal SNL, Albuquerque, requirements were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and SNL, Albuquerque management of ES H programs was conducted.

  5. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  7. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  8. 1983 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is located south of Albuquerque on Kirtland Air Force Base. Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1983. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.250 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 49,950 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides. 23 references, 6 figures, 15 tables.

  9. 1995 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1996-09-01

    This 1995 report contains data from routine radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration and various waste management programs at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included.

  10. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. ); Goodrich, M. )

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  11. 1993 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.A.; Cheng, C.F.; Cox, W.; Durand, N.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Lauffer, F.; Lincoln, M.; McClellan, Y.; Molley, K.

    1994-11-01

    This 1993 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0016 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile (80 kilometer) radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.027 person-rem during 1993 from the laboratories operations, As in the previous year, the 1993 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  12. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  13. 1994 Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Wiggins, T.; White, B.B.

    1995-09-01

    This 1994 report contains data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum off-site dose impact from air emissions was calculated to be 1.5 x 10{sup -4} millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.012 person-rem during 1994 from the laboratories` operations. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  14. Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Explosive Components Facility (ECF) at the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL). This facility is needed to integrate, centralize, and enhance many of the explosive, neutron generation, and weapons testing programs currently in progress at SNL. In general, there is insufficient space in existing facilities for the development and testing activities required by modern explosives technologies. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed ECF project and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. 1982 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; Simmons, T.N.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1983-04-01

    Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitter, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1982. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.170 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 50,400 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides.

  16. Establishing The Pasadena Seismological Laboratory: An Adventure in Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, M. H.

    2002-05-01

    The 1906 San Francisco earthquake jolted Berkeley geologist Harry O. Wood (1879-1958) into a lifetime of seismological research that included the establishment of a seismic monitoring network in southern California, the co-invention of a seismograph capable of measuring short-period earthquakes, and the implementation of a public-safety campaign. None of these initiatives would have been possible without the support of the Carnegie Institution, a Washington DC-based research organization that supported not only exceptional individuals (as founder Andrew Carnegie had stipulated), but also large-scale, collaborative investigations. Wood published his plan for a "western United States" earthquake research program in 1916, but it was not until he moved to Washington during World War I that he made contacts that transformed his dream into a reality. While working at the National Research Council, Wood shared his vision with astronomer George Ellery Hale, geologist Arthur L. Day and, finally, Carnegie president John C. Merriam. Merriam was a Californian, a geologist, and a strong proponent of collaborative science. In 1921, the Carnegie Advisory Committee on Seismology - the first organization "of this magnitude" in American research - was formed. Initially, the program operated from an office at the Mount Wilson Observatory, where Wood was in charge of the daily operations. Then, in 1926, a joint venture with the California Institute of Technology was launched. Located in the mountains west of Pasadena, the Seismological Laboratory coordinated a range of scientific efforts. By 1930, thirteen American cities had Wood-Anderson seismographs in place, quantities of data had been acquired, new fault zones had been identified, and Beno Gutenberg and Charles F. Richter had been attracted to the program. Over the years, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and other government agencies also contributed to the effort. In the mid-1930s, the Carnegie Institution transferred the

  17. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 1996 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.H.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is operated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission to provide weapon component technology and hardware for national security needs, and to conduct fundamental research and development (R&D) to advance technology in energy research, computer science, waste management, electronics, materials science, and transportation safety for hazardous and nuclear components. In support of this mission, the Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Center at SNL/NM conducts extensive environmental monitoring, surveillance, and compliance activities to assist SNL`s line organizations in meeting all applicable environmental regulations applicable to the site including those regulating radiological and nonradiological effluents and emissions. Also herein are included, the status of environmental programs that direct and manage activities such as terrestrial surveillance; ambient air and meteorological monitoring; hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste management; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental restoration (ER); oil and chemical spill prevention; and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation. This report has been prepared in compliance with DOE order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection.

  19. Collecting and Using Low Latency Data at Berkeley Seismological Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Allen, R.; Hellweg, P.; Dreger, D.; Neuhauser, D.; Romanowicz, B.

    2008-12-01

    Northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area are among the US regions that combine high earthquake hazard and high population density. To rapidly and reliably monitor tectonic movement and develop an understanding of fault dynamics, measurements must cover a range of scales in time (0.1 s to years), space (mms to 100s of km) and displacement (microns to 10s of m). With these goals in mind, Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) continuously collects a wide variety of data at low latencies from seismic through geodetic, strain and electromagnetic instrumentation with sampling rates spanning 0.001 sps to 500 sps. Data from broadband seismometers and accelerometers, generally with latencies of less than 10 s, contribute to real time earthquake monitoring in Northern California including rapid assessments of source (moment tensor and finite fault) and shaking (ShakeMap). The BSL is also currently operating a real time system in test mode, using these data for earthquake early warning (ElarmS). Data from these instruments are also used for research on earthquake sources and scaling, fault-related tremor and studies of local, regional and global velocity structure. Low latency GPS data can complement seismic data, contributing robust real time continuous information especially for large earthquakes, and can potentially contribute to early warning. GPS-derived static deformation gives an independent estimate of fault orientation and dimensions, scalar seismic moment and magnitude. It also can extend the upper limits of a strong motion network to include the displacements of tens of meters expected in large and great earthquakes, and in the near field is less likely to be clipped during large movements. In an active tectonic context such as Northern California, low latency is important for data transmission, but also for reliability. At the BSL we are committed to using telemetry that is as robust as possible and often have more than one telemetry path to ensure

  20. Calendar year 2004 annual site environmental report:Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Wagner, Katrina; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2004. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004a). (DOE 2004a).

  1. Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert E.; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Engler, Bruce Phillip

    2006-08-01

    We present a technique that allows for the simultaneous acquisition and interpretation of both shear-wave and compressive-wave 3-D velocities. The technique requires no special seismic sources or array geometries, and is suited to studies with small source-receiver offsets. The method also effectively deals with unwanted seismic arrivals by using the statistical properties of the data itself to discriminate against spurious picks. We demonstrate the technique with a field experiment at the Facility for Analysis, Calibration, and Testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The resulting 3-D shear-velocity and compressive-velocity distributions are consistent with surface geologic mapping. The averaged velocities and V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio in the upper 30 meters are also consistent with examples found in the scientific literature.

  2. Verification testing of the PKI collector at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.; Pond, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    Verification testing of a solar collector was undertaken prior to its operation as part of an industrial process heat plant at Capitol Concrete Products in Topeka, Kansas. Testing was performed at a control plant installed at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNLA). Early results show that plant performance is even better than anticipated and far in excess of test criteria. Overall plant efficiencies of 65 to 80 percent were typical during hours of good insolation. A number of flaws and imperfections were detected during operability testing, the most important being a problem in elevation drive alignment due to a manufacturing error. All problems were corrected as they occurred and the plant, with over 40 hours of operation, is currently continuing operability testing in a wholly-automatic mode.

  3. Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Explosive Components Facility (ECF) at the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL). This facility is needed to integrate, centralize, and enhance many of the explosive, neutron generation, and weapons testing programs currently in progress at SNL. In general, there is insufficient space in existing facilities for the development and testing activities required by modern explosives technologies. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed ECF project and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  5. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed.

  6. Data quality of seismic records from the Tohoku, Japan earthquake as recorded across the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Marshall, B.; Hutt, C.R.; Storm, T.

    2012-01-01

    Great earthquakes recorded across modern digital seismographic networks, such as the recent Tohoku, Japan, earthquake on 11 March 2011 (Mw = 9.0), provide unique datasets that ultimately lead to a better understanding of the Earth's structure (e.g., Pesicek et al. 2008) and earthquake sources (e.g., Ammon et al. 2011). For network operators, such events provide the opportunity to look at the performance across their entire network using a single event, as the ground motion records from the event will be well above every station's noise floor.

  7. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  8. Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Calendar year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Site Office (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2007. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  9. Calendar Year 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Stacy

    2014-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs through December 31, 2013. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  10. Human factors evaluation of the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Regina Lee; Whitehurst, Hugh O.

    2003-11-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. Mixed waste may also be handled at the AHCF. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, was required to perform this mission. A checklist procedure was used to perform a human-factors evaluation of the AHCF modifications. This evaluation resulted in two recommendations, both of which have been implemented.

  11. Computer Network Availability at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM: Measurement and Perception

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,SPENCER D.; TOLENDINO,LAWRENCE F.

    1999-11-01

    The desire to provide a measure of computer network availability at Sandia National Laboratories has existed for along time. Several attempts were made to build this measure by accurately recording network failures, identifying the type of network element involved, the root cause of the problem, and the time to repair the fault. Recognizing the limitations of available methods, it became obvious that another approach of determining network availability had to be defined. The chosen concept involved the periodic sampling of network services and applications from various network locations. A measure of ''network'' availability was then calculated based on the ratio of polling success to failure. The effort required to gather the information and produce a useful metric is not prohibitive and the information gained has verified long held feelings regarding network performance with real data.

  12. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  13. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is operated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) mission to provide weapon component technology and hardware for national security needs. SNL/NM also conducts fundamental research and development to advance technology in energy research, computer science, waste management, microelectronics, materials science, and transportation safety for hazardous and nuclear components. In support of SNL's mission, the Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Center and the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at SNL/NM have established extensive environmental programs to assist SNL's line organizations in meeting all applicable local, State, and Federal environmental regulations and DOE requirements. This annual report for calendar year 1998 (CY98) summarizes the compliance status of environmental regulations applicable to SNL site operations. Environmental program activities include terrestrial surveillance; ambient air and meteorological monitoring hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste management; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental remediation; oil and chemical spill prevention; and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities. This report has been prepared in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990).

  14. Gamma Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed construction and operation of a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to: enhance capabilities to assure technical excellence in nuclear weapon radiation environments testing, component development, and certification; comply with all applicable ES and H safeguards, standards, policies, and regulations; reduce personnel radiological exposure to comply with ALARA limits in accordance with DOE orders and standards; consolidate major gamma ray sources into a central, secured area; and reduce operational risks associated with operation of the GIF and LICA in their present locations. This proposed action provides for the design, construction, and operation of a new GIF located within TA V and the removal of the existing GIF and Low Intensity Cobalt Array (LICA). The proposed action includes potential demolition of the gamma shield walls and removal of equipment in the existing GIF and LICA. The shielding pool used by the existing GIF will remain as part of the ACRR facility. Transportation of the existing {sup 60}Co sources from the existing LICA and GIF to the new facility is also included in the proposed action. Relocation of the gamma sources to the new GIF will be accomplished by similar techniques to those used to install the sources originally.

  15. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  16. Volcano seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  17. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  18. Albuquerque's Environmental Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Joan; And Others

    This teachers' resource guide contains four sections in addition to an introduction. The first section is an interdisciplinary look at the major natural areas in and around Albuquerque. This is followed by a review of the city's cultural history and a glimpse into the interactions people of Albuquerque have had with their natural environment. The…

  19. Bulletin of the Seismological Laboratory, January 1, 1975-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G M; Ryall, F D

    1980-11-01

    The determination of epicenters for earthquakes located in the western Great Basin, Nevada and eastern California, for the period 1975 to 1979 is summarized. The Laboratory attempts to identify and locate all earthquakes with M/sub L/ greater than about 2.5 in this region.

  20. Earthquake prediction research at the Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Nevertheless, basic earthquake-related information has always been of consuming interest to the public and the media in this part of California (fig. 2.). So it is not surprising that earthquake prediction continues to be a significant reserach program at the laboratory. Several of the current spectrum of projects related to prediction are discussed below. 

  1. Engineering seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    N.N, Ambraseys

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have elasped since the first issue of Earthquakes & Volcanoes. Apart from the remarkable increases in the number of scientists actively enagaged in earth sciences, what are the outstanding achievements during the past 20 years in the field of engineering seismology, which is my own speciality?

  2. Verification Survey of Rooms 113, 114, and 208 of the Inhalation Toxicology Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-06-25

    The objectives of the verification survey were to confirm that accessible surfaces of the three laboratories meet the DOE’s established criteria for residual contamination. Drain pipes and ductwork were not included within the survey scope.

  3. Review of Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque, New Mexico DOE/DP critical skills development programs FY03.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Katherine Sue; Wilson, Dominique Foley; Chalamidas, Anna K.

    2004-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia - and DP Complex - employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded nine laboratory critical skills development programs in FY03. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status.

  4. Review of Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque New Mexico DOE/DP Critical Skills Development Progrmas FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Anna K; Wilson, Dominique; CLARK, KATHERINE

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia - and DP Complex - employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded ten laboratory critical skills development programs in FY04. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status. 3

  5. Report of the workshop on Arctic oil and gas recovery held at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 30-July 2, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-09-01

    This report is the result of a workshop on Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery, held at Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico, on June 30-July 2, 1980. Research priorities for the technology related to Arctic offshore oil and gas production were defined. The workshop was preceded by a report entitled, A Review of Technology for Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Recovery, authored by Dr. W. M. Sackinger. The mission of the workshop was to identify research priorities without considering whether the research should be conducted by government or by industry. Nevertheless, at the end of the meeting the general discussion did consider this, and the concensus was that environmental properties should certainly be of concern to the government, that implementation of petroleum operations was the province of industry, and that overlapping, coordinated areas of interest include both environment and interactions of the environment with structures, transport systems, and operations. An attempt to establish relative importance and a time frame was made after the workshop through the use of a survey form. The form and a summary of its results, and a discussion of its implications, are given.

  6. Forensic seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thirlaway, H. I. S.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty years ago, politicians, concerned a the slow progress of negotiations to stop nuclear weapons testing, described the state of seismology as being in the equivalent of the Stone Age. this assessment spurred the beginning of research and development at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment near the village of Aldermaston, England. the object was to establish the limits of seismology for the detection and identification of underground explosions against a background of earthquakes. Thereby, verification that there was compliance with a treaty to ban further nuclear tests could be assessed before making political decisions. Negotiations now taking place in Geneva between the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom are aimed at such a treaty.  

  7. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  8. Successful remediation of four uranium calibration pits at Technical Area II, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.; Wade, M.; Tharp, T.; Copland, J.

    1994-12-31

    The first remediation of an Environmental Restoration (ER) Project site at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was successfully conducted in May and June 1994 at Technical Area II. The removal action involved four Uranium Calibration Pits (UCPs) filled with radioactive or hazardous materials. The concrete culvert pits were used to test and calibrate borehole radiometric logging tools for uranium exploration. The removal action consisted of excavating and containerizing the pit contents and contaminated soil beneath the culverts, removing the four culverts, and backfilling the excavation. Each UCP removal had unique complexities. Sixty 208-L drums of solid radioactive waste and eight 208-L drums of liquid hazardous waste were generated during the VCM. Two of the concrete culverts will be disposed as radioactive waste and two as solid waste. Uranium-238 was detected in UCP-2 ore material at 746 pci/g, and at 59 pci/g in UCP-1 silica sand. UCP-4 was empty; sludge from UCP-3 contained 122 mg/L (ppm) chromium.

  9. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.; Knight, P.J.

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  10. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James; McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  11. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

    1999-11-03

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  12. Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. In addition to Earth, seismometers have been installed on Venus, Mars, and the Moon. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon (now over 40 years ago) revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this talk I will discuss some of these methods and review the history of planetary seismology.

  13. UV - ALBUQUERQUE NM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 109 is located in Albuquerque NM, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc....

  14. Citizen Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Gilles, Sébastien; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In science, projects which involve volunteers for observations, measurements, computation are grouped under the term, Citizen Science. They range from bird or planet census to distributing computing on volonteers's computer. Over the last five years, the EMSC has been developing tools and strategy to collect information on earthquake's impact from the first persons to be informed, i.e. the witnesses. By extension, it is named Citizen Seismology. The European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), a scientific not-for-profit NGO, benefits from the high visibility of its rapid earthquake information services (www.emsc-csem.org) which attract an average of more than half a million visits a month from 160 countries. Witnesses converge to its site within a couple of minutes of earthquake's occurrence to find out information about the cause of the shaking they have just been through. The convergence generates brutal increases of hit rate which can be automatically detected. They are often the first indication about the occurrence of a felt event. Witnesses' locations are determined from their IP addresses. Localities exhibiting statistically significant increase of traffic are mapped to produce the "felt map". This map available within 5 to 8 minutes of the earthquake's occurrence represents the area where the event was felt. It is the fastest way to collect in-situ information on the consequences of an earthquake. Widespread damage region are expected to be mapped through a significant lack or absence of visitors. A second tool involving the visitors is an online macroseismic questionnaire available in 21 languages. It complements the felt maps as it can describes the level of shaking or damage, but is only available in 90 to 120 minutes. Witnesses can also share their pictures of damage. They used it also to provide us exceptional pictures of transient phenomena. With the University of Edinburgh, we are finalising a prototype named ShakemApple, linking Apple

  15. Seismology in Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kausel, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Geology and Geophysics, which is under the faculties of Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile, is the organization that is responsible for the Seismological Service of Chile and for installing,operating, and maintaining the seismological stations as well as all the strong-motion stations in Chile.

  16. Intellectual Freedom and the National Laboratories : 2000 Sigma Xi Forum New Ethical Challenges in Science and Technology, November 9-10, 2000, Albuquerque, New Mexico"

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, John C.

    2001-01-01

    As we move toward the 21st century, I believe the importance of the ethical system on which the scientific establishment, including the national laboratories, can build its contributions to society is becoming increasingly more important. Issues include the impact of the research we do, the trust we have between ourselves and the general public and the federal government, and the complexity of the problems that we work on. One of the most important roles that I see for research management in large institutions, like the national laboratories, is to create the appropriate environment for ethical behavior for all of its employees. Ethics and modern science demands that we create and live a set of shared values. As Bob Dynes pointed out this morning, we're not just talking about rules. We really must have values upon which we build and create the kind of behaviors we want to see. The major issue that I see in developing these shared values is that management and employees must jointly develop, socialize and live those shared values. In this session today, as I said, we want to explore the issues of intellectual freedom and ethical environment in government and the contracts under which the national laboratories operate. One of the laboratories is run by a nonprofit, the University of California, and the other is a paid-for-profit corporation. I don't know if there are any differences, depending on who the overseeing contractor is. I don't think there are, but it would be interesting to explore any differences we might see between the two. We have chosen the title 'Intellectual Freedom.' It's not academic freedom. Although, clearly, there are a lot of shared attributes between academic freedom and intellectual freedom. In our case, intellectual freedom allows our researchers to challenge technical decisions that are made by the laboratory, by the government or by their peers in their area of expertise, not in policy making, but in the scientific realm. It really does

  17. Foundations of Statistical Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vere-Jones, David

    2010-06-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of stochastic modelling in seismology, with special regard to the role and development of stochastic models for seismicity. Stochastic models are seen as arising in a hierarchy of roles in seismology, as in other scientific disciplines. At their simplest, they provide a convenient descriptive tool for summarizing data patterns; in engineering and other applications, they provide a practical way of bridging the gap between the detailed modelling of a complex system, and the need to fit models to limited data; at the most fundamental level they arise as a basic component in the modelling of earthquake phenomena, analogous to that of stochastic models in statistical mechanics or turbulence theory. As an emerging subdiscipline, statistical seismology includes elements of all of these. The scope for the development of stochastic models depends crucially on the quantity and quality of the available data. The availability of extensive, high-quality catalogues and other relevant data lies behind the recent explosion of interest in statistical seismology. At just such a stage, it seems important to review the underlying principles on which statistical modelling is based, and that is the main purpose of the present paper.

  18. Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) in order to highlight research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Albuquerque Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. These integrated program summaries include: Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils, Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soils, Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration, Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration, Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology, In Situ Remediation, Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration, Underground Storage Tank, Efficient Separations and Processing, Mixed Waste Integrated Program, Rocky Flats Compliance Program, Pollution Prevention Program, Innovation Investment Area, and Robotics Technology.

  19. Planetary seismology and interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.

    1979-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes knowledge gained in the area of planetary seismology in the period 1969-1979. Attention is given to the seismic instruments, the seismic environment (noise, characteristics of seismic wave propagation, etc.), and the seismicity of the moon and Mars as determined by the Apollo missions and Viking Lander experiments, respectively. The models of internal structures of the terrestrial planets are discussed, with the earth used for reference.

  20. Supporting Ice Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Fowler, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change research, and glaciology in particular, has increasingly embraced seismology in recent years. The NSF supported IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center is working with researchers to develop the unique instruments and techniques for collecting data in this challenging environment. Global concern with sea level change along with strategic interests of the US government and other nations is driving a large investment in glaciological climate research. A number of groups have demonstrated new seismologically-derived constraints on glaciological conditions and processes. Environmental challenges include remote and precarious locations, necessitating robust yet quickly deployable seismic stations and long periods of autonomous operation. Temperature extremes and the possibility of immersion from large annual snow loads, resulting in a deployment surface that can vary from 50 feet of snow cover to bare ice with large melt pools in a single season are additional major challenges. There is also an urgency created by studies indicating that the high latitude continental ice sheets are metastable and that behavior is changing now. Scientists are presently commonly utilizing adaptations of available instrumentation designed for low latitude and milder field conditions as appropriate, but seek better, more capable, and more flexible solutions, including integration of environmental sensors and real-time data telemetry and station control as some of these experiments evolve into a monitoring effort. Seismic instrumentation is only produced by a small number of companies and, innovation for new instruments takes time and requires substantial investment. While pursuing longer-term innovation funding strategies, we are also adapting current instrumentation paradigms to glaciological use (e.g., by leveraging the cold instrument development for research in Antarctica during the IPY). We are also encouraging industrial partners to respond to these demands and challenges with

  1. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  2. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  3. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: ˜0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions—earthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical—it was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The

  4. Computational aspects of seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Keith David

    Recent increases in computer speed and memory have opened the door to new analytical techniques in seismology. This dissertation focuses on the application of two such techniques: finite difference simulation of wave propagation in complex media, and genetic algorithm (GA) based searching for solutions to inverse problems. The first two chapters detail the use of a 3D finite difference algorithm in modeling the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the Tonga subduction zone. The large memory capacity of modern computers permits the use of a fine spatial grid, allowing for the accurate comparison of subtly varying velocity models. I contrast the theoretical traveltimes to local data that were recorded by two temporary deployments of broadband, land stations and ocean bottom seismometers. The primary results from these studies are: (1) it is not possible to distinguish between equilibrium and metastable models of subduction with travel time data, and (2) the same mechanism accounts for the fast, slab velocity anomaly and the slow, backarc velocity anomaly under the Lau spreading center---both are consistent with temperature perturbations, indicating that the role of partial melt is insignificant. The third and fourth chapters concern the application of GAs to two kinds of seismological inverse problems. The relatively fast speed of present day CPUs allows global search methods, such as GAs, to be feasible on realistic problems. In the third chapter I compare the performance of a GA based search with those of a series of more traditional, local descent methods on the problem of inverting PKP travel times for radial, P-wave models of the Earth's core and lowermost mantle. Even though both the model parametrization and dataset are heavily smoothed, there exist significant complexities in the error landscape (due to nonlinearities in the forward calculation) that render the GA method superior. In the fourth chapter I present a variant of a traditional GA, known as a

  5. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  6. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  7. Financial administration of work for nonfederal sponsors, DOE Field Office (AL), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office, Albuquerque (AL) is responsible for managing and controlling nonfederally sponsored work done by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The audit objective was to determine whether the funding of, and accounting for, work done under a 1984 funds-in agreement and work for others in Fiscal Year (FY) 1989 complied with laws, regulations, and policies.

  8. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: ˜0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions—earthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical—it was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The

  9. The GANSSER seismological network in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Our project investigates the Geodynamics ANd Seismic Structure of the Eastern-Himalaya Region (GANSSER). It aims to reveal the first seismological images beneath Bhutan and as such is a tribute to the late Augusto Gansser, geological discoverer of Bhutan [1]. Project GANSSER builds on the deployment of a temporary broadband seismometer network. This consists of 38 stations deployed across the Kingdom of Bhutan. Two south-north segments in the western and eastern part of the country constitute densely spaced lines of ca. 7 km inter-station distance with respectively 16 and 14 stations. The main technique to apply is receiver functions in order to image the Moho as it deepens from India to Tibet, thus revealing how the crust thickens in the Eastern Himalayas. Further 8 stations are located in-between these lines, in the central part of the country. The main purpose here is to characterize the seismicity of the country in a homogeneous manner. Altogether, the station network will allow the application of different classical seismological techniques, such as teleseismic, local earthquake, ambient noise and attenuation tomography. The dataset will also be exploited to try to locate landslides that cause a significant hazard, especially in and after the summer monsoon season. The station network described above has been deployed in January 2013 and is planned to operate until spring 2014. A first visit to the stations in April 2013 found operational conditions better than the average for temporary seismological networks. Data recovery in this time period exceeded 90%. Power spectral density diagrams indicate that the noise levels at our station sites are within the bounds of the Peterson Noise Model bounds [2] and in some cases are significantly less than the high-noise model. Starting April 2013 remote communications pathways with one third of the stations are tested. The scientific goals of Project GANSSER include: the determination of the structure and physical

  10. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  11. Seismology and the Wounded Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Active regions provide an opening in the Sun's surface that allow seismic waves to penetrate the overlying atmosphere. Some proportion then return due to reflection, with implications for "internal" seismology. This is illustrated using simulations with particular reference to "travel times" and acoustic halos.

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  13. On seismological moments and magnitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolt, B. A.

    1991-01-01

    My approach to seismology over the years has always been from the point of view of applied mathematics, as exemplified broadly by the work of the late Sir Harold Jeffreys and Professor K. E. Bullen. Both stresses the development of mathematics in the context of physical systems and of modeling, with an eye always on the side of inference. Seismology provided for them and still provides today the almost perfect paradigm; the problem is the resolution of the detailed consitution of the Earth and its geologically short-term dynamics. The latter part, includes, of course, seismic-risk estimation. The last 20 years have seen the construction of a brilliant theoretical  formalism for linear inverse problems in seismology , although, oddly enough, the current popular Earth models do not take account it. It is interesting too that the narrow opinion, prevelent a decade ago, to the effect that the traditional seismic body-wave approaches to structural definition were superceded, has been largely abandoned under today's banner of tomography-as though the Oldham-Jeffreys-Gutenbery inversions were not tomography. 

  14. Elastic Wave Propagation and Generation in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Jonathan M.

    The majority of mature seismologists of my generation were introduced to theoretical seismology via classic textbooks written in the early 1980s. Since this generation has matured and taken the mantle of teaching seismology to a new generation, several new books have been put forward as replacements, or alternatives, to the original classical texts. The target readers of the new texts range from beginner through intermediate to more advanced, although all have been attempts to improve upon what is now considered standard convention in quantitative seismology. To this plethora of choices we now have a new addition by Jose Pujol, titledElastic Wave Propagation and Generation in Seismology.

  15. 17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  16. 14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  17. 18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  18. 15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  19. 16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  20. The seismology of eta Bootes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarque, Pierre; Guenther, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    Some p-mode frequencies and other observations were used to determine the mass, the age and the helium abundance of eta Bootes. It is shown how, by direct application, the p-mode frequencies and stellar seismological tools help in constraining the physical parameters of eta Boo. The existence of mode bumping is confirmed and it is discussed how it may be used to refine the estimate of the eta Boo's age. The effect of the OPAL equation of state on the p-mode frequencies is described.

  1. Web Based Seismological Monitoring (wbsm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicepietro, F.; Meglio, V.; Romano, S. P.; de Cesare, W.; Ventre, G.; Martini, M.

    Over the last few decades the seismological monitoring systems have dramatically improved tanks to the technological advancements and to the scientific progresses of the seismological studies. The most modern processing systems use the network tech- nologies to realize high quality performances in data transmission and remote controls. Their architecture is designed to favor the real-time signals analysis. This is, usually, realized by adopting a modular structure that allow to easy integrate any new cal- culation algorithm, without affecting the other system functionalities. A further step in the seismic processing systems evolution is the large use of the web based appli- cations. The web technologies can be an useful support for the monitoring activities allowing to automatically publishing the results of signals processing and favoring the remote access to data, software systems and instrumentation. An application of the web technologies to the seismological monitoring has been developed at the "Os- servatorio Vesuviano" monitoring center (INGV) in collaboration with the "Diparti- mento di Informatica e Sistemistica" of the Naples University. A system named Web Based Seismological Monitoring (WBSM) has been developed. Its main objective is to automatically publish the seismic events processing results and to allow displaying, analyzing and downloading seismic data via Internet. WBSM uses the XML tech- nology for hypocentral and picking parameters representation and creates a seismic events data base containing parametric data and wave-forms. In order to give tools for the evaluation of the quality and reliability of the published locations, WBSM also supplies all the quality parameters calculated by the locating program and allow to interactively display the wave-forms and the related parameters. WBSM is a modular system in which the interface function to the data sources is performed by two spe- cific modules so that to make it working in conjunction with a

  2. Seismology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic events which took place during 1982 form the focus of this review on 1982 seismic research activities and projects. Funding problems for local and other networks, earthquake-prediction research (funded by National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977: P.L. 95-124), use of computers, and aftershocks are among the areas addressed. (JN)

  3. Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrhammer, Robert

    1978-01-01

    This past year has been a period of rethinking and consolidation of ideas on earthquake prediction. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act became public law. Significant advances in seismographic instrumentation and recording techniques took place and plans proceed to upgrade the capacity of some monitoring stations, using digital recording…

  4. Nitrous acid in Albuquerque, New Mexico, homes

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, J.D.; Brauer, M. ); Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E. )

    1993-05-01

    Experimental studies have shown that nitrogen acid species, particularly nitrous acid, are formed indoors during unvented combustion and by heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen dioxide. Limited measurements support the occurrence of nitrous acid production in occupied homes. The authors report additional measurements of HONO and NO[sub 2] in homes located in Albuquerque, NM, and assess the relationship with housing variables. Indoor HONO concentrations were found to be well correlated with indoor NO[sub 2] levels; HONO concentrations ranged from 5% to 15% of the measured NO[sub 2] concentrations. Given the correlation between HONO and NO[sub 2] in indoor environments, and the plausibility of HONO respiratory toxicity, investigations of respiratory health effects of unvented combustion should consider HONO, in addition to NO[sub 2], as a potentially hazardous indoor pollutant. 38 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Ionospheric seismology: The last step before true contributions to seismology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Rakoto, V.; Khelfi, K.; Rolland, L.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Coisson, P.; Drilleau, M.; Makela, J. J.; Walwer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric seismology, which was at most seen as an exotic way to record doubtful signals in the early 2000 has gain maturity, especially after the worldwide observations made during the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami. The last steps for important contributions in seismology will request however these data to be modeled and inverted in a way precise enough for new and original constraints on the seismic sources, amplitude of tsunamis and atmospheric/interior seismic/acoustic velocities profiles. Ionospheric observations are now able to provide time depending maps of the ionospheric waves, enabling the location of the sources, measurement of the wave speed and amplitude, for both acoustic waves above or close the epicenter or remotely observed Rayleigh and Tsunami waves. Are these data good enough for inversions? Are the modelling techniques good enought for inversions? We therefore first compare and illustrate the different observation techniques: ground, air-based and space-based GPS and airglow, focusing on the Tohoku 2011 and Haida Gwai earthquake and tsunamis, discuss the physics enabling the conversion of seismic waves into electron perturbation (for GPS data) and light emission (for airglow) and signal to noise issues. Comparison between data and waveforms modelling are then shown by using either Normal Mode summations for remote detections or Spectral Element techniques for local detections, with an emphasis in the later case on non-linear effects and TEC post-seismic depletions. A special attention is made on the sensitivity of the waveforms to the various parameters of the models, including the sensitivity of the conversion of the seismic to atmospheric signals with the atmosphere structure, the crust subsurface and the ocean thickness and the sensitivity of the conversion of the atmospheric to ionospheric signal with respect to local time, ionospheric state and magnetic latitude. We then present the perspectives in term of inversion for both the

  6. Global teaching of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  7. Flooding and conservation in the Albuquerque bosque

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.S.; Molles, M.C. Jr.; Valett, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in the conservation of the Middle Rio Grande bosque has grown rapidly in the last decade. During that period, private organizations as well as governmental agencies have sharpened their focus on the issue, and in doing so have contributed to the development of a bosque biological management plan for the river reach between Cochiti Dam and Elephant Butte Reservoir. This increased regional attention reflects a growing national and international concern about human impacts on fluvial processes in large floodplain rivers. Because they impound large amounts of a river`s discharge and interfere with its natural flooding regime, dams can seriously disrupt the relationship between river basin hydrology and riparian zone functioning. In western North America, this interference reduces cottonwood germination and survival and, as will be discussed, negatively affects key ecological processes in riparian communities. In this paper the authors first review how the decoupling of basin hydrology from riparian forest processes has begun to affect the integrity of the Middle Rio Grande bosque ecosystem. Then they propose an alternative management scheme, with emphasis on the Albuquerque bosque, that centers on restoring its ecosystem functioning.

  8. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION REPAIR LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  10. Seismology and space-based geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tralli, David M.; Tajima, Fumiko

    1993-01-01

    The potential of space-based geodetic measurement of crustal deformation in the context of seismology is explored. The achievements of seismological source theory and data analyses, mechanical modeling of fault zone behavior, and advances in space-based geodesy are reviewed, with emphasis on realizable contributions of space-based geodetic measurements specifically to seismology. The fundamental relationships between crustal deformation associated with an earthquake and the geodetically observable data are summarized. The response and spatial and temporal resolution of the geodetic data necessary to understand deformation at various phases of the earthquake cycle is stressed. The use of VLBI, SLR, and GPS measurements for studying global geodynamics properties that can be investigated to some extent with seismic data is discussed. The potential contributions of continuously operating strain monitoring networks and globally distributed geodetic observatories to existing worldwide modern digital seismographic networks are evaluated in reference to mutually addressable problems in seismology, geophysics, and tectonics.

  11. EPOS: Integrating seismological Research Infrastructures within Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck Van, Torild; Clinton, John; Haslinger, Florian; Michelini, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Seismological data, products and models are currently produced in Europe within individual countries or research organizations, and with the contribution of coordinating organizations like ORFEUS and EMSC. In spite of these partly scattered resources, significant scientific results are obtained, excellent monitoring and information systems are operational and a huge amount of research quality data is being archived and disseminated. The seismological community, however, realizes that an effective European-scale integration of seismological and related geophysical data, products and models, combined with broad and easy access, is needed to facilitate future top level geoscience, for example, to appropriately harness the technological advancements enabling large scale and near-real time data processing. Here we present the technical concepts and developments within European seismology that will build the next generation of integrated services. Within the EPOS initiative and a number of related projects, where seismology infrastructure and IT developments are merging, in depth discussions are on-going on how to realize an effective integration. Concepts and visions addressing the obviously complex challenges resulting from the current highly distributed facilities and resources in Europe are emerging and are already partly being implemented. We will provide an overview of developments within key EU projects (NERA, VERCE, COOPEUS, EUDAT, REAKT, COMMIT, etc) and demonstrate how these are in coherence with EPOS and other on-going global initiatives. Within seismology current focus is on addressing IT related challenges to a) organize distributed data archives, develop metadata attributes for improved data searching, specifically including quality indicators, and define products from data and/or models, and b) define and create(on-line) monitoring, data access and processing tools. While developments to meet those challenges originate partly from within the community

  12. Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

  13. Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L.; Solakov, D.; Nikolova, S.; Stoyanov, S.; Simeonova, S.; Zimakov, L. G.; Khaikin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) consists of a National Data Center (NDC), 13 stations equipped with RefTek High Resolution Broadband Seismic Recorders - model DAS 130-01/3, 1 station equipped with Quanterra 680 and broadband sensors and accelerometers. Real-time data transfer from seismic stations to NDC is realized via Virtual Private Network of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. The communication interruptions don't cause any data loss at the NDC. The data are backed up in the field station recorder's 4Mb RAM memory and are retransmitted to the NDC immediately after the communication link is re-established. The recorders are equipped with 2 compact flash disks able to save more than 1 month long data. The data from the flash disks can be downloaded remotely using FTP. The data acquisition and processing hardware redundancy at the NDC is achieved by two clustered SUN servers and two Blade Workstations. To secure the acquisition, processing and data storage processes a three layer local network is designed at the NDC. Real-time data acquisition is performed using REFTEK's full duplex error-correction protocol RTPD. Data from the Quanterra recorder and foreign stations are fed into RTPD in real-time via SeisComP/SeedLink protocol. Using SeisComP/SeedLink software the NDC transfers real-time data to INGV-Roma, NEIC-USA, ORFEUS Data Center. Regional real-time data exchange with Romania, Macedonia, Serbia and Greece is established at the NDC also. Data processing is performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package running on the both Servers. SNDP includes subsystems: Real-time subsystem (RTS_SNDP) - for signal detection; evaluation of the signal parameters; phase identification and association; source estimation; Seismic analysis subsystem (SAS_SNDP) - for interactive data processing; Early warning subsystem (EWS_SNDP) - based on the first arrived P-phases. The signal detection process is performed by

  14. Research on history of Chinese seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Rui; Wu, Yuxia

    2010-06-01

    The history of Chinese seismology can be traced back to four thousand years before and divided into four stages, i.e., primitive knowledge, worship of nature, perceptual knowledge and scientific research. The second stage ran in the whole Qin-Han dynasties, and the fourth stage began from Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty and continued to the present. So far China has made four great contributions to seismological development of the world, i.e., the invention of Heng Zhang’s seismoscope, great amount of historical records of earthquakes of four thousand years, most abundant anomaly data before earthquakes, and successful practice of earthquake prediction in Haicheng. However, the seismological research in China at present is still on the junior and developing stage. Now we have been carrying on some recessively historical load in our mind such as the subconsciousness of absolute obedience, habit of phenomenological study as well as the methods of philosophical analysis without sincerity. For constructing a high-level Chinese culture in seismological research, we need to pay attention to combining the phenomenological research with experiment, observation and theory study. It is also suggested to take the appropriated measures matched with the present research level in seismology, as well as to promote coexisting and merging of multi-cultures.

  15. High-performance computing in seismology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  16. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  17. Coronal seismology using transverse loop oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verwichte, E.; Foullon, C.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Smith, H. M.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    Coronal seismology exploits the properties of magnetohydrodynamics in the corona of the Sun to diagnose the local plasma. Therefore, seismology complements direct diagnostic techniques, which suffer from line-of-sight integration or may not give access to all physical quantities. In particular, the seismological exploitation of fast magnetoacoustic oscillations in coronal loops provides information about the global magnetic and density structuring of those loops acting as wave guides. From the oscillation period and damping time it is shown how to obtain information about the local coronal magnetic field as well as the longitudinal and transverse structuring. Furthermore, such studies motivate the development of coronal wave theories, which are also relevant to the coronal heating problem.

  18. Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kawasumi, Hirosi

    1950-01-01

    In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

  19. Nonlinear seismology a reality. The quantitative data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, G.; Cioflan, C. O.; Marmureanu, A.

    2012-04-01

    Nonlinear effects in ground motion during large earthquakes have long been a controversial issue between seismologists and geotechnical engineers. The central point of the discussion in last 10-15 years was whether soil amplification is function of earthquake magnitude. Laboratory tests made by using Hardin or Drnevich resonant columns consistently show the decreasing of dynamic torsion function(G) and increasing of torsion damping function(D%) with shear strains(γ) induced by deep strong Vrancea earthquakes; G = G(γ), respectively, D%= D%(γ),therefore nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive laws are required. Nonlinear amplification at sediments sites appears to be more pervasive than seismologists used to think...Any attempt at seismic zonation must take into account the local site condition and this nonlinear amplification (Aki, A., Local Site Effects on Weak and Strong Ground Motion, Tecto-nophysics, 218, pp.93-111, 1993). The difficulty to seismologists in demonstrating the nonlinear site effects has been due to the effect being overshadowed by the overall patterns of shock generation and propagation. In other words, the seismological detection of the nonlinear site effects requires a simultaneous understanding of the effects of earthquake source, propagation path and local geological site conditions. In main ground motion equation, ground displacement u(t) has general form: u(t)=s(t)*g(t)*i(t),where s(t),g(t) and i(t) are source, propagation and, respectively, instrument recording functions. The authors, in order to make quantitative evidence of large nonlinear effects, introduced and developed the concept of the nonlinear spectral amplification factor (SAF) as ratio between maximum spectral absolute acceleration (Sa), relative velocity (Sv ), relative displacement (Sd) from response spectra for a fraction of critical damping (ζ %) at fundamental period or any other period and peak values of acceleration (amax), velocity (vmax) and displacement (dmax

  20. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  1. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Artistic Homes, Albuquerque, NM

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Artistic Homes of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Describes the first true zero E-scale home in a hot-dry climate with ducts inside, R-50 attic insulation, roof-mounted photovoltaic power system, and solar thermal water heating.

  2. Evaluation of the Albuquerque Indian School Motivational Environment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiat, Albert B.; And Others

    In order to evaluate the impact of a token economy behavior modification program implemented from 1970-71 in the Albuquerque Indian School (AIS), a secondary institution, a five-member evaluation team assessed standardized test results, behavioral data, and student and staff attitudes. A battery of tests (Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, SRA…

  3. Wastewater reclamation and recharge: A water management strategy for Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Gorder, P.J.; Brunswick, R.J.; Bockemeier, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 61,000 acre-feet of the pumped water is annually discharged to the Rio Grande as treated wastewater. Albuquerque`s Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) is the primary wastewater treatment facility for most of the Albuquerque area. Its current design capacity is 76 million gallons per day (mgd), which is expected to be adequate until about 2004. A master plan currently is being prepared (discussed here in Wastewater Master Planning and the Zero Discharge Concept section) to provide guidelines for future expansions of the plant and wastewater infrastructure. Construction documents presently are being prepared to add ammonia and nitrogen removal capability to the plant, as required by its new discharge permit. The paper discusses water management strategies, indirect potable reuse for Albuquerque, water quality considerations for indirect potable reuse, treatment for potable reuse, geohydrological aspects of a recharge program, layout and estimated costs for a conceptual reclamation and recharge system, and work to be accomplished under phase 2 of the reclamation and recharge program.

  4. RESPECT: Gang Mediation at Albuquerque, New Mexico's Washington Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabish, Kenneth R.; Orell, Linda Henry

    1996-01-01

    Presents conflict resolution and mediation techniques used to resolve conflicts among rival gangs at Washington Middle School, an inner-city school in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Discusses formal mediation techniques and mediation for both male and female gang members. Focuses on preserving self-respect and dignity for gang members in all conflict…

  5. Nars: Over 30 Years of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulssen, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is fair to say that modern seismology steadily evolved from a handful key initiatives and innovations dating back to the early 1980s. (1) The transition from non-mobile, narrow band sensors with analogue recording (pre-1980s) to portable, broadband sensors with digital recorders paved the way to flexible deployments, enabling various array and regional studies with the same instrumentation. Here I mention just two initiatives: NARS, which was the first digital, mobile network of broadband stations deployed in western Europe (1983-1987), and USarray (2003- ), which is the biggest program of recent times. Presently, innovative data acquisition systems for the oceans are underway and they will allow future imaging of the "inaccessible" parts of the Earth. (2) In the 1980s seismological data centers were set up to facilitate data archiving and distribution. Since then, open data exchange (not a matter of course) and easy data retrieval have become standard. The impact of this has been phenomenal: most observational studies efficiently retrieve data from these main seismological data centers and the archived seismograms are used for various types of studies, carried out by different persons and groups. (3) Seismic tomography changed the face of seismological research. From travel time to waveform tomography, from ray theory to finite frequency tomography: new and improved tomographic techniques greatly enhanced our images (and understanding) of the Earth's interior. (4) Many of these developments would not have been possible without young, motivated, seismologists that were educated and stimulated by insightful supervisors. One person has had a major impact on all these fields. NARS in the title stands for Nolet greatly Advanced Research in Seismology.

  6. Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2011-12-01

    The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. Examples of activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge include: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduce students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere? - An activity that

  7. Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Hubenthal, M.; Taber, J.

    2012-12-01

    The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. The activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge are: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduces students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). -A suite of activities that introduce students to oil and gas exploration, including an activity that

  8. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  9. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar. PMID:16208360

  10. Forensic Seismology and Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Wallace, T.

    2002-12-01

    Forensic seismology was first termed by H.I.S. Thirlaway in the late 1950s to describe what is now known as verification seismology. In nuclear monitoring it is often the study of anomalous events that for some reason caused an operational system to break down. Examples of events that have elicited study include abnormal mining explosions, mine collapse and rockbursts, earthquakes near nuclear test sites and anomalous nuclear explosions. Analysis of these anomalous disturbances has been the key to understanding source physics. This information in turn, has improved our understanding of the physical basis of seismic event identification, yield estimation, and evasion scenarios. In this talk, we will review examples of anomalous disturbances from different types of sources and how the subsequent analysis led to an improved understanding the effect of source phenomenology on nuclear explosion monitoring.

  11. CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1989-04-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  13. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey and City of Albuquerque hydrologic investigations program

    SciTech Connect

    McAda, D.

    1995-12-31

    The US Geological Survey and Albuquerque have been cooperating in data collection programs and interpretive studies since 1982. The paper presents summaries on recently completed and ongoing projects, detailing the objectives, principal investigator, period of the project, and reports released or reports in progress on each study. Project names are: Ground-water-level monitoring network in the Albuquerque Basin; Water budget of the Rio Grande flood plain in the Albuquerque area; Modeling of groundwater flow in the Albuquerque Basin; Continuation of ground water flow modeling in the Albuquerque Basin; Evaluation of methods to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, near Albuquerque; Aquifer compaction and land subsidence in the Albuquerque, NM area; Aquifer test at the Griegos Well Field, Albuquerque, NM; Quality of urban stormwater runoff; Rio Grande water quality; Determining accurate concentrations and loads of trace elements and other selected chemical constituents in the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, NM; Digital geophysical-log data base; and Water quality data for the Albuquerque Basin.

  14. Evaluation of Machine Guarding Pilot course taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 25--27, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    This section summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Machine Guarding which was conducted at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This class was the second pilot course taught. This report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course, and provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were lower than normal and reflect problems that were encountered in this class. The course and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded some of the students' expectations of the course and results from the final examination indicated that the majority of students gained significant knowledge from the course while others were distracted and gained little from the course. A graph showing the distribution is included.

  15. Evaluation of Machine Guarding Pilot course taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 25--27, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    This section summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Machine Guarding which was conducted at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This class was the second pilot course taught. This report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course, and provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments. Numeric course ratings were lower than normal and reflect problems that were encountered in this class. The course and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded some of the students` expectations of the course and results from the final examination indicated that the majority of students gained significant knowledge from the course while others were distracted and gained little from the course. A graph showing the distribution is included.

  16. Rotational Seismology Workshop of February 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Cochard, A.; Graizer, Vladimir; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hutt, Charles R.; Igel, H.; Lee, William H.K.; Liu, Chun-Chi; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Nigbor, Robert; Safak, Erdal; Savage, William U.; Schreiber, U.; Teisseyre, Roman; Trifunac, Mihailo; Wassermann, J.; Wu, Chien-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Introduction A successful workshop titled 'Measuring the Rotation Effects of Strong Ground Motion' was held simultaneously in Menlo Park and Pasadena via video conference on 16 February 2006. The purpose of the Workshop and this Report are to summarize existing data and theory and to explore future challenges for rotational seismology, including free-field strong motion, structural strong motion, and teleseismic motions. We also forged a consensus on the plan of work to be pursued by this international group in the near term. At this first workshop were 16 participants in Menlo Park, 13 in Pasadena, and a few on the telephone. It was organized by William H. K. Lee and John R. Evans and chaired by William U. Savage in Menlo Park and by Kenneth W. Hudnut in Pasadena. Its agenda is given in the Appendix. This workshop and efforts in Europe led to the creation of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS), an international volunteer group providing forums for exchange of ideas and data as well as hosting a series of Workshops and Special Sessions. IWGoRS created a Web site, backed by an FTP site, for distribution of materials related to rotational seismology. At present, the FTP site contains the 2006 Workshop agenda (also given in the Appendix below) and its PowerPoint presentations, as well as many papers (reasonable-only basis with permission of their authors), a comprehensive citations list, and related information. Eventually, the Web site will become the sole authoritative source for IWGoRS and shared information: http://www.rotational-seismology.org ftp://ehzftp.wr.usgs.gov/jrevans/IWGoRS_FTPsite/ With contributions from various authors during and after the 2006 Workshop, this Report proceeds from the theoretical bases for making rotational measurements (Graizer, Safak, Trifunac) through the available observations (Huang, Lee, Liu, Nigbor), proposed suites of measurements (Hudnut), a discussion of broadband teleseismic rotational

  17. Radio seismology of the outer solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoliy; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Konovalenko, Alexander; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Rucker, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Observed oscillations of coronal loops in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines have been successfully used to estimate plasma parameters in the inner corona (< 0.2R0, where R0 is the solar radius). However, coronal seismology in EUV lines fails for higher altitudes because of rapid decrease in line intensity. We aim to use radio observations to estimate the plasma parameters of the outer solar corona (> 0.2R0). We used the large Ukrainian radio telescope URAN-2 to observe type IV radio bursts at the frequency range of 8-32 MHz during the time interval of 09:50-12:30 UT on April 14, 2011. The burst was connected to C2.3 flare, which occurred in AR 11190 during 09:38-09:49 UT. The dynamic spectrum of radio emission shows clear quasi-periodic variations in the emission intensity at almost all frequencies. Wavelet analysis at four different frequencies (29 MHz, 25 MHz, 22 MHz, and 14 MHz) shows the quasi-periodic variation of emission intensity with periods of ~ 34 min and ~ 23 min. The periodic variations can be explained by the first and second harmonics of vertical kink oscillation of transequatorial coronal loops, which were excited by the same flare. The apex of transequatorial loops may reach up to 1.2 R0 altitude. We derive and solve the dispersion relation of trapped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a longitudinally inhomogeneous magnetic slab. The analysis shows that a thin (with width to length ratio of 0.1), dense (with the ratio of internal and external densities of ≥ 20) magnetic slab with weak longitudinal inhomogeneity may trap the observed oscillations. Seismologically estimated Alfvén speed inside the loop at the height of ~ 1 R0 is ~ 1000 km s-1. The magnetic field strength at this height is estimated as ~ 0.9 G. Extrapolation of magnetic field strength to the inner corona gives ~ 10 G at the height of 0.1 R0. Radio observations can be successfully used for the sounding of the outer solar corona, where EUV observations of coronal loops fail

  18. Data User's Note: Apollo seismological investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Seismological objectives and equipment used in the passive seismic, active seismic, lunar seismic profiling, and the lunar gravimeter experiments conducted during Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions are described. The various formats in which the data form these investigations can be obtained are listed an an index showing the NSSDC identification number is provided. Tables show manned lunar landing missions, lunar seismic network statistics, lunar impact coordinate statistics, detonation masses and times of EP's, the ALSEP (Apollo 14) operational history; compressed scale playout tape availability, LSPE coverage for one lunation, and experimenter interpreted events types.

  19. EPOS-Seismology: building the Thematic Core Service for Seismology during the EPOS Implementation Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Florian; EPOS Seismology Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    After the successful completion of the EPOS Preparatory Phase, the community of European Research Infrastructures in Seismology is now moving ahead with the build-up of the Thematic Core Service (TCS) for Seismology in EPOS, EPOS-Seismology. Seismology is a domain where European-level infrastructures have been developed since decades, often supported by large-scale EU projects. Today these infrastructures provide services to access earthquake waveforms (ORFEUS), parameters (EMSC) and hazard data and products (EFEHR). The existing organizations constitute the backbone of infrastructures that also in future will continue to manage and host the services of the TCS EPOS-Seismology. While the governance and internal structure of these organizations will remain active, and continue to provide direct interaction with the community, EPOS-Seismology will provide the integration of these within EPOS. The main challenge in the build-up of the TCS EPOS-Seismology is to improve and extend these existing services, producing a single framework which is technically, organizationally and financially integrated with the EPOS architecture, and to further engage various kinds of end users (e.g. scientists, engineers, public managers, citizen scientists). On the technical side the focus lies on four major tasks: - the construction of the next generation software architecture for the European Integrated (waveform) Data Archive EIDA, developing advanced metadata and station information services, fully integrate strong motion waveforms and derived parametric engineering-domain data, and advancing the integration of mobile (temporary) networks and OBS deployments in EIDA; - the further development and expansion of services to access seismological products of scientific interest as provided by the community by implementing a common collection and development (IT) platform, improvements in the earthquake information services e.g. by introducing more robust quality indicators and diversifying

  20. CSDP: The seismology of continental thermal regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1990-05-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 3 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. The past year has been extremely productive especially in the area of interpretation theory, including the following two major break-throughs. One is the derivation of an integral equation for time-dependent power spectra, which unified all the existing theories on seismic scattering (including the radiative transfer theory for total energy and single and multiple scattering theories based on the ray approach) and offers more complete and economical solutions to the problems of seismic scattering and attenuation. The other is the new formula for synthetic seismograms for layered media with irregular interfaces, combining the T-matrix method for an arbitrary shaped inclusion and the method of global generalized reflection/transmission coefficients for layered media. Both breakthroughs will enable us to deal with seismic observations in complex earth structures more efficiently and accurately. In the area of experimental studies, we discovered seismic guided waves trapped in the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. 54 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Seismological Applications of the Stockwell Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Ben Horin, Y.; Fraser, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Time-frequency analysis has a long history in seismology, beginning with the use of the Hilbert Transform for computing seismic pulse distortion (Choy and Richards 1975) of teleseismic events and for computing the instantaneous phase and frequency in exploration seismology (Taner, Koehler and Sheriff, 1979). In the early 1990's computational algorithms shifted away from Fourier based time-frequency techniques to wavelet-based methods, introduced by Daubechies (1988, 1990). more recently a variant of the continuous wavelet transform, the Stockwell transform was developed by Stockwell, Mansinha and Lowe (1996) and converted to a dyadic representation in a very general setting by Brown, Lauzon and Frayne (2010). This generalized version of the Stockwell transform we shall refer to as the GST. In this presentation we will apply the GST in two different ways. First we will show how the GST can be used as a possible discriminant between controlled quarry blasts set off in the Negev and earthquakes. The GST analysis clearly demonstrates the impulsive character of the controlled blasts. A second application focuses on using the GST as a frequency-based travel-time picker. This application will compare the travel-time picks obtained using the first moment of the GST with those obtained using the instantaneous frequency computed via the analytic signal. The second application demonstrates the robustness of the GST-based travel-time picker, which does not have the stability issues inherent in the computation of the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal.

  2. Seismology of Sun and stars and related opacity laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turck-Chièze, S.

    2012-02-01

    CNES, ESA and NASA have invested in helioseismic and asteroseismic disciplines for 2 decades with SoHO (1995-2015), COROT (2006-2013), KEPLER (2009-2014), PICARD (2010-2013) and SDO (2010-2015). These missions focus on the stellar internal dynamics and their influence of neighboring planets. Progress along this path requires that the microscopic physics is well under control, but several seismic probes indicate some discrepancies which justify new investigations of the energy transport in radiative zones of the Sun and massive stars, despite strong efforts dedicated to reaction rates, screening, equation of state and opacity coefficients between 1990 and 2000. We describe here how the OPAC consortium tackles the complex problem of photon absorption by matter both theoretically and experimentally, by using high energy laser facilities. These studies might be also useful for other disciplines like fusion for energy and X-ray spectroscopy astronomy.

  3. 76 FR 81836 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County's PSD permitting requirements for their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EPA is... FR 59334). The comment period was open for thirty days and no comments were received. II. What...

  4. Report & Evaluations on Opportunities Conference (Albuquerque Indian School, New Mexico, January 19, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Eulynda

    The conference was attended by 53 high school seniors and 65 parents, teachers, administrators, and counselors from Albuquerque Public Schools, Los Lunas, Bernalillo, Jemez, Grants, and Albuquerque Indian School. After an opening address and two speakers, participants attended three workshops. In the first workshop, a panel of students presented…

  5. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Board. 62.7856 Section 62.7856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board. (a) Identification of Plan. Albuquerque-Bernalillo... County Air Quality Control Board on November 9, 2005. (b) Identification of Sources. The plan applies...

  6. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Board. 62.7856 Section 62.7856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board. (a) Identification of Plan. Albuquerque-Bernalillo... County Air Quality Control Board on November 9, 2005. (b) Identification of Sources. The plan applies...

  7. Suggested notation conventions for rotational seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    We note substantial inconsistency among authors discussing rotational motions observed with inertial seismic sensors (and much more so in the broader topic of rotational phenomena). Working from physics and other precedents, we propose standard terminology and a preferred reference frame for inertial sensors (Fig. 1) that may be consistently used in discussions of both finite and infinitesimal observed rotational and translational motions in seismology and earthquake engineering. The scope of this article is limited to observations because there are significant differences in the analysis of finite and infinitesimal rotations, though such discussions should remain compatible with those presented here where possible. We recommend the general use of the notation conventions presented in this tutorial, and we recommend that any deviations or alternatives be explicitly defined.

  8. The seismology of geothermal regimes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have been developing seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in geothermal areas for a better understanding of the earth`s geothermal regimes. The questions the y have addressed in their research may be summarized as ``What is going on in the earth`s crust under tectonically active regions; what are the structures and processes responsible for such activities as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; and how can one capture their essence effectively by means of seismological studies?`` First, the authors found clear evidence for localization of scattered seismic energy in the deep magmatic system of the volcano on the island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean. The seismic coda of local earthquakes show concentrated energy in the intrusive zones as late as 30 to 40 seconds after the origin time. This offers a very effective method for defining a zone of strong heterogeneity on a regional scale, complementary to the high resolution study using trapped modes as pursued in the past project. Secondly, the authors identified about 700 long-period events with various frequencies and durations from the data collected during the past 5 years which included three episodes of eruption. They are applying a finite-element method to the simplest event with the longest period and the shortest duration in order to find the location, geometry and physical properties of their source deterministically. The preliminary result described here suggests that their sources may be a horizontally lying magma-filled crack at a shallow depth under the summit area. In addition to the above work on the Reunion data, they have continued the theoretical and observational studies of attenuation and scattering of seismic waves.

  9. Upgrading the Northern Finland Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkilahti, Janne; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hurskainen, Riitta; Nevalainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish National Seismic Network (FNSN) comprises national Helsinki University Seismological network (HE) ISUH and the Northern Finland Seismological Network (FN) hosted by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) of the University of Oulu. The FN network currently consists of four real-time permanent stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 broad band seismometers that are recording continuous digital seismic data. At present, the network is a part of GEOFON Extended Virtual Network and of the ORFEUS Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network. In the future, the network will be the part of EPOS-European Plate Observing System research infrastructure. As a part of EPOS project activities, the SGO started to upgrade their own network in 2014. The main target of the network upgrade is to increase the permanent station coverage in the European Arctic region, particularly behind the Polar Circle. Another target is to transform the network into a broadband seismic array capable to detect long-period seismic signals originating from seismic events in the Arctic. The first upgrade phase started in 2014, when two new stations were installed and now are working in the test regime. These stations are used as prototypes for testing seismic equipment and technical solutions for real-time data transmission and vault construction under cold climate conditions. The first prototype station is installed in a surface vault and equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensor, while the other one is installed in a borehole and equipped with Trillium Posthole seismometer. These prototype stations have provided to us valuable experience on the downhole and surface deployment of broadband seismic instruments. We also have been able to compare the capabilities and performance of high sensitivity broadband sensor deployed in borehole with that deployed in surface vault. The results of operation of prototype stations will be used in site selection and installation of four new

  10. 77 FR 8926 - Board Meeting: March 7, 2012-Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... public meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on Wednesday, March 7, 2012. The meeting will focus on... Yale Blvd. SE., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106; (Tel) 505-843-7000; (Fax) 505-843-6307. A block of...

  11. Surface water and groundwater for growth in the Albuquerque Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Balleau, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The current situation is one of increasing water demand for municipal, industrial, recreational and environmental maintenance. Municipal use is increasing at about 25,000 a-f/y per decade. Each new purpose of use is bidding to obtain water used by existing purposes. Agricultural water is susceptible to transfer. The theme of this conference, The Water Future of Albuquerque and Middle Rio Grande Basin, arises from concern about the aquifer`s capacity and longevity, the limitations on Rio Grande impacts, and access to water rights for future consumption. The author`s perspective on managing these three components of the situation is presented, while acknowledging other important issues about water quality, environmental goals, land subsidence, Bosque preservation and economic burdens and benefits.

  12. The lithosphere in central Europe—seismological and petrological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuška, V.; Plomerová, J.

    1992-06-01

    The lithosphere thickness in the Variscan belt of central Europe varies between about 60 and 150 km with typical values of 100-120 km. Our estimates, derived from directionally independent representative P-wave residuals, are in good agreement with magnetotelluric determinations of a layer with increased conductivity in the upper mantle. The large-scale anisotropies of the subcrustal lithosphere beneath four seismological stations determined from spatial variations of relative P residuals vary between 6.5 and 15.2% for P velocities; the S-wave anisotropies determined from SKS polarizations vary between 2.2 and 6.7%. These values are in reasonable agreement with the anisotropies of peridotites determined in laboratory. Systematic spatial variations of the directional terms of relative residuals in dependence on azimuths and incidence angles suggest the existence of large dipping anisotropic structures in the subcrustal lithosphere. The residual patterns at most stations in the Saxothuringicum, Rhenohercynicum and in the Massif Central imply northwesterly orientated dips of the anisotropic structures while stations in the Moldanubicum, the Alpine Foredeep and most of the Alps north of the Insubric line, suggest southeasterly orientated dips. In our interpretation the dipping anisotropic structures may represent paleosubductions which retain olivine preferred orientations originating from an ancient oceanic lithosphere. The Variscides of central Europe may thus represent a collision zone characterized by two systems of paleosubductions divergent relative to the suture between the Moldanubicum and the Saxothuringicum.

  13. Saturn Ring Seismology: Interpreting the Seismogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2013-01-01

    Marley (1990) and Marley and Porco (1993) proposed that f-mode oscillations of Saturn could excite resonant density and bending waves in the inner C-ring. They hypothesized that certain wave features discovered by Rosen et al. (1991) that were not associated with known satellite resonances could be the result of such resonant interactions with the planetary oscillation modes. They also predicted that if this was the case the waves would be found to be density (and not bending) waves by Cassini and predicted the azimuthal wave number of the C-ring waves m. Employing Cassini VIMS stellar occultation data Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have now confirmed the predictions and demonstrated that at least some of the C-ring features identified by Rosen et al. are indeed likely caused by resonant oscillation modes of Saturn. Given this context we have taken a fresh look at the Saturn ring seismology. First we propose that an apparent bending wave denoted 'j' by Rosen may be a second order outer vertical resonance with the l=3, m=2 f-mode of Saturn and discuss the locations of other plausible second order resonances in the rings. Since only a handful of ring resonances have been identified, measuring even one or two additional planetary mode frequencies would substantially assist the process of inverting mode frequencies to constrain Saturn interior's structure. Using the available mode frequencies, modern inversion technique employed in stellar seismology, and a recent set of Saturn interior models we provide an initial estimation of what available mode frequencies are telling us about the interior structure of the planet. Since the f-modes are confined relatively closely to the planetary surface, most of the observed modes probe only the outermost layers of the planet that are already comparatively well understood. However the l = 2 mode does probe relatively deeply into the planet and we will discuss the potential the measurement of this mode frequency has for placing new

  14. Weak Elastic Anisotropy in Global Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the major features of the Earth's interior were discovered using the concepts of isotropic seismology; however, subtle features require more realistic concepts. Although the importance of anisotropy has been known for over 50 years, only in the last decade has the increasing quality and quantity of data forced the wide recognition that anisotropyis crucial for accurate descriptions of upper mantle structure. The persistence of the "plume hypothesis", in spite of abundant evidence to the contrary, is partly based on the neglect of anisotropy, sparse and biased ray coverage, and the misuse of Occam's razor. Whereas isotropic inversion of teleseismic near-vertical travel-time datasets suggests the presence of deep vertical zones of low velocity (interpreted as mantle plumes), anisotropic inversion of data having a range of polarizations and directions of approach suggests instead shallow zones of relatively high anisotropy. This raises the possibility that current understanding of manyof the subtle features of Earth structure could be erroneous, caused by over-simplified analysis. The simplest plausible anisotropic model is that of polar anisotropy ("VTI" [sic!]), with a radial symmetry axis. The essential idea which makes anisotropic seismology feasible is the recognition that, in the Earth, the anisotropy is almost invariably weak, and the anisotropic equations (linearized in appropriately chosen small parameters) are quite simple (see below). These equations show that, to first order, the anisotropic variation of velocity is not governed by the individual Cab , but rather by the combinations of parameters given above. Hence, inversions should seek these combinations, rather than the individual moduli. The Rayleigh velocity VR is a simple function of VS0 and the P- and SV- anisotropies. The Love velocity VL is a complicated function of VS0 and the SH anisotropy γ. The simplest plausible model of azimuthal anisotropy is orthorhombic (not ("HTI" [sic

  15. a Collaborative Cyberinfrastructure for Earthquake Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Lefebvre, S.; Steed, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the challenges in real time seismology is the prediction of earthquake's impact. It is particularly true for moderate earthquake (around magnitude 6) located close to urbanised areas, where the slightest uncertainty in event location, depth, magnitude estimates, and/or misevaluation of propagation characteristics, site effects and buildings vulnerability can dramatically change impact scenario. The Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) has developed a cyberinfrastructure to collect observations from eyewitnesses in order to provide in-situ constraints on actual damages. This cyberinfrastructure takes benefit of the natural convergence of earthquake's eyewitnesses on EMSC website (www.emsc-csem.org), the second global earthquake information website within tens of seconds of the occurrence of a felt event. It includes classical crowdsourcing tools such as online questionnaires available in 39 languages, and tools to collect geolocated pics. It also comprises information derived from the real time analysis of the traffic on EMSC website, a method named flashsourcing; In case of a felt earthquake, eyewitnesses reach EMSC website within tens of seconds to find out the cause of the shaking they have just been through. By analysing their geographical origin through their IP address, we automatically detect felt earthquakes and in some cases map the damaged areas through the loss of Internet visitors. We recently implemented a Quake Catcher Network (QCN) server in collaboration with Stanford University and the USGS, to collect ground motion records performed by volunteers and are also involved in a project to detect earthquakes from ground motions sensors from smartphones. Strategies have been developed for several social media (Facebook, Twitter...) not only to distribute earthquake information, but also to engage with the Citizens and optimise data collection. A smartphone application is currently under development. We will present an overview of this

  16. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  17. Educational Seismology in Michigan: The MIQuakes Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; DeWolf, C. L.; Ruddock, J.; Svoboda, M. R.; Sinclair, J.; Schepke, C.; Waite, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    MIQuakes is a K-14 educational seismograph network currently consisting of 17 schools, mostly located in Michigan's lower peninsula. It is operated under the auspices of the Michigan Earth Science Teachers Association (MESTA) and is part of the IRIS Seismographs in Schools program. Although individual teachers in Michigan have had instruments as early as 1992, MESTA formed MIQuakes in 2010 to support the development of activities associated with classroom seismology appropriate for grades 6-12 and relevant to the Midwest, using locally recorded data. In addition, the deployment of the EarthScope transportable array in Michigan during 2011-2014 offered a tie in with a national-level research program. Michigan State University (MSU) and Michigan Tech provide content and technical support. In keeping with MESTA's philosophy of 'teachers helping teachers,' MIQuakes became, first and foremost, a group supported by teachers. Earthquake 'alerts' initially issued by MSU, were soon taken over by teachers who took the initiative in alerting each other to events, especially those that occurred during the school day. In-service teachers and university faculty have jointly organized workshops at MSU and at MESTA conferences - with teachers increasingly providing activities for sharing and relating the program to the new national standards. Workshops held to date have covered such topics as recognizing arrivals, filtering, focal mechanisms, and the Tohoku earthquake. As the group has grown, the degree of involvement and level of expertise have become broader, resulting in very different expectations from different teachers. How to keep the network cohesive, yet meet the needs of the individual members, will be one of the challenges of the next few years. Three levels of involvement by teachers are seen in the near term: those who operate their own classroom seismometer (currently either the short-period IRIS AS-1 or the broadband EAS-S102 seismometers); those who stream a nearby

  18. Wysession begins term as Eos Section Editor for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael

    In mid-April, Michael Wysession, an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University, embarked on a 3-year term as section editor of Eos for seismology. Wysession brings to the position a strong background in research and teaching. Below are a few remarks from Wysession.“I recently became the new seismology editor for Eos. I look forward to presenting the many exciting areas of seismological research to the entire geophysical community. I have taught at Washington University since obtaining my Ph.D. at Northwestern University in 1991. My interest in seismology began during my undergraduate years at Brown University (Sc.B., 1984), but my experience as an educator began after I graduated and taught high school math and physics in Staten Island, N.Y.

  19. Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.

    2012-09-26

    One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

  20. Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC): a new permanent seismological network in the Southern Aegean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Aegean region which comprises the Hellenic arc and the adjacent areas of the Greek mainland, the Aegean Sea and western Turkey, is one of the most seismically active zones of the world and the most active in western Eurasia due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The seismic activity especially in the southern Aegean area is very intense and extends up to a depth of about 180 km. The seismicity of South Aegean is extremely high and is characterised by the frequent occurrence of large shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes. Crete marks the forearc high of the modern Hellenic subduction zone in the eastern Mediterranean. In order to in order to provide modern instrumental coverage of seismicity in the South Aegean, as well as some more insight into the stress and deformation fields, tectonics, structure and dynamics of the Hellenic Arc from which will be possible to retrieve information about the rupture process, a seismological network of high dynamic range is installed. It is called HSNC (Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete) and consists of 11 permanent seismological stations equipped with short period and broadband seismographs coupled with 3rd generation 24bit data loggers as well as from 4 accelerographs. HSNC is rapidly expanded and expected to have complete 18 permanent seismological stations and 12 accelerographs by the end of April 2009. Data transmission and telemetry is based on conventional TCP/IP communication using a hybrid network consisting of dedicated wired ADSL links as well as VSAT links by using the private satellite hub located at lab of Geophysics & Seismology (LGS) at Chania, Crete. Data centre is equipped with a high performance computing cluster capable of providing real time estimations as well as to support great number experimental investigations using the on line or offline data streams. Prototype software solutions are developed for monitoring and controlling network elements, to automate

  1. Summary of urban stormwater quality in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storms, Erik F.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Locke, Evan A.; Stevens, Michael R.; Romero, Orlando C.

    2015-01-01

    The stormwater quality in Albuquerque was compared with that of six other Western U.S. cities (Phoenix, Arizona; Tucson, Arizona; Las Vegas, Nevada; Denver, Colorado; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Boise, Idaho) for selected constituents. In general, water-quality data for stormwater samples from these six other Western U.S. cities were similar to water-quality data for the stormwater samples from the Albuquerque outfalls. Median concentrations for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and bacteria (E. coli and fecal coliform) in stormwater samples from the Albuquerque outfalls, as a whole, were higher than those in samples from the other Western U.S. cities except for Las Vegas.

  2. The U.S. Educational Seismology Network (USESN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Taber, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Two years ago, a new national science outreach initiative, the U.S. Educational Seismology Network (USESN), was initiated under the auspices of the IRIS Consortium. The mission of the USESN is to promote the use of seismo¬graphs and seismic data for science education. This project has emerged out of several independent educational seismology initiatives, whose collective efforts have resulted in the development of a 300+ station national school seismograph network. The USESN effort is envisioned to include support for a full range of educational seismograph options, from display-oriented, stand-alone systems to networked broadband instruments. USESN seeks to provide an organizational structure for the coordination of the numerous educational seismology activities that are developing across the country. In this presentation, we focus on the goals and opportunities for a collective educational seismology enterprise. The primary goals of the USESN initiative are disseminate high-quality curricular materials and educational services that promote the use of seismology in science education; and (3) provide an organizational framework for coordination and advocacy of educational seismology across the country. Based on discussions at a 2003 national workshop, we summarize the primary goals for the initiative in terms of priorities for curriculum development, professional development, technical issues, and organizational structure. Additional information about the USESN initiative can be found at http://www.indiana.edu/~usesn and http://www.iris.edu/.

  3. Chemical and seismological constraints on mantle heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Helffrich, George

    2002-11-15

    Recent seismological studies that use scattered waves to detect heterogeneities in the mantle reveal the presence of a small, distributed elastic heterogeneity in the lower mantle which does not appear to be thermal in nature. The characteristic size of these heterogeneities appears to be ca. 8 km, suggesting that they represent subducted recycled oceanic crust. With this stimulus, old ideas that the mantle is heterogeneous in structure, rather than stratified, are reinterpreted and a simple, end-member model for the heterogeneity structure is proposed. The volumetrically largest components in the model are recycled oceanic crust, which contains the heat-producing elements, and mantle depleted of these and other incompatible trace elements. About 10% of the mantle's mass is made up of recycled oceanic crust, which is associated with the observed small-scale seismic heterogeneity. The way this heterogeneity is distributed is in convectively stretched and thinned bodies ranging downwards in size from 8 km. With the present techniques to detect small bodies through scattering, only ca. 55% of the mantle's small-scale heterogeneities are detectable seismically. PMID:12460477

  4. Ground Truth Accuracy Tests of GPS Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, P.; Oberlander, D. J.; Davis, J. L.; Baena, R.; Ekstrom, G.

    2005-12-01

    As the precision of GPS determinations of site position continues to improve the detection of smaller and faster geophysical signals becomes possible. However, lack of independent measurements of these signals often precludes an assessment of the accuracy of such GPS position determinations. This may be particularly true for high-rate GPS applications. We have built an apparatus to assess the accuracy of GPS position determinations for high-rate applications, in particular the application known as "GPS seismology." The apparatus consists of a bidirectional, single-axis positioning table coupled to a digitally controlled stepping motor. The motor, in turn, is connected to a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip that synchronously sequences through real historical earthquake profiles stored in Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory's (EPROM). A GPS antenna attached to this positioning table undergoes the simulated seismic motions of the Earth's surface while collecting high-rate GPS data. Analysis of the time-dependent position estimates can then be compared to the "ground truth," and the resultant GPS error spectrum can be measured. We have made extensive measurements with this system while inducing simulated seismic motions either in the horizontal plane or the vertical axis. A second stationary GPS antenna at a distance of several meters was simultaneously collecting high-rate (5 Hz) GPS data. We will present the calibration of this system, describe the GPS observations and data analysis, and assess the accuracy of GPS for high-rate geophysical applications and natural hazards mitigation.

  5. 75 FR 7031 - Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination... firm. In the request for reconsideration, the petitioners alleged that Xilinx, Inc. shifted...

  6. The GINGERino ring laser gyroscope, seismological observations at one year from the first light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, Andreino; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Di Virgilio, Angela; Carelli, Giorgio; Maccioni, Enrico; De Luca, Gaetano; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    The GINGERino ring laser gyroscope (RLG) is a new large observatory-class RLG located in Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), one national laboratory of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The GINGERino apparatus funded by INFN in the context of a larger project of fundamental physics is intended as a pathfinder instrument to reach the high sensitivity needed to observe general relativity effects; more details are found at the URL (https://web2.infn.it/GINGER/index.php/it/). The sensitivity reached by our instrument in the first year after the set up permitted us to acquire important seismological data of ground rotations during the transit of seismic waves generated by seisms at different epicentral distances. RLGs are in fact the best sensors for capturing the rotational motions associated with the transit of seismic waves, thanks to the optical measurement principle, these instruments are in fact insensitive to translations. Ground translations are recorded by two seismometers: a Nanometrics Trillium 240 s and Guralp CMG 3T 360 s, the first instrument is part of the national earthquake monitoring program of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and provides the ground translation data to be compared to the RLG rotational data. We report the waveforms and the seismological analysis of some seismic events recorded during our first year of activity inside the LNGS laboratory.

  7. UTIG's Contributions to Seismology in K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) conducts research in many areas of seismology, including the study of earthquakes, the structure of Earth's interior and targeted geologic settings, and the development of methods to monitor nuclear explosions. In addition, UTIG scientists engage in educational outreach that takes seismology and its applications into K-12 classrooms. Activities include (1) the development of standards-aligned, inquiry-based curriculum materials that use real seismic data to convey concepts in earthquake seismology and which introduce modern technologies based on the principles of seismology; (2) a year-long teacher professional development institute that incorporates seismology and teacher workshops at which scientists, GK-12 Fellows and teachers team up to deliver science content and learning activities; and (3) a "Teacher in the Field" program through which teachers have participated in marine geophysical cruises to study tectonic processes in the Bransfield Strait, Hess Deep, Terror Rift in the Ross Sea, the southeastern Caribbean, and the Blanco Fracture Zone. UTIG has supported these efforts through grants from the NSF and state agencies, and by partnering with other programs and organizations. For example, teacher workshops were organized around public lectures by IRIS/SSA Distinguished Speakers Roger Bilham (Global Death and Construction: Earthquakes on an Urban Planet) and David Wald (Rapid Earthquake Information: Citizen Science and New Tools for Emergency Response) and presented as part of The University of Texas Environmental Science Institute Outreach Lecture Series.

  8. Accuracy assessment of high-rate GPS measurements for seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Ekström, G.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of GPS measurements with a controlled laboratory system, built to simulate the ground motions caused by tectonic earthquakes and other transient geophysical signals such as glacial earthquakes, enables us to assess the technique of high-rate GPS. The root-mean-square (rms) position error of this system when undergoing realistic simulated seismic motions is 0.05~mm, with maximum position errors of 0.1~mm, thus providing "ground truth" GPS displacements. We have acquired an extensive set of high-rate GPS measurements while inducing seismic motions on a GPS antenna mounted on this system with a temporal spectrum similar to real seismic events. We found that, for a particular 15-min-long test event, the rms error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates was 2.5~mm, with maximum position errors of 10~mm, and the error spectrum of the GPS estimates was approximately flicker noise. These results may however represent a best-case scenario since they were obtained over a short (~10~m) baseline, thereby greatly mitigating baseline-dependent errors, and when the number and distribution of satellites on the sky was good. For example, we have determined that the rms error can increase by a factor of 2--3 as the GPS constellation changes throughout the day, with an average value of 3.5~mm for eight identical, hourly-spaced, consecutive test events. The rms error also increases with increasing baseline, as one would expect, with an average rms error for a ~1400~km baseline of 9~mm. We will present an assessment of the accuracy of high-rate GPS based on these measurements, discuss the implications of this study for seismology, and describe new applications in glaciology.

  9. Northern Finland Seismological Network: a tool to analyse long-period seismological signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Elena; Hurskainen, Riitta

    2014-05-01

    Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory of Oulu University (SGO) is located at 67° 22' N, 26° 38' E in the middle of Finnish Lapland. It was established in 1913 and since then has gained a long experience in carrying out multidisciplinary geophysical observations in Arctic environment. Seismological observations at the University of Oulu and SGO have been carried out since 1965. During 2005-2008 the SGO modernized own sort-period permanent seismic network, enhanced the number of stations and equipped them with the VBB seismic sensors. The stations are located at latitudes from 650 N to 680 N. They form the Northern Finland Seismological Network (NFSN) that will be the part of Finnish EPOS research infrastructure in the future. The continuous seismic data of the NFSN are archived in the GFZ Seismological Data Archive of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany) and in the own backup archive of the SGO. At the moment, the data of the NFSN are routinely used for monitoring of seismic activity in Northern Europe and world-wide and information about seismic events is published in several on-line bulletins. Due to the recent mineral exploration and mining boom in northern Finland, a new task for the NFSN will be recording and analysis of mining-induced seismicity and estimating of seismic hazard associated with it. During installation of instruments of the NFSN, particular measures were taken in order to improve instruments performance at long periods. In Arctic conditions the performance of broadband seismic instruments is affected by large ambient temperature variations and geomagnetic field disturbances (geomagnetic pulsations). In 2007-2009 the NFSN was a part of the POLENET/LAPNET IPY project. In addition to lithosphere structure studies, the project aimed at registration of long-period glacial seismic events originating from Greenland Ice Sheet. Analysis of data recorded by the NFSN during the IPY demonstrated that the network is capable to record not only long

  10. VERCE - CPU-intensive Applications in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Leong, Siew Hoon; Zad, Kasra Hosseini; Krischer, Lion; Carpene, Michele; Ferini, Graziella; Trani, Luca; Spinuso, Alessandro; Magnoni, Federika; Casarotti, Emanuele; Gemünd, André; Weissenbach, David; Klampanos, Iraklis; Igel, Heiner

    2013-04-01

    Recently, advances in computational seismology have culminated in the development of a range of scientific codes enabling the calculation of highly accurate 3D wave and rupture propagation in complex 3D media at unprecedented scales and level of detail. Fortunately, the computational hardware has grown at rates at least as vigorous, to match up to the heavy requirements in CPU and memory imposed by realistic applications. However, as algorithmic and hardware complexity increases, making them work efficiently has become difficult: legacy codes need to be adapted and maintained by the community to meet the requirements of the new computational environments and the handling of large volumes of expensively generated data has become a challenge in itself. Within the VERCE (www.verce.eu) project, several specific use cases have been developed, exemplifying the challenges ahead. Seismic 3D-forward modelling of a large number of recorded earthquakes on a continental scale represents a model use case involving HPC. The simulation will be carried out on an HPC machine (SuperMUC, PLX), the resulting data submitted to a publicly accessible community Data-Center (ORFEUS) with the possibility to interactively mine and process the data using Grid infrastructure (Fraunhofer-SCAI, IPGP). As this basic workflow will need to be repeated for each solver, model, frequency range or processing option over and over again, the elements need to be connected within a workflow environment, allowing easy customization, job monitoring and visualisation of results. In collaboration with our VERCE partners, it was possible to define a basic core architecture for the VERCE platform for the proposed use case. Currently established components include JSAGA for job submission to GRAM, gLite Cream, gLite WMS as well as UNICORE6 instances, GridFTP for file transfer, using VOMS enabled certificate-based authentification. Additionally, a few suggested community applications (Seissol, Specfem3D Sesame

  11. Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future

  12. Career in Feet-on Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Lee, S.

    2011-12-01

    My career award was for imaging the upper mantle beneath North America. The research proposed was timely because of Earthscope and novel because of the proposed simultaneous inversion of different types of seismic data as well as the inclusion of mineral physics data on the effects of volatiles on seismic properties of the mantle. This research has been challenging and fun and is still on-going. The educational component of my career award consists of feet-on and eyes-open learning of seismology through an educational kiosk and field trips to actual seismic stations. The kiosk and field station have both been growing over the years, as has the audience. I started with the field station in-doors, so it doubled as the kiosk along with a palmtop terminal. Groups of minority elementary school children would look at the mysterious hardware of the "field" station and then jump up and down so they could awe at the peaks in the graph on the palmtop screen that they created. This has evolved into a three-screen kiosk, of which one screen is a touch screen along with a demonstration seismometer. The field station is now in a goat shed near the epicenter of an actual 2010 earthquake inIllinois, which is soon to be replaced by a TA station of Earthscope. The audience has grown to entire grades of middle-school children and activities have evolved from jumping to team-experimentation and the derivation of amplitude-distance relationships following a collaborative curriculum. Addressing the questions in the session description: 1) Education is more fun and effective when one can work in a team with an enthusiastic educator. 2) My education activities are strongly related to my field of expertise but very loosely related to the research carried out with the career award. It appears that not the research outcomes are of interest to students, but instead the simplification and accessibility of the process of research that is of interest. 3) The education component of the career

  13. Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to

  14. ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology and Seismological Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, Lion; Megies, Tobias; Barsch, Robert; Beyreuther, Moritz; Wassermann, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Python combines the power of a full-blown programming language with the flexibility and accessibility of an interactive scripting language. Its extensive standard library and large variety of freely available high quality scientific modules cover most needs in developing scientific processing workflows. ObsPy extends Python's capabilities to fit the specific needs that arise when working with seismological data. It a) comes with a continuously growing signal processing toolbox that covers most tasks common in seismological analysis, b) provides read and write support for many common waveform, station and event metadata formats and c) enables access to various data centers, webservices and databases to retrieve waveform data and station/event metadata. In combination with mature and free Python packages like NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, IPython and PyQt, ObsPy makes it possible to develop complete workflows in Python, ranging from reading locally stored data or requesting data from one or more different data centers via signal analysis and data processing to visualization in GUI and web applications, output of modified/derived data and the creation of publication-quality figures. All functionality is extensively documented and the ObsPy Tutorial and Gallery give a good impression of the wide range of possible use cases. ObsPy is tested and running on Linux, OS X and Windows and comes with installation routines for these systems. ObsPy is developed in a test-driven approach and is available under the GPL/LGPLv3 open source licences. Users are welcome to request help, report bugs, propose enhancements or contribute code via either the user mailing list or the project page on GitHub.

  15. Evaluation of machine guarding pilot course taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, December 9, 1991--December 13, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Machine Guarding which was conducted December 9--13 at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This class was the first pilot course taught. Additionally, this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Included is a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  16. Evaluation of machine guarding pilot course taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, December 9, 1991--December 13, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Machine Guarding which was conducted December 9--13 at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This class was the first pilot course taught. Additionally, this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Included is a transcript of the trainees` written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students` expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  17. New science education initiative brings seismology into the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Phinney, Robert A.; Steinberg, Daniel; Owens, Thomas J.; Hall-Wallace, Michelle

    Prince Galitsin's invention of the electromagnetic seismograph in 1914 revolutionized the young science of seismology. Now, the venerable research instrument is proving to have an equally powerful impact—in the arena of public education. Over the past 5 years, a number of initiatives have extended the boundaries of seismology research outside the ivory towers of research institutions and into America's schools, museums, and teaching colleges. These initiatives are built on the premise that educational seismology offers a special opportunity for capturing students' innate curiosity for natural phenomena in the world around them, and that this curiosity can be used to teach a wealth of fundamental principles of physics and Earth science. These school-based seismograph stations, now numbering in the hundreds, are demonstrating a growing potential to contribute both to science education and scientific research.

  18. Lifecycle of Seismological Data at IAG-USP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirchiner, M.; Assumpção, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    Historically the Brazilian Seismology never had a strategic vision solidified about how their data should be acquired, evaluated, stored and made available. The emergence of BRASIS (Integrated Seismological Network of Brazil) besides significantly increase the amount of acquired data also increases the number of analyses and possible uses of such data. At this point became clear the chance to implement an adequate management plan to cover this shortcoming. The 'integrated' nature of this network (made jointly by autonomous research groups) makes it even more critical aspects like authorship, authority, data access policies, among others. The purpose of this work is to present and criticize the efforts of IAG-USP Seismology Group in order to design and apply a data management plan that addresses data lifecycle as it has been discussed by the international community.

  19. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P

    2014-05-27

    Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle. PMID:24821817

  20. Nuclear test ban verification: Recent Canadian research in forensic seismology

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.Y.

    1991-07-01

    Seismology provides the primary means for monitoring nuclear explosions that take place underground. Improved seismographic hardware, Canadian research expertise, and the availability of a vast proving ground (the Canadian land mass which bears close resemblance with other regions of nuclear test ban verification interest), are all helping Canada become an increasingly notable contributor to the highly specialized branch of forensic seismology. The report describes: (1) verification and its rationale; (2) the basic tasks of seismic verification; (3) the physical basis for earthquake/explosion source discrimination and explosion yield determination; (4) the technical problems pertaining to seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests; (5) the basic problem solving strategy deployed by the forensic seismology research team at the University of Toronoto; and (6) the scientific significance of the team's research.

  1. A look at dynamic time warping in seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikesell, T. D.; Malcolm, A. E.; Mordret, A.; Bozdag, E.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic time warping (DTW) is a method used to compare two time series. The idea is to search for a warping function that minimizes the misfit between the two time series. In seismology we can use DTW to measure arrival time differences in seismic traces or spatial differences in seismic images. Here we give an overview of the method and applications in seismology. We focus on a coda wave interferometry example and a waveform inversion example. We will cover the advantages of dynamic time warping; for example, DTW has been shown to outperform windowed-cross correlation when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Finally, we will highlight new directions in which this method may find more application in seismology.

  2. Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis II : Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, N. S.; Russell, S.; Sudderth, E.

    2009-12-01

    accepting such complex moves need not be hand-designed. Instead, they are automatically determined by the underlying probabilistic model, which is in turn calibrated via historical data and scientific knowledge. Consider a small seismic event which generates weak signals at several different stations, which might independently be mistaken for noise. A birth move may nevertheless hypothesize an event jointly explaining these detections. If the corresponding waveform data then aligns with the seismological knowledge encoded in the probabilistic model, the event may be detected even though no single station observes it unambiguously. Alternatively, if a large outlier reading is produced at a single station, moves which instantiate a corresponding (false) event would be rejected because of the absence of plausible detections at other sensors. More broadly, one of the main advantages of our MCMC approach is its consistent handling of the relative uncertainties in different information sources. By avoiding low-level thresholds, we expect to improve accuracy and robustness. At the conference, we will present results quantitatively validating our approach, using ground-truth associations and locations provided either by simulation or human analysts.

  3. COST Action ES1401 TIDES: a European network on TIme DEpendent Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Using the full-length records of seismic events and background ambient noise, today seismology is going beyond still-life snapshots of the interior of the Earth, and look into time-dependent changes of its properties. Data availability has grown dramatically with the expansion of seismographic networks and data centers, so as to enable much more detailed and accurate analyses. COST Action ES1401 TIDES (TIme DEpendent Seismology; http://tides-cost.eu) aims at structuring the EU seismological community to enable development of data-intensive, time-dependent techniques for monitoring Earth active processes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, glacial earthquakes) as well as oil/gas reservoirs. The main structure of TIDES is organised around working groups on: Workflow integration of data and computing resources; Seismic interferometry and ambient noise; Forward problems and High-performance computing applications; Seismic tomography, full waveform inversion and uncertainties; Applications in the natural environment and industry. TIDES is an open network of European laboratories with complementary skills, and is organising a series of events - workshops and advanced training schools - as well as supporting short-duration scientific stays. The first advanced training school was held in Bertinoro (Italy) on June 2015, with attendance of about 100 participants from 20 European countries, was devoted to how to manage and model seismic data with modern tools. The next school, devoted to ambient noise, will be held in 2016 Portugal: the program will be announced at the time of this conference. TIDES will strengthen Europe's role in a critical field for natural hazards and natural resource management.

  4. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Mexico and Central and South America.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results from seismological studies that are used by the engineering community are just one of the benefits obtained from research aimed at mitigating the earthquake hazard. In this issue of Earthquake Information Bulletin current programs in seismology and earthquake engineering, seismic networks, future plans and some of the cooperative programs with different internation organizations are described by Latin-American seismologists. The article describes the development of seismology in Latin America and the seismological interest of the OAS. -P.N.Chroston

  5. Water management policy for the Albuquerque Basin: What can we learn from Tucson?

    SciTech Connect

    McGuckin, M.

    1995-12-31

    Albuquerque long believed itself to be a uniquely gifted city, an enchanted exotic anomaly, a desert metropolis with plentiful water stored in the deep alluvial sand and gravel sloughed off the Sandia Mountains. That is, until 1992, when the US Geological Survey`s report entitled Geohydrologic Framework and Hydrologic Conditions in the Albuquerque Basin in Central New Mexico revealed a fault, or rather several, in their water plan. The aquifer is not all of a piece. Instead of a veritable lake underfoot, there is a series of ponds or isolated cells of water. Tucson and Albuquerque have long been, in a sense, sister cities; they share similar physical situations, but with one major difference: in Tucson it has always been understood there wasn`t much water, not in the upland Sonoran Desert. The author outlines the recent history of water management policy in Tucson with possible lessons for Albuquerque. There are some very important differences between the two cities. The first is that in Tucson, water is, for the most part, a local issue. What Albuquerque decides to do with their water affects every community along the Rio Grande, but in addition, by rippling through the economy what they decide to do impacts every community in the state. And secondly, Tucson is the terminus of the Central Arizona Project (CAP).

  6. Seismo-Live: Training in Seismology with Jupyter Notebooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, Lion; Tape, Carl; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    Seismological training tends to occur within the isolation of a particular institution with a limited set of tools (codes, libraries) that are often not transferrable outside. Here, we propose to overcome these limitations with a community-driven library of Jupyter notebooks dedicated to training on any aspect of seismology for purposes of education and outreach, on-site or archived tutorials for codes, classroom instruction, and research. A Jupyter notebook (jupyter.org) is an open-source interactive computational environment that allows combining code execution, rich text, mathematics, and plotting. It can be considered a platform that supports reproducible research, as all inputs and outputs may be stored. Text, external graphics, equations can be handled using Markdown (incl. LaTeX) format. Jupyter notebooks are driven by standard web browsers, can be easily exchanged in text format, or converted to other documents (e.g. PDF, slide shows). They provide an ideal format for practical training in seismology. A pilot-platform was setup with a dedicated server such that the Jupyter notebooks can be run in any browser (PC, notepad, smartphone). We show the functionalities of the Seismo-Live platform with examples from computational seismology, seismic data access and processing using the ObsPy library, seismic inverse problems, and others. The current examples are all using the Python programming language but any free language can be used. Potentially, such community platforms could be integrated with the EPOS-IT infrastructure and extended to other fields of Earth sciences.

  7. Effects of Seismological and Soil Parameters on Earthquake Energy demand in Level Ground Sand Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    nabili, sara; shahbazi majd, nafiseh

    2013-04-01

    Liquefaction has been a source of major damages during severe earthquakes. To evaluate this phenomenon there are several stress, strain and energy based approaches. Use of the energy method has been more focused by researchers due to its advantages with respect to other approaches. The use of the energy concept to define the liquefaction potential is validated through laboratory element and centrifuge tests as well as field studies. This approach is based on the hypothesis that pore pressure buildup is directly related to the dissipated energy in sands which is the accumulated areas between the stress-strain loops. Numerous investigations were performed to find a relationship which correlates the dissipated energy to the soil parameters, but there are not sufficient studies to relate this dissipated energy, known as demand energy, concurrently, to the seismological and the soil parameters. The aim of this paper is to investigate the dependency of the demand energy in sands to seismological and the soil parameters. To perform this task, an effective stress analysis has been executed using FLAC finite difference program. Finn model, which is a built-in constitutive model implemented in FLAC program, was utilized. Since an important stage to predict the liquefaction is the prediction of excess pore water pressure at a given point, a simple numerical framework is presented to assess its generation during a cyclic loading in a given centrifuge test. According to the results, predicted excess pore water pressures did not closely match to the measured excess pore water pressure values in the centrifuge test but they can be used in the numerical assessment of excess pore water pressure with an acceptable degree of preciseness. Subsequently, the centrifuge model was reanalyzed using several real earthquake acceleration records with different seismological parameters such as earthquake magnitude and Hypocentral distance. The accumulated energies (demand energy) dissipated in

  8. The role of instruments in the history of Geophysics: the case of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    Science is the study that leads to discriminate knowledge of the material world based on observation, experiment and induction. Geophysics is the combination of the former concern about the explanation of every day phenomena in our enviroment, with the achievements of physics that were exploited within the laboratory, either by experiments or by theoreticians. Unlike other disciplines such as physics or chemistry, geophysics is a mosaic of disciplines also very different among each other. The main differences concern the object and method of study or the evolutionary path. Many cyclic phenomena of the Earth are long-term processes so that a long period of study is essential to a thorough understanding. Extreme natural events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, etc. significantly contribute to the natural hazards. So, in seismology, volcanology, hydrogeology, as in those disciplines who study significant changes in climate or in geomagnetism, long time series of data are very useful, along with the instruments that registered them and the scientific paradigms within which they were produced. These aspects, contributing to the history of geophysics, are extremely useful especially for the fallout on the mankind's life and activities.To be useful, as well as the recovery, the historical data must be "normalized" to the current use we want to do of them. This process makes an essential contribution to knowledge of the instruments that recorded this data: their principles of operation, their constants and their variability over time. Many of the disciplines involved in geophysics, as seismology, geomagnetism, etc. require observations both geographically distributed and synchronized. Geomagnetic and seismological recordings, together with astronomical and meteorological observations have been frequently done in the same observatories, in the past. Despite their relative cyclic nature, since earthquakes may not occur in the exact same way, thorough analysis

  9. Evaluation results after seven years of operation for the permanent Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Hloupis, G.; Papadopoulos, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Hellenic arc and the adjacent areas of the Greek mainland are the most active in western Eurasia and some of the most seismically active zones of the world. The seismicity of South Aegean is extremely high and is characterised by the frequent occurrence of large shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes. Until 2004, the installed seismological stations from several providers (NOA, GEOFON, MEDNET) provide average interstation distance around 130km resulting to catalogues with minimum magnitude of completeness (Mc) equals to 3.7. Towards to the direction of providing dense and state of the art instrumental coverage of seismicity in the South Aegean, HSNC begun its operation in 2004. Today it consists of (12) permanent seismological stations equipped with short period and broadband seismographs coupled with 3rd generation 24bit data loggers as well as from (2) accelerographs . The addition of HSNC along with combined use of all the active networks in South Aegean area (NOA, GEOFON, AUTH) decrease the average interstation distance to 60km and provide catalogues with Mc≥3.2. Data transmission and telemetry is implemented by a hybrid network consisting of dedicated wired ADSL links as well as VSAT links by using a unique private satellite hub. Real time data spread over collaborating networks (AUTH) and laboratories (Department of Earth Science - UCL) while at the same time, events are appended automatically and manually to EMSC database. Additional value to the network is provided by means of prototype systems which deployed in-situ for the purposes of: a) Acquiring aftershock data in the minimum time after main event. This is a mobile seismological network called RaDeSeis (Rapid Deployment Seismological network) which consists of a central station acting also as the central communication hub and wifi coupled mobile stations. b) The development of dedicated hardware and software solutions for rapid installation times (around 1 hour for each station) leading to

  10. Using seismology to map water in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobden, Laura; Thio, Vincent; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-04-01

    Water has a major influence on tectonic and other geodynamic processes, yet little is known about its quantity and distribution within the deep Earth. Laboratory experiments on "nominally anhydrous" minerals (NAMs) have shown that in the transition zone these minerals can contain significant amounts of water (up to ~3.3 wt%). We investigate if it is possible to use seismic observations to distinguish between a hydrous and anhydrous transition zone. We perform an extensive literature search of mineral experimental data, to generate a compilation of the water storage capacities, elastic parameters and phase boundary data for potentially hydrous minerals in the transition zone, and use thermodynamic modelling to compute synthetic seismic profiles of density, Vp and Vs at transition zone temperatures and pressures. We find that large uncertainties on the mineral phase equilibria (ca. 2 GPa) and elastic properties produce a wide range of seismic profiles. In particular, there is a lack of data at temperatures corresponding to those along a 1300 °C adiabat or hotter, which may be expected at transition zone pressures. Comparing our hydrous transition zone models with equivalent profiles at anhydrous conditions, we see that the depths of the 410 and 660 discontinuities cannot at present be used to map the water content of the transition zone due to these uncertainties. Further, while average velocities and densities inside the transition zone clearly decrease with increasing water content, there is a near-perfect trade-off with increases in temperature. It is therefore difficult to distinguish thermal from water effects, and the conventional view of a slow and thick transition zone for water and slow and thin transition zone for high temperature should be regarded with caution. A better diagnostic for water may be given by the average velocity gradients of the transition zone, which increase with increasing water content (but decrease for increasing temperature). However

  11. Big Data and High-Performance Computing in Global Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, Ebru; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Lei, Wenjie; Peter, Daniel; Smith, James; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    Much of our knowledge of Earth's interior is based on seismic observations and measurements. Adjoint methods provide an efficient way of incorporating 3D full wave propagation in iterative seismic inversions to enhance tomographic images and thus our understanding of processes taking place inside the Earth. Our aim is to take adjoint tomography, which has been successfully applied to regional and continental scale problems, further to image the entire planet. This is one of the extreme imaging challenges in seismology, mainly due to the intense computational requirements and vast amount of high-quality seismic data that can potentially be assimilated. We have started low-resolution inversions (T > 30 s and T > 60 s for body and surface waves, respectively) with a limited data set (253 carefully selected earthquakes and seismic data from permanent and temporary networks) on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Cray XK7 "Titan" system. Recent improvements in our 3D global wave propagation solvers, such as a GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package, will enable us perform higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer duration (~180 m) simulations to take the advantage of high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves, thereby improving imbalanced ray coverage as a result of the uneven global distribution of sources and receivers. Our ultimate goal is to use all earthquakes in the global CMT catalogue within the magnitude range of our interest and data from all available seismic networks. To take the full advantage of computational resources, we need a solid framework to manage big data sets during numerical simulations, pre-processing (i.e., data requests and quality checks, processing data, window selection, etc.) and post-processing (i.e., pre-conditioning and smoothing kernels, etc.). We address the bottlenecks in our global seismic workflow, which are mainly coming from heavy I/O traffic during simulations and the pre- and post-processing stages, by defining new data

  12. Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Although effects of rotational motions due to earthquakes have long been observed (e. g., Mallet, 1862), nevertheless Richter (1958, p. 213) stated that: 'Perfectly general motion would also involve rotations about three perpendicular axes, and three more instruments for these. Theory indicates, and observation confirms, that such rotations are negligible.' However, Richter provided no references for this claim. Seismology is based primarily on the observation and modeling of three-component translational ground motions. Nevertheless, theoretical seismologists (e.g., Aki and Richards, 1980, 2002) have argued for decades that the rotational part of ground motions should also be recorded. It is well known that standard seismometers are quite sensitive to rotations and therefore subject to rotation-induced errors. The paucity of observations of rotational motions is mainly the result of a lack, until recently, of affordable rotational sensors of sufficient resolution. Nevertheless, in the past decade, a number of authors have reported direct observations of rotational motions and rotations inferred from rigid-body rotations in short baseline accelerometer arrays, creating a burgeoning library of rotational data. For example, ring laser gyros in Germany and New Zealand have led to the first significant and consistent observations of rotational motions from distant earthquakes (Igel et al., 2005, 2007). A monograph on Earthquake Source Asymmetry, Structural Media and Rotation Effects was published recently as well by Teisseyre et al. (2006). Measurement of rotational motions has implications for: (1) recovering the complete ground-displacement history from seismometer recordings; (2) further constraining earthquake rupture properties; (3) extracting information about subsurface properties; and (4) providing additional ground motion information to earthquake engineers for seismic design. A special session on Rotational Motions in Seismology was convened by H

  13. Innovative Resources for Seismology at School with the French Educational Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, J. L.; Courboulex, F.; Balestra, J.; Nolet, G.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    programs to provide more tools to teach geosciences in the high schools. Keys words : seismology, Mermaid, SEIS-InSight, network, education, citizen science

  14. Calculation set for design and optimization of vegetative soil covers Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-01

    This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.

  15. Revision of species inventory checklists for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, N.T. )

    1990-10-01

    This report revises and updates the 1974 report by W. C. Martin and W. L. Wagner, Biological Survey of Kirtland Air Force Base (East). The biological communities of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) are described with respect to the Biome classification system of Brown (1982), and a standardized system of habitat types is proposed based on biome and soil type. The potential occurrence of state or federally endangered species is discussed. No species listed as endangered or threatened is known to occur on KAFB, although five are identified as potentially occurring. Updated lists of amphibians, reptiles, breeding birds, mammals, and plants are presented. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Review of polymer usage in the development of prototype troughs by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, N. H.; Champion, R. L.

    The use of polymers as structural materials, adhesives, and coatings for parabolic trough reflectors is discussed. Four design concepts for producing panel reflectors are described relative to the role polymers play in them.

  17. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Evaluation of School Uniform Policy at John Adams and Truman Middle Schools for Albuquerque Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Deborah L.

    A uniform policy at two Albuquerque middle schools became a reality as a result of parent initiative. Parents provided input through attending meetings and a fashion show, serving on the uniform task force, completing surveys, voting, and revisiting the policy. Parents not only initiated the development of the policy, but were active participants…

  19. 40 CFR 81.83 - Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.83 Section 81.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  20. 40 CFR 81.83 - Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.83 Section 81.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  1. Evaluation of the geothermal resource in the area of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jiracek, G.R.; Swanberg, C.A.; Morgan, P.; Parker, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    Factors indicating a potential geothermal resource near Albuquerque are: (1) nearby volcanoes active as recently as 120,000 years ago, (2) gravity interpretation indicating a potential reservoir averaging 1.5 km thickness, (3) high heat flow near the city, (4) warm waters (>30/sup 0/C) in municipal wells, (5) recent seismicity indicating active faulting, thereby, allowing the possibility of deep hydrothermal circulation, (6) high shallow (<30 m) temperature gradients (>100/sup 0/C/km) discovered in our drillholes, (7) deeper (<500 m) gradients from water wells exceeding 80/sup 0/C/km, and (8) chemical analyses of 88 groundwater samples yielding estimated base reservoir temperatures as high as 190/sup 0/C. An area of elevated shallow temperature gradients (less than or equal to 140/sup 0/C/km) was discovered a few kilometers west of Albuquerque by our 69 hole drilling program. Resistivity, magnetic, and gravity measurements combined with computer modeling suggests that heated ground water is forced closer to the surface here by flow over a buried ridge. A well drilled nearby yielded the highest recorded temperature in the Albuquerque area at its maximum depth (32.8/sup 0/C at 364 m). The deep gradient is 35/sup 0/C/km. An oil test well close by reported large volumes of water at 1 km; therefore, the possibility of a low temperature (>50/sup 0/C) geothermal resource exists west of Albuquerque at less than 1 km depth.

  2. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight: Artistic Homes, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-22

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Artistic Homes of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Standard features of their homes include advanced framed 2x6 24-inch on center walls, R-21 blown insulation in the walls, and high-efficiency windows.

  3. 78 FR 69874 - Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Albuquerque District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee...

  4. 77 FR 58032 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque... 1997 and 2006 PM2.5 NAAQS AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule....

  5. 76 FR 54799 - Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Negative... 14, 2011 (76 FR 21040). Workers at the subject firm manufactured industrial pumps. The petitioner (a... resulted in a negative determination based on the findings that Section 222(a) of the Trade Act of 1974,...

  6. 77 FR 30900 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Albuquerque/Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... administrative expenses incurred by the Department in implementing the New Mexico Air Quality Control Act, the joint Air Quality Control Board (AQCB) ordinances, and the Albuquerque/Bernalillo County AQCB... action is discussed in detail in our November 4, 2011, proposal (76 FR 68385). In that notice,...

  7. 75 FR 5698 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Albuquerque-Bernalillo County, NM; Excess...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... into the New Mexico SIP for Albuquerque- Bernalillo County on April 10, 1980 (42 FR 24468) at 40 CFR 52...), April 27, 1977 (42 FR 21472); EPA's final rule for Idaho's sulfur dioxide control strategy, November 8, 1977 (42 FR 58171); and the latest clarification of EPA's policy issued on December 5, 2001...

  8. Seismology program; California Division of Mines and Geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherburne, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The year 1980 marked the centennial of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) and a decade of the Division's involvement in seismology. Factors which contributed to the formation of a Seismology Group within CDMG included increased concerns for environmental and earthquake safety, interest in earthquake prediction, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and the 1973 publication by CDMG of an urban geology master plan for California. Reasons to be concerned about California's earthquake problem are demonstrated by the accompanying table and the figures. Recent seismicity in California, the Southern California uplift reflecting changes in crustal strain, and other possible earthquake precursors have heightened concern among scientific and governmental groups about the possible occurrence of a major damaging earthquake )M>7) in California. 

  9. Integrated Seismological Network of Brazil: Key developments in technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirchiner, Marlon; Assumpção, Marcelo; Ferreira, Joaquim; França, George

    2010-05-01

    The Integrated Seismological Network of Brazil - BRASIS - will integrate the main Brazilian seismology groups in an extensive permanent broadband network with a (near) real-time acquisition system and automatic preliminary processing of epicenters and magnitudes. About 60 stations will cover the whole country to continuously monitor the seismic activity. Most stations will be operating by the end of 2010. Data will be received from remote stations at each research group and redistributed to all other groups. In addition to issuing a national catalog of earthquakes, each institution will make its own analysis and issue their own bulletins taking into account local and regional lithospheric structure. We chose the SEED format, seedlink and SeisComP as standard data format, exchange protocol and software framework for the network management, respectively. All different existing equipment (eg, Guralp/Scream, Geotech/CD1.1, RefTek/RTP, Quanterra/seedlink) will be integrated into the same system. We plan to provide: 1) improved station management through remote control, and indexes for quality control of acquired data, sending alerts to operators in critical cases. 2) automatic processing: picking, location with local and regional models and determination of magnitudes, issuing newsletters and alerts. 3) maintainence of an earthquakes catalog, and a waveforms database. 4) query tools and access to metadata, catalogs and waveform available to all researchers. In addition, the catalog of earthquakes and other seismological data will be available as layers in a Spatial Data Infrastructure with open source standards, providing new analysis capabilities to all geoscientists. Seiscomp3 has already been installed in two centers (UFRN and USP) with successful tests of Q330, Guralp, RefTek and Geotech plug-ins to the seedlink protocol. We will discuss the main difficulties of our project and the solutions adopted to improve the Brazilian seismological infrastructure.

  10. The IRIS Federator: Accessing Seismological Data Across Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C. M.; Van Fossen, M.; Ahern, T. K.; Weekly, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) approved a specification for web service interfaces for accessing seismological station metadata, time series and event parameters. Since then, a number of seismological data centers have implemented FDSN service interfaces, with more implementations in development. We have developed a new system called the IRIS Federator which leverages this standardization and provides the scientific community with a service for easy discovery and access of seismological data across FDSN data centers. These centers are located throughout the world and this work represents one model of a system for data collection across geographic and political boundaries.The main components of the IRIS Federator are a catalog of time series metadata holdings at each data center and a web service interface for searching the catalog. The service interface is designed to support client­-side federated data access, a model in which the client (software run by the user) queries the catalog and then collects the data from each identified center. By default the results are returned in a format suitable for direct submission to those web services, but could also be formatted in a simple text format for general data discovery purposes. The interface will remove any duplication of time series channels between data centers according to a set of business rules by default, however a user may request results with all duplicate time series entries included. We will demonstrate how client­-side federation is being incorporated into some of the DMC's data access tools. We anticipate further enhancement of the IRIS Federator to improve data discovery in various scenarios and to improve usefulness to communities beyond seismology.Data centers with FDSN web services: http://www.fdsn.org/webservices/The IRIS Federator query interface: http://service.iris.edu/irisws/fedcatalog/1/

  11. First steps of a Seismology at School project in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, T.; Oconnor, C.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first results of the seismology at school project that just started in January 2012 in Belgium in collaboration between the Royal Observatory of Belgium and the European School of Brussels #4. We present and compare recordings of the Mindset SEP Seismometer with the surface broadband Guralp seismometer located some 10 km to the south-west, but still in Brussels. We finally show results of small workshops that were organised within the school and the different school projects in preparation.

  12. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    After the July 29, 1967, damaging earthquake (with a moderate magnitude of 6.3) caused widespread damage to the northern coastal area of Venezuela and to the Caracas Valley, the Venezuelan Government decided to establish a Presidential Earthquake Commission. This commission undertook the task of coordinating the efforts to study the after-effects of the earthquake. The July 1967 earthquake claimed numerous lives and caused extensive damage to the capital of Venezuela. In 1968, the U.S Geological Survey conducted a seismological field study in the northern coastal area and in the Caracas Valley of Venezuela. the objective was to study the area that sustained severe, moderate, and no damage to structures. A reported entitled Ground Amplification Studies in Earthquake Damage Areas: The Caracas Earthquake of 1967 documented, for the first time, short-period seismic wave ground-motion amplifications in the Caracas Valley. Figure 1 shows the area of severe damage in the Los Palos Grantes suburb and the correlation with depth of alluvium and the arabic numbers denote the ground amplification factor at each site in the area. the Venezuelan Government initiated many programs to study in detail the damage sustained and to investigate the ongoing construction practices. These actions motivated professionals in the academic, private, and Government sectors to develops further capabilities and self-sufficiency in the fields of engineering and seismology. Allocation of funds was made to assist in training professionals and technicians and in developing new seismological stations and new programs at the national level in earthquake engineering and seismology. A brief description of the ongoing programs in Venezuela is listed below. these programs are being performed by FUNVISIS and by other national organizations listed at the end of this article.   

  13. Seismological constraints on lithospheric structure beneath rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishwick, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable variation in both topography and crustal architecture along passive margins worldwide. However, the variations in lithospheric mantle structure are less well studied. This is, perhaps, in part due to the technical challenge for offshore-onshore passive seismology and also the lower resolution obtained in most mantle studies, particularly when compared to detailed imaging of the crust available from reflection seismology. The available large scale observations of mantle structure (predominately from surface waves), and crustal structure (from receiver functions) for the continental region adjacent to the margins are reviewed. Results for Africa and Australia show clear correlations between the mantle structure and the present day topography of the margin, and this relationship is explored from a worldwide perspective. Seismic studies can also provide information on lithospheric thickness at the margin, which can be used as an additional constraint for the thermal modelling of basin structure. In this case the limitations include the depth resolution of the method, and the particular proxy used to extract a lithospheric thickness estimate from a seismic model. Perhaps most importantly, is to remember that these seismological observations tell us only the existing structure. The challenge remains how to decipher whether the present structures relate to inherited pre-rift architecture; to alteration of lithospheric mantle during rifting, or to much later post rift changes associated with separate tectonic events.

  14. Innovative Seismological Techniques for Investigating the Interior Structure of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Cutts, J. A.; Mimoun, D.

    2014-12-01

    The formation, evolution and structure of Venus remain a mystery more than fifty years after the first visit by a robotic spacecraft. Radar images have revealed a surface that is much younger than those of the Moon, Mercury and Mars as well as a variety of enigmatic volcanic and tectonic features quite unlike those generated by plate tectonics on Earth. To understand how Venus works as a planet it is necessary to probe the interior of Venus. To accomplish this seismology must play a key role. Conventional seismology employs sensors in contact with the planetary surface but for Venus theses sensors must tolerate the Venus environment (460oC and 90 bars) for up to a year. The dense atmosphere of Venus, which efficiently couples seismic energy into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, enables an alternative: detection of infrasonic waves in the upper atmosphere using either high altitude balloons or orbiting spacecraft. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies that can bring these technique to readiness. In this paper, we describe the key synergies with earth science drawing on methods from terrestrial seismology and oceanography and identify key technical issues that need to be solved as well as important precursor measurements that should be made.

  15. EPOS-S: Integrated access to seismological waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, Reinoud; Strollo, Angelo; Michelini, Alberto; Clinton, John; Gueguen, Philippe; Luzi, Lucia; Pinar, Ali; Diaz, Jordi; Ceken, Ulubey; Evangelidis, Christos; Haslinger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The main challenges of the EPOS TCS Seismology are to improve and to extend existing services to access earthquake waveforms (ORFEUS), parameters (EMSC) and hazard data and products (EFEHR), and producing a single framework that is technically integrated within the EPOS architecture. Technical developments in the services for seismological waveforms and associated data, including the compilation of station metadata and installing common data archival and sharing policies are within ORFEUS and its Working Groups. The focus is on 1) the development of the next generation software architecture for the European Integrated (seismological) Data Archive EIDA based on standardized webservices, the implementation of a data quality service and the realisation of a mediator service; 2) the development of EIDA-compliant services for strong motion data and acceleration data and the extension of the station metadata model; 3) the integration of data from mobile networks and OBS waveforms into EIDA by implementing mechanisms for coordination of transnational access and multinational experiments at available pools of OBS and mobile seismic stations; 4) achieve close integration with other EPOS TCS and the ICS with regard to interoperability and common use of tools & services, common and coordinated data models and metadata formats, and common computational platforms and IT solution implementations. This presentation will present the status of and current developments towards the above objectives.

  16. Seismological Field Observation of Mesoscopic Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Gassenmeier, Martina; Eulenfeld, Tom; Tilmann, Frederik; Korn, Michael; Niederleithinger, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    of events associated with separately inverted parameters. As the local ground acceleration is not correlated to static stress changes we can exclude static stress changes as causative process. The shaking sensitivity and healing process is well known from laboratory experiments in composite materials as mesoscopic nonlinearity. The sensitive behavior at this station is related to the particular near surface material that is a conglomerate cemented with gypsum - so called gypcrete. However, mesoscopic nonlinearity with different parameters might be a key to understand velocity changes also at other sites.

  17. Sustainable access to data, products, services and software from the European seismological Research Infrastructures: the EPOS TCS Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Florian; Dupont, Aurelien; Michelini, Alberto; Rietbrock, Andreas; Sleeman, Reinoud; Wiemer, Stefan; Basili, Roberto; Bossu, Rémy; Cakti, Eser; Cotton, Fabrice; Crawford, Wayne; Diaz, Jordi; Garth, Tom; Locati, Mario; Luzi, Lucia; Pinho, Rui; Pitilakis, Kyriazis; Strollo, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Easy, efficient and comprehensive access to data, data products, scientific services and scientific software is a key ingredient in enabling research at the frontiers of science. Organizing this access across the European Research Infrastructures in the field of seismology, so that it best serves user needs, takes advantage of state-of-the-art ICT solutions, provides cross-domain interoperability, and is organizationally and financially sustainable in the long term, is the core challenge of the implementation phase of the Thematic Core Service (TCS) Seismology within the EPOS-IP project. Building upon the existing European-level infrastructures ORFEUS for seismological waveforms, EMSC for seismological products, and EFEHR for seismological hazard and risk information, and implementing a pilot Computational Earth Science service starting from the results of the VERCE project, the work within the EPOS-IP project focuses on improving and extending the existing services, aligning them with global developments, to at the end produce a well coordinated framework that is technically, organizationally, and financially integrated with the EPOS architecture. This framework needs to respect the roles and responsibilities of the underlying national research infrastructures that are the data owners and main providers of data and products, and allow for active input and feedback from the (scientific) user community. At the same time, it needs to remain flexible enough to cope with unavoidable challenges in the availability of resources and dynamics of contributors. The technical work during the next years is organized in four areas: - constructing the next generation software architecture for the European Integrated (waveform) Data Archive EIDA, developing advanced metadata and station information services, fully integrate strong motion waveforms and derived parametric engineering-domain data, and advancing the integration of mobile (temporary) networks and OBS deployments in

  18. Thirty Years of Innovation in Seismology with the IRIS Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Ahern, T. K.; Anderson, K. R.; Busby, R.; Detrick, R. S.; Evers, B.; Frassetto, A.; Hafner, K.; Simpson, D. W.; Sweet, J. R.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States academic seismology community, through the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Consortium, has promoted and encouraged a rich environment of innovation and experimentation in areas such as seismic instrumentation, data processing and analysis, teaching and curriculum development, and academic science. As the science continually evolves, IRIS helps drive the market for new research tools that enable science by establishing a variety of standards and goals. This has often involved working directly with manufacturers to better define the technology required, co-funding key development work or early production prototypes, and purchasing initial production runs. IRIS activities have helped establish de-facto international standards and impacted the commercial sector in areas such as seismic instrumentation, open-access data management, and professional development. Key institutional practices, conducted and refined over IRIS' thirty-year history of operations, have focused on open-access data availability, full retention of maximum-bandwidth, continuous data, and direct community access to state-of-the-art seismological instrumentation and software. These practices have helped to cultivate and support a thriving commercial ecosystem, and have been a key element in the professional development of multiple generations of seismologists who now work in both industry and academia. Looking toward the future, IRIS is increasing its engagement with industry to better enable bi-directional exchange of techniques and technology, and enhancing the development of tomorrow's workforce. In this presentation, we will illustrate how IRIS has promoted innovations grown out of the academic community and spurred technological advances in both academia and industry.

  19. SEIS-PROV: Practical Provenance for Seismological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is widely recognized that reproducibility is crucial to advance science, but at the same time it is very hard to actually achieve. This results in it being recognized but also mostly ignored by a large fraction of the community. A key ingredient towards full reproducibility is to capture and describe the history of data, an issue known as provenance. We present SEIS-PROV, a practical format and data model to store provenance information for seismological data. In a seismological context, provenance can be seen as information about the processes that generated and modified a particular piece of data. For synthetic waveforms the provenance information describes which solver and settings therein were used to generate it. When looking at processed seismograms, the provenance conveys information about the different time series analysis steps that led to it. Additional uses include the description of derived data types, such as cross-correlations and adjoint sources, enabling their proper storage and exchange. SEIS-PROV is based on W3C PROV (http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/), a standard for generic provenance information. It then applies an additional set of constraints to make it suitable for seismology. We present a definition of the SEIS-PROV format, a way to check if any given file is a valid SEIS-PROV document, and two sample implementations: One in SPECFEM3D GLOBE (https://geodynamics.org/cig/software/specfem3d_globe/) to store the provenance information of synthetic seismograms and another one as part of the ObsPy (http://obspy.org) framework enabling automatic tracking of provenance information during a series of analysis and transformation stages. This, along with tools to visualize and interpret provenance graphs, offers a description of data history that can be readily tracked, stored, and exchanged.

  20. Ensemble approaches to structural seismology: seek many rather than one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambridge, M.; Bodin, T.; Tkalcic, H.; Gallagher, K.

    2011-12-01

    For the past forty years seismologists have built models of the Earth's seismic structure over local, regional and global distance scales using derived quantities of a seismogram covering the frequency spectrum. A feature common to (almost) all cases is the objective of building a single `best' Earth model, in some sense. This is despite the fact that the data by themselves often do not require, or even allow, a single best fit Earth model to exist. It is widely recognized that many seismic inverse problems are ill-posed and non-unique and hence require regularization or additional constraints to obtain a single structural model. Interpretation of optimal models can be fraught with difficulties, particularly when formal uncertainty estimates become heavily dependent on the regularization imposed. An alternative approach is to embrace the non-uniqueness directly and employ an inference process based on parameter space sampling. Instead of seeking a best model within an optimization framework one seeks an ensemble of solutions and derives properties of that ensemble for inspection. While this idea has itself been employed for more than 30 years, it is not commonplace in seismology. Recent work has shown that trans-dimensional and hierarchical sampling methods have some considerable benefits for seismological problems involving multiple parameter types, uncertain data errors and/or uncertain model parameterizations. Rather than being forced to make decisions on parameterization, level of data noise and weights between data types in advance, as is often the case in an optimization framework, these choices can be relaxed and instead constrained by the data themselves. Limitations exist with sampling based approaches in that computational cost is often considered to be high for large scale structural problems, i.e. many unknowns and data. However there are a surprising number of areas where they are now feasible. This presentation will describe recent developments in

  1. A Look at the Future of Controlled-Source Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.; Klemperer, S.; Hole, J.; Snelson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Facilities like EarthScope and IRIS/PASSCAL offer a framework in which to re-assess the role of our highest- resolution geophysical tool, controlled-source seismology. This tool is effective in near surface studies that focus on the upper 100 m of the crust to studies that focus on Moho structure and the lithospheric mantle. IRIS has now existed for over two decades and has transformed the way in which passive-source seismology in particular is carried out. Progress over these two decades has led to major discoveries about continental architecture and evolution through the development of three-dimensional images of the upper mantle and lithosphere. Simultaneously the hydrocarbon exploration industry has mapped increasingly large fractions of our sedimentary basins in three-dimensions and at unprecedented resolution and fidelity. Thanks to the additional instruments in the EarthScope facility, a clear scientific need and opportunity exists to map, at similar resolution, all of the crust - the igneous/metamorphic basement, the non-petroliferous basins that contain the record of continental evolution, and the seismogenic faults and active volcanoes that are the principal natural hazards we face. Controlled-source seismology remains the fundamental technology behind exploration for all fossil fuels and many water resources, and as such is a multi-billion-dollar industry centered in the USA. Academic scientists are leaders in developing the algorithms to process the most advanced industry data, but lack the academic data sets to which to apply this technology. University and government controlled-source seismologists, and their students who will populate the exploration industry, are increasingly divorced from that industry by their reliance on sparse spatial recording of usually only a single-component of the wavefield, generated by even sparser seismic sources. However, if we can find the resources, the technology now exists to provide seismic images of immense

  2. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic waves and coronal seismology: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    De Moortel, Ineke; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2012-07-13

    Recent observations have revealed that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, with a wide range of periods. We give a brief review of some aspects of MHD waves and coronal seismology that have recently been the focus of intense debate or are newly emerging. In particular, we focus on four topics: (i) the current controversy surrounding propagating intensity perturbations along coronal loops, (ii) the interpretation of propagating transverse loop oscillations, (iii) the ongoing search for coronal (torsional) Alfvén waves, and (iv) the rapidly developing topic of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares. PMID:22665899

  4. 77 FR 71119 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...EPA is approving the City of Albuquerque--Bernalillo County, New Mexico State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on July 28, 2011 addressing the regional haze requirements for the mandatory Class I areas under 40 CFR 51.309. The EPA finds that these revisions to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) and associated rules meet the requirements of the Clean......

  5. Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: A sunbelt city rapidly outgrowing its aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Turin, H.J.; Gaume, A.N.; Bitner, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, is located along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico, at an elevation of 5280 feet. Albuquerque`s climate reflects its high desert setting; average annual precipitation in the basin is only 8 to 10 inches. The Albuquerque metropolitan area is part of the rapidly growing {open_quotes}sunbelt{close_quotes} region of the southwestern United States and is undergoing rapid development. The municipal, industrial, and residential water needs of the entire population are currently met by groundwater, while agricultural needs within the basin are met by surface water diverted from the Rio Grande. While the city is blessed with an extremely productive aquifer, current metropolitan area annual groundwater extractions of 170,000 acre-feet far exceed the sustainable yield of the aquifer. Continued drawdown will lead to greater pumping costs, ground surface subsidence problems, and eventual aquifer depletion. At the same time, industrial and non-point-source contamination and naturally occurring arsenic levels are raising concerns about groundwater quality. New Mexico water law has required the City to acquire surface water rights and allocations on the Rio Grande sufficient to offset estimated losses from the river induced by the City`s groundwater extraction. It has become increasingly clear that the induced recharge had been greatly overestimated, and that the City is thus not actually consuming its surface water as intended. The City, in cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies, has explored a variety of conjunctive use proposals, all designed to permit the City to use its surface water more directly. The City Council is presently considering a strategy calling for full use of the city`s surface water resources and creation of a groundwater drought reserve. Implementation of this strategy will require regulatory approval and major capital investment, both of which require political support.

  6. Description of piezometers installed in the Duranes well field area, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1993, the aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of ground-water/surface-water interactions. Twenty-one piezometers were installed during January and February 1997 at five sites in the Duranes well field area in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to allow for concentrated collection of hydraulic-head data. This concentrated collection of shallow hydraulic-head data may lead to a better understanding of the effects of ground-water production on the Rio Grande near a City of Albuquerque well field. Each piezometer was installed in a hole augered by a rig using hollow-stem auger flights. All piezometers are constructed of flush-joint polyvinyl chloride casing with 5-foot polyvinyl chloride screens. The uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing is covered by a steel casing with a locking lid. Driller's logs and geophysical logs were collected from the deepest hole and piezometer, respectively, at each site. This report describes the piezometers installed and presents initial water- level data for all piezometers.

  7. Seismologically determined bedload flux during the typhoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei-An; Wu, Yih-Min; Zhao, Li; Tsai, Victor C.; Chen, Chi-Hsuan

    2015-02-01

    Continuous seismic records near river channels can be used to quantify the energy induced by river sediment transport. During the 2011 typhoon season, we deployed a seismic array along the Chishan River in the mountain area of southern Taiwan, where there is strong variability in water discharge and high sedimentation rates. We observe hysteresis in the high-frequency (5-15 Hz) seismic noise level relative to the associated hydrological parameters. In addition, our seismic noise analysis reveals an asymmetry and a high coherence in noise cross-correlation functions for several station pairs during the typhoon passage, which corresponds to sediment particles and turbulent flows impacting along the riverbed where the river bends sharply. Based on spectral characteristics of the seismic records, we also detected 20 landslide/debris flow events, which we use to estimate the sediment supply. Comparison of sediment flux between seismologically determined bedload and derived suspended load indicates temporal changes in the sediment flux ratio, which imply a complex transition process from the bedload regime to the suspension regime between typhoon passage and off-typhoon periods. Our study demonstrates the possibility of seismologically monitoring river bedload transport, thus providing valuable additional information for studying fluvial bedrock erosion and mountain landscape evolution.

  8. Seismology and lateral thickness variations of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenet, H.; Lognonné, P.; Wieczorek, M.; Mizutani, H.

    The Apollo missions set up a seismic network on the nearside of the Moon (1969-1977), which allowed to address the fundamental questions of lunar science. Recently this dataset was re-investigated in order to shed light on ambiguous results of ancient studies. One of them was the proposed 60 km crustal thickness below the Apollo station 12 and 14 sites. Today, Khan and Mosegaard (2002) and Lognonné et al. (2003), both propose that the crust is much thinner than expected, respectively around 45 and 30 km. On the other hand, lateral relative variations of crustal thickness can be determined by inversion of gravity and topography data, but this process requires the use of a reference thickness brought by seismic determination, in order to build a crustal thickness map. This present work goes further. In this study, we constrain for the first time the lateral variations of crustal thickness with seismic and topography data only. We use a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method to invert for the lateral crustal thickness, determined by the arrival times of impacts at the 4 Apollo stations. Each impact and station site is associated to an independent Moho depth. Thus, we find independent seismological constraints on the Moho depth for 30 different locations on the lunar surface instead of one. We will present here the results of this study via a comparison between this first lunar crustal thickness map we built with seismology, and the map resulting from analysis of the gravity data.

  9. [Description of the seismological network of the Venezuelan Andes].

    PubMed

    Guada, Carlos; Morandi, María; Silva, José

    2003-01-01

    Western Venezuela shows a broad zone characterized by a moderate seismicity level, which has been the scenery of various historic earthquakes of destructive character. The beginning of the seismic instrumentation in the area dates from 1969, nevertheless it was 10 years later when the seismological network of the Venezuelan Andes (REDSAV) was permanently installed in order to characterize the regional earthquake activity. The REDSAV is an array of 10 remote seismic stations that sends the seismic signals by analog telemetry to the central station, located in the city of Mérida, where the digitalization, automatic event detection in real time and the analysis and off-line processing of the seismic information is carried out. During the last 10 years important advances have been taken place in terms of its operativity, which includes a dynamic web site (http://lgula.ciens.ula.ve) with a catalog of western Venezuela earthquakes, where the user can visualize the seismograms, the P and S wave arrival time, the polarities and epicentral maps; moreover, it is possible to select events applying temporal, spatial and magnitute criteria. In this paper the technical characteristic of the equipment are described and the advances registered in the last years referring to the automatic acquisition system, processing of the information and seismologic catalog of the REDSAV, whose systematic use during a decade has permitted to gather the biggest information base of related with the seismicity of the south-western Venezuela. PMID:15916173

  10. Seismologically determined bedload flux during the typhoon season.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wei-An; Wu, Yih-Min; Zhao, Li; Tsai, Victor C; Chen, Chi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous seismic records near river channels can be used to quantify the energy induced by river sediment transport. During the 2011 typhoon season, we deployed a seismic array along the Chishan River in the mountain area of southern Taiwan, where there is strong variability in water discharge and high sedimentation rates. We observe hysteresis in the high-frequency (5-15 Hz) seismic noise level relative to the associated hydrological parameters. In addition, our seismic noise analysis reveals an asymmetry and a high coherence in noise cross-correlation functions for several station pairs during the typhoon passage, which corresponds to sediment particles and turbulent flows impacting along the riverbed where the river bends sharply. Based on spectral characteristics of the seismic records, we also detected 20 landslide/debris flow events, which we use to estimate the sediment supply. Comparison of sediment flux between seismologically determined bedload and derived suspended load indicates temporal changes in the sediment flux ratio, which imply a complex transition process from the bedload regime to the suspension regime between typhoon passage and off-typhoon periods. Our study demonstrates the possibility of seismologically monitoring river bedload transport, thus providing valuable additional information for studying fluvial bedrock erosion and mountain landscape evolution. PMID:25652082

  11. U.S./U.S.S.R. seismological network developing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, Holly

    In the spirit of glasnost, the first stage of a state-of-the-art seismological network for global research on Earth structure, earthquakes, and seismic monitoring of nuclear testing is now operating in the Soviet Union, thanks to cooperation between several U.S. and Soviet groups and agencies. Digitally recorded seismic data have been generally unavailable from the Soviet Union prior to the new agreement, leaving an essentially uninstrumented hole in the largest continent on Earth. In 1988 the Soviet Academy agreed to a joint research program with the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and the U.S. Geological Survey that called for the establishment of 20-25 permanent seismic stations and the operation of portable seismic networks in each country. The U.S. State Department approved the incorporation of the seismic program, now called the Eurasian Seismic Studies Program, under Area IX (Earthquake Prediction) of the Bilateral U.S./U.S.S.R. Environmental Protection Agreement. The network is operated by IRIS, a consortium of over 60 American universities, the USGS, and the Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Principal project scientists are Jonathan Berger, a geophysicist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and John Filson, a seismologist at USGS.

  12. Seismological constraints on deep mantle structure: recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsema, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    Thanks to the development of global seismic networks, especially in the past two decades when digital broadband ground motion sensors were employed, full waveform analysis has led to the development of three-dimensional models of the structure of Earth's interior. Yet, many of the new models confirm a number of critical conclusions that F. Birch drew in his seminal 1952 JGR paper. For example, he envisioned that the upper mantle transition zone plays a prominent role in mantle circulation and he emphasized the significant effect of pressure on thermodynamic parameters. Indeed, a large number of seismic studies of the transition zone indicate that the descent of slabs of former oceanic lithosphere is, with few exceptions, impeded by the 660--km discontinuity. Furthermore, the observation of predominantly broad seismic velocity structures in the lower mantle (> 1500 km depth) may reflect sluggish convection, due to reduced thermal expansivity. I will review several recent seismological studies of the deep mantle and place them in the context of Birch's paper. In particular, I will discuss surprising new findings in the deep mantle beneath Africa, which is especially well studied with data from recent African deployments. Furthermore, I will show results of the application of a new 3D waveform modeling technique that may prove invaluable in future seismological studies of the deep mantle.

  13. Seismologically determined bedload flux during the typhoon season

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wei-An; Wu, Yih-Min; Zhao, Li; Tsai, Victor C.; Chen, Chi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous seismic records near river channels can be used to quantify the energy induced by river sediment transport. During the 2011 typhoon season, we deployed a seismic array along the Chishan River in the mountain area of southern Taiwan, where there is strong variability in water discharge and high sedimentation rates. We observe hysteresis in the high-frequency (5–15 Hz) seismic noise level relative to the associated hydrological parameters. In addition, our seismic noise analysis reveals an asymmetry and a high coherence in noise cross-correlation functions for several station pairs during the typhoon passage, which corresponds to sediment particles and turbulent flows impacting along the riverbed where the river bends sharply. Based on spectral characteristics of the seismic records, we also detected 20 landslide/debris flow events, which we use to estimate the sediment supply. Comparison of sediment flux between seismologically determined bedload and derived suspended load indicates temporal changes in the sediment flux ratio, which imply a complex transition process from the bedload regime to the suspension regime between typhoon passage and off-typhoon periods. Our study demonstrates the possibility of seismologically monitoring river bedload transport, thus providing valuable additional information for studying fluvial bedrock erosion and mountain landscape evolution. PMID:25652082

  14. Curvelets for signal processing in seismology: an exploration perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennenfent, G.

    2009-12-01

    The curvelet transform is a recent addition to the computational harmonic analysis toolbox. It expands an arbitrary 2-D signal as a series of weighted curvelets, much like, e.g., the Fourier or wavelet transform. Curvelets are localized and multiscale elements which are highly anisotropic at fine scales. They look like little band-limited plane waves, smooth along their main axis and oscillatory across. Curvelets provide a sparse representation—arguably the sparsest—for signals that are smooth except for discontinuities along smooth curves, e.g., natural images with edges or seismic wavefronts. This key property, combined with new insights from compressive sensing, lead to innovative applications in astronomy, medical imaging, and exploration seismology to name but a few. In this talk, we give a brief overview of the curvelet transform and its key properties. We discuss one of its discrete implementations, the fast discrete curvelet transform via wrapping, and our extension to nonequispaced data inputs. We conclude by a few examples of applications in seismology using curvelets.

  15. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  16. Evaluation of S-101 course Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 21, 1992--January 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T S

    1992-02-01

    This section summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety and Health Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE,'' (S-101) which was conducted January 21--24 at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  17. Evaluation of S-101 course Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico January 21, 1992--January 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T S

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety and Health Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (S-101) which was conducted January 21--24 at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  18. Evaluation of P-101 course Orientation to occupational safety compliance in DOE'' taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 28--May 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D L

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training section course, Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (P-101) which was Section course , conducted April 28 to May 8, 1992 at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  19. The IRIS Model: Building the Infrastructure for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.; Ahern, T. K.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Consortium began a global, cooperative development in the mid-1980's, with the goal of being able to provide the necessary infrastructure (system) that would bring expensive, globally distributed geophysical data into the arena of open access, and to make these data available through a streamlined system of accessing that has profoundly improved the science of seismology. Historically, geophysical data were generated by scientists studying a particular problem, were limited in both the spatial and the temporal scales, and were self-managed and in native formats that hindered exchange. Data had little chance of being used again. The IRIS Data Management Center, located in Seattle, WA and affiliated with the University of Washington, operates an NSF-funded facility that is charged with acquiring, archiving, and distributing over 30 years (and counting) of geophysical time series data. Even though this volume exceeds 50 terabytes of dual-sorted data, these data can be requested on any spatial or temporal time scale. If you are studying the movement of mantle convection cells over decadal time scales, or studying aftershocks of a local earthquake, you can access these data from your workstation, convert these into your analysis format, and begin the process of doing hard science without ever having to burden yourself with acquiring the data, or drafting a detailed proposal justifying your area of interest. You can proceed directly to doing science. In the last two years, the IRIS DMC has targeted the problem of handling real time data generated in the field, forwarding it to a unified disk buffer, thereby eliminating all heterogeneity, and providing open access to large volumes of data which can be immediately utilized, providing the back-end for decision making in human time scales, not scientific time scales. We have now pushed this to the final step, closing the data loop and providing robust utilities that enable information-to-application functionality

  20. Using a Web Site to Support a Seismology Course Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.; Stein, S.

    2004-12-01

    We present a course in seismology that consists of a textbook with an accompanying web site (http://epscx.wustl.edu/seismology/book). The web site serves many different functions, and is of great importance as a companion to the curriculum in several different ways: (1) All of the more than 600 figures from the book are available on the web site. Geophysics is a very visually-oriented discipline, and many concepts are more easily taught with appropriate visual tools. In addition, many instructors are now using computer-based lecture programs such as PowerPoint. To aid in this, all of the figures are displayed in a common JPG format, both with and without titles. They are available to be used in a seismology course, or any kind of Earth Science course. This way, an instructor can easily grab a figure from the web site and drop it into a PowerPoint format. The figures are listed by number, but are also obtainable from menus of thumbnail sketches. If an instructor would like all of the figures, they can be obtained as large zip files, which can be unzipped after downloading. In addition, sample PowerPoint lectures using the figures as well the equations from the text will be available on the course web site. (2) Solutions to all of the homework problems are available in PDF format on the course website. Homework is a vital component of any quantitative course, but it is often a significant time commitment for instructors to derive all of the homework problems. In addition, it is much easier to select which homework problems are desired to be assigned if the solutions can be seen. The 64 pages of homework solutions are on a secure web site that requires a user ID and password that can be obtained from the authors. (3) Any errors found in the textbook are immediately posted on an "Errata" web page. Many of these errors are found by instructors who are using the curriculum (and they are given credit for finding the errors!). The text becomes an interactive process

  1. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  2. Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented of the internal structure of the moon, as determined from the obtained lunar seismic data. The analysis of the lunar data is approached in a systematic fashion, using appropriate techniques to minimize the number of necessary assumptions, extract the maximum amount of structural information, and determine its reliability. The completed lunar seismic network consists of four stations located at the landing sites of Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, and 16. Attention is given to crustal structure, the structure of the lunar mantle, the attenuating region, and the core.

  3. Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-06-01

    It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented of the internal structure of the moon, as determined from the obtained lunar seismic data. The analysis of the lunar data is approached in a systematic fashion, using appropriate techniques to minimize the number of necessary assumptions, extract the maximum amount of structural information, and determine its reliability. The completed lunar seismic network consists of four stations located at the landing sites of Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, and 16. Attention is given to crustal structure, the structure of the lunar mantle, the attenuating region, and the core.

  4. Can mobile phones used in strong motion seismology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers are electromechanical devices able to measure static or dynamic accelerations. In the 1990s MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are currently widely used in laptops, game controllers and mobile phones. Nowadays MEMS accelerometers seems provide adequate sensitivity, noise level and dynamic range to be applicable to earthquake strong motion acquisition. The current use of 3 axes MEMS accelerometers in mobile phone maybe provide a new means to easy increase the number of observations when a strong earthquake occurs. However, before utilize the signals recorded by a mobile phone equipped with a 3 axes MEMS accelerometer for any scientific porpoise, it is fundamental to verify that the signal collected provide reliable records of ground motion. For this reason we have investigated the suitability of the iPhone 5 mobile phone (one of the most popular mobile phone in the world) for strong motion acquisition. It is provided by several MEMS devise like a three-axis gyroscope, a three-axis electronic compass and a the LIS331DLH three-axis accelerometer. The LIS331DLH sensor is a low-cost high performance three axes linear accelerometer, with 16 bit digital output, produced by STMicroelectronics Inc. We have tested the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer using a vibrating table and the EpiSensor FBA ES-T as reference sensor. In our experiments the reference sensor was rigidly co-mounted with the LIS331DHL MEMS sensor on the vibrating table. We assessment the MEMS accelerometer in the frequency range 0.2-20 Hz, typical range of interesting in strong motion seismology and earthquake engineering. We generate both constant and damped sine waves with central frequency starting from 0.2 Hz until 20 Hz with step of 0.2 Hz. For each frequency analyzed we generate sine waves with mean amplitude 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg0. For damped sine waves we generate waveforms with initial amplitude

  5. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere. PMID:16414885

  6. Seismology in South America; an interview with Alberto Giesecke

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Alberto A. Giesecke is head of the Instituto Geofisico del Peru, in Lima, Peru, and Director of Centro Regional de Sismologia para America del Sur (CERESIS). The center is dedicated to the coordination and promotion of earthquake hazard mitigation. Dr. Giesecke was President of the National Research Council of Peru and currently is a member of the Board of Directors of the National Institute for Industrial Technological Research and Standards and of the National Institute for Research and Training in Telecommunications. He presided over the Organizing Committee for the General Assemblies of the International Association for Seismology and Physics of the Earth's interor and the International Union for Radio Science held in Lima, Peru, in 1973 and 1975, respectively. 

  7. SEISMOLOGY OF TRANSVERSELY OSCILLATING CORONAL LOOPS WITH SIPHON FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Arregui, I.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.

    2011-03-10

    There are ubiquitous flows observed in the solar atmosphere of sub-Alfvenic speeds; however, after flaring and coronal mass ejection events flows can become Alfvenic. In this Letter, we derive an expression for the standing kink mode frequency due to siphon flow in coronal loops, valid for both low and high speed regimes. It is found that siphon flow introduces a linear, spatially dependent phase shift along coronal loops and asymmetric eigenfunctions. We demonstrate how this theory can be used to determine the kink and flow speed of oscillating coronal loops with reference to an observational case study. It is shown that the presence of siphon flow can cause the underestimation of magnetic field strength in coronal loops using the traditional seismological methods.

  8. Linking petrology and seismology of the southwest Greenland lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, C. E.; Vestergaard, C.; Brown, E.; Schutt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from late-Proterozoic diamond-bearing kimberlitic dikes in the Kangerlussuaq, Sarfartoq and Maniitsoq areas of southwestern Greenland provide constraints on the composition and thermal state of lithospheric mantle beneath Greenland to depths of ~200 km [1]. Similarly, surface wave tomography studies carried out as part of the GLATIS project use a range of Rayleigh wave periods sensitive to structures at a similar depth interval within southwestern Greenland lithospheric mantle [2]. Here we link petrologic and seismologic constraints on the mantle lithosphere beneath Greenland utilizing methods of [3] that show that inferred chemical and mineralogical stratification inferred from petrology, showing mantle peridotite transitioning from garnet-free harzburgite to garnet lherzolite between ~70 and 180 km, cannot readily be resolved with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. On the other hand, comparing phase velocities predicted from xenolith compositions, mineralogy and last equilibration temperatures and pressures, defining the continental geotherm during late-Proterozoic time, with those for the present-day mantle lithosphere suggest significant cooling of the cratonic mantle to a modern geotherm characterized by a heat flux of 30 mW/m2 and average crustal heat production of 0.3 mW/m3 [4]. These preliminary findings point to the weak dependence of shear wave velocities on mantle peridotite composition and mineralogy, and further illustrate its strong temperature dependence. Comparison of ancient and modern continental geotherms made possible by combining petrologic and seismological data, as shown here for southwest Greenland, provide additional constraints on secular cooling of cratonic regions linked to large-scale tectonic processes. [1] Bizzarro et al., 2003, CMP, 146; Sand et al., Lithos, 112. [2] Darbyshire et al., 2004, GJI, 158. [3] Schutt and Lesher, 2006, JGR, 111. [4] Meirerbachtol et al., 2015, JGR/ES, 120.

  9. ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassermann, J. M.; Krischer, L.; Megies, T.; Barsch, R.; Beyreuther, M.

    2013-12-01

    Python combines the power of a full-blown programming language with the flexibility and accessibility of an interactive scripting language. Its extensive standard library and large variety of freely available high quality scientific modules cover most needs in developing scientific processing workflows. ObsPy is a community-driven, open-source project extending Python's capabilities to fit the specific needs that arise when working with seismological data. It a) comes with a continuously growing signal processing toolbox that covers most tasks common in seismological analysis, b) provides read and write support for many common waveform, station and event metadata formats and c) enables access to various data centers, webservices and databases to retrieve waveform data and station/event metadata. In combination with mature and free Python packages like NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, IPython, Pandas, lxml, and PyQt, ObsPy makes it possible to develop complete workflows in Python, ranging from reading locally stored data or requesting data from one or more different data centers via signal analysis and data processing to visualization in GUI and web applications, output of modified/derived data and the creation of publication-quality figures. All functionality is extensively documented and the ObsPy Tutorial and Gallery give a good impression of the wide range of possible use cases. ObsPy is tested and running on Linux, OS X and Windows and comes with installation routines for these systems. ObsPy is developed in a test-driven approach and is available under the LGPLv3 open source licence. Users are welcome to request help, report bugs, propose enhancements or contribute code via either the user mailing list or the project page on GitHub.

  10. Project DEEP STEAM: fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The Fourth Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam generator program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.

  11. Audit of personal property management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Department of Energy`s (Department) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) are responsible for ensuring that Los Alamos maintains an efficient and effective personal property management system that protects, identifies, and controls Government-owned personal property in accordance with applicable regulations. Albuquerque is responsible for reviewing and approving Los Alamos` personal property management system. Los Alamos is responsible for ensuring that personal property is properly protected, identified, and controlled. The audit disclosed that Los Alamos did not have an efficient and effective personal property management system to ensure that personal property was adequately protected, identified, and controlled. In addition, Albuquerque did not approve or disapprove Los Alamos` personal property management system consistent with Federal and Department regulations. Specifically, the audit showed that Los Alamos did not account for $11.6 million of personal property. In addition, $22.2 million of personal property was not properly recorded in the database, $61.7 million of personal property could not be inventoried, and loans to employees and other entities were not adequately justified. As a result, from a total personal property inventory of approximately $1 billion, it is estimated that $100 million of personal property may not be accounted for, and $207 million may not be correctly recorded in the database. Moreover, substantial amounts of personal property on loan to employees and other entities were at risk of unauthorized use. Albuquerque concurred with the finding and agreed to implement the corrective actions recommended in the report.

  12. Integration of RGB "Dust" Imagery to Operations at the Albuquerque Forecast Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuell, Kevin; Guyer, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program has been providing unique Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite imagery to its operational partners since 2005. In the early years of activity these RGB products were related to a True Color RGB, showing what one's own eyes would see if looking down at earth from space, as well as a Snow-Cloud RGB (i.e. False Color), separating clouds from snow on the ground. More recently SPoRT has used the EUMETSAT Best Practices standards for RGB composites to transition a wide array of imagery for multiple uses. A "Dust" RGB product has had particular use at the Albuquerque, New Mexico WFO. Several cases have occurred where users were able to isolate dust plume locations for mesoscale and microscale events during day and night time conditions. In addition the "Dust" RGB can be used for more than just detection of dust as it is sensitive to the changes in density due to atmospheric moisture content. Hence low-level dry boundaries can often be discriminated. This type of imagery is a large change from the single channel imagery typically used by operational forecast staff and hence, can be a challenge to interpret. This presentation aims to discuss the integration of such new imagery into operational use as well as the benefits assessed by the Albuquerque WFO over several documented events.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of very-high-rate GPS observations for seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Takuji; Kato, Teruyuki

    2012-05-01

    GPS observations with higher than once-per-second sampling are becoming increasingly important for seismology. A number of reports have shown that very-high-rate GPS receivers are capable of capturing dynamic ground displacements from significant earthquakes. The higher output rate, however, does not necessarily mean higher frequency content of the corresponding observations. In order to examine dynamic effects on very-high-rate GPS observations, the frequency response characteristics of several geodetic GPS receivers were evaluated using a GPS signal simulator in controlled laboratory conditions. The tested receivers include Trimble Net-R8, NovAtel OEMV, and TOPCON Net-G3A. The experiment results suggest that the dynamic characteristics of the signal tracking loops put a limit on the frequency of the received signals, and all the tested receivers except for Trimble show good signal tracking performance at up to 5 Hz under dynamic stress of 2 G acceleration. The power spectral densities of the kinematic solutions obtained from the simulated seismic motion of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Inland earthquake ( M w 6.8) are also evaluated. The power spectral densities of both the NovAtel and TOPCON receivers agree with the simulated ground displacement at up to 5 Hz. By contrast, the Trimble receiver provides a pronounced increase in spectral energy above 2 Hz.

  14. Rheological implications of the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, K. M.; Ford, H. A.; Lekic, V.; Hirth, G.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence from scattered and reflected seismic waves indicates that the transition between the seismologically-defined lithosphere and asthenosphere is relatively rapid in depth in many tectonic settings with the exception of cratons. For example, in non-cratonic regions of Australia and North America Sp receiver functions typically image a downward deccrease in shear-wave velocity whose depth ranges from ~50 to 130 km. Modeling of these Sp phases with synthetic receiver functions indicates significant (4-10%) shear velocity drops over depth ranges of ~30 km or less. Because these Sp phases originate at depths within the transition from high velocity mantle lid to low velocity zone in surface wave tomography models, and because the Sp phases account for most or all of the lid to low velocity zone contrast, they are interpretable as the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Thermal gradients in a wide range of geodynamical models for comparable tectonic environments are typically distributed over much larger depth ranges. The Sp phases are thus difficult to reconcile with an LAB that is governed solely by temperature. Rather, they suggest the presence of other factors that weaken the top of the asthenosphere, for example small amounts of partial melt (0.5-1.5%) or greater volatile content. Beneath cratons, a drop in shear velocity and rotation of azimuthal anisotropy at the base of the lithosphere in surface wave tomography argue for widespread sub-cratonic asthenosphere. However, Sp imaging that we conducted in cratonic regions of Australia and North America did not find coherent converted phases at potential LAB depths, arguing for LAB velocity gradients that are distributed over more than ~60 km in depth. Such gradual velocity gradients are consistent with a purely thermal origin, although slow vertical increases in melt or volatile content cannot be ruled out. To more directly assess the rheological implications of the seismological LAB, we estimated

  15. Moving towards persistent identification in the seismological community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinteros, Javier; Evans, Peter; Strollo, Angelo; Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The GEOFON data centre and others in the seismological community have been archiving seismic waveforms for many years. The amount of seismic data available continuously increases due to the use of higher sampling rates and the growing number of stations. In recent years, there is a trend towards standardization of the protocols and formats to improve and homogenise access to these data [FDSN, 2013]. The seismological community has begun assigning a particular persistent identifier (PID), the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), to seismic networks as a first step for properly and consistently attributing the use of data from seismic networks in scientific articles [Evans et al., 2015]. This was codified in a recommendation by the international Federation of Digital Seismic Networks [FDSN, 2014]; DOIs for networks now appear in community web pages. However, our community, in common with other fields of science, still struggles with issues such as: supporting reproducibility of results; providing proper attribution (data citation) for data sets; and measuring the impact (by tracking their use) of, those data sets. Seismological data sets used for research are frequently created "on-the-fly" based on particular user requirements such as location or time period; users prepare requests to select subsets of the data held in seismic networks; the data actually provided may even be held at many different data centres [EIDA, 2016]. These subsets also require careful citation. For persistency, a request must receive exactly the same data when repeated at a later time. However, if data are curated between requests, the data set delivered may differ, severely complicating the ability to reproduce a result. Transmission problems or configuration problems may also inadvertently modify the response to a request. With this in mind, our next step is the assignment of additional EPIC-PIDs to daily data files (currently over 28 million in the GEOFON archive) for use within the data

  16. Academia vs Industry: vanishing boundaries between global earthquake seismology and exploration seismics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Global seismology and exploration seismics have long lived in parallel universes, with little cross-fertilization of methodologies and with interaction between the associated communities often limited to company recruitment of students. Fortunately, this traditional separation of technology and people has begun to disappear. This is driven not only by continuing demands for human and financial resources (for companies and academia, respectively) but increasingly also by overlapping intellectual interest. First, 'waves are waves' (that is, the fundamental physics - and math to describe/handle it - is scale invariant) and many artificial boundaries are being removed by use of better wave theory, faster computers, and new data acquisition paradigms. For example, the development of dense sensor arrays (in USA, Europe, Asia - mostly China and Japan) is increasing the attraction (and need) of industry-style interrogation of massive data sets. Examples include large scale seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior with inverse scattering of teleseismic wavefields (e.g., Van der Hilst et al., Science, 2007). On the other hand, reservoir exploration and production benefits from expertise in earthquake seismology, both for better characterization of reservoirs and their overburden and for (induced) micro-earthquake analysis. Passive source methods (including but not restricted to ambient noise tomography) are providing new, economic opportunities for velocity analysis and monitoring, and studies of (micro)seismicity (e.g., source location, parameters, and moment tensor) allow in situ stress determination, tomographic velocity analysis with natural sources in the reservoir, and 4D monitoring (e.g., for hydrocarbon production, carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, and unconventional gas production). Second, the gap between the frequency ranges traditionally considered by both communities is being bridged by better theory, new sensor technology, and through

  17. Creating a Facebook Page for the Seismological Society of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    In August, 2009 I created a Facebook “fan” page for the Seismological Society of America. We had been exploring cost-effective options for providing forums for two-way communication for some months. We knew that a number of larger technical societies had invested significant sums of money to create customized social networking sites but that a small society would need to use existing low-cost software options. The first thing I discovered when I began to set up the fan page was that an unofficial SSA Facebook group already existed, established by Steven J. Gibbons, a member in Norway. Steven had done an excellent job of posting material about SSA. Partly because of the existing group, the official SSA fan page gained fans rapidly. We began by posting information about our own activities and then added links to activities in the broader geoscience community. While much of this material also appeared on our website and in our publication, Seismological Research Letters (SRL), the tone on the FB page is different. It is less formal with more emphasis on photos and links to other sites, including our own. Fans who are active on FB see the posts as part of their social network and do not need to take the initiative to go to the SSA site. Although the goal was to provide a forum for two-way communication, our initial experience was that people were clearly reading the page but not contributing content. This appears to be case with fan pages of sister geoscience societies. FB offers some demographic information to fan site administrators. In an initial review of the demographics it appeared that fans were younger than the overall demographics of the Society. It appeared that a few of the fans are not members or even scientists. Open questions are: what content will be most useful to fans? How will the existence of the page benefit the membership as a whole? Will the page ultimately encourage two-way communication as hoped? Web 2.0 is generating a series of new

  18. An Educator's Resource Guide to Earthquakes and Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Lahr, J. C.; Butler, R.

    2007-12-01

    When a major seismic event occurs, millions of people around the world want to understand what happened. This presents a challenge to many classroom science teachers not well versed in Earth science. In response to this challenge, teachers may try surfing the Internet to ferret out the basics. Following popular links can be time consuming and frustrating, so that the best use is not made of this "teachable moment." For isolated rural teachers with limited Internet access, surfing for information may not be a viable option. A partnership between EarthScope/USArray, High Lava Plains Project (Carnegie Institution/Arizona State University, Portland State University, and isolated K-12 schools in rural SE Oregon generated requests for a basic "Teachers Guide to Earthquakes." To bridge the inequalities in information access and varied science background, EarthScope/USArray sponsored the development of a CD that would be a noncommercial repository of Earth and earthquake-related science resources. A subsequent partnership between the University of Portland, IRIS, the USGS, and Portland-area school teachers defined the needs and provided the focus to organize sample video lectures, PowerPoint presentations, new Earth-process animations, and activities on a such a large range of topics that soon the capacity of a DVD was required. Information was culled from oft-referenced sources, always seeking clear descriptions of processes, basic classroom-tested instructional activities, and effective Web sites. Our format uses a master interactive PDF "book" that covers the basics, from the interior of the Earth and plate tectonics to seismic waves, with links to reference folders containing activities, new animations, and video demos. This work-in-progress DVD was initially aimed at middle school Earth-science curriculum, but has application throughout K-16. Strong support has come from university professors wanting an organized collection of seismology resources. The DVD shows how

  19. Coronal Seismology: Inferring Magnetic Fields and Exploring Damping Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Ireland, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Recent observations in extreme ultra-violet wavelengths have shown that the solar corona oscillates at many different spatial sizes and temporal size scales. However, much remains unknown about many of these oscillations; they are intermittent for unknown reasons, appear on some coronal features and not on other, similar, neighboring features, and may (or may not) be magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave modes. Definitive causes of the structure and origins of these oscillations are still largely lacking. Here, we use automated oscillation detection routines to study a large sample of oscillations, inferring physical mechanisms as to how and why the corona varies.First, we measure the oscillation content of different physical regions on the Sun in SDO AIA data, using two different automated oscillation detection algorithms. This shows a power-law distribution in oscillatory frequency, disagreeing with strong historical assumptions about the nature of coronal heating and coronal seismology. We show how such disagreements can be reconciled by using a power-law background for oscillatory signals.Second we use coronal seismology to provide a means to infer coronal plasma parameters and to differentiate between potential damping mechanisms. Recent sets of kink-mode observations (usually 5-8 loops) have come insights into how the coronal is structured and how it evolves. We present a complex set of flare-induced, off-limb, coronal kink-mode oscillations of almost 100 loops. These display a spread of periods, amplitudes, and damping times, allowing us to probe the spatial distribution of these parameters for the first time. Both Fourier and Wavelet routines are used to automatically extract and characterize these oscillations. An initial period of P~500s, results in an inferred coronal magnetic field of B~20G. The decrease in the oscillation period of the loop position corresponds to a drop in number density inside the coronal loop, as predicted by MHD. As the the period drops

  20. The Era of Computational Seismology (Beno Gutenberg Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The quality of tomographic images of the Earth's interior and earthquake source models is closely tied to our ability to efficiently and accurately simulate 3D seismic wave propagation. For decades seismologists have used asymptotic, approximate methods to address the forward problem in seismology, namely, given a seismic source and a 3D Earth model, accurately simulate the associated wave motions. In recent years, modern numerical methods and parallel computers have facilitated fully 3D simulations of seismic wave propagation at unprecedented resolution and accuracy, heralding the age of computational seismology. The current focus is on harnessing the power of these sophisticated forward modeling tools to enhance the quality of images of the Earth's interior and the earthquake rupture process, that is, to address the inverse problem. Traditional tomographic methods utilize traveltime and dispersion information obtained by comparing data with simulations, and interpret such measurements based on ray theory or other approximate methods. Because of the limitations of these approximate techniques, only certain parts of seismograms can be used, and initial models are generally restricted to be layered or spherically symmetric. With modern numerical modeling tools we are now going well beyond classical tomography, using fully 3D initial models and utilizing as much information contained in seismograms as possible. The ultimate goal is broad band full waveform inversion utilizing entire seismograms. Surprisingly, one tomographic iteration may be performed based on just two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one calculation for the current model and a second 'adjoint' calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers as simultaneous, fictitious sources. Seismic imaging based on adjoint methods assimilates seismographic information into 3D models of elastic (seismic wavespeeds) and anelastic (quality factors) structure. These methods fully account for

  1. U.S.-Soviet seismology research funds switched to air force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Department of Defense funding for seismology research has seen some changes in both amount and administration. While Congress increased the budget of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) by almost $1.4 billion this year, about 13% over last year (as reported October 30 in the Washington Post), it also rescinded DARPA's authority to manage funding of the Soviet Union program of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS).

  2. The role of the Organization of American States in the development of seismology in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quesada, A.

    1982-01-01

    Seismological studies in Latin America were initiated at the beginning of the 20th century, when the first seismological stations were deployed by certain scientific associations. These efforts provided an incentive to the professional community for further activites. Until this date, the only seismic records that existed were historical accounts of catastrophes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This type of information of course, leads to "fantasy" and incorrect descriptions of what has taken place. 

  3. The Euro-Med Seismological portal and its webservices for interactive and automatic data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobert, Laurent; Bossu, Rémy; Kaestli, Philipp; Küng, Josef; Spinuso, Alessandro; Trani, Luca; Van Eck, Torild; Wenzel, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    The seismic portal (www.seismicportal.eu) aims at Improving discoverability, access and usability of data and products for seismology and seismic hazard and risk studies. Its development was initiated during the FP6-NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructure for European Seismology) project to deal with seismological data and is being extended within the FP7-NERA (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project to include seismic hazard results of the FP7-SHARE project and a risk component derived from the FP7-SYNER-G (Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Analysis for Buildings, Lifeline Networks and Infrastructures Safety Gain) project. Its long-term sustainability is based on coordination and integration with project on computational seismology such as VERCE (Virtual Earthquake Research Community for Europe), transformative initiatives of EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model) as well as key actor such as the USGS (US Geological Survey), the ISC (International Seismological Centre) or IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology). Open source technologies and standards such as OGC ensure interoperability within other Earth sciences development. Data is accessed by three different means: the portal for interactive access and data discovery, invocation of webservices for automatic access and soon standing order for data. The presentation will be based on a poster and live demo.

  4. Real-time GNSS seismology using a single receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Guo, Bofeng; Lu, Cuixian; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2014-07-01

    High-rate GNSS has attracted increasing attention and numerous applications in geohazard monitoring and early warning. In this paper, we investigate three current existing single-receiver approaches for real-time GNSS seismology, comparing their observation models for equivalence and assessing the impact of main error components. We propose some refinements to the variometric approach and especially consider compensating the geometry error component by using the accurate initial coordinates before the earthquake to eliminate the drift trend in the integrated coseismic displacements. After careful corrections of satellite ephemeris, ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and geometry errors, the refined variometric approach and the temporal point positioning (TPP) method have equivalent mathematical model with the converged precise point positioning (PPP). We evaluated the precision of the variometric and TPP approaches with various error correction schemes and duration time using numerous data sets and demonstrated that few centimetres accuracy of coseismic displacements is achievable even for 20 min interval. We applied these single-receiver approaches to process 1 Hz GPS data collected from the Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0, 2011 March 11) in Japan to capture coseismic displacement, and further, inverted the obtained displacement fields for fault slip distribution and moment magnitude. Comparisons of the results obtained using the refined variometric approach and TPP, as well as the converged PPP, displayed very good consistence both in coseismic displacements within few centimetres and in the slip distribution patterns and moment magnitudes.

  5. The QUEST Project: Research and Training in Computational Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Marie-Curie Initial Training Network QUEST joins scientists from 15 European partner institutions in the fields of exploration seismics, seismology, applied mathematics, high-performance computing, earthquake physics, physical inverse problems, geodynamics, from Departments of Mathematics, Physics, Earth and Computational Sciences, Oceanography and Exploration Geophysics. The main goal of QUEST is research and training in the development of strategies for seismic imaging using the increasing power of 3-D simulation technology. Existing methodologies are currently subject to a revolutionary change: While so far the observed information was severely reduced and approximate methods (e.g., ray theory) were used to determine Earth's structure, the massive increase in available computational resources allows us now to make use of the complete information contained in the observations. The QUEST objective is to integrate the various elements (wave propagation, high-performance computing, inverse problems) exploiting the synergies of the network expertise and develop the next generation of imaging tools for use on all spatial scales. We will discuss the training concepts of QUEST, the interfaces with other European projects like EPOS and VERCE. We will also describe the www-facilities QUEST offers concerning access to open-source software (e.g., ObsPy, simulation codes, analyitcal solutions) and interactive benchmarking facilities for wave propagation tools.

  6. Powerful Low-Frequency Vibrators for Active Seismology

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A.S.; Chichinin, I.S.; Korneev, V.A.

    2003-12-01

    In the past two decades, active seismology studies in Russia have made use of powerful (40- and 100-ton) low-frequency vibrators. These sources create a force amplitude of up to 100 tons and function in the 1.5 3, 3 6, and 5 10 Hz frequency bands. The mobile versions of the vibrator have a force amplitude of 40 tons and a 6 12 Hz frequency band. Recording distances for the 100-ton vibrator are as large as 350 km, enabling the refracted waves to penetrate down to 50 km depths. Vibrator operation sessions are highly repeatable, having distinct summer or winter spectral patterns. A long profile of seismic records allows estimation of fault zone depths using changes in recorded spectra. Other applications include deep seismic profiling, seismic hazard mapping, structural testing, stress-induced anisotropy studies, seismic station calibration, and large-structure integrity testing. The theoretical description of the low-frequency vibrator is given in the appendices, which contain numerical examples.

  7. Identification of a potential monogenetic volcano using seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Denis; Bataille, Klaus; Cembrano, Jose; Pavez, Andres; Bashkar, Kundu; Gahalaut, Vineet; Perez, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Some monogenetic volcano fields are very close to cities, such as in New Zealand or in México. A new monogenetic volcano may appear at any place and at any time, which could be potentially hazardous for nearby regions. The ability to detect a new one in advance is obviously very important and challenging. The existence of nearby seismometers may help for such detection. Magma sometimes reaches the surface with the birth of a volcano which can be monogenetic, but in other cases the magma does not reach the surface How to detect such movements? How to be sure the magma will reach the surface? Some observations may detect them, such as seismicity which is distributed as a swarm, with a very peculiar distribution in time and magnitudes. In particular, it is important to distinguish between a tectonic swarm and a volcanic swarm. Scaling laws of seismicity in magnitude and time help to perform such a distinction. We show three cases: a seismic swarm in Chile, in the 2007 Aysen crisis, corresponding to an aborted birth of a monogenetic volcano; a seismic swarm triggered after the 2004 great Mw~9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake over an old monogenetic volcano; and a spatial study of monogenetic volcanoes in Mexico (Michoacán) showing the difficulty to forecast the place and time of the birth of a monogenetic cone without seismological records.

  8. Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, David; Selby, Neil D.

    2009-05-01

    One application of forensic seismology is to help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One of the challenges facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes of potential interest each year and potential Treaty violations (underground explosions). There are four main methods: (a) ratio of body- to surface-wave magnitudes, (b) ratio of high-frequency P to S energy, (c) model-based methods, and (d) source depth. Methods (a) and (b) have an empirical basis. The weakness of methods (a)-(c) is the lack of an equivalent elastic source for an underground explosion fired in the range of geological media found around the world. Reliable routine source-depth determination has proved difficult. However, experience gained in the past decade at identifying suspicious seismic sources suggests that although no single method works all of the time, intelligent and original application of complementary methods is usually sufficient to satisfactorily identify the source in question.

  9. Array seismological investigation of the South Atlantic 'Superplume'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Stefanie; Gassmöller, Rene; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    We apply the axisymmetric, spherical Earth spectral elements code AxiSEM to model seismic compressional waves which sample complex `superplume' structures in the lower mantle. High-resolution array seismological stacking techniques are evaluated regarding their capability to resolve large-scale high-density low-velocity bodies including interior structure such as inner upwellings, high density lenses, ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs), neighboring remnant slabs and adjacent small-scale uprisings. Synthetic seismograms are also computed and processed for models of the Earth resulting from geodynamic modelling of the South Atlantic mantle including plate reconstruction. We discuss the interference and suppression of the resulting seismic signals and implications for a seismic data study in terms of visibility of the South Atlantic `superplume' structure. This knowledge is used to process, invert and interpret our data set of seismic sources from the Andes and the South Sandwich Islands detected at seismic arrays spanning from Ethiopia over Cameroon to South Africa mapping the South Atlantic `superplume' structure including its interior structure. In order too present the model of the South Atlantic `superplume' structure that best fits the seismic data set, we iteratively compute synthetic seismograms while adjusting the model according to the dependencies found in the parameter study.

  10. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 4: Albuquerque Area, 1966-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The fourth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Albuquerque Area Office. Included in this report are: (1) The Context (geographic distribution; IHS facilities; population served;…

  11. Title IX Program Evaluation: Corresponding with FY 98 Application for Grants. Albuquerque Public Schools, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Curt

    Title IX and Johnson O'Malley services were provided to 1,495 Native American students at 10 Albuquerque (New Mexico) elementary, middle, and high schools and the Homework Center during the 1997-98 school year. The five goals of the Title IX program were to provide: (1) intervention assistance for students, in which students, parents, and staff…

  12. Stormwater Management for TMDLs in an Arid Climate: A Case Study Application of SUSTAIN in Albuquerque, New Mexico - report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study for the Albuquerque, New Mexico area was conducted under contract with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development using the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Integration Analysis (SUSTAIN). The effort focuses on inve...

  13. Capital assets management process (CAMP) prioritization exercise for FY 1994 and FY 1995 projects at Field Office, Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-16

    This report presents figures derived from a rating process to determine budget needs for projects for 1994 and 1995 at the Albuquerque Field Office. Projects for 1994 include plant life safety code upgrades, roads and parking lot upgrades, and emergency system notification replacement. Projects for 1995 include reconfiguration of inert operations, steam and condensate system upgrades, and site drainage control.

  14. Proceedings of the 1978 National Conference on Technology for Energy Conservation (Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 24-27, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Transfer, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This publication contains the proceedings of the National Conference on Technology for Energy Conservation held in January 1978, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The 112 papers included are organized under the following topics: (1) Legal Considerations; (2) Energy from Biomass; (3) Energy Conservation in Agriculture; (4) Status of Energy Conservation;…

  15. Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, B.D.; Connell, S.D.; Hawley, J.W.; Stone, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

  16. Urban Habitat Evaluation For West Nile Virus Surveillance In Mosquitoes In Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Christine M.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  17. Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Roberts, Christine M; Glass, Gregory E

    2007-06-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  18. Experimental study on anelasticty of polycrystalline material for seismological application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Y.; Karasawa, F.

    2012-12-01

    Due to the recent progress in seismology, we can obtain highly-resolved seismic velocity structures in the upper mantle. In order to interpret the velocity structures in terms of temperature heterogeneity, chemical heterogeneity, and fluid/melt distribution, it is important to assess the quantitative effects of temperature, chemical composition, and fluid/melt on Vp and Vs. Although these effects at the ultrasonic frequencies (anharmonic effect, poroelastic effect) have been measured and assessed quantitatively, these effects at the seismic frequencies are subject to large uncertainty due to the uncertainty in rock anelasticity, which additionally causes modulus relaxation at lower frequencies (anelastic effect). Previous studies have shown that anelasticity of polycrystalline materials follows the similarity rule in which frequency normalized to the Maxwell frequency, f/fM, can be used as a master variable (Morris & Jackson, 2009a; McCarthy et al, 2012). The general applicability of this Maxwell frequency scaling shows that the anelastic relaxation in those experiments is caused by diffusionally accommodated grain boundary sliding (GBS) (Gribb & Cooper, 1998; McCarthy et al, 2012). However, normalized frequency of the existing experimental data is usually considerably lower than the seismic frequencies normalized to the Maxwell frequency of the upper mantle (f/fM=106-1010). Therefore, in order to clarify the mechanism and scaling law applicable to the seismic waves, we have to measure anelasticity at higher normalized frequencies. Theoretical models (e.g., Raj, 1975; Morris & Jackson, 2009b) predict that at higher normalized frequencies, dominant GBS mechanism changes from diffusionally accommodated GBS to elastically accommodated GBS. However, the transition frequency and total relaxation strength associated with the elastically accommodated GBS, which are important in the application to seismology, have so far been difficult to constrain theoretically

  19. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics

  20. Seismic Software Evaluation at the Swiss Seismological Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, John; Olivieri, Marco; Kaestli, Philipp

    2010-05-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismic monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with a low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations and station spacing of ~25km, the SED operate one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by a similar number of real time strong motion stations. An existing in-house processing software has been operational for the last 15 years, and though well suited for the Swiss setting, including the ability to 1. automatically locate and alert local events and 2. manually relocate events with a nonlinear location algorithm using a 3-D velocity model, the software does not satisfactorily accommodate integration of standard community software tools, nor provide a modern database interface for either station metadata or event parameters. To take advantage of major improvements in software architecture and community tools, we wish to migrate to a community standard solution for data acquisition, automatic and manual processing, and archival. We have been evaluating in detail SeisComp3, a state-of-the-art monitoring system developed by GFZ, as well as Nanometrics Apollo Suite (which uses USGS Hydra at it core for event processing). We present our analysis of the capabilities of each software we have been evaluating. In particular, we focus on the capability of each software to detect and identify small local (>Ml1) as well as large regional events. We discuss our results in terms or location and magnitude accuracy, with particular attention to the specific improvements needed from monitoring systems for improved monitoring of small regions with high quality seismic networks.

  1. Seismological modeling of the Delta Scuti star: CD-24 7599

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.A.; Guzik, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    A major goal of asteroseismology is a better understanding of stellar evolution via ``snapshots`` of many stars of different masses in different evolutionary states. For stars of about 2M{sub {circle_dot}} near the sequence, b Scuti stars are the usual suspects. There is an ongoing renaissance in theoretical modeling of 6 Scuti stars brought on by improvements in constitutive physics and by a dramatic increase in the number of modes observed. FG Virginis and CD-24` 7599 are two of the best studied objects, and they have 19 and 13 known frequencies, respectively. . We create models using an updated and modified version of the Iben code described by Guzik & Cox that includes either of the two versions of the OPAL opacities . We use the star`s observed location on the H-R diagram as a starting point for our seismological modeling. Because there is no evidence for observed t = 3 modes, we only consider l = 0, 1, and 2 modes in our analysis. We take into account rotational splitting (about 5 - 10 {mu}Hz) in our frequency matching. Several observed modes must be rotationally split members of a given mode. CD-24` 7599 is less than halfway through core hydrogen burning, and the modes appear to be a set of consecutive 3rd through 5th overtones of {ital l} = 0 through 2 modes. With only 13 modes, we find satisfactory fits with models between 1.9 and 2.0 M{sub {circle_dot}} that fall within the observed luminosity and effective temperature range. By contrast, Guzik & Bradley suggest that FG Virginis is over halfway through core hydrogen burning and the best fitting models lie near 1.80 or 2.00 M{sub {circle_dot}}. We see persistent discrepancies in some low frequency modes, which suggests we may need a small amount of core overshoot or a slight change in metallicity to duplicate FG Virginis.

  2. Seismological identification of the 1998 May 28 Pakistan nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D.; Douglas, A.; Selby, N. D.; Marshall, P. D.; Porter, D.; Wallis, N. J.

    2002-07-01

    On 1998 May 28 Pakistan announced that it had conducted an underground nuclear test. Here we assess whether seismological data, recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) being set up to help verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), can be used to identify the Pakistani test as a possible underground explosion. The prototype International Data Centre (pIDC) automatically determined the network-averaged body wave and surface wave magnitudes to be 4.9 and 3.6, respectively. One of the most reliable methods of identifying possible underground explosions is the mb : Ms criterion. However, mb : Ms is calibrated using conventional magnitudes from historical earthquakes and explosions. We calculate , in the conventional way, using P waves from the Pakistani test recorded by a simulated standard short-period seismograph and read by an experienced analyst. We also analyse the three components of the surface waves from the Pakistani test to confirm that these are correctly associated, and calculate . On mb : Ms the Pakistani test falls between the historical Eurasian underground explosion and earthquake populations. Thus, while the source may arouse suspicion on mb : Ms, its signature is typical of both explosions and deep-lithospheric Eurasian earthquakes. The vast majority of the seismic P signals from the Pakistani test, recorded at long range, are complex. However, simple P seismograms are recorded by at least three of the IMS stations. Analysis, using the relative amplitude method, of three of the simple P seismograms suggests that the source is shallow (less than 5 km). We conclude that the combination of the mb : Ms signature and shallow depth are sufficient to classify the Pakistani test as a possible explosion. Under the CTBT an on-site inspection would be required to determine whether the explosion was nuclear.

  3. SEISMOLOGY OF STANDING KINK OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Arregui, I.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2010-10-20

    We investigate standing kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a prominence fine structure modeled as a straight and cylindrical magnetic tube only partially filled with the prominence material and with its ends fixed at two rigid walls representing the solar photosphere. The prominence plasma is partially ionized and a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer is included between the prominence thread and the coronal medium. Thus, ion-neutral collisions and resonant absorption are the damping mechanisms considered. Approximate analytical expressions of the period, the damping time, and their ratio are derived for the fundamental mode in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. We find that the dominant damping mechanism is resonant absorption, which provides damping ratios in agreement with the observations, whereas ion-neutral collisions are irrelevant for damping. The values of the damping ratio are independent of both the prominence thread length and its position within the magnetic tube, and coincide with the values for a tube fully filled with the prominence plasma. The implications of our results in the context of the MHD seismology technique are discussed, pointing out that the reported short-period (2-10 minutes) and short-wavelength (700-8000 km) thread oscillations may not be consistent with a standing mode interpretation and could be related to propagating waves. Finally, we show that the inversion of some prominence physical parameters, e.g., Alfven speed, magnetic field strength, transverse inhomogeneity length scale, etc., is possible using observationally determined values of the period and damping time of the oscillations along with the analytical approximations of these quantities.

  4. Waves & Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere: Heating and Magneto-Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdélyi, Robert; Mendoza-Briceno, César A.

    2008-06-01

    Preface; Organizing committee; Conference participants; Address by the Scientific Organizing Committee R. Erdélyi; Progress in coronal seismology B. Roberts; Session 1. Waves and oscillations in solar and stellar interior Robert Erdélyi; Session 2. Coupling of global solar and stellar motions into the lower atmosphere Bernard Roberts; Session 3. Seismology of the lower solar atmosphere and stellar chromospheres Siraj S. Hasan; Session 4. Seismology of open versus closed magnetic structures Marcel Goossens; Session 5. Prominence seismology Jose Luis Ballester; Session 6. Dynamical processes and coupling in the magnetic atmosphere of Sun and stars Miguel Ibañez; Session 7. Wave-particle interactions in magnetized plasmas Cesar A. Mendoza-Briceño; Session 8. Solar and stellar global coronal seismology Viggo Hansteen; Session 9. Fundamental physical processes in coronae: waves, turbulence, reconnection Saku Tsuneta; Session 10. Waves and instabilities in atmospheric plasmas Arnold O. Benz; Summary of meeting Cesar A. Mendoza-Briceño; Concluding remarks A. O. Benz; Late papers; Author index.

  5. RESIF-SI : an information system to collect, archive and distribute French seismological and geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debayle, E. D.; Barra, P. B.; Pedersen, H. P.; Resif Working Group

    2012-04-01

    The RESIF (Réseau Sismologique Français) project aims to completely renovate the French permanent and temporary seismic and geodetic networks together with the distribution of associated data. The project has just been funded through a French EQUIPEX grant for a period of 10 years. RESIF will be a significant contribution to EPOS (European Plate Observing System) that has recently integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. A first goal of RESIF is to build a single antenna for the observation of Earth deformation at all time scales. This presentation focus on the second task of RESIF, the information system (RESIF-SI). RESIF-SI is in charge of the validation, distribution and archiving of all French seismic and geodetic data. RESIF-SI is starting with the integration of seismic data. Integration of geodesy data should start in about three years, based on ongoing EPOS developments and the definition of new international standards. RESIF is expected to produce 20TB of seismic data per year. These data will be integrated into RESIF-SI through a distributed system which will collect, distribute and archive, French seismological and geodetic data to provide researchers with high quality data for analysis and interpretation. The RESIF-SI architecture is organized in two levels based on existing resources provided by the RESIF partners Four observatories/research laboratories (Paris, Strasbourg, Nice and Grenoble) and the CEA.will be in charge of collecting and validating seismic data. A national center, hosted by the University of Grenoble, will be in charge of archiving and distributing the data. Data from the permanent RESIF antenna will be freely available via standard request tools in real-time or near real-time via a unified French data portal and integrated into European and Worldwide data exchange systems. Data from field experiments using the RESIF portable equipment will also be freely available, with a standard distribution delay.

  6. Twenty years of Alaska Volcano Observatory's contributions to seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; West, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys observed its 20th anniversary in 2008. The AVO seismic network, inherited from AVO partners in 1988, consisted of three small-aperture subnetworks on Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano and Augustine Volcano and regional stations for a total of 23 short-period instruments (two with three-components). Twenty years later, the AVO network has expanded to 192 stations (23 three-component short-period, and 15 broadband) on 33 volcanoes spanning 2500 km across the Aleutian arc in one of the most remote and challenging environments in the world. The AVO seismic network provides for a unique data set. Within the seismically active Aleutian Arc, there are instrumented volcanoes which exhibit a variety of chemical compositions and eruptive styles. With each individual volcanic center similarly instrumented and all data analyzed in a consistent manner AVO has produced a data set suitable for making seismic comparisons across a wide suite of volcanoes. In twenty years, the AVO has captured data sets for eruptions at Augustine, Kasatochi, Okmok, Pavlof, Redoubt, Shishaldin, Spurr, and Venianinof. AVO data set also includes several volcanic-tectonic swarms, most notably at Akutan, Iliamna, Mageik, Martin, Shishaldin, and Tanaga. This broad approach to volcano seismology has led to a better understanding of precursory earthquake swarms, variations in background rates, triggered seismicity, the structure of volcanoes, volcanic tremor and deep long period earthquakes, among numerous other topics. The AVO also incorporates data from seismic stations operated by both the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center to help locate some of the 70,000 earthquakes in the AVO catalog. In exchange AVO provides dense seismic data from the

  7. Amphibian Seismological Studies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Kuk Hong, Jong; Lee, Won Sang; Geissler, Wolfram; Yun, Sukyoung; Gohl, Karsten; Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014

  8. Testing the seismology-based landquake monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei-An

    2016-04-01

    I have developed a real-time landquake monitoring system (RLMs), which monitor large-scale landquake activities in the Taiwan using real-time seismic network of Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). The RLM system applies a grid-based general source inversion (GSI) technique to obtain the preliminary source location and force mechanism. A 2-D virtual source-grid on the Taiwan Island is created with an interval of 0.2° in both latitude and longitude. The depth of each grid point is fixed on the free surface topography. A database is stored on the hard disk for the synthetics, which are obtained using Green's functions computed by the propagator matrix approach for 1-D average velocity model, at all stations from each virtual source-grid due to nine elementary source components: six elementary moment tensors and three orthogonal (north, east and vertical) single-forces. Offline RLM system was carried out for events detected in previous studies. An important aspect of the RLM system is the implementation of GSI approach for different source types (e.g., full moment tensor, double couple faulting, and explosion source) by the grid search through the 2-D virtual source to automatically identify landquake event based on the improvement in waveform fitness and evaluate the best-fit solution in the monitoring area. With this approach, not only the force mechanisms but also the event occurrence time and location can be obtained simultaneously about 6-8 min after an occurrence of an event. To improve the insufficient accuracy of GSI-determined lotion, I further conduct a landquake epicenter determination (LED) method that maximizes the coherency of the high-frequency (1-3 Hz) horizontal envelope functions to determine the final source location. With good knowledge about the source location, I perform landquake force history (LFH) inversion to investigate the source dynamics (e.g., trajectory) for the relatively large-sized landquake event. With providing

  9. Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The potential uses of Twitter for earthquake response include broadcasting earthquake alerts, rapidly detecting widely felt events, qualitatively assessing earthquake damage effects, communicating with the public, and participating in post-event collaboration. Several seismic networks and agencies are currently distributing Twitter earthquake alerts including the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (@LastQuake), Natural Resources Canada (@CANADAquakes), and the Indonesian meteorological agency (@infogempabmg); the USGS will soon distribute alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts. Beyond broadcasting alerts, the USGS is investigating how to use tweets that originate near the epicenter to detect and characterize shaking events. This is possible because people begin tweeting immediately after feeling an earthquake, and their short narratives and exclamations are available for analysis within 10's of seconds of the origin time. Using five months of tweets that contain the word "earthquake" and its equivalent in other languages, we generate a tweet-frequency time series. The time series clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a simple Short-Term-Average / Long-Term-Average algorithm similar to that commonly used to detect seismic phases. As with most auto-detection algorithms, the parameters can be tuned to catch more or less events at the cost of more or less false triggers. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector found 48 globally-distributed, confirmed seismic events with only 2 false triggers. A space-shuttle landing and "The Great California ShakeOut" caused the false triggers. This number of

  10. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  11. Montessus de Ballore, a pioneer of seismology: The man and his work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Ferdinand de Montessus de Ballore was one of the founders of scientific seismology. He was a pioneer in seismology at the same level as Perrey, Mallet, Milne and Omori. He became familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in Central America (1881-1885). After his experience in El Salvador his interest for understanding earthquakes and volcanoes oriented all of his life. Back in France he worked out a most complete world catalogue of earthquakes with 170.000 events (1885-1907), and completed his career being the head of the Chilean Seismological Service (1907-1923). Many of his ideas were in advance of later discoveries. He was an exceptional writer and published more than 30 books and hundreds of papers.

  12. Analytical approach to calculation of response spectra from seismological models of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1988-01-01

    An analytical approach to calculate response spectra from seismological models of ground motion is presented. Seismological models have three major advantages over empirical models: (1) they help in an understanding of the physics of earthquake mechanisms, (2) they can be used to predict ground motions for future earthquakes and (3) they can be extrapolated to cases where there are no data available. As shown with this study, these models also present a convenient form for the calculation of response spectra, by using the methods of random vibration theory, for a given magnitude and site conditions. The first part of the paper reviews the past models for ground motion description, and introduces the available seismological models. Then, the random vibration equations for the spectral response are presented. The nonstationarity, spectral bandwidth and the correlation of the peaks are considered in the calculation of the peak response.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: The First Fifty Years

    SciTech Connect

    MORA,CARL J.

    1999-11-03

    On Nov. 1, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories celebrates its 50th birthday. Although Sandia has its roots in the World War II-era Manhattan Project, Sandia began operating as a separate nuclear weapons engineering laboratory under the management of AT&T on Nov. 1, 1949. Today the lab employs more than 7,000 people at its two sites in Albuquerque and Livermore, California, and has research and development missions in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and U.S. economic competitiveness. Lockheed Martin Corporation operates Sandia for the US. Department of Energy.

  14. 100+ years of instrumental seismology: the example of the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Instrumental Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchak, Dmitry; Di Giacomo, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Systematic seismological observations of earthquakes using seismic instruments on a global scale began more than 100 years ago. Since then seismologists made many discoveries about the Earth interior and the physics of the earthquakes, also thanks to major developments in the seismic instrumentation deployed around the world. Besides, since the establishment of the first global networks (Milne and Jesuit networks), seismologists around the world stored and exchanged the results of routine observations (e.g., picking of arrival times, amplitude-period measurements, etc.) or more sophisticated analyses (e.g., moment tensor inversion) in seismological bulletins/catalogues. With a project funded by the GEM Foundation (www.globalquakemodel.org), the ISC and the Team of International Experts released a new global earthquake catalogue, the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900 2009) (www.isc.ac.uk/iscgem/index.php), which, differently from previous global seismic catalogues, has the unique feature of covering the entire period of instrumental seismology with locations and magnitude re-assessed using modern approaches for the global earthquakes selected for processing (in the current version approximately 21,000). During the 110 years covered by the ISC-GEM catalogue many seismological developments occurred in terms of instrumentation, seismological practice and knowledge of the physics of the earthquakes. In this contribution we give a brief overview of the major milestones characterizing the last 100+ years of instrumental seismology that were relevant for the production of the ISC-GEM catalogue and the major challenges we faced to obtain a catalogue as homogenous as possible.

  15. ANALYTIC APPROXIMATE SEISMOLOGY OF PROPAGATING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, M.; Soler, R.; Arregui, I.

    2012-12-01

    Observations show that propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. The technique of MHD seismology uses the wave observations combined with MHD wave theory to indirectly infer physical parameters of the solar atmospheric plasma and magnetic field. Here, we present an analytical seismological inversion scheme for propagating MHD waves. This scheme uses the observational information on wavelengths and damping lengths in a consistent manner, along with observed values of periods or phase velocities, and is based on approximate asymptotic expressions for the theoretical values of wavelengths and damping lengths. The applicability of the inversion scheme is discussed and an example is given.

  16. Geostatistical analysis of hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Santa Fe Group, Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ruskauff, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    A regional groundwater flow model has been developed to be used as a management tool for the Albuquerque Basin. It is crucial to recognize the impact of the inherent uncertainty in aquifer hydrogeology when applying the model, and an understanding of the effects of uncertainty can be accomplished using a probabilistic approach to address the role of natural variability of aquifer properties on management strategies. Statistical analysis shows that the hydraulic conductivity data is moderately skewed to the right, but is not lognormal. Geostatistical analysis revealed zonal anisotropy oriented due north-south, which is directly related to the flow direction of the ancestral Rio Grande which laid down the Upper Santa Fe Group deposits. The presence of multiple depositional environments within the Upper Santa Fe Group violates the assumption of stationarity. This can be circumvented by choosing the simulation search radius so that local stationarity holds, or by separating the basin into two portions to be simulated separately and then combined for flow model analysis.

  17. Demographic correlates of paternity confidence and pregnancy outcomes among Albuquerque men.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Kaplan, Hillard; Lancaster, Jane B

    2006-12-01

    We examine the demographic correlates of paternity confidence, or men's assessment of the likelihood that they are the genetic father of a particular child. Evolutionary theory predicts that men will provide less parental investment for putative genetic offspring who are unlikely to be their actual offspring, but confidence of paternity has not been as extensively examined as its importance would merit. Using self-reported data on paternity confidence in 3,360 pregnancies reported by men living in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we find that low paternity confidence is more common among unmarried couples and for unplanned pregnancies. We also find that men are more likely not to state paternity confidence (i.e., they refuse to answer the question) if a pregnancy is unplanned. We additionally examine the pregnancy outcomes associated with confidence of paternity. We find that low paternity confidence pregnancies are significantly more likely to be aborted, and pregnancies for which paternity confidence is unstated are more likely to be aborted or to miscarry. Both abortion and miscarriage are associated with unmarried couples, with unplanned pregnancies, and with couples who have fewer children together. PMID:16685730

  18. Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scope of the audit at the ITRI was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of ITRI operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of ITRI facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributed to the finding and will assist line management in developing ``root causes`` for implementing corrective actions.

  19. Concentrations of selected trace elements and other constituents in the Rio Grande and in fish tissue in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    The State of New Mexico and the Pueblo of Isleta have established surface-water standards for trace elements to control discharges of these contaminants. Before these standards can be meaningfully applied, however, ambient concentrations and loads of trace elements, principally arsenic, need to be determined in the Rio Grande and inflow sources. Arsenic concentrations also need to be determined in the edible portion of fish tissue because the Pueblo of Isleta standard for arsenic is based on fish consumption. Eighteen surface-water sampling sites on a reach of the Rio Grande from the Pueblo of San Felipe to Los Lunas, New Mexico, were sampled quarterly from October 1994 to August 1996. The sites include eight Rio Grande sites, one Jemez River site, five riverside drain sites, and four wastewater- treatment plant outfalls. Trace-element protocol was used to collect and process the samples. Field and laboratory quality-control samples were analyzed, and the results are included in this report. Fish-tissue samples were collected from four of the Rio Grande sites and the Albuquerque Riverside Drain, the Atrisco Riverside Drain, and three lakes at a recreational fishing area on the Isleta Indian Reservation. Arsenic in the Rio Grande is nearly all in the dissolved phase. There was little temporal change in arsenic concentration at the Rio Grande sites. The mean dissolved-arsenic concentration in the Rio Grande increased downstream from 1.8 micrograms per liter at the Pueblo of San Felipe to 3.6 micrograms per liter at Los Lunas. Mean dissolved-arsenic concentrations in the riverside drains were slightly higher (2.8 to 4.5 micrograms per liter) than those in the Rio Grande and were higher still in the wastewater-treatment plant outfalls (7.9 to 16.2 micrograms per liter) and the Jemez River (18.2 micrograms per liter). The mean total-arsenic concentration in fish-tissue samples from the Rio Grande and Albuquerque Riverside Drain was 14.53 micrograms per kilogram.

  20. SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the In-Situ Electrokinetic Extraction (ISEE) system at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    The SITE demonstration results show ...

  1. Summary of water-quality data for City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells, 1988-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindberg, William E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque has collected and analyzed more than 5,000 water-quality samples from 113 water-supply wells in the Albuquerque area, including many drinking-water supply wells, since May of 1988. As a result, a large water-quality data base has been compiled that includes data for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, carbon, volatile organic compounds, radiological constituents, and bacteria. These data are intended to improve the understanding and management of the ground-water resources of the region, rather than demonstrate compliance with Federal and State drinking-water standards. This report gives summary statistics for selected physical properties and chemical constituents for ground water from wells used by the City of Albuquerque for drinking-water supply between 1988 and 1997. Maps are provided to show the general spatial distribution of selected parameters and water types around the region. Although the values of some parameters vary substantially across the city, median values for all parameters included in this report are less than their respective maximum contaminant levels in each drinking-water supply well. The dominant water types are sodium plus potassium / carbonate plus bicarbonate in the western part of the city and calcium / carbonate plus bicarbonate in the eastern part of the city.

  2. Organic carbonyl compounds in Albuquerque, New Mexico, air: A preliminary study of the effects of oxygenated fuel use

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, C.J.; Zhang, Lin; Gaffney, J.S.

    1993-06-01

    A suite of inorganic and organic species were analyzed for four 2--4 day time periods over a year in Albuquerque, New Mexico to determine baseline conditions for organic pollutants under the current air pollution control parameters. Concentrations of low molecular weight carbonyl compounds were relatively high compared with areas such as Los Angeles. Formio acid concentrations in air samples were significant even in winter. In addition, ratios of peroxypropionyl nitrate to peroxyacyetyl nitrate are higher than expected and may be related to the use of oxygenated fuels which are used to mitigate CO concentrations. The number of CO violations in Albuquerque has decreased steadily since 1982 and the downward trend has continued since 1989 when oxygenated fuel use was mandated. It is, therefore, difficult to correlate the drop in CO violations directly to the use of oxygenated fuels when such factors as fleet turnover, woodburning controls, emissions testing and meteorological conditions also may be playing significant roles. More detailed studies are needed to determine the specific relationship between the use of oxygenated fuels and the air quality in Albuquerque, New Mexico and similar urban areas in the western United States.

  3. How the use of statistical seismology benefits induced seismicity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Allmann, B.; Mena Cabrera, B.; Woessner, J.

    2012-12-01

    b-values change from higher values close to the injection points to lower values further out. Additionally, the b-value changes from high values during the fluid injection to lower values later on. A model, simulating the pore pressure diffusion and relating the event-sizes to the differential stress via an inverse relationship established for tectonic events, aims to evaluate this observation of the b-value distribution. The model implies that high pore pressures lead to high b-values as preferably events with smaller sizes are induced. Moderate pressures lead to values of b similar to the regional average. Since pore pressures decline as a function of distance to the injection point, the probability of observing a large magnitude event thus increases with distance. We are therefore able to establish a link between the seismological observables and the geomechanical properties of the source region and thus a reservoir. Understanding the geomechanical properties is essential for estimating the probability of exceeding a certain magnitude value in the induced seismicity and hence the associated seismic hazard of the operation.

  4. CSDP: the seismology of continental thermal regimes. Final technical report, January 1, 1975-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the development of new seismological tools to define and characterize the geometry, mechanical construction and mass transport process of a geothermal system, and their application to various geothermal systems including the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock System, New Mexico, Kilauea and Kilauea Iki, Hawaii, Mt. St. Helens, Washington, and Long Valley, California. (ACR)

  5. Geologic and seismologic investigations for Rocky Flats Plant. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume contains the results of a seismic refraction study of the Ralston Reservoir area, soil stratigraphic investigations, unit descriptions, an analysis of geodetic data, experimental models, seismological evaluation, a seismicity survey of the Northern Golden Fault, historical data for the November 7, 1882 earthquake, and a dendrochronology study. (ACR)

  6. The behavior of transverse waves in nonuniform solar flux tubes. II. Implications for coronal loop seismology

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    The seismology of coronal loops using observations of damped transverse oscillations in combination with results from theoretical models is a tool to indirectly infer physical parameters in the solar atmospheric plasma. Existing seismology schemes based on approximations of the period and damping time of kink oscillations are often used beyond their theoretical range of applicability. These approximations assume that the variation of density across the loop is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the loop, but the results of the inversion problem often do not satisfy this preliminary hypothesis. Here, we determine the accuracy of the analytic approximations of the period and damping time, and the impact on seismology estimates when largely nonuniform loops are considered. We find that the accuracy of the approximations when used beyond their range of applicability is strongly affected by the form of the density profile across the loop, that is observationally unknown and so must be arbitrarily imposed as part of the theoretical model. The error associated with the analytic approximations can be larger than 50% even for relatively thin nonuniform layers. This error directly affects the accuracy of approximate seismology estimates compared to actual numerical inversions. In addition, assuming different density profiles can produce noncoincident intervals of the seismic variables in inversions of the same event. The ignorance about the true shape of density variation across the loop is an important source of error that may dispute the reliability of parameters seismically inferred assuming an ad hoc density profile.

  7. Solving seismological problems using SGRAPH program: I-source parameters and hypocentral location

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.

    2012-09-26

    SGRAPH program is considered one of the seismological programs that maintain seismic data. SGRAPH is considered unique for being able to read a wide range of data formats and manipulate complementary tools in different seismological subjects in a stand-alone Windows-based application. SGRAPH efficiently performs the basic waveform analysis and solves advanced seismological problems. The graphical user interface (GUI) utilities and the Windows facilities such as, dialog boxes, menus, and toolbars simplified the user interaction with data. SGRAPH supported the common data formats like, SAC, SEED, GSE, ASCII, and Nanometrics Y-format, and others. It provides the facilities to solve many seismological problems with the built-in inversion and modeling tools. In this paper, I discuss some of the inversion tools built-in SGRAPH related to source parameters and hypocentral location estimation. Firstly, a description of the SGRAPH program is given discussing some of its features. Secondly, the inversion tools are applied to some selected events of the Dahshour earthquakes as an example of estimating the spectral and source parameters of local earthquakes. In addition, the hypocentral location of these events are estimated using the Hypoinverse 2000 program operated by SGRAPH.

  8. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  9. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The scientific information is the latest and one of the best bedrock on which effective policy to combat and cope with natural disasters have to be built. Understanding, monitoring and information for future natural disasters are the way to assist the government and society. Different types of networks provide reliable information on various natural disasters. For example, one of the main priorities of the networks are directed to study seismicity of the Earth, its physical phenomena and fields - with an emphasis on tectonic movements and related risk processes, global changes, rotation and position of the Earth in space. Therefore seismological network using advanced electronic systems and digital seismographs transmission of signals from seismic stations to the centres and the registration, processing and archiving of information is carried out by a specialized computer system. Thus improve the monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the whole plan. Another type networks as permanent GPS/GNSS networks are associated with processing and data analysis, as well as monitoring of recent movements of the earth crust. In this study we focus on Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks on the territory in Bulgaria. At present NIGGG-BAS runs both Bulgarian seismological and GPS/GNSS networks. The Bulgarian seismological network - NOTSSI (National Operative Telemetric System for Seismological Information) was founded at the end of 1980. The network comprises today 15 permanent seismic stations spanning the entire territory of the country and two local net works that are deployed around the town of Provadia and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. Since 2005-2006, real-time data exchange between Bulgaria and Greece, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and other regional and national seismological data centers was implemented. NIGGG, respectively NOTSSI, is responsible for rapid earthquake determination, public information trough media, and information of

  10. Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Timothy J., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at

  11. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  12. Promoting seismology education and research via the IRIS Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J. J.; Bravo, T. K.; Dorr, P. M.; Hubenthal, M.; Johnson, J. A.; McQuillan, P.; Sumy, D. F.; Welti, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology's Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program is committed to advancing awareness and understanding of seismology and geophysics, while inspiring careers in the Earth sciences. To achieve this mission, IRIS EPO combines content and research expertise of consortium membership with educational and outreach expertise of IRIS staff to create a portfolio of programs, products, and services that target a range of audiences, including grades 6-12 students and teachers, undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, and the general public. IRIS also partners with UNAVCO and other organizations in support of EarthScope where the facilities are well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences. Examples of research-related EPO products and services include the following resources. Tools developed in collaboration with IRIS Data Services provide public and educational access to data, and to a suite of data products. Teachers can stream seismic data from educational or research sensors into their classroom, and the Active Earth Monitor display, designed for visitor centers, universities and small museums, provides views of recent data along with animations that explain seismology concepts, and stories about recent research. Teachable Moment slide sets, created in collaboration with the University of Portland within 24 hours of major earthquakes, provide interpreted USGS tectonic maps and summaries, animations, visualizations, and other event-specific information so educators can explore newsworthy earthquakes with their students. Intro undergraduate classroom activities have been designed to introduce students to some grand challenges in seismological research, while our Research Experiences for Undergraduates program pairs students with seismology researchers throughout the Consortium and provides the opportunity for the students to present their research at a national meeting. EPO activities are evaluated via a

  13. Global Federation of Data Services in Seismology: Extending the Concept to Interdisciplinary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, Tim; Trabant, Chad; Stults, Mike; VanFossen, Mick

    2016-04-01

    The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) sets international standards, formats, and access protocols for global seismology. Recently the availability of an FDSN standard for web services has enabled the development of a federated model of data access. With a growing number of internationally distributed data centers supporting compatible web services the task of federation is now fully realizable. The utility of this approach is already starting to bear fruit in seismology. This presentation will highlight the advances the seismological community has made in the past year towards federated access to seismological data including waveforms, earthquake event catalogs, and metadata describing seismic stations. It will include a discussion of an IRIS Federator as well as an emerging effort to develop an FDSN Federator that will allow seamless access to seismological information across multiple FDSN data centers. As part of the NSF EarthCube initiative as well as the US-European data coordination project (COOPEUS), IRIS and several partners, collectively called GeoWS, have been extending the concept of standard web services to other domains. Our primary partners include Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (marine geophysics), Caltech (tectonic plate reconstructions), SDSC (hydrology), UNAVCO (geodesy), and Unidata (atmospheric sciences). Additionally, IRIS is working with partners at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) , NEON, UTEP, WOVOdat, INTERMAGNET, Global Geodynamics Program, and the Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) to develop web services for those domains. The ultimate goal is to allow discovery, access, and utilization of cross-domain data sources. One of the significant outcomes of this effort is the development of a simple text and metadata representation for tabular data called GeoCSV, that allows straightforward interpretation of information from multiple domains by non-domain experts.

  14. Seismology in the United States, 1983-1986 (Paper 7R0264)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    1987-07-01

    Any seismologist trying even to carry, let alone read, the EOS abstract volumes for recent AGU Meetings knows full well of the substantial growth in seismological research during this reporting period, the four years of 1983 through 1986. Indeed, the number of Seismology Section abstracts has grown from 188 (Fall, 1982) to about 320 (Fall, 1986), to be more or less precise. At a time when research monies seem to be no better than stable (and declining in real terms) and when job opportunities for seismologists seem to have never been worse, at least in the professional lifetimes of most of us, something must be amiss, but certainly this is not the great vitality and diversity in seismological research during the past four years. The current reporting period saw the consortium approach brought to full flower in several fields of seismology, and these include CALCRUST, a consortium of California universities to investigate the crustal structure of the southwestern United States with seismic reflection data; DOSECC (Deep Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust), a consortium to drill and make measurements within scientifically dedicated deep holes to sample active processes that make and remake the continents; EDGE, a consortium of university, government, and private industry scientists intent on exploring the oceanic/continental transitions along U.S. continental margins, using seismic and potential field methods; and IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology), whose prospectus includes a major upgrading of the global seismic network, an advanced portable array of 1000 seismic units for a host of active and passive experiments, and a data management center to store and utilize the vast quantities of data forthcoming from the first two activities. Each of these fledglings can trace their basic nature and motivation, if not their specific scientific agendas, to COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling), now a teenager

  15. Sandia National Laboratories embraces ISDN

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Eldridge, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a multidisciplinary research and development laboratory located on Kirtland Air Force Base, has embraced Integrated Services Digital Network technology as an integral part of its communication network. Sandia and the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Operations Office have recently completed the installation of a modernized and expanded telephone system based, on the AT&T 5ESS telephone switch. Sandia is committed to ISDN as an integral part of data communication services, and it views ISDN as one part of a continuum of services -- services that range from ISDN`s asynchronous and limited bandwidth Ethernet (250--1000 Kbps) through full bandwidth Ethernet, FDDI, and ATM at Sonet rates. Sandia has demonstrated this commitment through its use of ISDN data features to support critical progmmmatic services such as access to corporate data base systems. In the future, ISDN will provide enhanced voice, data communication, and video services.

  16. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Stone, B.D.; Shroba, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley. The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47-40 ka. Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90-98 ka (based on dated basalt flows). Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka). The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1.47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft (Primero Alto) above the modern flood-plain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  17. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James Channing Cole; Mahan, Shannon; Stone, Byron D.; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley . The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47–40 ka . Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90–98 ka (based on dated basalt flows) . Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka) . The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1 .47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft. (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft. (Primero Alto) above the modern floodplain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  18. Can We Improve Estimates of Seismological Q Using a New ``Geometrical Spreading'' Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiakang

    2010-10-01

    Precise measurements of seismological Q are difficult because we lack detailed knowledge on how the Earth’s fine velocity structure affects the amplitude data. In a number of recent papers, Morozov (Geophys J Int 175:239-252, 2008; Seism Res Lett 80:5-7, 2009; Pure Appl Geophys, this volume, 2010) proposes a new procedure intended to improve Q determinations. The procedure relies on quantifying the structural effects using a new form of geometrical spreading (GS) model that has an exponentially decaying component with time, e -γt·γ is a free parameter and is measured together with Q. Morozov has refit many previously published sets of amplitude attenuation data. In general, the new Q estimates are much higher than previous estimates, and all of the previously estimated frequency-dependence values for Q disappear in the new estimates. In this paper I show that (1) the traditional modeling of seismic amplitudes is physically based, whereas the new model lacks a physical basis; (2) the method of measuring Q using the new model is effectively just a curve fitting procedure using a first-order Taylor series expansion; (3) previous high-frequency data that were fit by a power-law frequency dependence for Q are expected to be also fit by the first-order expansion in the limited frequency bands involved, because of the long tails of power-law functions; (4) recent laboratory measurements of intrinsic Q of mantle materials at seismic frequencies provide independent evidence that intrinsic Q is often frequency-dependent, which should lead to frequency-dependent total Q; (5) published long-period surface wave data that were used to derive several recent Q models inherently contradict the new GS model; and (6) previous modeling has already included a special case that is mathematically identical to the new GS model, but with physical assumptions and measured Q values that differ from those with the new GS model. Therefore, while individually the previous Q measurements

  19. Engaging High School Science Teachers in Field-Based Seismology Research: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Research experiences for secondary school science teachers have been shown to improve their students' test scores, and there is a substantial body of literature about the effectiveness of RET (Research Experience for Teachers) or SWEPT (Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers) programs. RET programs enjoy substantial support, and several opportunities for science teachers to engage in research currently exist. However, there are barriers to teacher participation in research projects; for example, laboratory-based projects can be time consuming and require extensive training before a participant can meaningfully engage in scientific inquiry. Field-based projects can be an effective avenue for involving teachers in research; at its best, earth science field work is a fun, highly immersive experience that meaningfully contributes to scientific research projects, and can provide a payoff that is out of proportion to a relatively small time commitment. In particular, broadband seismology deployments provide an excellent opportunity to provide teachers with field-based research experience. Such deployments are labor-intensive and require large teams, with field tasks that vary from digging holes and pouring concrete to constructing and configuring electronics systems and leveling and orienting seismometers. A recently established pilot program, known as FEST (Field Experiences for Science Teachers) is experimenting with providing one week of summer field experience for high school earth science teachers in Connecticut. Here I report on results and challenges from the first year of the program, which is funded by the NSF-CAREER program and is being run in conjunction with a temporary deployment of 15 seismometers in Connecticut, known as SEISConn (Seismic Experiment for Imaging Structure beneath Connecticut). A small group of teachers participated in a week of field work in August 2015 to deploy seismometers in northern CT; this experience followed a visit of the

  20. Inferring Chemical, Thermal and Mechanical Heterogeneities in the Upper Mantle From Seismological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.; Shito, A.

    2003-12-01

    Inferring heterogeneity in the mantle is critical for our understanding of evolution and dynamics of this planet. Most previous efforts in this direction have been concerned with mapping anomalies in temperature, partial melting and/or major element chemistry. We show that in addition to these anomalies, anomalies in trace elements such as hydrogen (water) and the stress level can now be mapped using seismological observations when combined with the latest results of mineral physics. The effects of hydrogen on seismic wave propagation are mostly through its effects on attenuation (Q) and anisotropy. A theoretical analysis shows that the effects of water on attenuation and seismic wave velocities can be parameterized using the rheologically effective temperature (Karato, 2003). This formulation predicts that the velocity heterogeneity caused by anomalies in temperature or water content must have correlation with anomalies in Q. Furthermore the slopes of correlation between Q and velocity anomalies are different between thermal and water origin. Consequently a comparison of anomalies in average seismic wave velocities and Q provides a useful tool to identify the cause of these anomalies. Such an analysis on wedge mantle in the western Pacific suggests that significant heterogeneity in major element chemistry is present in the shallow (<200km) upper mantle whereas anomalies in the deep upper mantle are most likely attributed to the heterogeneity in water content (Shito and Shibutani, 2003). Recent laboratory studies also show that the nature of seismic anisotropy is sensitive to various parameters including water content, temperature and stress magnitude (Jung and Karato, 2001; Katayama et al., 2003). A commonly observed trend of fast shear wave polarization (trench parallel near trench to trench normal anisotropy away from trench) can be attributed to the regional variation in stress level (and water content) in the subduction zone: high stress (plus high water

  1. Capacity Building for Sustainable Seismological Networks in the Americas: A Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute on New Frontiers in Seismological Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, O. A.; Meltzer, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Yepes, H.; Ruiz, M. C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Willemann, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    During July 2011, a Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute, "New Frontiers in Seismological Research: Sustainable Networks, Earthquake Source Parameters, and Earth Structure" was conducted in Quito Ecuador with participants from the US, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean at early stages in their scientific careers. This advanced studies institute was imparted by fifteen volunteer senior faculty and investigators from the U.S. and the Americas. The curriculum addressed the importance of developing and maintaining modern seismological observatories, reviewed the principles of sustainable network operations, and explored recent advances in the analysis of seismological data in support of basic research, education, and hazard mitigation. An additional goal was to develop future international research collaborations. The Institute engaged graduate students, post-doctoral students, and new faculty from across the Americas in an interactive collaborative learning environment including modules on double-difference earthquake location and tomography, regional centroid-moment tensors, and event-based and ambient noise surface wave dispersion and tomography. Under the faculty guidance, participants started promising research projects about surface wave tomography in southeastern Brazil, near the Chilean triple junction, in central Chilean Andes, at the Peru-Chile border, within Peru, at a volcano in Ecuador, in the Caribbean Sea region, and near the Mendocino triple junction. Other participants started projects about moment tensors of earthquakes in or near Brazil, Chile and Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, western Mexico, and northern Mexico. In order to track the progress of the participants and measure the overall effectiveness of the Institute a reunion is planned where the PASI alumni will present the result of their research that was initiated in Quito

  2. Implementing the EPOS Thematic Core Services for Seismology - EPOS-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    During the EPOS Preparatory Phase (2010-2014) the European community of seismological data and service providers prepared an implementation and development plan for the EPOS Thematic Core Services for Seismology, EPOS-S. Building upon the existing seismological service infrastructures in Europe and a long history of multilateral infrastructure development projects, EPOS-S organizes the services handling data, data products, tools, and software in four pillars: "Waveform Data", "Earthquake Products", "Seismic Hazard and Risk", and "Computational Seismology". The first pillar encompasses continuous and event-based waveforms, metadata from permanent and temporary stations, but also includes historical waveforms; an increased distribution of strong-motion data is envisioned. The second pillar "Earthquake Products" includes for example earthquake bulletins and catalogues and moment tensor solutions, but also other earthquake products not yet routinely distributed such as finite-fault models, or shake maps. The third pillar "Seismic Hazard and Risk" envisions the distribution of hazard relevant products: obviously seismic hazard maps but also fault databases, and ground motion prediction relations for different areas. "Computational Seismology" finally deals with massive data applications including the challenges of data staging but also with the development of tools, standard and distribution mechanisms for research products such as large tomographic models. In addition, an "e-seismology and common services" component will be formed in order to serve the more basic visualization, discovery and access portal functions across EPOS-S, closely integrated with the EPOS Integrated Core Services. This component will also provide a framework for expert groups and standards bodies (e.g. on community specific data or metadata formats, procedures and guidelines, or agreed methods for specific products). The implementation and development plan establishes a roadmap for the

  3. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  4. Infiltration and quality of water for two arroyo channels, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.

    1995-01-01

    Selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were studied to collect information about the amount and quality of infiltration through arroyo channels. Infiltration rate was calculated for selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo based on instantaneous streamflow-loss volumes, wetted channel area, and instantaneous evaporation rates measured during 1988-92. Infiltration rates at Grant Line Arroyo ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 foot per day, and at Tijeras Arroyo from 2.28 to 30 feet per day. The evaporation rate ranged from one-tenth of 1 percent to 2 percent of the infiltration rate. Infiltration rates differed with the location of the reach isolated for measurement and with the time of day of the infiltration-rate measurement. Differences in intrinsic permeability of the sediments may be the most important factor affecting spatial variations in infiltration. The most important factor affecting temporal variations in infiltration may be the temperature of the water and sediment where infiltration occurs. Annual evaporation rates were greatest over saturated stream sediments and ranged from 802 to 1,025 millimeters per year or from 31.57 to 40.35 inches per year. Annual evaporation rates were least over unsaturated, unvegetated soil and ranged from 174 to 291 millimeters per year or from 6.85 to 11.46 inches per year. Annual evapotranspiration rates over grasses or shrubs or both were about one-half the rates over saturated stream sediments. Rates were similar for Grant Line and Tijeras Arroyos. The land- surface vegetation, availability of water at the land surface, availability of energy to enable a change of state from water to vapor, existence of a vapor concentration gradient, and a turbulent atmosphere to carry the vapor away may be the factors that determine the amount of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Water in Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo met U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking

  5. Aeromagnetic expression of faults that offset basin fill, Albuquerque basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, M.R.; Minor, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over the Albuquerque basin show widespread expression of faults that offset basin fill and demonstrate that the aeromagnetic method can be an important hydrogeologic and surficial mapping tool in sediment-filled basins. Aeromagnetic expression of faults is recognized by the common correspondence of linear anomalies to surficial evidence of faulting across the area. In map view, linear anomalies show patterns typical of extensional faulting, such as anastomosing and en echelon segments. Depths to the tops of faulted magnetic layers showing the most prominent aeromagnetic expression range from 0 to 100 m. Sources related to subtler fault expressions range in depths from 200 to 500 m. We estimate that sources of the magnetic expressions of the near-surface faults likely reside within the upper 500-600 m of the subsurface. The linear anomalies in profile form show a range of shapes, but all of them can be explained by the juxta-position of layers having different magnetic properties. One typical anomaly differs from the expected symmetric fault anomaly by exhibiting an apparent low over the fault zone and more than one inflection point. Although the apparent low could easily be misinterpreted as representing multiple faults or an anomalous fault zone, geophysical analysis, magnetic-property measurements, and geologic considerations lead instead to a "thin-thick model" in which magnetic layers of different thickness are juxtaposed. The general geometry of this model is a thin magnetic layer on the upthrown block and a thick magnetic layer on the downthrown block. The thin-thick model can be represented geologically by growth faulting and syntectonic sedimentation, where relatively coarse-grained sediment (which is more magnetic than fine-grained material) has accumulated in the hanging wall. This implies that the aeromagnetic data have potential for mapping growth faults and locating concentrations of coarse-grained material

  6. Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Galegar, F.H.; Yourick, P.D.; Ross, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.

  7. The ATM conversion at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Converting a large, heterogeneous, networked, environment to ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) can yield many benefits. Before these benefits can be reaped, however, numerous decisions must be made and implemented. This paper presents a case study which describes the steps that were necessary to convert a backbone network at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico to ATM. It presents each step by explaining its importance and what options were considered along with their tradeoffs. It is hoped that organizations contemplating converting to ATM will have a better understanding of how the transition is implemented after reading this paper.

  8. 76 FR 70456 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Sandia National Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...HHS gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be included in the Special Exposure Cohort Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. The initial proposed definition for the class being evaluated, subject to revision as......

  9. Contributions to Proceedings from the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Seismology of the Sun and the Distant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research results on the seismology of the Sun and distant stars is presented. Topics presented include: (1) detection of global convective wave flows; (2) observation of low degree p-mode oscillations; and (3) techniques for spectral deconvolution.

  10. Building the European Seismological Research Infrastructure: results from 4 years NERIES EC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.

    2010-12-01

    The EC Research Infrastructure (RI) project, Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES), implemented a comprehensive European integrated RI for earthquake seismological data that is scalable and sustainable. NERIES opened a significant amount of additional seismological data, integrated different distributed data archives, implemented and produced advanced analysis tools and advanced software packages and tools. A single seismic data portal provides a single access point and overview for European seismological data available for the earth science research community. Additional data access tools and sites have been implemented to meet user and robustness requirements, notably those at the EMSC and ORFEUS. The datasets compiled in NERIES and available through the portal include among others: - The expanded Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) with real-time access to more then 500 stations from > 53 observatories. This data is continuously monitored, quality controlled and archived in the European Integrated Distributed waveform Archive (EIDA). - A unique integration of acceleration datasets from seven networks in seven European or associated countries centrally accessible in a homogeneous format, thus forming the core comprehensive European acceleration database. Standardized parameter analysis and actual software are included in the database. - A Distributed Archive of Historical Earthquake Data (AHEAD) for research purposes, containing among others a comprehensive European Macroseismic Database and Earthquake Catalogue (1000 - 1963, M ≥5.8), including analysis tools. - Data from 3 one year OBS deployments at three sites, Atlantic, Ionian and Ligurian Sea within the general SEED format, thus creating the core integrated data base for ocean, sea and land based seismological observatories. Tools to facilitate analysis and data mining of the RI datasets are: - A comprehensive set of European seismological velocity reference

  11. PUTTING CORONAL SEISMOLOGY ESTIMATES OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH TO THE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    De Moortel, I.; Pascoe, D. J.

    2009-07-10

    The magnetic field strength inside a model coronal loop is 'estimated' using coronal seismology, to examine the reliability of magnetic field strengths derived from observed, transverse coronal loop oscillations. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the interaction of an external pressure pulse with a coronal loop (modeled as a three-dimensional density enhancement inside a two-dimensional magnetic arcade) are analyzed and the 'observed' properties of the excited transverse loop oscillations are used to derive the value of the local magnetic field strength, following the method of Nakariakov and Ofman. Due to the (unexpected) change in periodicity, the magnetic field derived from our 'observed' oscillation is substantially different from the actual (input) magnetic field value (approximately 50%). Coronal seismology can derive useful information about the local magnetic field, but the combined effect of the loop curvature, the density ratio, and aspect ratio of the loop appears to be more important than previously expected.

  12. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  13. Reflections from the interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, S.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific understanding of earthquakes and their attendant hazards is vital for the development of effective earthquake risk reduction strategies. Within the global disaster reduction policy framework (the Hyogo Framework for Action, overseen by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction), the anticipated role of science and scientists is clear, with respect to risk assessment, loss estimation, space-based observation, early warning and forecasting. The importance of information sharing and cooperation, cross-disciplinary networks and developing technical and institutional capacity for effective disaster management is also highlighted. In practice, the degree to which seismological information is successfully delivered to and applied by individuals, groups or organisations working to manage or reduce the risk from earthquakes is variable. The challenge for scientists is to provide fit-for-purpose information that can be integrated simply into decision-making and risk reduction activities at all levels of governance and at different geographic scales, often by a non-technical audience (i.e. people without any seismological/earthquake engineering training). The interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction (defined here in terms of both the relationship between the science and its application, and the scientist and other risk stakeholders) is complex. This complexity is a function of a range issues that arise relating to communication, multidisciplinary working, politics, organisational practices, inter-organisational collaboration, working practices, sectoral cultures, individual and organisational values, worldviews and expectations. These factors can present significant obstacles to scientific information being incorporated into the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to present some personal reflections on the nature of the interface between the worlds of seismological research and risk reduction, and the

  14. Coronal loop seismology using damping of standing kink oscillations by mode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Anfinogentov, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Kink oscillations of solar coronal loops are frequently observed to be strongly damped. The damping can be explained by mode coupling on the condition that loops have a finite inhomogeneous layer between the higher density core and lower density background. The damping rate depends on the loop density contrast ratio and inhomogeneous layer width. Aims: The theoretical description for mode coupling of kink waves has been extended to include the initial Gaussian damping regime in addition to the exponential asymptotic state. Observation of these damping regimes would provide information about the structuring of the coronal loop and so provide a seismological tool. Methods: We consider three examples of standing kink oscillations observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) for which the general damping profile (Gaussian and exponential regimes) can be fitted. Determining the Gaussian and exponential damping times allows us to perform seismological inversions for the loop density contrast ratio and the inhomogeneous layer width normalised to the loop radius. The layer width and loop minor radius are found separately by comparing the observed loop intensity profile with forward modelling based on our seismological results. Results: The seismological method which allows the density contrast ratio and inhomogeneous layer width to be simultaneously determined from the kink mode damping profile has been applied to observational data for the first time. This allows the internal and external Alfvén speeds to be calculated, and estimates for the magnetic field strength can be dramatically improved using the given plasma density. Conclusions: The kink mode damping rate can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the coronal loop density profile. This information can be used for further calculations such as the magnetic field strength or phase mixing rate.

  15. Seismological research requirements for a comprehensive test-ban monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This book covers: (1) the desirable characteristics and capabilities of seismic monitoring stations; (2) recommendations on the flow paths and handling of the data, which are to be unclassified; and (3) the types and extent of research that will be needed in the next decade. The primary focus of the book is to explore how basic seismological research and test ban monitoring can be mutually beneficial.

  16. ObsPy: A Python toolbox for seismology - Current state, applications, and ecosystem around it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, L.; Megies, T.; Sales de Andrade, E.; Barsch, R.; Beyreuther, M.

    2015-12-01

    ObsPy (http://www.obspy.org) is a community-driven, open-source project offering a bridge for seismology into the scientific Python ecosystem. It provides read and write support for essentially all commonly used waveform, station, and event metadata formats with a unified interface, a comprehensive signal processing toolbox tuned to the needs of seismologists, integrated access to all large data centers, web services and databases, and convenient wrappers to third party codes like libmseed and evalresp. Python, in contrast to many other languages and tools, is simple enough to enable an exploratory and interactive coding style desired by many scientists. At the same time it is a full-fledged programming language usable by software engineers to build complex and large programs. This combination makes it very suitable for use in seismology where research code often has to be translated to stable and production ready environments. It furthermore offers many freely available high quality scientific modules covering most needs in developing scientific software.ObsPy has been in constant development for more than 5 years and nowadays enjoys a large rate of adoption in the community with thousands of users. Successful applications include time-dependent and rotational seismology, big data processing, event relocations, and synthetic studies about attenuation kernels and full-waveform inversions to name a few examples. Additionally it sparked the development of several more specialized packages slowly building a modern seismological ecosystem around it.This contribution will give a short introduction and overview of ObsPy and highlight a number of us cases and software built around it. We will furthermore discuss the issue of sustainability of scientific software.

  17. ObsPy: A Python toolbox for seismology - Current state, applications, and ecosystem around it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Thomas; Megies, Tobias; Krischer, Lion; Sales de Andrade, Elliott; Barsch, Robert; Beyreuther, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    ObsPy (http://www.obspy.org) is a community-driven, open-source project offering a bridge for seismology into the scientific Python ecosystem. It provides * read and write support for essentially all commonly used waveform, station, and event metadata formats with a unified interface, * a comprehensive signal processing toolbox tuned to the needs of seismologists, * integrated access to all large data centers, web services and databases, and * convenient wrappers to third party codes like libmseed and evalresp. Python, in contrast to many other languages and tools, is simple enough to enable an exploratory and interactive coding style desired by many scientists. At the same time it is a full-fledged programming language usable by software engineers to build complex and large programs. This combination makes it very suitable for use in seismology where research code often has to be translated to stable and production ready environments. It furthermore offers many freely available high quality scientific modules covering most needs in developing scientific software. ObsPy has been in constant development for more than 5 years and nowadays enjoys a large rate of adoption in the community with thousands of users. Successful applications include time-dependent and rotational seismology, big data processing, event relocations, and synthetic studies about attenuation kernels and full-waveform inversions to name a few examples. Additionally it sparked the development of several more specialized packages slowly building a modern seismological ecosystem around it. This contribution will give a short introduction and overview of ObsPy and highlight a number of use cases and software built around it. We will furthermore discuss the issue of sustainability of scientific software.

  18. Global Federation of Data Services in Seismology: Extending the Concept to Interdisciplinary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C. M.; Stults, M.; Van Fossen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) sets international standards, formats, and access protocols for global seismology. Recently the availability of an FDSN standard for web services has enabled the development of a federated model of data access. With a growing number of internationally distributed data centers supporting identical web services the task of federation is now fully realizable. This presentation will highlight the advances the seismological community has made in the past year towards federated access to seismological data including waveforms, earthquake event catalogs, and metadata describing seismic stations. As part of the NSF EarthCube project, IRIS and its partners have been extending the concept of standard web services to other domains. Our primary partners include Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (marine geophysics), Caltech (tectonic plate reconstructions), SDSC (hydrology), UNAVCO (geodesy), and Unidata (atmospheric sciences). Additionally IRIS is working with partners at NOAA's NGDC, NEON, UTEP, WOVODAT, Intermagnet, Global Geodynamics Program, and the Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) to develop web services for those domains. The ultimate goal is to allow discovery, access, and utilization of cross-domain data sources. IRIS and a variety of US and European partners have been involved in the Cooperation between Europe and the US (CoopEUS) project where interdisciplinary data integration is a key topic.

  19. A combined crustal depth model for Iran based on the gravity and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiamehr, Ramin

    2010-05-01

    The inversion of the Bouguer gravity data based on the Parker-Oldenburg method is the well-known method for estimation of the Moho depth model between geoscientist. The advantage of this method is that it gives a continuous surface model in the study area. However, in order to have a precise result in this method, we need to have a well distributed and dense gravity data which does not have large systematic errors. Estimation of the crust depth based on the seismological data is another independent method which is basically point-wised but more precise than the inversion approach. In order to reduce the effect of datum and systematic errors in inversion and taking advantage of the precise seismological model, we developed a combined crustal model for Iran based on the corrective surface idea. The four, five and seven parameters models were used in the least-squares sense to get the best combination. The combined model evaluated based on the independent seismological data. The results indicate clearly very good improvements versus the gravity inversion method.

  20. A preliminary analysis of seismological techniques to study Eros and other asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James D.; Sagebiel, Erick J.; Huebner, Walter F.

    The NEAR Shoemaker mission to near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros provided a great deal of information about the asteroid. Still to be learned are the interior structure and material properties: the local density, strength, and cohesiveness within Eros. Seismology is a way to determine such information. This paper numerically explores performing a seismological experiment on Eros, using an explosive as a seismic source. Computations with the explosive source were performed in an Eulerian hydrocode (CTH) and then results of those computations were transferred to a Lagrangian wavecode (LS-DYNA) to calculate the subsequent seismic wave propagation in the body. To verify the technique, computations were first carried out for two cases where analytical results are known: a uniaxial-strain bar and a sphere. Computations were then performed for a three-dimensional solid model of Eros with surface shape based on NEAR data. Initial computations assumed Eros was isotropic and homogeneous in its material properties. Modal frequency computations for the isotropic, homogeneous Eros were then compared with a model of Eros that included an interior fracture plane. Differences in seismic traces and in modal frequencies show that seismology can differentiate the interior of Eros in particular and other asteroids in general.

  1. Environmental seismology: What can we learn on earth surface processes with ambient noise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Eric; Carrière, Simon; Voisin, Christophe; Bottelin, Pierre; Baillet, Laurent; Guéguen, Philippe; Walter, Fabian; Jongmans, Denis; Guillier, Bertrand; Garambois, Stéphane; Gimbert, Florent; Massey, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Environmental seismology consists in studying the mechanical vibrations that originate from, or that have been affected by external causes, that is to say causes outside the solid Earth. This includes for instance the coupling between the solid Earth and the cryosphere, or the hydrosphere, the anthroposphere and the specific sources of vibration developing there. Environmental seismology also addresses the modifications of the wave propagation due to environmental forcing such as temperature and hydrology. Recent developments in data processing, together with increasing computational power and sensor concentration have led to original observations that allow for the development of this new field of seismology. In this article, we will particularly review how we can track and interpret tiny changes in the subsurface of the Earth related to external changes from modifications of the seismic wave propagation, with application to geomechanics, hydrology, and natural hazard. We will particularly demonstrate that, using ambient noise, we can track 1) thermal variations in the subsoil, in buildings or in rock columns; 2) the temporal and spatial evolution of a water table; 3) the evolution of the rigidity of the soil constituting a landslide, and especially the drop of rigidity preceding a failure event.

  2. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  3. Integrating distributed data archives in seismology: the European Integrated waveform Data Archives (EIDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, Reinoud; Hanka, Winfried; Clinton, John; van Eck, Torild; Trani, Luca

    2013-04-01

    ORFEUS is the non-profit foundation that coordinates and promotes digital broadband seismology in Europe. Since 1987 the ORFEUS Data Center (ODC) has been its jointly funded data center. However, within the last decade we have seen an exponential growth of high quality digital waveform data relevant for seismological and general geoscience research. In addition to the rapid expansion in number and density of broadband seismic networks this growth is fuelled by data collected from other sensor types (strong motion, short period) and deployment types (aftershock arrays, temporary field campaigns, OBS). As a consequence, ORFEUS revised its data archiving infrastructure and organization, a major component of this is the formal establishment of the European Integrated waveform Data Archives (EIDA). Within the NERIES and NERA EC projects GFZ has taken the lead in developing ArcLink as a tool to provide uniform access to distributed seismological waveform data archives. The new suite of software and services provides the technical basis of EIDA. To ensure that those developments will become sustainable, an EIDA group has been formed within ORFEUS. This founding group of EIDA nodes, formed in 2013, will be responsible for steering and maintaining the technical developments and organization of an effective operational distributed waveform data archive for seismology in Europe. The EIDA Founding nodes are: ODC/ORFEUS, GEOFON/GFZ/Germany, SED/Switzerland, RESIF/CNRS-INSU/France, INGV/Italy and BGR/Germany. These represent EIDA nodes that have committed themselves within ORFEUS to manage EIDA, that is, to maintain and develop EIDA into a stable sustainable research infrastructure. This task involves a number of challenges with regard to quality and metadata maintenance, but also to provide efficient and uncomplicated data access for users. This also includes effective global archive synchronization with developments within the International Federation of Digital Seismograph

  4. SeisCode: A seismological software repository for discovery and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C.; Reyes, C. G.; Clark, A.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    SeisCode is a community repository for software used in seismological and related fields. The repository is intended to increase discoverability of such software and to provide a long-term home for software projects. Other places exist where seismological software may be found, but none meet the requirements necessary for an always current, easy to search, well documented, and citable resource for projects. Organizations such as IRIS, ORFEUS, and the USGS have websites with lists of available or contributed seismological software. Since the authors themselves do often not maintain these lists, the documentation often consists of a sentence or paragraph, and the available software may be outdated. Repositories such as GoogleCode and SourceForge, which are directly maintained by the authors, provide version control and issue tracking but do not provide a unified way of locating geophysical software scattered in and among countless unrelated projects. Additionally, projects are hosted at language-specific sites such as Mathworks and PyPI, in FTP directories, and in websites strewn across the Web. Search engines are only partially effective discovery tools, as the desired software is often hidden deep within the results. SeisCode provides software authors a place to present their software, codes, scripts, tutorials, and examples to the seismological community. Authors can choose their own level of involvement. At one end of the spectrum, the author might simply create a web page that points to an existing site. At the other extreme, an author may choose to leverage the many tools provided by SeisCode, such as a source code management tool with integrated issue tracking, forums, news feeds, downloads, wikis, and more. For software development projects with multiple authors, SeisCode can also be used as a central site for collaboration. SeisCode provides the community with an easy way to discover software, while providing authors a way to build a community around their

  5. Data Democracy in Simultaneous Monte Carlo Optimizations of Geodetic and Seismological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhaus, H.; Heimann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Estimating the geometry of an earthquake source from seismological and/or geodetic data is a non-linear problem. Often, Monte Carlo optimizations methods are used to find the optimum earthquake model through a clever sampling of the misfit function in the multidimensional model space. The topology of the misfit function, however, very much depends on the data weights we assign. Consequently, also the best fitting model is influenced by the choice of data weights. Data weighting in general is commonly applied these days. Still, there is a large variation between simple arbitrary data weight assignments and weights calculated from estimated data error estimations or trial modeling results. In geodetic source modeling, an accepted and regularly applied procedure is to weight the data, e. g. GPS and InSAR data, according to their quality by using the data error variance-covariance matrix. In this way, we consider correlations of densely spaced data and the data weight factors are independent of the model parametrization. In seismological source studies, the data weighting often appears to be done in a more simple manner. Qualitatively, the azimuthal coverage is taken care of and only sometimes relative weights for different stations are assigned, e. g. based on apparent noise. In a combination of geodetic and seismological data a common rationale for finding the weights would be desirable and moreover we need to find meaningful weighting between the data of different nature, like seismological and GPS data. We present such data weighting in a case study on the 2010 Haiti earthquake to test whether this improves a combined optimization of seismological and geodetic data. For the fault that ruptured during the 2010 Haiti earthquake there are so far at least four different published fault slip models. And, as is often the case, these four are not easily comparable because (1) each model differs from the other to some extent with respect to the model parametrization and

  6. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Baseline update--Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report provides a baseline update to provide the background information necessary for personnel to prepare clear and consise NEPA documentation. The environment of the Sandia National Laboratories is described in this document, including the ecology, meteorology, climatology, seismology, emissions, cultural resources and land use, visual resources, noise pollution, transportation, and socioeconomics.

  7. A Report of the Final Session of the National Bilingual/Bicultural Institute (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 28-December 1, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Elias R., Comp.

    Attending the National Bilingual Bicultural Education Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico on November 28-December 1, 1973, were 1,300 representatives from 25 states. Among the institute's objectives were: (1) to review present and pending state bilingual bicultural education legislation and appropriations; and (2) to develop new directions for…

  8. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Public Hearing. Report of the Proceedings (Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  9. Proceedings of a Conference on Early Childhood Education for American Indians (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. Mexico, March 5-7, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Conference on Early Childhood Education was held during Early Childhood Education Week (March 1968) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Conference participants included Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) school personnel responsible for the establishment and coordination of proposed BIA kindergartens, representatives of National, public, and voluntary…

  10. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  11. Education as Power. Report of Americans for Indian Opportunity Title IV, Part A, Technical Assistance Conference (Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 4-6, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    Included in this report on the 1977 Title IV Part A Technical Assistance conference held in Albuquerque are: (1) a descriptive narrative of conference events; (2) a summary of the 120 evaluation responses; and (3) the resolutions adopted by conference participants as a specific vehicle to make their concerns known to the Office of Indian Education…

  12. Technological Alternatives in Learning; Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western College Reading Association (6th; Albuquerque, April 12-14, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstiens, Gene, Ed.

    The thirty papers in this Annual Proceedings of the Western College Reading Association (WCRA) were originally delivered at the Sixth Annual Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Topics covered include self-programed control, increasing study-concentration behavior, individualizing a college reading program, human options for human beings,…

  13. 20 year IRIS: impact on seismological research at home and abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    : The positive impact of IRIS, through its programs (GSN, PASSCAL, DMS, EO) and its workshops, on seismological research and community building can hardly be overestimated. The Data Management System has been very successful in bringing data to users for research and education anywhere in the world; it enables routine, and in many cases real time, analysis of massive amounts of waveform data for a spectacularly diverse range of studies. (I will give examples of surface wave tomography and inverse scattering studies of the core mantle boundary.) The support that PASSCAL provides for the planning and execution of field campaigns allows seismologists to shift attention from operational issues to exciting science, and the required data dissemination through DMS does not only result in tremendously valuable data sets but also contributes to community building through (international) collaboration. Europe, Australia, and Asia also have rich histories of network and portable array seismometry, and in many areas the cumulative station density exceeds that of North America (even, perhaps, with USArray). Moreover, in some cases, such as the use of temporary, roving arrays of broad band seismometers, activities overseas may have preceded and inspired developments in the US. However, the absence of effective central systems for management and dissemination of quality-controlled data has left many unique historical and regional data sets underutilized. This situation is changing, however. As an example I will mention the NERIES initiative to build a better infrastructure for seismological research and education in Europe. Apart from providing an example, through international collaboration IRIS can continue to play an important role in the improvement of the global seismological infrastructure.

  14. Seismological and Geodynamic Monitoring Network in the "javakheti" Test Zone in the Southern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Karakhanyan, A.; Durgaryan, R.; Basilaia, G.; Sokhadze, G.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Javakheti Highland located in the border region between Armenia and Georgia (sharing a border with Turkey) is an area in the Southern Caucasus of young Holocene-Quaternary volcanism and a region with convergence of a number of active faults. Issues related to the geometry, kinematics and slip-rate of these faults and assessment of their seismic hazard remain unclear in part due to the fragmentary nature of the studies carried out soley within the borders of each of the countries as opposed to region wide. In the frame of the ISTC A-1418 Project "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" the Javakheti Highland was selected as a trans-border test-zone. This designation allowed for the expansion and upgrading of the seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks under the auspices of several international projects (ISTC CSP-053 Project "Development of Communication System for seismic hazard situations in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia", NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response") as well as through joint research programs with the National Taiwan University and Institute of Earth Sciences (IES, Taiwan), Universite Montpellier II (France) and Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre-Université de Strasbourg (France). Studies of geodynamic processes, and seismicity of the region and their interaction have been carried out utilizing the newly established seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks and have served as a basis for the study of the geologic and tectonic structure . Upgrading and expansion of seismological and geodynamic networks required urgent solutions to the following tasks: Introduction of efficient online systems for information acquisition, accumulation and transmission (including sattelite systems) from permanent and temporary installed stations, Adoption of international standards for organization and management of databases in GIS

  15. Developing Federated Services within Seismology: IRIS' involvement in the CoopEUS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C. M.; Stults, M.

    2014-12-01

    As a founding member of the CoopEUS initiative, IRIS Data Services has partnered with five data centers in Europe and the UC Berkeley (NCEDC) in the US to implement internationally standardized web services to access seismological data using identical methodologies. The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) holds commission status within IASPEI/IUGG and as such is the international body that governs data exchange formats and access protocols within seismology. The CoopEUS project involves IRIS and UNAVCO as part of the EarthScope project and the European collaborators are all members of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). CoopEUS includes one work package that attempts to coordinate data access between EarthScope and EPOS facilities. IRIS has worked with its partners in the FDSN to develop and adopt three key international service standards within seismology. These include 1) fdsn-dataselect, a service that returns time series data in a variety of standard formats, 2) fdsn-station, a service that returns related metadata about a seismic station in stationXML format, and 3) fdsn-event, a service that returns information about earthquakes and other seismic events in QuakeML format. Currently the 5 European data centers supporting these services include the ORFEUS Data Centre in the Netherlands, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany, ETH Zurich in Switzerland, INGV in Rome, Italy, and the RESIF Data Centre in Grenoble France. Presently these seven centres can all be accessed using standardized web services with identical service calls and returns results in standardized ways. IRIS is developing an IRIS federator that will allow a client to seamlessly access information across the federated centers. Details and current status of the IRIS Federator will be presented.

  16. Volcano Seismology GEOS 671, A Graduate Course at the University of Alaska Fairbanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.

    2002-05-01

    Volcano seismology is a discipline that straddles seismology and volcanology. It consists of an abundance of specialized knowledge that is not taught in traditional seismology courses, and does not exist in any single book or textbook. Hence GEOS 671 was developed starting in 1995. The following topics are covered in the course: history and organization of the subject; instruments and networks; seismic velocities of volcanic materials; terminology and event classification; swarms, magnitudes, energy, b-values, p-values; high frequency (VT, A-type) earthquakes; low frequency (LP, B-type, VLP) earthquakes; volcanic tremor; volcanic explosions (C-type); attenuation and noise at volcanoes; large earthquakes near volcanoes; cycles of volcanic activity; forecasting of eruptions and assessment of eruptions in progress; magma chambers, S-wave screening, and tomography; selected topics, such as probability, chaos, lightning, and modelling. Case studies help illuminate the basic principles by providing benchmarks and specific examples of important trends, patterns, or dominant processes. Case studies include: Arenal 1968-2002; Redoubt 1989-90; Spurr 1992; Usu 1977; Mount St. Helens 1980; Kilauea 1983; Izu-Oshima 1986; Galeras 1988-1993; Long Valley 1980-1989; Pinatubo 1991; and Rabaul 1981-1994. The students each present two case studies during the semester. GEOS 671 has been taught 4 times (every other year) with 4-8 students each time. At least one student term paper from each class has been expanded into a published work. To keep up with new research, about 15 percent new material is added each time the course is taught. Finally, Alaska is home to 41 historically active volcanoes (80 Holocene) of which 23 are monitored with seismic networks. Students have a strong chance to apply what they learn in the course during real eruptive crises.

  17. How citizen seismology is transforming rapid public earthquake information and interactions between seismologists and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Fréderic; Caroline, Etivant

    2015-04-01

    Historical earthquakes are only known to us through written recollections and so seismologists have a long experience of interpreting the reports of eyewitnesses, explaining probably why seismology has been a pioneer in crowdsourcing and citizen science. Today, Internet has been transforming this situation; It can be considered as the digital nervous system comprising of digital veins and intertwined sensors that capture the pulse of our planet in near real-time. How can both seismology and public could benefit from this new monitoring system? This paper will present the strategy implemented at Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) to leverage this new nervous system to detect and diagnose the impact of earthquakes within minutes rather than hours and how it transformed information systems and interactions with the public. We will show how social network monitoring and flashcrowds (massive website traffic increases on EMSC website) are used to automatically detect felt earthquakes before seismic detections, how damaged areas can me mapped through concomitant loss of Internet sessions (visitors being disconnected) and the benefit of collecting felt reports and geolocated pictures to further constrain rapid impact assessment of global earthquakes. We will also describe how public expectations within tens of seconds of ground shaking are at the basis of improved diversified information tools which integrate this user generated contents. A special attention will be given to LastQuake, the most complex and sophisticated Twitter QuakeBot, smartphone application and browser add-on, which deals with the only earthquakes that matter for the public: the felt and damaging earthquakes. In conclusion we will demonstrate that eyewitnesses are today real time earthquake sensors and active actors of rapid earthquake information.

  18. Surface expressed subduction earthquake segment boundary and its verification in seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Victor, P.; Oncken, O.; Eggert, S.

    2008-12-01

    One of the key questions in seismotectonics is what determines the size of an earthquake rupture and whether the geological and tectonic structure has an influence on rupture dynamics. We have found evidence for a subduction segment boundary on Mejillones Peninsula in Northern Chile expressed in topographic features which form an E-W transect over the peninsula in the area around 23.3°S. This transect subdivides the peninsula in a northern and southern part exhibiting differences in geological and tectonic parameters. Stratigraphic data, morphotectonic structures, fault patterns and age of deformation as well as the coastal uplift on both parts have been examined and showed that the transect might act as a "hinge" line or segment boundary provided that it is a persistent feature over various seismic cycles. Confirmation for this interpretation is coming from seismological data particularly from the intensive study of the aftershock sequence of the M8.0, 1995, Antofagasta earthquake. The main shock hypocenter calculations reflecting the start of the rupture are all located in the area of the proposed segment boundary. Several E-W aligned aftershock hypocentres with strike slip focal mechanism are also congruent with the "hinge"-line over Mejillones Peninsula. Furthermore, a number of seismological parameters, like the seimic b-value, do change at the segment boundary. A very strong support for our hypothesis is coming from the recent M7.8, 2007, Tocopilla earthquake which ruptured the adjacent part of the seismogenic interface north of the Antofagasta earthquake fault plane. Preliminary hypocenter determinations of some aftershocks suggest that the Tocopilla fault plane ends where the Antofagasta fault plane starts, which is again congruent with the proposed segment boundary. In our presentation we would like to summarize the geological evidences and give some new results from the seismological studies of the Tocopilla earthquake.

  19. QuakeML: XML for Seismological Data Exchange and Resource Metadata Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Kästli, P.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; QuakeML Working Group

    2007-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange format for seismology that is under development. Current collaborators are from ETH, GFZ, USC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, and ISTI. QuakeML development was motivated by the lack of a widely accepted and well-documented data format that is applicable to a broad range of fields in seismology. The development team brings together expertise from communities dealing with analysis and creation of earthquake catalogs, distribution of seismic bulletins, and real-time processing of seismic data. Efforts to merge QuakeML with existing XML dialects are under way. The first release of QuakeML will cover a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Further extensions are in progress or planned, e.g., for macroseismic information, location probability density functions, slip distributions, and ground motion information. The QuakeML language definition is supplemented by a concept to provide resource metadata and facilitate metadata exchange between distributed data providers. For that purpose, we introduce unique, location-independent identifiers of seismological resources. As an application of QuakeML, ETH Zurich currently develops a Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit as a contribution to CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability). We follow a collaborative and transparent development approach along the lines of the procedures of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). QuakeML currently is in working draft status. The standard description will be subjected to a public Request for Comments (RFC) process and eventually reach the status of a recommendation. QuakeML can be found at http://www.quakeml.org.

  20. A review on multicomponent seismology: A potential seismic application for reservoir characterization

    PubMed Central

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Searching for hydrocarbon reserves in deep subsurface is the main concern of wide community of geophysicists and geoscientists in petroleum industry. Exploration seismology has substantially contributed to finding and developing giant fields worldwide. The technology has evolved from two to three-dimensional method, and later added a fourth dimension for reservoir monitoring. Continuous depletion of many old fields and the increasing world consumption of crude oil pushed to consistently search for techniques that help recover more reserves from old fields and find alternative fields in more complex and deeper formations either on land and in offshore. In such environments, conventional seismic with the compressional (P) wave alone proved to be insufficient. Multicomponent seismology came as a solution to most limitations encountered in P-wave imaging. That is, recording different components of the seismic wave field allowed geophysicists to map complex reservoirs and extract information that could not be extracted previously. The technology demonstrated its value in many fields and gained popularity in basins worldwide. In this review study, we give an overview about multicomponent seismology, its history, data acquisition, processing and interpretation as well as the state-of the-art of its applications. Recent examples from world basins are highlighted. The study concludes that despite the success achieved in many geographical areas such as deep offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), North Sea, Offshore Brazil, China and Australia, much work remains for the technology to gain similar acceptance in other areas such as Middle East, East Asia, West Africa and North Africa. However, with the tremendous advances reported in data recording, processing and interpretation, the situation may change. PMID:27222756

  1. A review on multicomponent seismology: A potential seismic application for reservoir characterization.

    PubMed

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung

    2016-05-01

    Searching for hydrocarbon reserves in deep subsurface is the main concern of wide community of geophysicists and geoscientists in petroleum industry. Exploration seismology has substantially contributed to finding and developing giant fields worldwide. The technology has evolved from two to three-dimensional method, and later added a fourth dimension for reservoir monitoring. Continuous depletion of many old fields and the increasing world consumption of crude oil pushed to consistently search for techniques that help recover more reserves from old fields and find alternative fields in more complex and deeper formations either on land and in offshore. In such environments, conventional seismic with the compressional (P) wave alone proved to be insufficient. Multicomponent seismology came as a solution to most limitations encountered in P-wave imaging. That is, recording different components of the seismic wave field allowed geophysicists to map complex reservoirs and extract information that could not be extracted previously. The technology demonstrated its value in many fields and gained popularity in basins worldwide. In this review study, we give an overview about multicomponent seismology, its history, data acquisition, processing and interpretation as well as the state-of the-art of its applications. Recent examples from world basins are highlighted. The study concludes that despite the success achieved in many geographical areas such as deep offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), North Sea, Offshore Brazil, China and Australia, much work remains for the technology to gain similar acceptance in other areas such as Middle East, East Asia, West Africa and North Africa. However, with the tremendous advances reported in data recording, processing and interpretation, the situation may change. PMID:27222756

  2. A Laboratory Project on the Theory, Fabrication, and Characterization of a Silicon-on-Insulator Micro-Comb Drive Actuator with Fixed-Fixed Beams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, K.; Leseman, Z. C.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory course on the theory, fabrication, and characterization of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices for a multidisciplinary audience of graduate students at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, has been developed. Hands-on experience in the cleanroom has attracted graduate students from across the university's engineering…

  3. An overview of coronal seismology and application to data from AIA/SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Laurel; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    Coronal seismology involves the investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillatory phenomena that arise in the solar corona. Properties of the observed modes are largely dependent on their environment, and therefore can be used to extract atmospheric parameters that are otherwise difficult to observe. The general theory behind MHD phenomena is investigated here, along with the characteristics of different modes and the information that can be extracted from them. A few methods are applied to data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

  4. Seismological procedures for ZZ Ceti stars and an application to G 117-B15A

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.A.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we outline the procedure for seismological analysis of the ZZ Ceti stars, which are pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres. We use G 117-B15A as the example for this process and derive constraints on the mass and internal structure. The hydrogen layer mass is either about 10(-4)M* or 10(-7)M* depending on whether the l = 1 mode near 215 s is k = 2 or k = 1, respectively. In both cases, the best fitting mass is 0.60M solar, in agreement with spectroscopic log g values.

  5. Overview of Solar Seismology: Oscillations as Probes of Internal Structure and Dynamics in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomre, J.

    1984-01-01

    The physical nature of solar oscillations is reviewed. The nomenclature of the subject and the techniques used to interpret the oscillations are discussed. Many of the acoustic and gravity waves that can be observed in the atmosphere of the Sun are actually resonant or standing modes of the interior; precise measurements of the frequencies of such modes allow deductions of the internal structure and dynamics of this star. The scientific objectives of such studies of solar seismic disturbances, or of solar seismology, are outlined. The reasons why it would be very beneficial to carry out further observations of solar oscillations both from ground based networks and from space will be discussed.

  6. A Global Network for Educational Seismology ready to be used by everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courboulex, F.; Bérenguer, J.; Tocheport, A.; Esnault, Y.; Larroque, C.; Jouffrey, F.; Nolet, G.; Deschamps, A.; Sladen, A.; Balestra, J.

    2013-12-01

    The French ';Sismos à l'Ecole' (Seismology at School or SaE) network currently comprises 60 seismic stations installed in French high schools: 40 inside France and 20 around the world (including the ';La Perouse' school in San Francisco). At this moment the network is mainly composed of 3-component digital stations with a broad-band sensor. All data have open access through a website (www.edusismo.org). Seismograms are used by students, teachers and researchers. In addition to this worldwide permanent backbone we are developing a secondary network with a simpler low-cost station: a basic digitizer with a one-component sensor that can be fixed to the wall of a school. The data of these stations are also freely available in real time and permit the development of student projects on seismology and seismic risk in a larger number of schools. The SaE network currently involves about 100 secondary teachers, as well as 20 researchers motivated to give students practical experience on a broad range of topics involving several disciplines in secondary education (geology, physics, geography, technology ...). The network is a starting point for more advanced educational activities such as the processing and interpretation of real data, quality assessment, and use of databases. In addition it promotes the awareness of seismic risk. We invite all the teachers and researchers around the world who would like to do experimental seismology with their students to use the data and the tools on the website that are in both a French and an English version. For the past 2 years, SaE has also been expanding through the European NERA project, which aim is to share data and experience in educational seismology in Europe and abroad. We shall soon add a new component 'Adopt a Mermaid' - in which classes can follow the new floating seismometers developed at Geoazur (see session S008) and deployed in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean, try to predict their trajectories and learn about the

  7. European seismological data exchange, access and processing: current status of the Research Infrastructure project NERIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, D.; van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    The EC Research infrastructure project NERIES, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative in seismology for 2006-2010 has passed its mid-term point. We will present a short concise overview of the current state of the project, established cooperation with other European and global projects and the planning for the last year of the project. Earthquake data archiving and access within Europe has dramatically improved during the last two years. This concerns earthquake parameters, digital broadband and acceleration waveforms and historical data. The Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) consists currently of more then 300 stations. A new distributed data archive concept, the European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA), has been implemented in Europe connecting the larger European seismological waveform data. Global standards for earthquake parameter data (QuakeML) and tomography models have been developed and are being established. Web application technology has been and is being developed to make a jump start to the next generation data services. A NERIES data portal provides a number of services testing the potential capacities of new open-source web technologies. Data application tools like shakemaps, lossmaps, site response estimation and tools for data processing and visualisation are currently available, although some of these tools are still in an alpha version. A European tomography reference model will be discussed at a special workshop in June 2009. Shakemaps, coherent with the NEIC application, are implemented in, among others, Turkey, Italy, Romania, Switzerland, several countries. The comprehensive site response software is being distributed and used both inside and outside the project. NERIES organises several workshops inviting both consortium and non-consortium participants and covering a wide range of subjects: ‘Seismological observatory operation tools', ‘Tomography', ‘Ocean bottom observatories', 'Site response software training

  8. Seismology@School - Nearly 20 years for the first experiences in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, Jean Luc; Balestra, Julien; Courboulex, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    The original and innovative aspect of this programme stems from giving students the opportunity to install a seismometer in their school. The recorded signals, reflecting regional or global seismic activity, feed into an on-line database, a genuine seismic resource centre and a springboard for educational and scientific activities. In the footsteps of the U.S PEPP project, we have started this experiment in Europe in order to see how we can confront high school students with the current practice of scientific data acquisition, and how we can establish a specific educational structure tailored to the European system. The French network 'EduSismo' (numbering some hundred stations installed in metropolitan France, the overseas departments and territories and a few French high schools abroad) is the outgrowth of an experiment conducted some twenty years back. Since then, the programme implemented has gone beyond simply acquiring seismic signals, which could have been procured by research and monitoring centres. By appropriating a scientific measurement, the student becomes personally involved and masters complex concepts about geophysics and geosciences. The development of simple devices and the design of concrete experiments associated with an investigative approach make it possible to instil the students with a high-quality scientific culture and an education about risks. A lot of similar projects were run in Europe and more … data streaming, database on line, examples of models … are not the only link between schools. The European network stay alive with some events: 'EDUSEIS', 'NaRAS', 'O3E', 'NERA' European programs, teachers/researchers workshops, school challenges, projects between schools, social network … it was a great opportunity to share experiences with teachers and researchers through a huge worldwide network. During the twenty last years, 'Seismology@school' concept has developed initiatives to link more people, and has provided more tools to teach

  9. Recent advance in polar seismology: Global impact of the International Polar Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanao, Masaki; Zhao, Dapeng; Wiens, Douglas A.; Stutzmann, Éléonore

    2015-03-01

    The most exciting initiative for the recent polar studies was the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008. The IPY has witnessed a growing community of seismologists who have made considerable efforts to acquire high-quality data in polar regions. It also provided an excellent opportunity to make significant advances in seismic instrumentation of the polar regions to achieve scientific targets involving global issues. Taking these aspects into account, we organize and publish a special issue in Polar Science on the recent advance in polar seismology and cryoseismology as fruitful achievements of the IPY.

  10. Construction and development of IGP DMC of China National Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, J.; Lin, P.; Yao, Z.; Liang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003, CEA (China Earthquake Administration) commenced the construction of China Digital Seismological Observation Network. By the end of 2007, a new-generation digital seismological observation system had been established, which consists of 1 National Seismic Network, 32 regional seismic networks, 2 small-aperture seismic arrays, 6 volcano monitoring networks and 19 mobile seismic networks, as well as CENC (China Earthquake Network Center) DMC (Data Management Centre) and IGP (Institute of Geophysics) DMC. Since then, the seismological observation system of China has completely entered a digital time. For operational, data backup and data security considerations, the DMC at the Institute of Geophysics (IGP), CEA was established at the end of 2007. IGP DMC now receives and archives waveform data from more than 1000 permanent seismic stations around China in real-time. After the great Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, the real-time waveform data from 56 and 8 portable seismic stations deployed in the aftershock area are added to IGP DMC. The technical system of IGP DMC is designed to conduct data management, processing and service through the network of CEA. We developed and integrated a hardware system with high-performance servers, large-capacity disc arrays, tape library and other facilities, as well as software packages for real-time waveform data receiving, storage, quality control, processing and service. Considering the demands from researchers for large quantities of seismic event waveform data, IGP DMC adopts an innovative "user order" method to extract event waveform data. Users can specify seismic stations, epicenter distance and record length. In a short period of 3 years, IGP DMC has supplied about 350 Terabytes waveform data to over 200 researches of more than 40 academic institutions. According to incomplete statistics, over 40 papers have been published in professional journals, in which 30 papers were indexed by SCI. Now, IGP DMC has become an

  11. Thermal structure and melting conditions in the mantle beneath the Basin and Range province from seismology and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, T.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2016-04-01

    To better constrain the temperature structure in the upper mantle, we jointly invert seismic surface wave velocities and basalt thermobarometry. New measurements of the water concentration (1.0-3.5 wt %) and oxygen fugacity (FMQ + 0.5 to + 1.5) of basalts from seven recently active volcanic fields in the Basin and Range province (Cima, Pisgah, Amboy, Big Pine, Black Rock, Snow Canyon, W. Grand Canyon) enable more accurate equilibration pressure (P) and temperature (T) estimates of the mantle melts. We developed a revised thermobarometer that more precisely predicts the results of laboratory experiments on melts equilibrated with olivine and orthopyroxene and accounts for the effects of water and CO2. Applying these methods to basalts from the Basin and Range we find that most equilibrated near the dry solidus in P-T space and at depths in the vicinity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) inferred from receiver function analysis and Rayleigh surface wave tomography. The wet basalts should have begun melting well below the dry solidus, so the depths of equilibration probably reflect ponding of rising melts beneath the nominally dry lithosphere. A two-parameter thermal model is sufficient to simultaneously satisfy both the seismological and petrological constraints. In the model, the depth to the dry solidus defines the bottom boundary of the conductive lid, while the potential temperature (Tp) controls the asthenosphere and LAB thermal structure. The optimum estimates of Tp range from <1300 to >1500°C, and depths to the LAB range from ˜55 to 75 km, with uncertainties on the order of ±50°C and ±10 km. In contrast to standard tomographic images or basalt thermobarometry, the output of the joint inversion is a geotherm that can be tested quantitatively against other observations.

  12. Guide to user facilities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories' user facilities are described. Specific facilities include: the National Center for Electron Microscopy; the Bevalac; the SuperHILAC; the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility; the National Tritium Labeling Facility; the 88 inch Cyclotron; the Heavy Charged-Particle Treatment Facility; the 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff; the Sky Simulator; the Center for Computational Seismology; and the Low Background Counting Facility. (GHT)

  13. Jovian seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercovici, D.; Schubert, G.

    1987-01-01

    It is hypothesized that observations of the Doppler shifting of IR and UV absorption lines may furnish a powerful method for the detection of 4.5-9 min standing acoustic waves trapped in a wave duct beneath the Jupiter tropopause. Similarly, data could be obtained on Jupiter's thermal and density structure, and on the depth to which its zonal winds penetrate. The present model of standing oscillations in the molecular hydrogen envelope gives attention to theoretical eigenfrequencies and to such forcing functions for wave generation as coupling with turbulent and convective motions, thermal instability due to radiative transfer, wave propagation effects in a saturated atmosphere, and ortho-to-parahydrogen conversion. The small contribution that the forcing mechanisms make to velocity amplitudes implies that the Doppler shifting caused by the waves may only be resolvable through the superposition of oscillation records to enhance S/N ratios.

  14. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  15. CORONAL ALFVEN SPEED DETERMINATION: CONSISTENCY BETWEEN SEISMOLOGY USING AIA/SDO TRANSVERSE LOOP OSCILLATIONS AND MAGNETIC EXTRAPOLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Foullon, C.; White, R. S.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2013-04-10

    Two transversely oscillating coronal loops are investigated in detail during a flare on the 2011 September 6 using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We compare two independent methods to determine the Alfven speed inside these loops. Through the period of oscillation and loop length, information about the Alfven speed inside each loop is deduced seismologically. This is compared with the Alfven speed profiles deduced from magnetic extrapolation and spectral methods using AIA bandpass. We find that for both loops the two methods are consistent. Also, we find that the average Alfven speed based on loop travel time is not necessarily a good measure to compare with the seismological result, which explains earlier reported discrepancies. Instead, the effect of density and magnetic stratification on the wave mode has to be taken into account. We discuss the implications of combining seismological, extrapolation, and spectral methods in deducing the physical properties of coronal loops.

  16. Measuring the magnetic field of a trans-equatorial loop system using coronal seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David; Perez-Suarez, David; Valori, Gherardo

    2016-05-01

    First observed by SOHO/EIT, "EIT waves" are strongly associated with the initial evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and after almost 20 years of investigation a consensus is being reached which interprets them as freely-propagating waves produced by the rapid expansion of a CME in the low corona. An "EIT wave" was observed on 6 July 2012 to erupt from active region AR11514 into a particularly structured corona that included multiple adjacent active regions as well as an adjacent trans-equatorial loop system anchored at the boundary of a nearby coronal hole. The eruption was well observed by SDO/AIA and CoMP, allowing the effects of the "EIT wave" on the trans-equatorial loop system to be studied in detail. In particular, it was possible to characterise the oscillation of the loop system using Doppler velocity measurements from CoMP. These Doppler measurements were used to estimate the magnetic field strength of the trans-equatorial loop system via coronal seismology. It was then possible to compare these inferred magnetic field values with extrapolated magnetic field values derived using a Potential Field Source Surface extrapolation as well as the direct measurements of magnetic field provided by CoMP. These results show that the magnetic field strength of loop systems in the solar corona may be estimated using loop seismology.

  17. The CTBTO Link to the database of the International Seismological Centre (ISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, I.; Storchak, D. A.; Dando, B.; Harris, J.; Di Giacomo, D.

    2011-12-01

    The CTBTO Link to the database of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a project to provide access to seismological data sets maintained by the ISC using specially designed interactive tools. The Link is open to National Data Centres and to the CTBTO. By means of graphical interfaces and database queries tailored to the needs of the monitoring community, the users are given access to a multitude of products. These include the ISC and ISS bulletins, covering the seismicity of the Earth since 1904; nuclear and chemical explosions; the EHB bulletin; the IASPEI Reference Event list (ground truth database); and the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin. The searches are divided into three main categories: The Area Based Search (a spatio-temporal search based on the ISC Bulletin), the REB search (a spatio-temporal search based on specific events in the REB) and the IMS Station Based Search (a search for historical patterns in the reports of seismic stations close to a particular IMS seismic station). The outputs are HTML based web-pages with a simplified version of the ISC Bulletin showing the most relevant parameters with access to ISC, GT, EHB and REB Bulletins in IMS1.0 format for single or multiple events. The CTBTO Link offers a tool to view REB events in context within the historical seismicity, look at observations reported by non-IMS networks, and investigate station histories and residual patterns for stations registered in the International Seismographic Station Registry.

  18. Coronal Seismology of Flare-Excited Standing Slow-Mode Waves Observed by SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.

    2016-05-01

    Flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA in 94 and 131 Å bandpasses. Based on the interpretation in terms of a slow-mode wave, quantitative evidence of thermal conduction suppression in hot (>9 MK) loops has been obtained for the first time from measurements of the polytropic index and phase shift between the temperature and density perturbations (Wang et al. 2015, ApJL, 811, L13). This result has significant implications in two aspects. One is that the thermal conduction suppression suggests the need of greatly enhanced compressive viscosity to interpret the observed strong wave damping. The other is that the conduction suppression provides a reasonable mechanism for explaining the long-duration events where the thermal plasma is sustained well beyond the duration of impulsive hard X-ray bursts in many flares, for a time much longer than expected by the classical Spitzer conductive cooling. In this study, we model the observed standing slow-mode wave in Wang et al. (2015) using a 1D nonlinear MHD code. With the seismology-derived transport coefficients for thermal conduction and compressive viscosity, we successfully simulate the oscillation period and damping time of the observed waves. Based on the parametric study of the effect of thermal conduction suppression and viscosity enhancement on the observables, we discuss the inversion scheme for determining the energy transport coefficients by coronal seismology.

  19. The Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC): validation and results of the 2013 aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, I.; Vallianatos, F.

    2016-02-01

    The last century, the global urbanization has leaded the majority of population to move into big, metropolitan areas. Small areas on the Earth's surface are being built with tall buildings in areas close to seismogenic zones. Such an area of great importance is the Hellenic arc in Greece. Among the regions with high seismicity is Crete, located on the subduction zone of the Eastern Mediterranean plate underneath the Aegean plate. The Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC) has been built to cover the need on continuous monitoring of the regional seismicity in the vicinity of the South Aegean Sea and Crete Island. In the present work, with the use of Z-map software the spatial variability of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) is calculated from HSNC's manual analysis catalogue of events from the beginning of 2008 till the end of September 2015, supporting the good coverage of HSNC in the area surrounding Crete Island. Furthermore, we discuss the 2013 seismicity when two large earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of Crete Island. The two main shocks and their aftershock sequences have been relocated with the use of HYPOINVERSE earthquake location software. Finally, the quality of seismological stations is addressed using the standard PQLX software.

  20. A Green's function exchange platform for seismological research and education: applications and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, T.; Heimann, S.; Kriegerowski, M.; Cesca, S.; Wang, R.

    2015-12-01

    The study of seismic sources from measured waveforms requires synthetic elementary seismograms (Green's functions, GFs) calculated for specific earth models and source receiver geometries. Since the calculation of GFs is computationally expensive and requires careful parameter testing and quality control, pre-calculated GF databases, which can be re-used for different types of applications, can be of advantage. We developed a GF database web platform for the seismological community, where a researcher can share Green's function stores and retrieve synthetic seismograms on the fly for various point and extended earthquake source models for many different earth models at local, regional and global scale. This web service is part of a rich new toolset for the creation and handling of Green's functions and synthetic seismograms. It can be used off-line or in client mode. We demonstrate core features of the GF platform with different applications on global, regional and local scales. These include the automatic inversion of kinematic source parameters from teleseismic body waves, the improved depth estimate of shallow induced earthquakes from regional seismological arrays, or the relative moment tensor inversion of volcanic earthquakes.

  1. A Green's function database platform for seismological research and education: applications and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Sebastian; Kriegerowski, Marius; Dahm, Torsten; Simone, Cesca; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-04-01

    The study of seismic sources from measured waveforms requires synthetic elementary seismograms (Green's functions, GF) calculated for specific earth models and source receiver geometries. Since the calculation of GFs is computationally expensive and requires careful parameter testing and quality control, pre-calculated GF databases, which can be re-used for different types of applications, can be of advantage. We developed a GF database web platform for the seismological community (http://kinherd.org/), where a researcher can share Green's function stores and retrieve synthetic seismograms on the fly for various point and extended earthquake source models for many different earth models at local, regional and global scale. This web service is part of a rich new toolset for the creation and handling of Green's functions and synthetic seismograms (http://emolch.github.com/pyrocko/gf). It can be used off-line or in client mode. We demonstrate core features of the GF platform with different applications on global, regional and local scales. These include the automatic inversion of kinematic source parameter from teleseismic body waves, the improved depth estimate of shallow induced earthquakes from regional seismological arrays, or the relative moment tensor inversion of local earthquakes from volcanic induced seismicity.

  2. PROMINENCE THREAD SEISMOLOGY USING THE P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    DIaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.e

    2010-12-20

    Prominence threads are expected to be cold plasma condensations in a long magnetic tube. Because of this density inhomogeneity along the magnetic field, the ratio of the fundamental transverse mode period to twice that of its first overtone, P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2}, must differ from 1. We investigate the dependence of this ratio on the equilibrium parameters of prominence threads and its possible use as a diagnostic tool for prominence seismology. Using the low-beta plasma approximation, we follow the procedure of previous works to obtain the frequencies and spatial distribution of the modes. We also check the thin tube approximation and find it reasonably accurate. The period ratio P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} is found to be greater than unity, in contrast with coronal loops, for which the effect of inhomogeneities is to make this ratio smaller than 1. The ratio is very sensitive to the thread length, while the dependence on other parameters is less important for threads than for coronal loops. Hence, the period ratio can be used to obtain an estimation of the length of the supporting magnetic tube, since the thread length is known from observations. The obtained value of the tube length does not depend on other parameters, so their potential for prominence seismology may be great.

  3. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE REGION LOOP GEOMETRY. I. HOW CAN IT AFFECT CORONAL SEISMOLOGY?

    SciTech Connect

    Selwa, M.; Ofman, L.; Solanki, S. K. E-mail: leon.ofman@nasa.gov

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical results of coronal loop oscillation excitation using a three-dimensional (3D) MHD model of an idealized active region (AR) field. The AR is initialized as a potential dipole magnetic configuration with gravitationally stratified density and contains a loop with a higher density than its surroundings. We study different ways of excitation of vertical kink oscillations of this loop by velocity: as an initial condition, and as an impulsive excitation with a pulse of a given position, duration, and amplitude. We vary the geometry of the loop in the 3D MHD model and find that it affects both the period of oscillations and the synthetic observations (difference images) that we get from oscillations. Due to the overestimated effective length of the loop in the case of loops which have maximum separation between their legs above the footpoints (>50% of observed loops), the magnetic field obtained from coronal seismology can also be overestimated. The 3D MHD model shows how the accuracy of magnetic field strength determined from coronal seismology can be improved. We study the damping mechanism of the oscillations and find that vertical kink waves in 3D stratified geometry are damped mainly due to wave leakage in the horizontal direction.

  4. Real-time GPS seismology using a single receiver: method comparison, error analysis and precision validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake monitoring and early warning system for hazard assessment and mitigation has traditional been based on seismic instruments. However, for large seismic events, it is difficult for traditional seismic instruments to produce accurate and reliable displacements because of the saturation of broadband seismometers and problematic integration of strong-motion data. Compared with the traditional seismic instruments, GPS can measure arbitrarily large dynamic displacements without saturation, making them particularly valuable in case of large earthquakes and tsunamis. GPS relative positioning approach is usually adopted to estimate seismic displacements since centimeter-level accuracy can be achieved in real-time by processing double-differenced carrier-phase observables. However, relative positioning method requires a local reference station, which might itself be displaced during a large seismic event, resulting in misleading GPS analysis results. Meanwhile, the relative/network approach is time-consuming, particularly difficult for the simultaneous and real-time analysis of GPS data from hundreds or thousands of ground stations. In recent years, several single-receiver approaches for real-time GPS seismology, which can overcome the reference station problem of the relative positioning approach, have been successfully developed and applied to GPS seismology. One available method is real-time precise point positioning (PPP) relied on precise satellite orbit and clock products. However, real-time PPP needs a long (re)convergence period, of about thirty minutes, to resolve integer phase ambiguities and achieve centimeter-level accuracy. In comparison with PPP, Colosimo et al. (2011) proposed a variometric approach to determine the change of position between two adjacent epochs, and then displacements are obtained by a single integration of the delta positions. This approach does not suffer from convergence process, but the single integration from delta positions to

  5. Super-large optical gyroscopes for applications in geodesy and seismology: state-of-the-art and development prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoseltsev, A. A.; Luk'yanov, D. P.; Vinogradov, V. I.; Shreiber, K. U.

    2014-12-01

    A brief survey of the history of the invention and development of super-large laser gyroscopes (SLLGs) is presented. The basic results achieved using SLLGs in geodesy, seismology, fundamental physics and other fields are summarised. The concept of SLLG design, specific features of construction and implementation are considered, as well as the prospects of applying the present-day optical technologies to laser gyroscope engineering. The possibilities of using fibre-optical gyroscopes in seismologic studies are analysed and the results of preliminary experimental studies are presented.

  6. Combining controlled-source seismology and receiver function information to derive 3-D Moho topography for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, M.; Bianchi, I.; Kissling, E.; Agostinetti, N. Piana; Wiemer, S.

    2013-08-01

    The accurate definition of 3-D crustal structures and, in primis, the Moho depth, are the most important requirement for seismological, geophysical and geodynamic modelling in complex tectonic regions. In such areas, like the Mediterranean region, various active and passive seismic experiments are performed, locally reveal information on Moho depth, average and gradient crustal Vp velocity and average Vp/Vs velocity ratios. Until now, the most reliable information on crustal structures stems from controlled-source seismology experiments. In most parts of the Alpine region, a relatively large number of controlled-source seismology information are available though the overall coverage in the central Mediterranean area is still sparse due to high costs of such experiments. Thus, results from other seismic methodologies, such as local earthquake tomography, receiver functions and ambient noise tomography can be used to complement the controlled-source seismology information to increase coverage and thus the quality of 3-D crustal models. In this paper, we introduce a methodology to directly combine controlled-source seismology and receiver functions information relying on the strengths of each method and in relation to quantitative uncertainty estimates for all data to derive a well resolved Moho map for Italy. To obtain a homogeneous elaboration of controlled-source seismology and receiver functions results, we introduce a new classification/weighting scheme based on uncertainty assessment for receiver functions data. In order to tune the receiver functions information quality, we compare local receiver functions Moho depths and uncertainties with a recently derived well-resolved local earthquake tomography-derived Moho map and with controlled-source seismology information. We find an excellent correlation in the Moho information obtained by these three methodologies in Italy. In the final step, we interpolate the controlled-source seismology and receiver functions

  7. Ehmmanuil Dyudvigovich Nobel' i Rossijskaya astronomiya i sejsmologiya %t Emanuel Ludvigovich Nobel and astronomy and seismology in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkunov, V. S.; Mikisha, A. M.

    This paper deals with the Nobel family activity in the promotion of astronomy and seismology in Russia. The family members paid special attention to the development of the oil fields in Caspian region which made regularly seismological observations necessary. Two famous Russian scientists, O. Baklund and B. Golitsyn, were involved in this activity. Specific role in this cooperation belonged to German firm "Repsold & Sons". The authors use archival data found in St.-Petersburg Department of the Archives of RAS and in the archives of Hamburg as well as rare publications in Russian and German press of the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries.

  8. Super-large optical gyroscopes for applications in geodesy and seismology: state-of-the-art and development prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Velikoseltsev, A A; Luk'yanov, D P; Vinogradov, V I; Shreiber, K U

    2014-12-31

    A brief survey of the history of the invention and development of super-large laser gyroscopes (SLLGs) is presented. The basic results achieved using SLLGs in geodesy, seismology, fundamental physics and other fields are summarised. The concept of SLLG design, specific features of construction and implementation are considered, as well as the prospects of applying the present-day optical technologies to laser gyroscope engineering. The possibilities of using fibre-optical gyroscopes in seismologic studies are analysed and the results of preliminary experimental studies are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  9. Trends and Opportunities in Seismology. Based on a Workshop Held at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California, January 3-9, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Seismology.

    This report is the result of a workshop conducted by the Committee on Seismology of the National Research Council to review the field of seismology, its importance in many and diverse areas of national interest, and its future course. This report is intended to be useful not only to the scientific and technical communities but also to the…

  10. Fault Networks in the Northwestern Albuquerque Basin and Their Potential Role in Controlling Mantle CO2 Degassing and Fluid Migration from the Valles Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Fischer, T. P.; Lee, H.; McGibbon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande rift (RGR) has Quaternary and active volcanism and faulting that provide a field laboratory for examining links between mantle degassing and faults as fluid conduits. Diffuse and spring CO2 flux measurements were taken at 6 sites in the northwestern Albuquerque Basin (NWAB) and Valles caldera geothermal system. All sites progress to the southwest from the 1.25 Ma Valles caldera, down the rift-related Jemez fault network, to intersect with the Nacimiento fault system. Mantle CO2 and He degassing are well documented at 5 of 6 sites, with decreasing 3He/4He ratios away from the caldera. The instrument used to measure CO2 flux was an EGM-4 CO2 gas analyzer (PP systems) with an accumulation chamber. Carbonic springs at Penasco Springs (PS) and San Ysidro (SY), and the carbonate-cemented Sand Hill Fault (SHF) were targeted, all near the western border of the RGR. The SHF has no spring activity, had the smallest maximum flux of all the sites (8 g/m2d), but carbonate along the fault zone (<2 m wide) attest to past CO2 flux. The other two sites are equal distance (30-40 km) between the SHF site and Valles caldera sites. These sites have active carbonic springs that precipitate travertine mounds. Our work suggests these sites reflect intersections of the Nacimiento fault with NE trending faults that connect to the Jemez fault network. The maximum diffuse flux recorded at SY (297 g/m2d) and PS (25 g/m2d) are high, especially along the fault and near springs. At SY and PS the instruments capacity was exceeded (2,400 g/m2d) at 6 of 9 springs. Interpretations indicate a direct CO2 flux through a fault-related artesian aquifer system that is connected to magmatic gases from the caldera. Maximum diffuse flux measurements of Alamo Canyon (20,906 g/m2d), Sulphur Springs (2,400 g/m2d) and Soda Dam (1,882 g/m2d) at Valles caldera geothermal sites are comparable to Yellowstone geothermal systems. We use geospatial analysis and local geologic mapping to examine

  11. Proceedings of the Guidelines for Seismometer Testing Workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 9-10 May 2005 ("GST2")

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, Charles R.; Nigbor, Robert L.; Evans, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing and specification of seismic and earthquake-engineering sensors and recorders has been marked by significant variations in procedures and selected parameters. These variations cause difficulty in comparing such specifications and test results. In July 1989, and again in May 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey hosted international public/private workshops with the goal of defining widely accepted guidelines for the testing of seismological inertial sensors, seismometers, and accelerometers. This document reports the Proceedings of the 2005 workshop and includes as Appendix 6 the report of the 1989 workshop. In a future document, we will attempt to collate and rationalize a single set of formal guidelines for testing and specifying seismic sensors, supplementing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) guidelines on instrumentation likely used by ANSS as its standard for verification, acceptance, and intermittent testing, as well as for responses to ANSS instrument requisitions.

  12. Southwest Conference on Optics, Albuquerque, NM, March 4-8, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. S.

    The topics of optical components, materials, and design; lasers and laser systems; spectroscopic applications, and application of laser optics are discussed. Papers are presented on imaging of the wavefront under test in interferometry, optical performance of synthetic aperture telescope configurations, resonator optical designs for free-electron lasers, and the onset of saturation in a high-gain free-electron laser. Additional papers include lifetime and quenching measurements of C2H emission produced by vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of C2H2, multiband selection with linear array detectors, nuclear radiation-induced absorption in optical materials, Raman studies of laser-damaged single-layer and multilayer optical coatings, and lidar techniques for search and rescue. Special consideration is given to the advances in the optics research in the Rio Grande research corridor, such as the Strategic Defense Initiatives at Los Alamos National Laboratory, recent advances in optical measurement methods in physics and chemistry, and the Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory for Desert Adaptation.

  13. Current status of the European seismological data exchange and access; ORFEUS, EMSC, NERIES and EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Hanka, W.; Cocco, M.

    2009-12-01

    European seismological data is provided through a larger diversity of services funded though national, regional, academic and private resources each with their own priorities attached. In spite of this diversity of technology, interest and political difficulties a common agreement to open rapid waveform data exchange has been build up throughout the last decades. Currently, our main challenges are on a technical and software level. We need to optimize the data exchange, data quality and access facilities both on a national and European scale and provide secondary products. Since 1975 coordination of European seismological parametric data was organised within the EMSC and since 1987 with the creation of ORFEUS also waveform data exchange started to be organised. The European initiatives, like NARS (Netherlands), GEOSCOPE(France) and GEOFON (Germany) provided an enormous impulse to open data exchange also on a global scale. Since about 10 years ago real-time data exchange took off with the development of the SeedLink protocol by GFZ and the EC-project MEREDIAN. In 2006 a new research Infrastructure project, NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Seismology) pushed the developments further; the Virtual European Broadband seismic Network (VEBSN), coordinated within ORFEUS, is a shared pool of nearly 500 (near) real-time data distributing seismic stations operated by more then 50 networks. The VEBSN provides currently the input for the regional European FDSN archive and is integrated within the European waveform Integrated Data Archive (EIDA), which provides data access to complementary regional and national data. Through recent developments in NERIES also acceleration data is being made openly accessible from the different national networks. Our current challenge is to optimize services on a regional and national scale, providing web-service tools and relevant data products. A number of strategies are being set-up to meet these challenges: A long

  14. Local network deployed around the Kozloduy NPP - a useful tool for seismological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data

  15. Spanning the scales from atomic to rock microstructure to planetary seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainprice, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    There is strong connection from atomic structure (sub-nm scale) to microstructure (mm scale); for example the elastic properties of minerals are directly linked to their atomic arrangement. This link between atomic arrangement and elastic properties has been extensively exploited in recent years with ab initio methods providing the elastic tensors of many minerals in extreme conditions. The use of ab initio modeling to predict the behavior of dislocations pioneered by Patrick Cordier's group in Lille provides another link between atomic structure and deformation at the crystal scale. These data may be further up-scaled via the prediction of the evolution of crystal preferred orientations (CPO) using polycrystalline modeling codes (e.g.,VPSC) to complete the link to anisotropic physical properties at the scale of the Earth deformation patterns. The link between upper mantle seismology and the microstructure of peridotite rocks recovered at the Earth's surface was one the first cases where a quantitative estimate of anisotropy measured by seismology could be directly compared with rock samples to provide results in good agreement, even though the length scales measurement differed by several orders of magnitude. The agreement between seismology with propagation path lengths of hundreds to thousands of km and physical properties of rock samples of a few cm3implies that in the upper mantle the flow field must be coherent over large distances. Large-scale convection currents at the planetary scale are clearly a key factor in creating this coherence, but analysis of seismic data also points to coherence in the deformation patterns at the scale of hundreds to thousands of km in the lithospheric mantle. Yet the interpretation of seismic anisotropy data in terms of flow patterns in the mantle relies on our knowledge of the crystal scale plasticity and on the CPO evolution. Ab-initio modelling of crystal plasticity is an essential tool here. In the upper mantle, this

  16. Development of the Plate Tectonics and Seismology markup languages with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, H.; Babaei, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) and its specifications such as the XSD Schema, allow geologists to design discipline-specific vocabularies such as Seismology Markup Language (SeismML) or Plate Tectonics Markup Language (TectML). These languages make it possible to store and interchange structured geological information over the Web. Development of a geological markup language requires mapping geological concepts, such as "Earthquake" or "Plate" into a UML object model, applying a modeling and design environment. We have selected four inter-related geological concepts: earthquake, fault, plate, and orogeny, and developed four XML Schema Definitions (XSD), that define the relationships, cardinalities, hierarchies, and semantics of these concepts. In such a geological concept model, the UML object "Earthquake" is related to one or more "Wave" objects, each arriving to a seismic station at a specific "DateTime", and relating to a specific "Epicenter" object that lies at a unique "Location". The "Earthquake" object occurs along a "Segment" of a "Fault" object, which is related to a specific "Plate" object. The "Fault" has its own associations with such things as "Bend", "Step", and "Segment", and could be of any kind (e.g., "Thrust", "Transform'). The "Plate" is related to many other objects such as "MOR", "Subduction", and "Forearc", and is associated with an "Orogeny" object that relates to "Deformation" and "Strain" and several other objects. These UML objects were mapped into XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) formats, which were then converted into four XSD Schemas. The schemas were used to create and validate the XML instance documents, and to create a relational database hosting the plate tectonics and seismological data in the Microsoft Access format. The SeismML and TectML allow seismologists and structural geologists, among others, to submit and retrieve structured geological data on the Internet. A seismologist, for example, can submit peer-reviewed and

  17. The Hellenic Seismological Network Of Crete (HSNC): Validation and results of the 2013 aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2015-04-01

    The number and quality of seismological networks in Europe has increased in the past decades. Nevertheless, the need for localized networks monitoring areas of great seismic and scientific interest is constant. Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC) covers this need for the vicinity of the South Aegean Sea and Crete Island. In the present work with the use of Z-map software (www.seismo.ethz.ch) the spatial variability of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) is calculated from HSNC's manual analysis catalogue of events for the period 2011 until today, proving the good coverage of HSNC in the areas. Furthermore the 2013, South Aegean seismicity where two large shallow earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of Crete Island, is discussed. The first event takes place on 15th June 2013 in the front of the Hellenic Arc, south from central Crete, while the second one on 12th October, 2013 on the western part of Crete. The two main shocks and their aftershock sequences have been relocated with the use of hypoinverse earthquake location software and an appropriate crust model. The HSNC identified more than 500 and 300 aftershocks respectively followed after the main events. The detailed construction of aftershocks catalogue permits the applicability of modern theories based on complexity sciences as described recently in the frame of non extensive statistical physics. In addition site effects in the stations locations are presented using event and noise recordings. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds References A. Tzanis and F. Vallianatos, "Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the EW Hellenic Arc", Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 3, 179-195, 2003 F. Vallianatos, G

  18. Promoting seismology education through collaboration between university research scientists and school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, M. R.; Ellins, K. K.; Boyd, D.; Mote, A. S.; Pulliam, J.; Frohlich, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Participation in the NSF-sponsored Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development project paved the way for several teachers to receive educational seismometers and join the IRIS Seismograph in Schools program. This, in turn, has led to secondary school teachers working with university seismologists on research projects. Examples are the NSF-EarthScope SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Associated with the Rio Grande Rift) project; field studies to compile felt-reports for Texas earthquakes, some which may have been induced by human activities; and a seismic study of the Texas Gulf Coast to investigate ocean-continent transition processes along a passive margin. Such collaborations are mutually beneficial in nature. They help scientists to accomplish their research objectives, involve teachers and their students in the authentic, inquiry-based science, promote public awareness of such projects, and open the doors to advancement opportunities for those teachers involved. In some cases, bringing together research scientists and teachers results in collaborations that produce publishable research. In order to effectively integrate seismology research into 7-12 grade education, one of us (Brunt) established the Eagle Pass Junior High Seismology Team in connection with IRIS Seismograph in Schools, station EPTX (AS-1 seismograph), to teach students about earthquakes using authentic real-time data. The concept has sparked interest among other secondary teachers, leading to the creation of two similarly organized seismology teams: WPTX (Boyd, Williams Preparatory School, Dallas) and THTX (Mote, Ann Richards School for Young Women Leaders, Austin). Although the educational seismometers are basic instruments, they are effective educational tools. Seismographs in schools offer students opportunities to learn how earthquakes are recorded and how modern seismometers work, to collect and interpret seismic data, and to

  19. Ambient noise as the new source for urban engineering seismology and earthquake engineering: a case study from Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chen, Qi-fu; Wang, Weijun; Rohrbach, Eric

    2014-02-01

    In highly populated urban centers, traditional seismic survey sources can no longer be properly applied due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. The ambient vibration noise, including both microseisms and microtremor, though are generally weak but available anywhere and anytime, can be an ideal supplementary source for conducting seismic surveys for engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. This is fundamentally supported by advanced digital signal processing techniques for effectively extracting the useful information out from the noise. Thus, it can be essentially regarded as a passive seismic method. In this paper we first make a brief survey of the ambient vibration noise, followed by a quick summary of digital signal processing for passive seismic surveys. Then the applications of ambient noise in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering for urban settings are illustrated with examples from Beijing metropolitan area. For engineering seismology the example is the assessment of site effect in a large area via microtremor observations. For earthquake engineering the example is for structural characterization of a typical reinforced concrete high-rise building using background vibration noise. By showing these examples we argue that the ambient noise can be treated as a new source that is economical, practical, and particularly valuable to engineering seismology and earthquake engineering projects for seismic hazard mitigation in urban areas.

  20. 10 CFR 72.103 - Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or after October 16, 2003. 72.103 Section 72.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  1. 10 CFR 72.103 - Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or after October 16, 2003. 72.103 Section 72.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  2. 10 CFR 72.103 - Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or after October 16, 2003. 72.103 Section 72.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  3. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. The network currently (2014) consists of 125 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2014) measures and reports water levels from the 125 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 125 sites through water year 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014).

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: A product of postwar readiness, 1945-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    The genesis and growth of Sandia National Laboratories, the nation's largest nuclear weapons lab, stands as a pertinent case study showing the oftentimes complex, but effective interaction of government, industry, and the growth of cooperative research. Originally a part of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory under management by the University of California, Sandia traces its roots to Z Division, an ordnance-engineering arm located at Sandia Base on the desert outskirts of Albuquerque, New Mexico, in September 1945. For Sandia National Laboratories, the early postwar years/emdash/rather than representing a transformation to peacetime/emdash/were characterized by a continued mobilization of engineering and science in the name of national readiness.

  5. Grainsize-sensitive viscoelastic relaxation in olivine: Towards a robust laboratory-based model for seismological application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Ian; Faul, Ulrich H.; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig; Inoue, Toru; Jellinek, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Torsional forced oscillation data for a newly prepared specimen of dry, melt-free polycrystalline Fo90 olivine of 3.1 μm average grainsize have been used to reassess alternative strategies for the parameterisation of grainsize-sensitive viscoelastic relaxation. Our previously employed extended Burgers model has been modified by prescribing anharmonic temperature and pressure dependence of the effective unrelaxed shear modulus GU relative to its value GUR at reference values of temperature (TR = 900 °C) and pressure (PR = 0.2 GPa). The modified model provides an excellent description of forced-oscillation data for the newly prepared olivine polycrystal at temperatures of 900-1200 °C and oscillation periods of 1-1000 s, with a value of GUR that is significantly (7%) less than the strictly anharmonic value for the same conditions (TR,PR). This modulus deficit is interpreted to reflect the impact of elastically accommodated grain-boundary sliding tentatively associated with a newly recognised 'plateau' with Q-1 ∼ 0.01 that moves across the seismic band from long to short period with increasing temperature between 750 and 950 °C. The modified Burgers model is preferred over the Andrade-pseudoperiod and power-law Q-1 alternatives for its flexibility in specifying a distribution D(τ) of anelastic relaxation times that can account for both the monotonic background dissipation and the superimposed dissipation peak of elastically accommodated grain-boundary sliding, along with the associated modulus dispersion. Such 'background + peak' Burgers models, seamlessly describing the transition from (anharmonic) elasticity to grainsize-sensitive viscoelastic behaviour, have been fitted to the data for individual polycrystalline olivine specimens and suites of olivine polycrystals. Extrapolation of the model for our suite of essentially melt-free olivine polycrystals to mantle grain sizes and pressures suggest a significant contribution from grain-boundary relaxation under upper-mantle conditions. However, tighter constraints are expected from ongoing work-seeking confirmation of the occurrence at moderate temperatures of elastically accommodated sliding, and a cleaner separation of the roles of grainsize and water.

  6. Use of air-pressurized slug tests to estimate hydraulic conductivity at selected piezometers completed in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.; Thorn, Conde R.

    2000-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque Public Works Department, Water Resources Management (City), is interested in quantifying aquifer hydraulic properties in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area to better understand and manage water resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In 1998, the City and the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative program to determine hydraulic properties of aquifer material adjacent to screened intervals of piezometers in the Albuquerque area. Investigators conducted slug tests from March 8 through April 8, 1999, to estimate hydraulic conductivity of aquifer material adjacent to the screened intervals of 25 piezometers from 11 nested- piezometer sites in the Albuquerque area. At 20 of the piezometers, slug-test responses were typical; at 2 piezometers, tests were prematurely terminated because the tests were taking too long to complete; and at 3 piezometers, test responses were oscillatory. Methods used to estimate hydraulic conductivity were the Bouwer and Rice method or the Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos method for most tests; the Shapiro and Greene method for prematurely terminated tests; and the van der Kamp method for oscillatory tests. Hydraulic-conductivity estimates ranged from about 0.15 to 92 feet per day. In general, the smaller estimated values are associated with fine-grained aquifer materials and the larger estimated hydraulic-conductivity values are associated with coarse- grained aquifer materials adjacent to the screened intervals of the piezometers. Hydraulic-conductivity estimates ranged from 0.15 to 8.2 feet per day for aquifer materials adjacent to the screened intervals at 12 piezometers and from 12 to 41 feet per day for aquifer materials adjacent to the screened intervals at 10 piezometers. Hydraulic-conductivity estimates at four piezometers were greater than 41 feet per day.

  7. The DIAS Outreach Seismology in Schools (Seismeolaí­ocht sa Scoil) Pilot Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T.; Jones, A. G.; Campbell, G.

    2008-12-01

    Ireland has technology to thank for the 'Celtic Tiger' Revolution, yet over the last half decade fewer and fewer Irish students are completing high school with a science focus. To counter this trend, and to ensure a supply of Irish geophysicists for the future, it is important to engage and fascinate young minds with the wonders of physics and of the Earth we live on. The Geophysics Section of the School of Cosmic Physics in the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) has been running an Outreach programme for some years, but there was a more general public orientation to the programme. In an effort to bring DIAS's science directly to the schools, we have launched a pilot programme, coincidentally and fortuitously during the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), in Seismology in Schools (Seismeolaíocht sa Scoil) that introduces young students to the world of seismology and earthquake research. The launch of DIAS's Seismology in Schools programme has been aided considerably through IRIS's (The Incorporated Institutes for Research Seismology) contributions of their AMASEIS software, that is used to display the data output from the seismometer, and educational posters and demonstration software used to teach Earth Science to students, and through BGS's design and development of the educational seismometer, which is a Lehman pattern horizontal motion seismometer using a garden-gate offset suspension pendulum. Initially, we planned for a very tentative pilot with just two seismometers rotating around local schools, but the Directors of the Educational Centres across Ireland (ATECI, Association of Teachers/Education Centres in Ireland) have become key players in this pilot by purchasing a further 34 seismometers and promoting this initiative among their school. In addition, Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) has purchased a further four seismometers as part of their contribution to IYPE. Currently 36 schools are participating in the enlarged pilot programme

  8. USING HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER TO CONFIRM A SEISMOLOGICALLY INFERRED CORONAL TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W.

    2009-11-20

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the HINODE satellite is used to examine the loop system described in Marsh et al. by applying spectroscopic diagnostic methods. A simple isothermal mapping algorithm is applied to determine where the assumption of isothermal plasma may be valid, and the emission measure locii technique is used to determine the temperature profile along the base of the loop system. It is found that, along the base, the loop has a uniform temperature profile with a mean temperature of 0.89 +- 0.09 MK which is in agreement with the temperature determined seismologically in Marsh et al., using observations interpreted as the slow magnetoacoustic mode. The results further strengthen the slow mode interpretation, propagation at a uniform sound speed, and the analysis method applied in Marsh et al. It is found that it is not possible to discriminate between the slow mode phase speed and the sound speed within the precision of the present observations.

  9. Spin crossover in ferropericlase at high pressure: a seismologically transparent transition?

    PubMed

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Siebert, Julien; Aracne, Chantel M; Farber, Daniel L; Bosak, A; Hoesch, M; Krisch, M; Ryerson, Frederick J; Fiquet, Guillaume; Badro, James

    2011-01-01

    Seismic discontinuities in Earth typically arise from structural, chemical, or temperature variations with increasing depth. The pressure-induced iron spin state transition in the lower mantle may influence seismic wave velocities by changing the elasticity of iron-bearing minerals, but no seismological evidence of an anomaly exists. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on (Mg(0.83)Fe(0.17))O-ferropericlase at pressures across the spin transition show effects limited to the only shear moduli of the elastic tensor. This explains the absence of deviation in the aggregate seismic velocities and, thus, the lack of a one-dimensional seismic signature of the spin crossover. The spin state transition does, however, influence shear anisotropy of ferropericlase and should contribute to the seismic shear wave anisotropy of the lower mantle. PMID:21212352

  10. The real evidence of effects from source to freefield as base for nonlinear seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen-; -Florinela Manea, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Authors developed in last time the concept of "Nonlinear Seismology-The Seismology of the XXI Century". Prof. P. M. Shearer, California Univ. in last book:(i) Strong ground accelerations from large earthquakes can produce a non-linear response in shallow soils; (ii) The shaking from large earthquakes cannot be predicted by simple scaling of records from small earthquakes; (iii) This is an active area of research in strong motion and engineering seismology. Aki: Nonlinear amplification at sediments sites appears to be more pervasive than seismologists used to think. Any attempt at seismic zonation must take into account the local site condition and this nonlinear amplification (Tectonophysics, 218, 93-111, 1993). The difficulty to seismologists in demonstrating the nonlinear site effects has been due to the effect being overshadowed by the overall patterns of shock generation and propagation. In other words, the seismological detection of the nonlinear site effects requires a simultaneous understanding and splitting up (if it is possible…and if it is necessary!) the effects of earthquake source, propagation path and local geological site conditions. To see the actual influence of nonlinearity of the whole system (seismic source-path propagation-local geological structure) the authors used to study the free field response spectra which are the last in this chain and they are the ones who are taken into account in seismic design of all structures. Soils from last part of this system(source-freefield) exhibit a strong nonlinear behaviour under cyclic loading conditions and although have many common mechanical properties require the use of different models to describe behavior differences. Sands typically have low rheological properties and can be modeled with an acceptable linear elastic model and clays which frequently presents significant changes over time can be modeled by a nonlinear viscoelastic model The real evidence of site effects from source to freefield

  11. Inversion of seismological data using a controlled random search global optimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, K.; Mohan, C.; Khattri, K. N.

    1991-11-01

    Inversion problems in seismology deal with the estimation of the location and the time of occurrence of an earthquake from observations of the arrival time of the body waves. These problems can be regarded as non-linear optimization problems in which the objective function to be minimized is the discrepancy between the recorded arrival times and the calculated arrival times at a prescribed set of observation stations, as a function of the hypocentral parameters and the wave speed structure of the Earth. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a controlled random search algorithm of global optimization (Shanker and Mohan, 1987; Mohan and Shanker, 1988) in solving such types of inversion problems. The performance of the algorithm has been tested on earthquake arrival time data of earthquakes recorded in the vicinity of local networks in the Garhwal Kumaon region of the Himalayas.

  12. Exploring the Earth's crust: history and results of controlled-source seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prodehl, Claus; Mooney, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive, worldwide history of seismological studies of the Earth’s crust using controlled sources from 1850 to 2005. Essentially all major seismic projects on land and the most important oceanic projects are covered. The time period 1850 to 1939 is presented as a general synthesis, and from 1940 onward the history and results are presented in separate chapters for each decade, with the material organized by geographical region. Each chapter highlights the major advances achieved during that decade in terms of data acquisition, processing technology, and interpretation methods. For all major seismic projects, the authors provide specific details on field observations, interpreted crustal cross sections, and key references. They conclude with global and continental-scale maps of all field measurements and interpreted Moho contours. An accompanying DVD contains important out-of-print publications and an extensive collection of controlled-source data, location maps, and crustal cross sections.

  13. Description of piezometer nests and water levels in the Rio Grande Valley near Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Bullard, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four piezometers were installed from mid-October 1984 to mid-January 1985 in two sections of the Rio Grande valley near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Each cross section is comprised of four piezometer nests and each nest is comprised of three piezometers completed at different depths. The purpose of this report is to describe the piezometers nests and present some of the water level data collected from the piezometers. The piezometers were drilled using the hydraulic rotary method. The piezometers were completed with 5 feet of 60-slot wire-wound stainless steel well screen and flush joint PVC well casing. The description of each piezometer nest consists of the location of the particular piezometer nest; a figure showing the location, depth altitude, and station identification number of the piezometers in each nest; and a driller 's log, geophysical logs, and description of the well cuttings from the deepest borehole in each piezometer nest. Water level altitudes generally increased from February until June 1985 in the piezometers in the Rio Bravo section. Water level altitudes in piezometers completed at different depths in a particular nest are about the same in all of the Rio Bravo nests and in the Montano 1 nest. In several of the piezometer nests, especially the Montano nests, water level altitudes decrease with depth. (USGS)

  14. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination: Rio Grande aquifer system in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Heywood, Charles E.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Albuquerque, New Mexico (hereafter referred to as “the study well”). The study well produces about 3,000 gallons of water per minute from the Rio Grande aquifer system. Water samples were collected at the study well, at two other nearby public-supply wells, and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the study well. Untreated water samples from the study well contained arsenic at concentrations exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrate also were detected, although at concentrations at least an order of magnitude less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary influences on the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Albuquerque: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer), (2) groundwater development (introduction of manmade recharge and discharge sources), (3) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer, and (4) seasonal pumping stresses. Concentrations of the isotope carbon-14 indicate that groundwater from most sampled wells in the local study area is predominantly water that entered, or recharged, the aquifer more than 6,000 years ago. However, the additional presence of the age tracer tritium in several groundwater samples at concentrations above 0.3 tritium units indicates that young (post-1950) recharge is reaching the aquifer across broad areas beneath Albuquerque. This young recharge is mixing with the thousands-of-years-old water, is migrating to depths as great as 245 feet below the water table, and is traveling to some (but not all) of the public-supply wells sampled. Most groundwater samples containing a

  15. ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology - Recent Developments and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megies, T.; Krischer, L.; Barsch, R.; Sales de Andrade, E.; Beyreuther, M.

    2014-12-01

    ObsPy (http://www.obspy.org) is a community-driven, open-source project dedicated to building a bridge for seismology into the scientific Python ecosystem. It offersa) read and write support for essentially all commonly used waveform, station, and event metadata file formats with a unified interface,b) a comprehensive signal processing toolbox tuned to the needs of seismologists,c) integrated access to all large data centers, web services and databases, andd) convenient wrappers to legacy codes like libtau and evalresp.Python, currently the most popular language for teaching introductory computer science courses at top-ranked U.S. departments, is a full-blown programming language with the flexibility of an interactive scripting language. Its extensive standard library and large variety of freely available high quality scientific modules cover most needs in developing scientific processing workflows. Together with packages like NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, IPython, Pandas, lxml, and PyQt, ObsPy enables the construction of complete workflows in Python. These vary from reading locally stored data or requesting data from one or more different data centers through to signal analysis and data processing and on to visualizations in GUI and web applications, output of modified/derived data and the creation of publication-quality figures.ObsPy enjoys a large world-wide rate of adoption in the community. Applications successfully using it include time-dependent and rotational seismology, big data processing, event relocations, and synthetic studies about attenuation kernels and full-waveform inversions to name a few examples. All functionality is extensively documented and the ObsPy tutorial and gallery give a good impression of the wide range of possible use cases.We will present the basic features of ObsPy, new developments and applications, and a roadmap for the near future and discuss the sustainability of our open-source development model.

  16. Seismological aspects of the 27 June 2015 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake and its sequence of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Badreldin, Hazem

    2016-04-01

    On 27 June 2015, a moderate earthquake with magnitude Mb 5.2 struck the Gulf of Aqaba near Nuweiba City. This event was instrumentally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) and many other international seismological centres. The event was felt in all the cities on the Gulf of Aqaba, as well as Suez City, Hurghada City, the greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Israel, Jordan and the north-western part of Saudi Arabia. No casualties were reported, however. Approximately 95 aftershocks with magnitudes ranging from 0.7 to 4.2 were recorded by the ENSN following the mainshock. In the present study, the source characteristics of both the mainshock and the aftershocks were estimated using the near-source waveform data recorded by the very broadband stations of the ENSN, and these were validated by the P-wave polarity data from short period stations. Our analysis reveals that an estimated seismic moment of 0.762 × 1017 Nm was released, corresponding to a magnitude of Mw 5.2, a focal depth of 14 km, a fault radius of 0.72 km and a rupture area of approximately 1.65 km2. Monitoring the sequence of aftershocks reveals that they form a cluster around the mainshock and migrated downwards in focal depth towards the west. We compared the results we obtained with the published results from the international seismological centres. Our results are more realistic and accurate, in particular with respect to the epicenteral location, magnitude and fault plane solution which are in accordance with the hypocentre distribution of the aftershocks.

  17. A Serviced-based Approach to Connect Seismological Infrastructures: Current Efforts at the IRIS DMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, Tim; Trabant, Chad

    2014-05-01

    As part of the COOPEUS initiative to build infrastructure that connects European and US research infrastructures, IRIS has advocated for the development of Federated services based upon internationally recognized standards using web services. By deploying International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) endorsed web services at multiple data centers in the US and Europe, we have shown that integration within seismological domain can be realized. By deploying identical methods to invoke the web services at multiple centers this approach can significantly ease the methods through which a scientist can access seismic data (time series, metadata, and earthquake catalogs) from distributed federated centers. IRIS has developed an IRIS federator that helps a user identify where seismic data from global seismic networks can be accessed. The web services based federator can build the appropriate URLs and return them to client software running on the scientists own computer. These URLs are then used to directly pull data from the distributed center in a very peer-based fashion. IRIS is also involved in deploying web services across horizontal domains. As part of the US National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube effort, an IRIS led EarthCube Building Block's project is underway. When completed this project will aid in the discovery, access, and usability of data across multiple geoscienece domains. This presentation will summarize current IRIS efforts in building vertical integration infrastructure within seismology working closely with 5 centers in Europe and 2 centers in the US, as well as how we are taking first steps toward horizontal integration of data from 14 different domains in the US, in Europe, and around the world.

  18. Seismological aspects of the 27 June 2015 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake and its sequence of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Badreldin, Hazem

    2016-07-01

    On 27 June 2015, a moderate earthquake with magnitude Mb 5.2 struck the Gulf of Aqaba near Nuweiba City. This event was instrumentally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) and many other international seismological centres. The event was felt in all the cities on the Gulf of Aqaba, as well as Suez City, Hurghada City, the greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Israel, Jordan and the north-western part of Saudi Arabia. No casualties were reported, however. Approximately 95 aftershocks with magnitudes ranging from 0.7 to 4.2 were recorded by the ENSN following the mainshock. In the present study, the source characteristics of both the mainshock and the aftershocks were estimated using the near-source waveform data recorded by the very broadband stations of the ENSN, and these were validated by the P-wave polarity data from short period stations. Our analysis reveals that an estimated seismic moment of 0.762 × 1017 Nm was released, corresponding to a magnitude of Mw 5.2, a focal depth of 14 km, a fault radius of 0.72 km and a rupture area of approximately 1.65 km2. Monitoring the sequence of aftershocks reveals that they form a cluster around the mainshock and migrated downwards in focal depth towards the west. We compared the results we obtained with the published results from the international seismological centres. Our results are more realistic and accurate, in particular with respect to the epicenteral location, magnitude and fault plane solution which are in accordance with the hypocentre distribution of the aftershocks.

  19. Ground displacements caused by aquifer-system water-level variations observed using interferometric synthetic aperture radar near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Galloway, Devin L.; Stork, Sylvia V.

    2002-01-01

    Six synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images were processed to form five unwrapped interferometric (InSAR) images of the greater metropolitan area in the Albuquerque Basin. Most interference patterns in the images were caused by range displacements resulting from changes in land-surface elevation. Loci of land- surface elevation changes correlate with changes in aquifer-system water levels and largely result from the elastic response of the aquifer-system skeletal material to changes in pore-fluid pressure. The magnitude of the observed land-surface subsidence and rebound suggests that aquifer-system deformation resulting from ground-water withdrawals in the Albuquerque area has probably remained in the elastic (recoverable) range from July 1993 through September 1999. Evidence of inelastic (permanent) land subsidence in the Rio Rancho area exists, but its relation to compaction of the aquifer system is inconclusive because of insufficient water-level data. Patterns of elastic deformation in both Albuquerque and Rio Rancho suggest that intrabasin faults impede ground- water-pressure diffusion at seasonal time scales and that these faults are probably important in controlling patterns of regional ground-water flow.

  20. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  1. Estimated 2012 groundwater potentiometric surface and drawdown from predevelopment to 2012 in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Rachel I.; McKean, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico were met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In response to water-level declines, the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began diverting water from the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project in December 2008 to reduce the use of groundwater to meet municipal demand. Modifications in the demand for water and the source of the supply of water for the Albuquerque metropolitan area have resulted in a variable response in the potentiometric surface of the production zone (the interval of the aquifer, from within about 200 feet below the water table to 900 feet or more, in which supply wells generally are screened) of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Analysis of the magnitude and spatial distribution of water-level change can help improve the understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies’ efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ABCWUA, has developed an estimate of the 2012 potentiometric surface of the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. This potentiometric surface is the latest in a series of reports depicting the potentiometric surface of the area. This report presents the estimated potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of water year 2012 and the estimated changes in potentiometric surface between predevelopment (pre-1961) and water year 2012 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from selected piezometers are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were

  2. An 40Ar/39Ar age for Geomagnetic Instability Recorded at the Albuquerque Volcanoes and Pringle Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.; Jicha, B. R.; Kirby, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Geissman, J. W.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2005-12-01

    The timing and frequency of short-lived geomagnetic events, including excursions and aborted reversal attempts, provide important observational constraints on models of geodynamo behavior as well as calibration points for stratigraphic and paleoclimatic age models derived from marine sediments. The number of potential geomagnetic events during the Quaternary period has proliferated as more detailed paleodirectional and paleointensity data have emerged from sediments worldwide. Yet, determining ages for these events remains a challenge because astronomical dating of sediment cores is subject to assumptions and non-systematic errors that are difficult to quantify and vary from core to core. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology applied to lava flows or ash falls that record geomagnetic excursions can yield radioisotopic ages sufficiently precise to verify individual events, test correlations among seemingly disparate events, and quantify periods between events. Seventeen furnace incremental heating experiments on 100-200 mg groundmass samples from six sites in the transitionally magnetized basalt of the Albuquerque Volcanoes yield an isochron of 211 ± 22 ka* that is within error of previous K-Ar (155 ± 94 ka) and U-Th isochron (156 ± 58 ka) age determinations, but is 3 to 4 times more precise. At Pringle Falls, Oregon, Ash D was deposited during the onset of an excursion recorded by a lacustrine sediment sequence. Sixteen laser incremental heating experiments on 20-40 mg samples of plagioclase crystals from Ash D gave 64 concordant plateau age points that define an 40Ar/39Ar isochron of 211 ± 13 ka which is an order of magnitude more precise than the isochron (198 ± 118 ka) associated with the published plateau age from a single plagioclase age spectrum (221 ± 20 ka). Although the Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) recorded by the Albuquerque Volcanoes lies near, bot not on, the VGP path of the Pringle Falls excursion, these two sites are 15 arc degrees apart and need not record

  3. Three-dimensional model simulation of transient ground-water flow in the Albuquerque-Belen Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, J.M.; Miller, Ryan S.; Scott, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional digital model that simulates transient flow in the alluvial aquifer system underlying the Albuquerque-Belen Basin, New Mexico, was constructed as part of a regional aquifer study of the southwest alluvial basins. The model simulates hydraulic heads and changes in hydraulic heads for 1907 to 1979. Hydraulic-conductivity values used in the accepted model range from 0.25 ft/day in part of the Santa Fe Group to 50 ft/day in the fluvial deposits in the Rio Grande flood plain. The majority of the basin-fill material of the Santa Fe group of Tertiary and Quaternary age was modeled as having a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of either 30 or 40 ft/day. The simulated specific storage of the aquifer was 0.000001/ft and the simulated specific yield was 0.10. The aquifer was simulated as being vertically anisotropic with a ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 1:500. Simulations for 1976-79 indicated that of the 100,000 acre-ft of groundwater withdrawn annually from the basin-fill deposits outside of the Rio Grande flood plain, 68% was obtained from recharge around the basin margin, depletion of streams that are tributary to the Rio Grande, and the stream-aquifer system in the Rio Grande flood plain. Depletion of aquifer storage accounted for 25% of the groundwater supply to wells outside of the flood plain, and the remaining 7% was obtained by induced groundwater inflow from the Santo Domingo Basin. The model displayed an acceptable performance throughout the period of simulation. However, by the end of the simulation period, 1979, the portrayal of the Rio Grande flood-plain system as a specified hydraulic-head boundary was having adverse effects on the simulation. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  5. The 2015, Mw 6.5, Leucas (Ionian Sea, Greece) earthquake: Seismological and Geodetic Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Eken, Tuna; Moschas, Fanis; Stiros, Stathis

    2016-04-01

    A cluster of earthquakes (6seismological and GNSS stations and the correlations of INSAR data. Second, the structural pattern of the area indicates distributed thrusting but recent earthquakes are confined to the west margin of the Aegean Arc, usually assigned to the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF), and are dominated by strike slip faulting. In order to contribute to the understanding active tectonics along this critical region, our study was based on the independent analysis of the seismological and geodetic signature of the 2015 earthquake and the on the joint evaluation of the inferred models on the basis of the fault pattern of the area and of previous earthquakes. First, based on teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms a point-source solution at the SW part of Leucas yielded dominantly right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms (strike: 23o, dip: 68o, rake: -170o) with a shallow focal depth (h: 9 km) and with seismic moment of Mo: 10.4x1018 Nm. Furthermore, the rupture history of the earthquake was obtained by applying a new back-projection method that uses teleseismic P-waveforms to integrate the direct P-phase with reflected phases from structural discontinuities near the source. In the slip inversion the faulting occurs on a single fault plane (strike and dip are obtained from the best fitting point-source solution) and slip (rake) angle varied during the whole rupture process. Second, co-seismic displacements were derived from eight permanent and one campaign GPS

  6. "Earth, from inside and outside - school activities based on seismology and astronomy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2016-04-01

    Through a multidisciplinary work that integrates Geography education with the other Earth Sciences, we developed an educational project to raise the students' awareness of seismic hazard and to disseminate good practices of earthquake safety. The Romanian Educational Seismic Network (ROEDUSEIS) project (started in 2012) is developed and implemented in partnership with schools from different Romanian cities, our school being one of these. In each participating school a SEP educational seismometer is installed. It is the first educational initiative in Romania in the field of seismology involving the National Institute for Earth Physics - NIEP as coordinator. The e-learning platform website (http://www.roeduseis.ro) represents a great opportunity for students to use real advanced research instruments and scientific data analysis tools in their everyday school activities and a link to observations of Earth phenomena and Earth science in general. The most important educational objectives are related to: preparing comprehensive educational materials as resources for training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, experimentation of new technologies in projecting and implementing new didactic activities, professional development and support for teachers and development of science curriculum module. The scientific objective is to introduce in schools the use of scientific instruments like seismometer and experimental methods (seismic data analysis). The educational materials entitled "Earthquakes and their effects" is organized in a guide for teachers accompanied by a booklet for students. The structure of the educational material is divided in theoretical chapters followed by sections with activities and experiments adapted to the level of understanding particular to our students. The ROEDUSEIS e-platform should be considered as a modern method for teaching and learning that integrates and completes the work in classroom. The

  7. Complex inner core of the Earth: The last frontier of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-03-01

    The days when the Earth's inner core (IC) was viewed as a homogeneous solid sphere surrounded by the liquid outer core (OC) are now behind us. Due to a limited number of data sampling the IC and a lack of experimentally controlled conditions in the deep Earth studies, it has been difficult to scrutinize competitive hypotheses in this active area of research. However, a number of new concepts linking IC structure and dynamics has been proposed lately to explain different types of seismological observations. A common denominator of recent observational work on the IC is increased complexity seen in IC physical properties such as its isotropic and anisotropic structure, attenuation, inner core boundary (ICB) topography, and its rotational dynamics. For example, small-scale features have been observed to exist as a widespread phenomenon in the uppermost inner core, probably superimposed on much longer-scale features. The characterization of small-scale features sheds light on the nature of the solidification process and helps in understanding seismologically observed hemispherical dichotomy of the IC. The existence of variations in the rate and level of solidification is a plausible physical outcome in an environment where vigorous compositional convection in the OC and variations in heat exchange across the ICB may control the process of crystal growth. However, further progress is hindered by the fact that the current traveltime data of PKIKP waves traversing the IC do not allow discriminating between variations in isotropic P wave velocity and velocity anisotropy. Future studies of attenuation in the IC might provide crucial information about IC structure, although another trade-off exists—that of the relative contribution of scattering versus viscoelastic attenuation and the connection with the material properties. Future installations of dense arrays, cross paths of waves that sample the IC, and corresponding array studies will be a powerful tool to image and

  8. ShakeMaps at the Swiss Seismological Service: Current Status, Innovations, and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, S. B.; Cua, G. B.; Kaestli, P.; Clinton, J.; Faeh, D.; Maraini, S.; Giardini, D.

    2007-12-01

    The ShakeMap-related efforts at the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) are motivated by the desire for improved emergency response and information dissemination following a large earthquake. The SED implementation approach has evolved over the years from developing in-house "ShakeMap"-type software to that of customizing the USGS ShakeMap codes to Swiss conditions. As part of efforts to calibrate the Swiss ShakeMap system, we have undertaken the following: 1) We use recordings from small-to-moderate Swiss earthquakes in combination with relevant strong motion data from the PEER strong motion database of crustal earthquakes to develop attenuation relationships for PGA, PGV, and response spectra at 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 second periods valid in the magnitude range 2.5 &<& M &<& 8 using the Cua and Heaton (2007) approach. Aside from their applications in the ShakeMap system, these equations can be used to quantify the similarities (and differences) of average ground motion characteristics between southern California and Switzerland, and provide additional insight into the question of whether attenuation relationships derived from a particular region are transportable to other regions of the same tectonic setting. 2) The USGS ShakeMap system uses a uniform grid of estimated Vs30 (average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 meters) to characterize site amplification. However, Kästli and Fäh (1st European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, 2006) have suggested that using geotechnical characteristics such as Vs30 are not as effective in predicting site amplification in Switzerland, due to its heterogeneous geology and small-scale structures, than in other regions with more homogenous sedimentary basins. We explore the use of intensity-based amplification factors derived from an extensive Swiss database of macroseismic intensity observations in characterizing site amplification. We use the Kästli and Fäh (2006) ground motion to intensity relationship to

  9. It’s our Fault: Immersing Young Learners in Authentic Practices of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D. L.; Moher, T.; Wiley, J.

    2009-12-01

    The scalable RoomQuake seismology project uses a learning technology framework-embedded phenomena (Moher, 2006)—that simulates seismic phenomena mapped directly onto the physical space of classrooms. This project, aimed at the upper elementary level, situates students as the scientists engaged in an extended investigation designed to discover the spatial, temporal, and intensity distributions of a series of earthquakes. This project emulates earthquake occurrence over a condensed time and spatial span, with students mapping an earthquake fault imagined to be running through their classroom. The students learn: basic seismology terms; ability to identify seismic P- and S-waves; skills associated with trilateration; nomogram/graph reading skills; and the ability to recognize the emergence of a fault based on RoomQuake geometries. From the students’ perspectives, and similar to real-world earthquakes, RoomQuakes occur at unknown times over the course of several weeks. Multiple computers distributed around the perimeter of the classroom serve as simulated seismographs that depict continuous strip-chart seismic recordings. Most of the time the seismograms reflect background noise, but at (apparently) unpredictable times a crescendoing rumble (emanating from a subwoofer) signals a RoomQuake. Hearing this signal, students move to the seismic stations to read the strip charts. Next, the students trilaterate the RoomQuake epicenter by arcing calibrated strings of length proportional to S-P latencies from each seismic station until a common point is identified. Each RoomQuake epicenter is marked by hanging a Styrofoam ball (color-coded by magnitude) from the ceiling. The developing ‘fault’ within the classroom provides an immersive historic record of the RoomQuake’s spatial distribution. Students also maintain a temporal record of events on a large time-line on the wall (recognizing time-related phenomena like aftershocks) and a record of magnitude frequencies on

  10. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the

  11. ObsPy: A Python toolbox for Seismology, a Data Center Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyreuther, Moritz; Barsch, Robert; Krischer, Lion; Megies, Tobias; Behr, Yannik; Wassermann, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    ObsPy: A Python toolbox for seismology (http://www.obspy.org) aims at filling the gap between interactive analysis and automatic data acquistion systems. Automatic batch analysis of continuous data streams or feeding a so far unknown formatted data stream into an acquistion system are two possible applications. Python provides a platform independent, free and open source interpreter language including a large collection of scientific open-source modules thus allowing rapid development of prototype code. ObsPy extends Python by providing the seismologist with basic seismological routines, e.g. MiniSEED, SAC, GSE2 read and write support, various pickers, filters, instrument correction... The data itself is stored in numpy.ndarrays allowing powerful numerical array-programming modules like NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org) or SciPy (http://scipy.org) to be used. Also SeisComP3 has a Python API which makes use of the previous mentioned modules, thus making it easy to extend SeisComP3 with the help of the ObsPy library. Especially for data centers the ObsPy ArcLink and XSEED modules are of special interest. The ArcLink module makes it possible to easily automatically access the data via ArcLink or for testing the servers functionality. The XSEED module allows to convert data from dataless SEED to XML-SEED and back. The XML-SEED format is very verbose and easy extensible for internal purposes. For "public" distribution the resulting extended XML-SEED can always be converted back to the standard exchange format dataless SEED (loosing the additionally fields). An application of ObsPy is running on the Azores. Here, seismic data are continuous recorded with National Instruments digitizers which are writing data in an binary format every 10s. ObsPy is used to feed the data in EarthWorm and SeisComP3 by decoding the binary format every 30s and appending the new data to a MiniSEED file. The MiniSEED file is continuously scanned by the mseed_scan module of the seedlink server and

  12. A seismological determination of the temperature gradient in D″ beneath the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Chen, Chin-Wu

    2005-05-01

    The temperature gradient of the thermal boundary layer in the D″ region is one of the basic properties of the mantle that remains difficult to evaluate. We characterize this quantity for a region in the western Pacific using gradient-sensitive seismological probes. First, both the amplitudes and travel times of the diffracted P and S phases (Pdiff, Sdiff) were analyzed to constrain the regional-scale vertical gradients of VP and VS. Acceptable models were grid-searched using synthetic waveforms for trial models that employ only one velocity gradient zone in D″. The VS models were searched over the parameter space of the thickness (H) and the gradient. Solutions show negative deviation from Preliminary Reference Earth Model and a trade-off between gradient and H from -0.00088 s-1, for190 km to -0.00049 s-1, for 240 km with a typical error of ±0.00015 s-1. Rather than pinning down the best solution, we consider two sets of solutions for VS with H = 190 and 240 km. For these two H values, the gradients of VP were determined solely by amplitude to be -0.00032 s-1 for 190 km and 0.00015 s-1 for 240 km, shrouded in relatively large errors of 0.0002-0.0003 s-1. We derive the temperature gradient from the resolved velocity gradients using the seismological-thermodynamic equation of Doornbos et al. (1986) and arrive at 9.0 ± 5.8 K/km and 5.7 ± 4.1 K/km over 190 and 240 km, respectively. The difference in gradient between these two models is statistically significant at the 99% confidence level, and the odds that the apparent steeper gradient is caused by squeezing energy of diffracted waves into a thinner zone can also be rejected with high confidence. The combination of the two models is thus consistent with a nonlinear temperature profile that steepens toward the core-mantle boundary. Both models detect the superadiabatic gradient of temperature in the lowermost mantle.

  13. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  14. Designing a new post-hole seismological station on Antarctica inlandsis (Concordia station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Maggi, A.; Leveque, J. J.; Thore, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Concordia (75°S 123°E) is a scientific base operated by French and Italian polar institutes IPEV (Institut Paul-Emile Victor) and PNRA (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, and is located on the inlandsis of the East Antarctica plateau. It hosts a seismological station CCD which has provided observatory quality data since the year 2000, has been integrated into the Geoscope network since 2008 and whose data are now available in real-time from IRIS. The current seismic vault is located 800m from Concordia base, as far away as is deemed logistically possible by IPEV, at a depth of 12m. The vault is thermally very stable, but given the close distance to the base, suffers from increased diurnal noise (up to 40 dB) at frequencies above 1Hz, especially in the summer season. Anthropic noise is trapped in the firn (snow) layer, which forms an 100-110m thick waveguide, and is picked up very easily in the seismic vault. The vault is made from steel containers buried vertically in the snow. The hydrostatic pressure of the snow is deforming them: we see container cracking events on the seismograms, and also visual evidence of container deformation inside the vault. In the near future, this deformation will create a security problem.We have decided to progressively abandon our current vault, and construct a new post-hole seismological installation nearby. We plan to drill to 130m depth, which would place us below the firn layer waveguide and also below the ice pinch-out depth. To be able to run the station for several years and change or service the instrumentation if required, we need to keep the hole open, to avoid any hydrostatic movement, and to maintain good coupling between the sensor and the surrounding hard ice. To achieve these goals, we shall install a casing in the fin layer and then drill a few meters more without casing in hard ice. After installing the instrument, we shall then fill the whole hole with a drilling fluid whose density is similar to that

  15. Seismological Segmentation of Halmahera Thrust, Molucca Sea Region, based on Large Earthquake Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiddiqi, H. A.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Ramdhan, M.; Wiyono, S. H.; Wandono, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Molucca Sea region in eastern Indonesia is a complex tectonic region, where the arc-arc collision between the Sangihe and Halmahera arcs takes place. Two recent largest earthquakes occurred in this area are Mw 7.5, January 2007, and Mw 7.2, November 2014, that occurred 90 km to the north from the 2007 earthquake site. Both earthquakes occurred along the Halmahera thrust, however, the aftershock of the two events occurred in separated parts of the same fault. In this study, we aim to investigate the segmentation of the seismogenic zone in Molucca Sea by using seismological analysis. We employed teleseismic double-difference relocation using P- and S-wave arrival times from the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (BMKG) and the International Seismological Centre (ISC) catalog. We used a 3D velocity model for the Indonesian region. Our relocation result revealed that aftershocks of the two events did not overlap each other. Although they have similar focal mechanisms with NNE-SSW direction, the aftershock patterns were different. While the 2014 event aftershock distribution is consistent with the strike direction inferred from the focal mechanism, the 2007 event aftershocks occurred in NEE-SWW direction. Furthermore we analyzed the spatial variation in b-value for different time ranges. The b-value analysis also showed two separated segments of low b-value anomaly around both events for each time range. We envisage that stress regime directions and geometries of the fault are different for both aftershock clusters. For this reason we analyzed focal mechanism data and found that fault segment around the 2014 event is steeper than that related to the 2007 event. We applied focal mechanism inversion to obtain the direction of stress and fault orientation, and found different stress directions for the two segments. While the northern part segment has maximum stress with SSE direction, the stress in the southern part is rotated in SE

  16. Magnetotelluric imaging of the subducting slab in Cascadia with constraints from seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.; Humphreys, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional (3D) inversion of long-period magnetotelluric (MT) data from Cascadia, using seismological constraints on plate geometry and back-arc structure, to refine 3D images of electrical resistivity across this subduction zone. For this study we employed the impedances and vertical transfer functions from 144 sites from the EarthScope Transportable Array, along with data from previous higher density MT profiles from Cascadia (EMSLAB, CAFE-MT etc.). Morphological parameters for the subducting Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates (e.g. upper boundary and thickness) were extracted from McCrory et al (2012) and Schmandt and Humphreys (2010) seismological models and used to define a resistive subducting slab structure in 3D. This was then either used as a prior model, or fixed (both resistivity and geometry) during the MT inversion. By imposing constraints on the geometry of the slab (which is otherwise imaged as an amorphous broad resistive zone) we improve recovery and resolution of subduction related conductivity features. The constrained inversions also allowed us to test sensitivity of the MT data to variants on slab geometry, such as the proposed slab "tear" near the Oregon-Washington border suggested by some seismic tomography models, and to explore consistency of the MT data with seismic models, which suggest segmentation of back-arc upwelling. Three zones of substantially reduced resistivity were found, all exhibiting significant along-strike variability. In the forearc, an N-S stripe of high conductivity (10 ohm-m or less) was found just above the plate interface, near the tip of the mantle wedge. This conductive feature is spatially coincident with mapped locations of episodic tremor and slip, and likely represents aqueous fluids associated with slab dehydration. To the east, a second, clearly separated, N-S elongate zone of similarly high conductivity occurs in the mid-lower crust and upper mantle beneath the modern arc, again

  17. Seismology in Schools an integrated approach to funding developing and implementing a coordinated programme for teachers and high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T. A.; Jones, A. G.; Campbell, G.

    2010-12-01

    Statistics in Ireland show that physics at Advanced Level in Secondary Schools is declining in popularity and is the most likely subject to be cut first from the curriculum in a curriculum readjustment by school authorities. In an attempt to attract students to study Earth science and seismology the School of Cosmic Physics, DIAS embarked on an outreach programme in 2007 to promote Earth science, particularly seismology, in schools at both Primary and Secondary Levels. Since its inception, DIAS's Seismology in Schools programme has been very well received, with seismometers installed in over fifty schools across the State. Although this number may appear small, given that the population of Ireland is 4M this number of 1 per 80,000 compares favourably with the U.K. (70 in a population of 70M, 1 per 1M) and the U.S.A. (200 in a population of 300M, 1 per 1.5M) with an penetration of 15-20 times greater. The phenomenal success of our Seismology in Schools programme has been helped significantly by the support we have received from the British Geological Survey (BGS) and IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) in terms of hardware, software and advice. Similarly, the programme would be a pale reflection of what it is today if the Directors of the Educational Centres (ATECI, Association of Teacher's/Education Centres in Ireland) across Ireland had not become enthused and funded the purchase of 34 additional seismometers, and the Geological Survey of Ireland purchased a further six. Also, funding support from Discover Science and Engineering (DSE) was absolutely critical for us to roll out this hugely enlarged programme of 50 seismometers from the originally envisioned four. As this programme is an initiation into seismology for students, it is important to stress that the seismometer is not used in the schools as a professional recording instrument but helps students visualize what seismology and the recording of earthquakes comprises. Essential to the

  18. MHD seismology as a tool to diagnose the coronae of X-ray active sun-like flaring stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Lalitha, Sairam

    It is now well accepted that the detection of impulsively generated multiple MHD modes are potentially used in diagnosing the local plasma conditions of the solar corona. Analogously, such analyses can also be significantly used in diagnosing the coronae of X-ray active Sun-like stars. In the present paper, we briefly review the detection of MHD modes in coronae of some X-ray active Sun-like stars, e.g. Proxima Centauri, ξ-Boo etc using XMM-Newton observations, and discuss the implications in deriving physical information about their localized magnetic atmosphere. We conclude that the refinement in the MHD seismology of solar corona is also providing the best analogy to develop the stellar seismology of magnetically active and flaring Sun-like stars to deduce the local physical conditions of their coronae.

  19. VERCE: a productive e-Infrastructure and e-Science environment for data-intensive seismology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Atkinson, M.; Spinuso, A.; Rietbrock, A.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Frank, A.; Carpené, M.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Casarotti, E.; Filgueira, R.; Garth, T.; Germünd, A.; Klampanos, I.; Krause, A.; Krischer, L.; Leong, S. H.; Magnoni, F.; Matser, J.; Moguilny, G.

    2015-12-01

    Seismology addresses both fundamental problems in understanding the Earth's internal wave sources and structures and augmented societal applications, like earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation; and puts a premium on open-data accessible by the Federated Digital Seismological Networks. The VERCE project, "Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe", has initiated a virtual research environment to support complex orchestrated workflows combining state-of-art wave simulation codes and data analysis tools on distributed computing and data infrastructures (DCIs) along with multiple sources of observational data and new capabilities to combine simulation results with observational data. The VERCE Science Gateway provides a view of all the available resources, supporting collaboration with shared data and methods, with data access controls. The mapping to DCIs handles identity management, authority controls, transformations between representations and controls, and access to resources. The framework for computational science that provides simulation codes, like SPECFEM3D, democratizes their use by getting data from multiple sources, managing Earth models and meshes, distilling them as input data, and capturing results with meta-data. The dispel4py data-intensive framework allows for developing data-analysis applications using Python and the ObsPy library, which can be executed on different DCIs. A set of tools allows coupling with seismology and external data services. Provenance driven tools validate results and show relationships between data to facilitate method improvement. Lessons learned from VERCE training lead us to conclude that solid-Earth scientists could make significant progress by using VERCE e-science environment. VERCE has already contributed to the European Plate Observation System (EPOS), and is part of the EPOS implementation phase. Its cross-disciplinary capabilities are being extended

  20. The Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe (VERCE): a European Research Infrastructure project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J.; Atkinson, M.; Van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Frank, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Erbacci, G.

    2013-12-01

    The nature of science in seismology is changing - new discoveries will emerge from statistical analysis and modeling (inversion, assimilation) of large amounts of data generated from dense observational and monitoring networks and from large-scale wave propagation simulations. In many cases our ability to acquire observational and synthetic data outpaces today our ability to process and analyze them. Addressing these challenges requires a new and holistic approach with important augmented societal applications in seismic hazard assessment and monitoring, and exploration geophysics. VERCE is a four-year FP7-INFRASTRUCTURE project, with a consortium of ten partners from seismology and computer science, and contributes to the e-science infrastructure of the European Plate Observatory System (EPOS), the ESFRI initiative of the solid Earth community in Europe. We report here the progress of VERCE toward a service-oriented architecture and a platform of services and tools - integrating European computing and data infrastructures with the distributed seismological data archives - in support for data-intensive analysis and modeling applications. Two prototype applications were selected within VERCE: a data-intensive analysis application based on seismic-noise correlation; and a data-intensive HPC wave simulation application. Both applications consist of multiple phases where ingestion interleaves with data processing and analysis, generating highly parallel and asynchronous data workflows together with massively parallel data access. VERCE efforts are devoted in particular to providing efficient scalable and transparent distributed data management and data transfer services, together with execution models that enable data processing and analysis computation to overlap with data transfer and I/O operations, thereby achieving high throughput under heavy asynchronous access to data. We discuss the current progress of VERCE in enabling the application prototypes, and in

  1. SEISMOLOGY OF A LARGE SOLAR CORONAL LOOP FROM EUVI/STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF ITS TRANSVERSE OSCILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Foullon, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2009-06-10

    The first analysis of a transverse loop oscillation observed by both Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatories (STEREO) spacecraft is presented, for an event on the 2007 June 27 as seen by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI). The three-dimensional loop geometry is determined using a three-dimensional reconstruction with a semicircular loop model, which allows for an accurate measurement of the loop length. The plane of wave polarization is found from comparison with a simulated loop model and shows that the oscillation is a fundamental horizontally polarized fast magnetoacoustic kink mode. The oscillation is characterized using an automated method and the results from both spacecraft are found to match closely. The oscillation period is 630 {+-} 30 s and the damping time is 1000 {+-} 300 s. Also, clear intensity variations associated with the transverse loop oscillations are reported for the first time. They are shown to be caused by the effect of line-of-sight integration. The Alfven speed and coronal magnetic field derived using coronal seismology are discussed. This study shows that EUVI/STEREO observations achieve an adequate accuracy for studying long-period, large-amplitude transverse loop oscillations.

  2. Fast Magnetosonic Waves and Global Coronal Seismology in the Extended Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ryun Young; Zhang, J.; Kramar, M.; Wang, T.; Ofman, L.; Davila, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    We present global coronal seismology, for the first time, that allows us to determine inhomogeneous magnetic field strengths in a wide range of the extended solar corona. We use observations of propagating disturbance associated with a coronal mass ejection observed on 2011 August 4 by the COR1 inner coronagraphs on board the STEREO spacecraft. We establish that the disturbance is in fact a fast magnetosonic wave as the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI and travels across magnetic field lines with inhomogeneous speeds, passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. We derive magnetic field strengths along the azimuthal trajectories of the fronts at heliocentric distances 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 Rs, using the varying speeds and electron densities. The derived magnetic field strengths are consistent with values determined with a potential field source surface model and reported in previous works. The ranges of the magnetic field strengths at these heliocentric distances are 0.44 ± 0.29, 0.23 ± 0.15, and 0.26 ± 0.14 G, respectively. The uncertainty in determining magnetic field strengths is about 40 %. This work demonstrates that observations of fast magnetosonic waves by white-light coronagraphs can provide us with a unique way to diagnose magnetic field strength of an inhomogeneous medium in a wide spatial range of the extended solar corona.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Large Volcano Seismology Datasets to Determine Patterns of Volcanic Behaviour.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Consistent and efficient analysis of both real-time volcano seismology data and of data catalogues from key eruptions is important to characterise seismicity surrounding eruptions and to determine patterns of volcanic behaviour. Seismicity patterns can be characterised by a variety of metrics, such as spectral analysis, identification of repeating waveform families and event classification, and temporal changes in these seismicity patterns can indicate changes in volcanic behaviour. Data catalogues from key eruptions can be large, and during seismic crises real-time monitoring of volcano seismicity can be overwhelming. This highlights the need for simple, rapid and effective analysis of such datasets, however, large-scale or rapid analysis of this type has been hindered by computational limitations associated with cross-correlation of large datasets and the labour intensive nature of waveform classification. Consistent waveform classification remains a challenge during both real-time analysis and retrospective analysis. In real-time many events are classified by an analyst, but during seismic crises there may be hundreds to thousands of events to analyse per day and this can rapidly become unfeasible. Automated classification allows consistent classification of waveforms but often requires an extensive training period. We have developed a fast-approximation method, peakmatch, to cross-correlate large seismic data catalogues for rapid analysis of repeating waveforms, and we use machine-learning techniques to automatically classify seismic waveforms with minimal training data.

  4. A Preliminary Study on Geological Structure and Seismological Activity in Fuxian Lake and Neighbouring Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Lou, Ke

    2008-06-01

    The area around the Fuxian Lake is in the west branch of the Xiaojiang faulted zone, and is one of the regions with potential seismic activities. Destructive earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 5 (with intensity grade VI) happened in the region in history, and the region was affected many times by earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 6 occurring in neighbouring regions. From the analyses of geological structure of seismology and the characteristics of the seismic activities in recent years, the Fuxian Lake and the regions nearby are possible potential locations of epicenter for magnitude 7 to 7.5 earthquakes in the future. Therefore, according to the rules and regulations stipulated in "Anti Seismic and Natural Disaster Reduction Act", "Ordinance of Anti Seismic and Natural Disaster Reduction of Yuxi City", it is suggested that Yunnan Observatory should carry out evaluation of the seismic security in its construction of the Fuxian Lake Solar Observatory in accordance with the national technical standards decribed in "Technical Specifications for Evaluation of Seismic Security at Engineering Sites"

  5. Seismicity location from analysis of a 2 years passive seismological experiment around Ulaanbaatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkhuu, Battulga; Munkhuu, Ulziibat; Sebe, Olivier; Monfret, Tony; Deschamps, Anne; Gao, Mengtan; Wu, Qingju

    2014-05-01

    We analyse broadband seismological records from a 2 years temporary array deployed over a 400x600km2 region in central Mongolia, including Ulaanbaatar region, by a Sino-Mongolian cooperation. The dataset is completed with all available regional data, mostly recorded by Mongolian National Seismic Network (MNSN) operated by Research Center for Astronomy and Geophysics (RCAG). The seismic activity of the covered area is not very high, except SW of Ulaanbaatar. To obtain as good as possible image of this seismicity, we have first to determine a regional velocity model. The development of mining activity in Mongolia, allows us to record a large set of quarry blasts. Due to the very continental position of Mongolia, micro-seismic noise level is low and the signal of these human made sources are very often recorded at distances as far as 200km. Travel time information of direct, reflected and refracted waves are used to produce crustal information (Moho depth and mean crustal P wave velocity, and velocity below the Moho, Vp/Vs ratio) over the area of observation. We show that the crust of the studied area is relatively homogeneous which allows us to improve this very simple model, searching the best crustal model with Velest software. The experiment was supported by Sino-Mongolian joint project titled "The Geophysical Investigation and Deep Structure Modeling for Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Far East", Project code: 2011DFB20120.

  6. Common dependence on stress for the two fundamental laws of statistical seismology.

    PubMed

    Narteau, Clément; Byrdina, Svetlana; Shebalin, Peter; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2009-12-01

    Two of the long-standing relationships of statistical seismology are power laws: the Gutenberg-Richter relation describing the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution, and the Omori-Utsu law characterizing the temporal decay of aftershock rate following a main shock. Recently, the effect of stress on the slope (the b value) of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution was determined by investigations of the faulting-style dependence of the b value. In a similar manner, we study here aftershock sequences according to the faulting style of their main shocks. We show that the time delay before the onset of the power-law aftershock decay rate (the c value) is on average shorter for thrust main shocks than for normal fault earthquakes, taking intermediate values for strike-slip events. These similar dependences on the faulting style indicate that both of the fundamental power laws are governed by the state of stress. Focal mechanisms are known for only 2 per cent of aftershocks. Therefore, c and b values are independent estimates and can be used as new tools to infer the stress field, which remains difficult to measure directly. PMID:19956258

  7. A seismologically consistent expression for the total area and volume of earthquake-triggered landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Odin; Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Gorum, Tolga; Uchida, Taro

    2016-04-01

    We present a new, seismologically consistent expression for the total area and volume of populations of earthquake-triggered landslides. This model builds on a set of scaling relationships between key parameters, such as landslide spatial density, seismic ground acceleration, fault length, earthquake source depth, and seismic moment. To assess the model we have assembled and normalized a catalog of landslide inventories for 40 shallow, continental earthquakes. Low landscape steepness causes systematic overprediction of the total area and volume of landslides. When this effect is accounted for, the model predicts the total landslide volume of 63% of 40 cases to within a factor 2 of the volume estimated from observations (R2=0.76). The prediction of total landslide area is also sensitive to the landscape steepness, but less so than the total volume, and it appears to be sensitive to controls on the landslide size-frequency distribution, and possibly the shaking duration. Some outliers are likely associated with exceptionally strong rock mass in the epicentral area, while others may be related to seismic source complexities ignored by the model. However, the close match between prediction and estimate for about two thirds of cases in our database suggests that rock mass strength is similar in many cases and that our simple seismic model is often adequate, despite the variety of lithologies and tectonic settings covered. This makes our expression suitable for integration into landscape evolution models and application to the anticipation or rapid assessment of secondary hazards associated with earthquakes.

  8. ROMY - The First Large 3D Ring Laser Structure for Seismology and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Lin, Chin-Jen; Gebauer, André; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Large ring laser gyroscopes have matured to the point that they can routinely observe rotational motions from geophysical processes that can be used in geodesy and seismology. The ring lasers used for this purpose enclose areas between 16 and 800 square meters and have in common that they can only measure rotations around the vertical axis because the structures are horizontally placed on the floor. With the ROMY project we have embarked on the construction of a full 3-dimensional rotation sensor. The actual apparatus consists of four individual triangular ring lasers arranged in the shape of a tetrahedron with 12 m of length on each side. At each corner of the tetrahedron three of the ring lasers are rigidly tied together to the same mechanical reference. The overall size of the installation provides a promising compromise between sensor stability on one side and sensor resolution on the other side. This talk introduces the technical concept of the ROMY ring laser installation and will also briefly outline the requirements for applications in space geodesy.

  9. Transformation seismology: composite soil lenses for steering surface elastic Rayleigh waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Andrea; Guenneau, Sebastien; Roux, Philippe; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-04-01

    Metamaterials are artificially structured media that exibit properties beyond those usually encountered in nature. Typically they are developed for electromagnetic waves at millimetric down to nanometric scales, or for acoustics, at centimeter scales. By applying ideas from transformation optics we can steer Rayleigh-surface waves that are solutions of the vector Navier equations of elastodynamics. As a paradigm of the conformal geophysics that we are creating, we design a square arrangement of Luneburg lenses to reroute Rayleigh waves around a building with the dual aim of protection and minimizing the effect on the wavefront (cloaking). To show that this is practically realisable we deliberately choose to use material parameters readily available and this metalens consists of a composite soil structured with buried pillars made of softer material. The regular lattice of inclusions is homogenized to give an effective material with a radially varying velocity profile and hence varying the refractive index of the lens. We develop the theory and then use full 3D numerical simulations to conclusively demonstrate, at frequencies of seismological relevance 3–10 Hz, and for low-speed sedimentary soil (vs: 300–500 m/s), that the vibration of a structure is reduced by up to 6 dB at its resonance frequency.

  10. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; West, Michael E.; O'Neel, Shad; Pettit, Erin C.; Truffer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The seismic signatures of calving events, i.e., calving icequakes, offer an opportunity to examine calving variability with greater precision than is available with other methods. Here using observations from Yahtse Glacier, Alaska, we describe methods to detect, locate, and characterize calving icequakes. We combine these icequake records with a coincident, manually generated record of observed calving events to develop and validate a statistical model through which we can infer iceberg sizes from the properties of calving icequakes. We find that the icequake duration is the single most significant predictor of an iceberg's size. We then apply this model to 18 months of seismic recordings and find elevated iceberg calving flux during the summer and fall and a pronounced lull in calving during midwinter. Calving flux is sensitive to semidiurnal tidal stage. Large calving events are tens of percent more likely during falling and low tides than during rising and high tides, consistent with a view that deeper water has a stabilizing influence on glacier termini. Multiple factors affect the occurrence of mechanical fractures that ultimately lead to iceberg calving. At Yahtse Glacier, seismology allows us to demonstrate that variations in the rate of submarine melt are a dominant control on iceberg calving rates at seasonal timescales. On hourly to daily timescales, tidal modulation of the normal stress against the glacier terminus reveals the nonlinear glacier response to changes in the near-terminus stress field.

  11. Probing deformation at depth using passive seismology: case of the Mexico 2006 slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, D. N.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Radiguet, M.; Cotte, N.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Repeated cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise indicate a long-term seismic velocity change in the Guerrero region associated to the 2006 Slow Sleep Event (SSE). For the first time, long-term seismic velocity change associated with a SSE is detected using continuous seismic recordings. We used seismic noise recorded at 26 broad-band stations of the Meso America Seismic Experiment (MASE) from January 2005 to July 2007. Since the SSE does not emit seismic waves interacting with superficial layers, the observed velocity change is due to perturbation of the crustal properties at depth. We observe a decrease in velocity starting in April 2006 with a minimum of -0.2% of the initial velocity in June 2006. The seismic velocity perturbation during the SSE is detected along a 250 km long section of the Meso American Seismic Experiment (MASE) array and is located at depth in the middle crust or below. We compare the observed velocity change with the change of dilatancy computed in an elastic model of the lithosphere using a kinematic model of slip for the SSE. The correlation in time and space of the seismic velocity and the dilatancy change suggests that ambient noise monitoring can be used to probe transient deformation at depth, until now undetectable with seismological methods.

  12. Standing Slow-Mode Waves in Hot Coronal Loops: Observations, Modeling, and Coronal Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongjiang

    2011-07-01

    Strongly damped Doppler shift oscillations are observed frequently associated with flarelike events in hot coronal loops. In this paper, a review of the observed properties and the theoretical modeling is presented. Statistical measurements of physical parameters (period, decay time, and amplitude) have been obtained based on a large number of events observed by SOHO/SUMER and Yohkoh/BCS. Several pieces of evidence are found to support their interpretation in terms of the fundamental standing longitudinal slow mode. The high excitation rate of these oscillations in small- or micro-flares suggest that the slow mode waves are a natural response of the coronal plasma to impulsive heating in closed magnetic structure. The strong damping and the rapid excitation of the observed waves are two major aspects of the waves that are poorly understood, and are the main subject of theoretical modelling. The slow waves are found mainly damped by thermal conduction and viscosity in hot coronal loops. The mode coupling seems to play an important role in rapid excitation of the standing slow mode. Several seismology applications such as determination of the magnetic field, temperature, and density in coronal loops are demonstrated. Further, some open issues are discussed.

  13. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1981 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Carr, W.J.; Spence, W.

    1983-09-01

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1981 are reported for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operations are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. These data are being collected to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard to a potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. The regional stress field orientation, as inferred from focal mechanisms, is characterized by a northwest-directed least compressive stress and a northeast-directed greatest compressive stress. We infer from this stress orientation that faults of north to northeast trend are most susceptible to slip. Faults of this orientation exist within the Yucca Mountain block, but they probably have not moved significantly in the last 500,000 years. Yucca Mountain lies within a fairly large area of relatively low level seismicity extending west to the Funeral Mountains, south of the Black Mountains and Nopah Range, and southeast to the Spring Mountains. One M 1.7 earthquake has been located in the Yucca Mountain block in about 1 year of intense monitoring. At present somewhat conflicting geologic, seismologic, and stress evidence hinder definitive conclusions about the seismic hazard at the proposed repository site. 36 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Slow Mode with Drifting He++: Implications for Coronal Seismology and the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2014-06-01

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He++) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are as follows. 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfvén waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion relation for the highly oblique slow mode cannot be used with the Alfvén speed computed using the summed proton and ion densities, and with the sound speed computed from the summed pressures and densities of all species. 4. The ions can drive a non-resonant instability under certain circumstances. For low plasma beta, the threshold drift can be less than that required to destabilize electromagnetic modes, but damping from the Landau resonance can eliminate this instability altogether, unless Te /Tp Gt 1.

  15. Forensic seismology and boundary element method application vis-à-vis ROKS Cheonan underwater explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Gu

    2013-12-01

    On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6-9 m from a DPRK "CHT-02D" torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral "land control" mine (LCM).

  16. Seismological Investigation of the January 6, 2016 North Korean Underground Nuclear Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Wang, Wei-Min; Hao, Jin-Lai; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2016-06-01

    Seismology plays an important role in characterizing potential underground nuclear tests. Using broadband digital seismic data from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan, we investigated the properties of the recent seismic event occurred in North Korea on January 6, 2016. Using a relative location method and choosing the previous 2006 explosion as the master event, the 2016 event was located within the North Korean nuclear test site, with its epicenter at latitude 41.3003°N and longitude 129.0678°E, approximately 900 meters north and 500 meters west of the previous event on February 12, 2013. Based on the error ellipse, the relocation uncertainty was approximately 70 m. Using the P/S spectral ratios, including Pg/Lg, Pn/Lg and Pn/Sn, as the discriminants, we identify the 2016 event as an explosion rather than an earthquake. The body-wave magnitude calculated from regional wave Lg is mb(Lg) equal to 4.7 ± 0.2. Adopting an empirical magnitude-yield relation, and assuming that the explosion is fully coupled and detonated at a normally scaled depth, we find that the seismic yield is about 4 kt, with the uncertainties allowing a range from 2 to 8 kt.

  17. Transformation seismology: composite soil lenses for steering surface elastic Rayleigh waves

    PubMed Central

    Colombi, Andrea; Guenneau, Sebastien; Roux, Philippe; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially structured media that exibit properties beyond those usually encountered in nature. Typically they are developed for electromagnetic waves at millimetric down to nanometric scales, or for acoustics, at centimeter scales. By applying ideas from transformation optics we can steer Rayleigh-surface waves that are solutions of the vector Navier equations of elastodynamics. As a paradigm of the conformal geophysics that we are creating, we design a square arrangement of Luneburg lenses to reroute Rayleigh waves around a building with the dual aim of protection and minimizing the effect on the wavefront (cloaking). To show that this is practically realisable we deliberately choose to use material parameters readily available and this metalens consists of a composite soil structured with buried pillars made of softer material. The regular lattice of inclusions is homogenized to give an effective material with a radially varying velocity profile and hence varying the refractive index of the lens. We develop the theory and then use full 3D numerical simulations to conclusively demonstrate, at frequencies of seismological relevance 3–10 Hz, and for low-speed sedimentary soil (vs: 300–500 m/s), that the vibration of a structure is reduced by up to 6 dB at its resonance frequency. PMID:27125237

  18. CORONAL SEISMOLOGY USING EIT WAVES: ESTIMATION OF THE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N.; Dolla, L.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-04-01

    Coronal EIT waves have been observed for many years. The nature of EIT waves is still contentious, however, there is strong evidence that some of them might be fast magnetosonic waves, or at least have a fast magnetosonic wave component. The fast magnetosonic wave speed is formed from two components; the Alfven speed (magnetic) and the sound speed (thermal). By making measurements of the wave speed, coronal density and temperature it is possible to calculate the quiet-Sun coronal magnetic field strength through coronal seismology. In this paper, we investigate an EIT wave observed on 2009 February 13 by the SECCHI/EUVI instruments on board the STEREO satellites. The wave epicenter was observed at disk center in the STEREO B (Behind) satellite. At this time, the STEREO satellites were separated by approximately 90 deg., and as a consequence the STEREO A (Ahead) satellite observed the wave on the solar limb. These observations allowed us to make accurate speed measurements of the wave. The background coronal density was derived through Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations of the quiet Sun and the temperature was estimated through the narrow temperature response in the EUVI bandpasses. The density, temperature, and speed measurements allowed us to estimate the quiet-Sun coronal magnetic field strength to be approximately 0.7 {+-} 0.7 G.

  19. CORONAL FOURIER POWER SPECTRA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL SEISMOLOGY AND CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, J.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Inglis, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of regions of the solar corona are investigated using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å and 193 Å data. The coronal emission from the quiet Sun, coronal loop footprints, coronal moss, and from above a sunspot is studied. It is shown that the mean Fourier power spectra in these regions can be described by a power law at lower frequencies that tails to a flat spectrum at higher frequencies, plus a Gaussian-shaped contribution that varies depending on the region studied. This Fourier spectral shape is in contrast to the commonly held assumption that coronal time series are well described by the sum of a long timescale background trend plus Gaussian-distributed noise, with some specific locations also showing an oscillatory signal. The implications of the observed spectral shape on the fields of coronal seismology and the automated detection of oscillations in the corona are discussed. The power-law contribution to the shape of the Fourier power spectrum is interpreted as being due to the summation of a distribution of exponentially decaying emission events along the line of sight. This is consistent with the idea that the solar atmosphere is heated everywhere by small energy deposition events.

  20. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; West, Michael E.; O'Neel, Shad; Pettit, Erin C.; Truffer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The seismic signatures of calving events, i.e., calving icequakes, offer an opportunity to examine calving variability with greater precision than is available with other methods. Here using observations from Yahtse Glacier, Alaska, we describe methods to detect, locate, and characterize calving icequakes. We combine these icequake records with a coincident, manually generated record of observed calving events to develop and validate a statistical model through which we can infer iceberg sizes from the properties of calving icequakes. We find that the icequake duration is the single most significant predictor of an iceberg's size. We then apply this model to 18 months of seismic recordings and find elevated iceberg calving flux during the summer and fall and a pronounced lull in calving during midwinter. Calving flux is sensitive to semidiurnal tidal stage. Large calving events are tens of percent more likely during falling and low tides than during rising and high tides, consistent with a view that deeper water has a stabilizing influence on glacier termini. Multiple factors affect the occurrence of mechanical fractures that ultimately lead to iceberg calving. At Yahtse Glacier, seismology allows us to demonstrate that variations in the rate of submarine melt are a dominant control on iceberg calving rates at seasonal timescales. On hourly to daily timescales, tidal modulation of the normal stress against the glacier terminus reveals the nonlinear glacier response to changes in the near-terminus stress field.

  1. Transformation seismology: composite soil lenses for steering surface elastic Rayleigh waves.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Guenneau, Sebastien; Roux, Philippe; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially structured media that exibit properties beyond those usually encountered in nature. Typically they are developed for electromagnetic waves at millimetric down to nanometric scales, or for acoustics, at centimeter scales. By applying ideas from transformation optics we can steer Rayleigh-surface waves that are solutions of the vector Navier equations of elastodynamics. As a paradigm of the conformal geophysics that we are creating, we design a square arrangement of Luneburg lenses to reroute Rayleigh waves around a building with the dual aim of protection and minimizing the effect on the wavefront (cloaking). To show that this is practically realisable we deliberately choose to use material parameters readily available and this metalens consists of a composite soil structured with buried pillars made of softer material. The regular lattice of inclusions is homogenized to give an effective material with a radially varying velocity profile and hence varying the refractive index of the lens. We develop the theory and then use full 3D numerical simulations to conclusively demonstrate, at frequencies of seismological relevance 3-10 Hz, and for low-speed sedimentary soil (vs: 300-500 m/s), that the vibration of a structure is reduced by up to 6 dB at its resonance frequency. PMID:27125237

  2. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  3. Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM)

    DOEpatents

    Ewsuk, Kevin G.; Arguello, Jr., Jose G.

    2006-01-31

    A method of designing a primary geometry, such as for a forming die, to be used in a powder pressing application by using a combination of axisymmetric geometric shapes, transition radii, and transition spaces to simulate the geometry where the shapes can be selected from a predetermined list or menu of axisymmetric shapes and then developing a finite element mesh to represent the geometry. This mesh, along with material properties of the component to be designed and powder, is input to a standard deformation finite element code to evaluate the deformation characteristics of the component being designed. The user can develop the geometry interactively with a computer interface in minutes and execute a complete analysis of the deformation characteristics of the simulated component geometry.

  4. Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM)

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  5. Integrating Seismology into the Physics Curriculum: An Opportunity to Introduce High-School Students to Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayers, J.

    2002-12-01

    High school physics provides a natural vehicle for introducing seismology and geophysics concepts into the secondary science curriculum. Fundamental principles of mechanics and wave motion can be studied through investigation of the real-world phenomena of earthquakes and the seismic waves they generate. In turn, the excitement of a major earthquake and news media coverage stimulates student interest and involvement, especially if students are able to record the event. Too often, students' exposure to science has been confined to textbook work or "cookbook" lab exercises and they develop a very limited understanding of how science works. The National Science Standards, as well as many state standards, have emphasized the importance of hands-on inquiry-based activities, the use of real data and the introduction of research as fundamental to improving students' understanding of science. Students who run their own seismic station have the opportunity to experience the rewards and frustrations that can result from real scientific work. At Northview High School (Brazil, Indiana) we have installed a PEPP broadband seismometer in an external vault. Physics students are responsible for the day-to-day operation of the station. They download data and produce and post seismograms of earthquakes that have been recorded by the station and identified by the students. A hallway display case provides students, faculty and staff with a continuous (nearly) live display of the data being collected. The operation of the station has generated a great deal of student and community interest in the study of earthquakes. In this presentation, I will describe how seismology has been incorporated into the physics curriculum at Northview High School, and how our students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on scientific research. I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software

  6. Facilitate, Collaborate, Educate: the Role of the IRIS Consortium in Supporting National and International Research in Seismology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. W.; Beck, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Over the twenty-five years since its founding in 1984, the IRIS Consortium has contributed in fundamental ways to change the practice and culture of research in seismology in the US and worldwide. From an original founding group of twenty-two U.S. academic institutions, IRIS membership has now grown to 114 U.S. Member Institutions, 20 Educational Affiliates and 103 Foreign Affiliates. With strong support from the National Science Foundation, additional resources provided by other federal agencies, close collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and many international partners, the technical resources of the core IRIS programs - the Global Seismographic Network (GSN), the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL), the Data Management System (DMS) and Education and Outreach - have grown to become a major national and international source of experimental data for research on earthquakes and Earth structure, and a resource to support education and outreach to the public. While the primary operational focus of the Consortium is to develop and maintain facilities for the collection of seismological data for basic research, IRIS has become much more than an instrument facility. It has become a stimulus for collaboration between academic seismological programs and a focus for their interactions with national and international partners. It has helped establish the academic community as a significant contributor to the collection of data and an active participant in global research and monitoring. As a consortium of virtually all of the Earth science research institutions in the US, IRIS has helped coordinate the academic community in the development of new initiatives, such as EarthScope, to strengthen the support for science and argue for the relevance of seismology and its use in hazard mitigation. The early IRIS pioneers had the foresight to carefully define program goals and technical standards for the IRIS facilities that have stood

  7. Towards a Unified Architecture for Data-Intensive Seismology in VERCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klampanos, I.; Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Krause, A.; Garcia, C. R.; Atkinson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern seismology involves managing, storing and processing large datasets, typically geographically distributed across organisations. Performing computational experiments using these data generates more data, which in turn have to be managed, further analysed and frequently be made available within or outside the scientific community. As part of the EU-funded project VERCE (http://verce.eu), we research and develop a number of use-cases, interfacing technologies to satisfy the data-intensive requirements of modern seismology. Our solution seeks to support: (1) familiar programming environments to develop and execute experiments, in particular via Python/ObsPy, (2) a unified view of heterogeneous computing resources, public or private, through the adoption of workflows, (3) monitoring the experiments and validating the data products at varying granularities, via a comprehensive provenance system, (4) reproducibility of experiments and consistency in collaboration, via a shared registry of processing units and contextual metadata (computing resources, data, etc.) Here, we provide a brief account of these components and their roles in the proposed architecture. Our design integrates heterogeneous distributed systems, while allowing researchers to retain current practices and control data handling and execution via higher-level abstractions. At the core of our solution lies the workflow language Dispel. While Dispel can be used to express workflows at fine detail, it may also be used as part of meta- or job-submission workflows. User interaction can be provided through a visual editor or through custom applications on top of parameterisable workflows, which is the approach VERCE follows. According to our design, the scientist may use versions of Dispel/workflow processing elements offered by the VERCE library or override them introducing custom scientific code, using ObsPy. This approach has the advantage that, while the scientist uses a familiar tool, the resulting

  8. 1994-2004 : Ten years of European effort for education in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, J.; Zollo, A.; Lomax, A.; Berenguer, J.; Laj, C.; Bobbio, A.

    2004-12-01

    Following trends of the pioneer PEPP project in USA, an European group has investigated since 1994 how to promote physics and earth sciences and, more specifically, how to educate scientifically and socially young generations to environmental hazards. Seismology has been selected as the vehicle for a prototypical ten-years experience of teaching and learning sciences in European high schools accounting for the specificity and differencies of educational systems in each country. This general purpose has required competences and strong interactions of both teachers, researchers and high school students. Over ten years of continuous activities, these people have found that the target was very ambitious and that both high-tech efforts as well as very focused teaching procedures must be set on. Dedicated instruments were developped in two years through interactions between researchers,teachers and students in order to fit both the scientific quality but also pedagogical features and were installed in different parts of Europe. The sequence of Colfiorito Earthquakes in September-October 1997 was the first data collected simultaneously in different European schools. Since then, more thant 50 stations have been deployed over Europe and data have been made available for education purposes. Data from these seismic stations have been used as the back-bone for interactions between students/pupils, teachers and researchers leading to the development of dedicated teaching and learning materials as software tools for data analysis, simple experimentations and so on. The framework for such an European initiative has been provided by Italian and French national funds and put together under the banner of the so-called EDUSEIS projet. This EDUcational SEISmological European Network (http://www.eduseis.org/) has shown that indeed environmental education is possible with its typical feature of long-term efforts. Funding through Europe will certainly increase the cohesion of this

  9. Dispel4py: An Open-Source Python library for Data-Intensive Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Krause, Amrey; Spinuso, Alessandro; Klampanos, Iraklis; Danecek, Peter; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2015-04-01

    Scientific workflows are a necessary tool for many scientific communities as they enable easy composition and execution of applications on computing resources while scientists can focus on their research without being distracted by the computation management. Nowadays, scientific communities (e.g. Seismology) have access to a large variety of computing resources and their computational problems are best addressed using parallel computing technology. However, successful use of these technologies requires a lot of additional machinery whose use is not straightforward for non-experts: different parallel frameworks (MPI, Storm, multiprocessing, etc.) must be used depending on the computing resources (local machines, grids, clouds, clusters) where applications are run. This implies that for achieving the best applications' performance, users usually have to change their codes depending on the features of the platform selected for running them. This work presents dispel4py, a new open-source Python library for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications. Special care has been taken to provide dispel4py with the ability to map abstract workflows to different platforms dynamically at run-time. Currently dispel4py has four mappings: Apache Storm, MPI, multi-threading and sequential. The main goal of dispel4py is to provide an easy-to-use tool to develop and test workflows in local resources by using the sequential mode with a small dataset. Later, once a workflow is ready for long runs, it can be automatically executed on different parallel resources. dispel4py takes care of the underlying mappings by performing an efficient parallelisation. Processing Elements (PE) represent the basic computational activities of any dispel4Py workflow, which can be a seismologic algorithm, or a data transformation process. For creating a dispel4py workflow, users only have to write very few lines of code to describe their PEs and how they are

  10. Combined Active and Passive Seismology to Study Continental Collision; Central South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T.; Okaya, D.; Baldock, G.; Scherwath, M.

    2005-12-01

    Central South Island of New Zealand is a continental region that has undergone both collision and strike-slip shear in the late Tertiary. From a tectonics, or rock-mechanics, view-point there is an interest in how the crust and mantle have been both thickened and sheared. The South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) and the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) - both jointly funded US-NZ programs - studied these processes. Some of the most important findings came about by merging data from passive and active seismology. Three specific examples will be discussed: 1. Teleseismic P-wave delays from earthquakes in the Western Pacific are used to map a ~ 0.8-1 s speed-up in the mantle right beneath the region of thickest crust and highest topography of the collision zone. Forward modeling of this velocity anomaly shows that the amplitude of the anomaly can be explained by a 100 km-thick body that has a 7% in increase in P-wave speed. From the spatial pattern of the P-wave residuals we can also show that the high-speed body is about 80-100 km wide and roughly vertically disposed beneath the crustal root. The shape and position of the high-speed body beneath the seismically determined crustal root is consistent with it being thickened, and therefore cold, mantle lithosphere that has uniformly strained into a roughly symmetric root beneath the collision zone. 2. Pn anisotropy measurements from our onshore-offshore seismic shooting program allowed us to make mutually perpendicular determinations of Pn wave speeds at three localities. P-wave anisotropies of up to 11 ± 3%, 6.5 ± 2.5% and 0 ± 3%, were measured, depending on the distance of the measurement from the surface trace of the plate boundary (the Alpine Fault). These are necessarily minimum anisotropy values because it assumes that the two axes of measurement are those of minimum and maximum wave speed. Combining these results with SKS splitting values of ~ 2 s from passive seismology allowed us to make

  11. The VERCE platform: Enabling Computational Seismology via Streaming Workflows and Science Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Filgueira, Rosa; Krause, Amrey; Matser, Jonas; Casarotti, Emanuele; Magnoni, Federica; Gemund, Andre; Frobert, Laurent; Krischer, Lion; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2015-04-01

    The VERCE project is creating an e-Science platform to facilitate innovative data analysis and coding methods that fully exploit the wealth of data in global seismology. One of the technologies developed within the project is the Dispel4Py python library, which allows to describe abstract stream-based workflows for data-intensive applications and to execute them in a distributed environment. At runtime Dispel4Py is able to map workflow descriptions dynamically onto a number of computational resources (Apache Storm clusters, MPI powered clusters, and shared-memory multi-core machines, single-core machines), setting it apart from other workflow frameworks. Therefore, Dispel4Py enables scientists to focus on their computation instead of being distracted by details of the computing infrastructure they use. Among the workflows developed with Dispel4Py in VERCE, we mention here those for Seismic Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation and MISFIT calculation, which address two data-intensive problems that are common in computational seismology. The former, also called Passive Imaging, allows the detection of relative seismic-wave velocity variations during the time of recording, to be associated with the stress-field changes that occurred in the test area. The MISFIT instead, takes as input the synthetic seismograms generated from HPC simulations for a certain Earth model and earthquake and, after a preprocessing stage, compares them with real observations in order to foster subsequent model updates and improvement (Inversion). The VERCE Science Gateway exposes the MISFIT calculation workflow as a service, in combination with the simulation phase. Both phases can be configured, controlled and monitored by the user via a rich user interface which is integrated within the gUSE Science Gateway framework, hiding the complexity of accessing third parties data services, security mechanisms and enactment on the target resources. Thanks to a modular extension to the Dispel4Py framework

  12. AlpArray - a broad(band) seismology initiative on the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, G.

    2012-12-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 57 institutes in 16 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area from the Black Forest and the Bohemian Massif in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with a high-quality broadband seismometer backbone by combining the ca. 220 existing permanent stations with additional 300-340 instruments from mobile pools, all of them to be deployed between August 2014 and August 2016. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage (ca. 40 km average station spacing). Furthermore, we also plan to deploy a few densely spaced targeted networks along swaths across - and in regions of - key parts of the Alpine chain on shorter time scales. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ca. 40-45 ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. We also aim to implement the best practice for synchronizing mobile pool operation procedures and data handling: common data centre and data management procedure, free access to data to participants as soon as possible through EIDA. Data will be open to the public 3 years after the experiment ends. The main scientific goal of AlpArray is to investigate the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Alps. A primary target is the geometry and configuration of subducting slabs and their polarity switch beneath the arc. Numerous regional questions such as seismic hazard will be tackled. Targets will be imaged at several depths (e.g., from near-surface structure down to upper mantle anisotropy), scales (e.g., from local seismicity to mantle transition zone

  13. Overview of the Ocean Bottom Seismology Component of the Cascadia Initiative (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, D. R.; Allen, R. M.; Collins, J. A.; Dziak, R. P.; Hooft, E. E.; Livelybrooks, D.; McGuire, J. J.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Tolstoy, M.; Trehu, A. M.; Wilcock, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the experimental progress of the ocean bottom seismology component of the Cascadia Initiative (CI). The CI is an onshore/offshore seismic and geodetic experiment that takes advantage of an Amphibious Array Facility (AAF) to study questions ranging from megathrust earthquakes to volcanic arc structure to the formation, deformation and hydration of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates. This diverse set of objectives are all components of understanding the overall subduction zone system and require an array that provides high quality data that crosses the shoreline and encompasses relevant plate boundaries. In October 2010, an open community workshop was convened in Portland, Oregon that produced a series of recommendations to maximize the scientific return of the CI and to develop deployment plans for the offshore component of the experiment. The NSF Cascadia Initiative Workshop Report1 presents the scientific objectives of the CI, the resources involved and the community-defined ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment plan. There are several noteworthy aspects of the CI: The CI is the first to utilize a new generation of OBSs that are designed to withstand trawling by fisheries, thus allowing the collection of seismic data in the shallow water that overlies much of the Cascadia megathrust. The CI is a plate-scale experiment that provides a unique opportunity to study the structure and dynamics of an entire oceanic plate, from its birth at a spreading center to its subduction beneath a continental plate. Together with the land stations that are part of the amphibious array and other land networks, the OBSs will provide coverage at a density comparable to the Transportable Array of Earthscope from the volcanic arc out to the Pacific-Juan de Fuca spreading center segments. The CI is a community experiment that provides open access to all data via the IRIS Data Management Center, thus ensuring that the scientific return from the investment of resources is

  14. Coseismic and Post-seismic landsliding: insights from seismological modeling and landslide map time series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Odin; Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Uchida, Taro; Gorum, Tolga

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes impart a catastrophic forcing on hillslopes, that often lead to widespread landsliding and can contribute significantly to sedimentary and organic matter fluxes. We present a new expression for the total area and volume of populations of earthquake-induced landslides.This model builds on a set of scaling relationships between key parameters, such as landslide density, ground acceleration, fault size, earthquake source depth and seismic moment, derived from geomorphological and seismological observations. To assess the model we have assembled and normalized a catalogue of landslide inventories for 40 earthquakes. We have found that low landscape steepness systematically leads to over-prediction of the total area and volume of landslides.When this effect is accounted for, the model is able to predict within a factor of 2 the landslide areas and associated volumes for about two thirds of the cases in our databases. This is a significant improvement on a previously published empirical expression based only on earthquake moment. This model is suitable for integration into landscape evolution models, and application to the assessment of secondary hazards and risks associated with earthquakes. However, it only models landslides associated to the strong ground shaking and neglects the intrinsic permanent damage that also occurred on hillslopes and persist for longer period. With time series of landslide maps we have constrained the magnitude of the change in landslide susceptibility in the epicentral areas of 4 intermediate to large earthquakes. We propose likely causes for this transient ground strength perturbations and compare our observations to other observations of transient perturbations in epicentral areas, such as suspended sediment transport increases, seismic velocity reductions and hydrological perturbations. We conclude with some preliminary observations on the coseismic mass wasting and post-seismic landslide enhancement caused by the 2015 Mw.7

  15. Seismicity of Dronning Maud Land/antarctica As Detected By The Neumayer Seismological Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstaller, A.; Mueller, C.; Hoffmann, M.

    Array seismology provides a powerful tool for improving detection and localization capabilities for monitoring weak seismic events. Little is known about seismic activity of the Antarctic continent due to the sparse station deployment of the global network in this region. To improve monitoring capabilities a small-aperture short-period detec- tion array was installed in the vicinity of the German base Neumayer/Dronning Maud Land. The array complements the Neumayer seismograph network and the broadband seismograph SNAA at the neighbouring South African base Sanae IV. The array was installed in the austral summer season 1997 and has been operational almost continu- ously since that time. The design was adopted from the SPITS-array in Svalbard and consists of 15 short-period vertical seismometers arranged on three concentric rings around the 3-component intermediate-period seismometer in the center. Event detec- tion and beamforming is done automatically using array processing software from NORSAR. With this seismic antenna the number of detected Antarctic earthquakes was increased significantly. In particular, two seismically active regions were identified along the Jutul-Penck-Graben and off Kapp Norvegia. The nature of this seismic activity is not yet fully understood. Especially, the Jutul-Penck-Graben region is of interest since the question arises if this is an active tectonic rift system or if the seismic activity origi- nates from post-glacial rebound movements. Better knowledge of hypocentral depths and focal mechanisms will contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms. An integrated approach by using temporary local networks including geodetical and air- borne geophysical measurements may reveal the mechanisms of these neotectonic dynamics.

  16. Moment release in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany: seismological perspective of the deformation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedes, J.; Hainzl, S.; Reamer, S.-K.; Scherbaum, F.; Hinzen, K.-G.

    2005-03-01

    An important task of seismic hazard assessment consists of estimating the rate of seismic moment release which is correlated to the rate of tectonic deformation and the seismic coupling. However, the estimations of deformation depend on the type of information utilized (e.g. geodetic, geological, seismic) and include large uncertainties. We therefore estimate the deformation rate in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, using an integrated approach where the uncertainties have been systematically incorporated. On the basis of a new homogeneous earthquake catalogue we initially determine the frequency-magnitude distribution by statistical methods. In particular, we focus on an adequate estimation of the upper bound of the Gutenberg-Richter relation and demonstrate the importance of additional palaeoseismological information. The integration of seismological and geological information yields a probability distribution of the upper bound magnitude. Using this distribution together with the distribution of Gutenberg-Richter a and b values, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to derive the seismic moment release as a function of the observation time. The seismic moment release estimated from synthetic earthquake catalogues with short catalogue length is found to systematically underestimate the long-term moment rate which can be analytically determined. The moment release recorded in the LRE over the last 250 yr is found to be in good agreement with the probability distribution resulting from the Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the long-term distribution is within its uncertainties consistent with the moment rate derived by geological measurements, indicating an almost complete seismic coupling in this region. By means of Kostrov's formula, we additionally calculate the full deformation rate tensor using the distribution of known focal mechanisms in LRE. Finally, we use the same approach to calculate the seismic moment and the deformation rate for two subsets

  17. The Swiss Seismological Service in Greenland: Network Building and Research Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Olivieri, M.; Giardini, D.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at the ETH Zürich has begun active work in NW Greenland. As part of the GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN), a new international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, the SED has installed 3 observation quality stations, recording in realtime, with data freely open to the community. Each site is located at a village - two are within 60km of productive calving glacier fronts (Rink and Jakobshavn); the other station is 30km from inland ice calving directly into the ocean. This paper presents the stations and discusses the data quality. The capability of broadband seismic sensors at local distances to record a wide spectrum of ground motion induced by large calving events is becoming clear. Associated with a major calving event, we observe energy at 1. high frequencies (1-5Hz) due to ice fracture; 2. at mid periods (40-60s - visible at teleseismic distances) likely due to large, rapid displacement of the calved ice across the fjord floor; and 3. at longer periods (100-1000s) measuring fjord seiche generated by the calved iceberg. We are developing an automated detector for events using the GLISN dataset, with focus on the Swiss stations. Additionally, the SED, with the ETH Glaciology unit, intend to operate a broadband / short period seismic network on the ice near SwissCamp in summer 2011. The goal is to improve understanding of how sub-glacial water affects glacial bed coupling. We aim to generate an icequake catalogue with characterized sources, and to model transient changes in ice structure than may be indicative of water flow. We present a summary of the proposed work and installation plans.

  18. Integrating seismological and geodetic datasets: New insights into the seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, T. B.; Valentine, A. P.; Gilligan, A.; Woodhouse, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismometers and continuous GPS receivers provide two different methods by which deformations arising from the same physical process, earthquake faulting, may be recorded. Despite this, studies of the seismic source have generally exploited only one or other of these techniques. Can new insights into earthquake sources and Earth structure be gained by combining multiple data types? Seismological studies of Earth processes and properties require observations of the seismic wavefield, and have typically been performed using only acceleration seismograms. If this dataset were to be augmented with continuous GPS time-series, which have different frequency and amplitude sensitivities, additional information on model parameters might be obtained. In any case, attempts must be made to construct models that simultaneously satisfy all the available data types. The first challenge in doing so is developing an understanding of how datasets might usefully be combined. Seismic source determination lends itself to this challenge because it is a relatively straightforward and and well understood problem. We have developed a new method to calculate complete synthetic displacement seismograms that include the static deformation, in a plane layered elastic earth model [1]. This method is appropriate for obtaining theoretical GPS time-series arising from moderately sized earthquakes for near-field stations. Our implementation allows CMT style source inversions to be carried out using continuous GPS data alone and in combination with long period teleseismic data. This application is demonstrated using time-series acquired for a recent Mw 6.9 earthquake. References: [1] O'Toole & Woodhouse, Numerically Stable Computation of Complete Synthetic Seismograms In Plane Layered Media, in prep.

  19. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  20. The Seismic Event in North Korea on 12 May 2010: an assessment from available seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Karl; Kim, Won-Young; Richards, Paul G.; Schaff, David P.

    2016-04-01

    North Korea conducted underground nuclear explosions in October 2006, May 2009, February 2013, and January 2016 that were subsequently officially announced. Based on a number of detections of radionuclides and noble gas elements in May 2010, claims were raised that North Korea conducted a small clandestine nuclear test on its test site on 11 or 12 May 2010, which, however, lacked any signs of an associated seismic event in IMS and non-IMS seismic data. First evidence was presented in fall 2014 and published in February 2015 that data from a Chinese seismic network showed signals that could be related to the claimed underground nuclear explosion in May 2010. Unfortunately, these data have not become openly available for further and wider seismological assessments. First openly available data were found for this seismic event from stations of the North-East China Extended SeiSmic (NECESS) Array consistent with an event on or near the North Korean test site. Later, additional data were obtained from stations of the nearby Dongbei Broadband Seismographic Network (DBSN), for the event of 12 May 2010 and for the underground nuclear tests conducted in 2006 and 2009. Together with data from the open GSN station Mudanjiang (MDJ) in northeastern China we developed a framework for relative location of the event, event characterization by measuring P/S amplitude ratios at different frequencies and by independently assessing the magnitude of the event. While the location of the event can be shown to be within several kilometers of previous nuclear tests, event characterization for frequencies between 5 and 10 Hz indicates that the known nuclear tests are explosion-like; the 12 May 2010 event is in contrast characterized as earthquake-like. Our assessment also indicates that seismic events about three-thousand times smaller than the UNEs in 2013 or 2016 may be monitored on or near the North Korean test site.

  1. Project for a world-wide network devoted to the seismology of the giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, A.; Moretti, P. F.; Dolci, M.; Giuliani, C.; Patriarchi, P.

    1999-09-01

    An increasing interest has been devoted in recent years to the seismology of Jupiter and Saturn, as it is an intermediate case between the Sun and the stars. Besides the theoretical modelling, few observations have been carried out so far. An instrument, currently used in Helioseismology, has been adapted to deal with the low photon flux from the stars. It is based on the Magneto-Optical Filter (MOF), which provides two narrow (40 m Angstroms) bandpasses centered on the Sodium D-lines, 80 m Angstroms/ apart from the central wavelenght. A continuum broad-band channel is simultaneously available. The MOF stability and reference wavelenght permit to reach an high sensitivity in the power spectrum of the oscillations, despite the very low spectral-limited transmitted light. The most recent version of the instrument has characteristics of portability (60x10x10 cm x 10 Kg, PMT not included), fast mounting and low cost. Preliminary results obtained during the impact of Comet SL-9 on Jupiter in 1994 and in 3 consecutive nights in 1996 are presented [1,2]. The importance of continuous observations for an unambigous detection and identification of the oscillation frequencies requires a network of at least 1m--class telescopes all around the world. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., Brocato E., Smith E. J., 1995: Doppler Observations of the Impact of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy/9, Fragment A, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2437 [2] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic slow mode with drifting He{sup ++}: Implications for coronal seismology and the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu

    2014-06-10

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He{sup ++}) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are as follows. 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfvén waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion relation for the highly oblique slow mode cannot be used with the Alfvén speed computed using the summed proton and ion densities, and with the sound speed computed from the summed pressures and densities of all species. 4. The ions can drive a non-resonant instability under certain circumstances. For low plasma beta, the threshold drift can be less than that required to destabilize electromagnetic modes, but damping from the Landau resonance can eliminate this instability altogether, unless T{sub e} /T{sub p} >> 1.

  3. Local Seismological Networks in Northern Baja California: Some Interpretation of Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frez, J.; Acosta, J.; Nava, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Alvarez, M.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1997, we have installed local seismological networks in northern Baja California (Reftek stations, three digital components, one to four months operation, covering areas of about 50 km x 50 km) for detailed microseismicity surveys of several fault systems in the region: Cerro Prieto, San Miguel, Agua Blanca, Sierra Juarez, and areas in between. Immediate results are location of about 1500 hypocenters, determination of about 400 focal mechanisms, and some structural information on the crust. In this presentation, we focus on: a) a summary of the spatial distribution of the hypocenters, focal mechanisms, and P and T axes; b) the role of the Ojos Negros Valley in the regional seismotectonics, and c) the existence of orthogonal alignments of epicenters not necessarily associated with mapped fault traces. Most of the activity is not clearly associated with fault traces: the exception is the SE segment of the San Miguel fault, the same one where destructive earthquakes occurred in 1954 and 1956. Most of the activity appears to be correlated with valleys (Ojos Negros, Trinidad-San Matias), or to simply occur between fault traces, or to belong to epicenter alignments of ~15 km or more in length which are part of longer segments that are apparent in regional seismicity maps (SCSN and RESNOM catalogs). This regional and local alignments show an orthogonal pattern. In a simple interpretation, they could represent a very new fracture proccess in a still mostly homogeneous material, not yet expressed as fault ruptures. All P and T axes azimuthal distributions from the various areas of study show a well defined global maximum consistent with the direction of regional stresses (about NS and EW, for P and T axes, respectively). However, the P axes are distributed on the focal sphere as an almost NS strip, particularly for the Ojos Negros Valley, indicating an extensional regime.

  4. New challenges for seismology and decision makers after L'Aquila trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-04-01

    On 22 October seven experts who attended a Major Risk Committee meeting were sentenced to six years in prison on charges of manslaughter for underestimating the risk before the devastating 6.3-magnitude earthquake that struck the hillside city of L'Aquila on 6 April 2009, which caused more than 300 deaths. The earthquake followed a sequence of seismic events that started at the beginning of the year, with the largest shock - a 4.2-magnitude earthquake - occurring on 30 March. A day later, the seven experts met in L'Aquila; the minutes of the meeting, which were released after the quake, contained three main conclusions: that earthquakes are not predictable in a deterministic sense; that the L'Aquila region has the highest seismic hazard in Italy; and that the occurrence of a large earthquake in the short term was unlikely. There is not doubt that this trial will represent an important turning point for seismologists, and more in general for scientists who serve as advisors for public safety purposes. Here, starting from the analysis of the accusations made by the prosecutor and a detailed scientific appraisal of what happened, we try to figure out how seismology can evolve in order to be more effective in protecting people, and (possibly) avoiding accusations like the ones who characterize the L'Aquila trial. In particular, we discuss (i) the principles of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting that were put forward by an international Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) nominated after L'Aquila earthquake, (ii) the ICEF recommendations for Civil Protection, and (iii) the recent developments in this field in Italy. Finally, we also explore the interface between scientists and decision makers, in particular in the framework of making decisions in a low probability environment.

  5. Tectonics of the Scotia-Antarctica plate boundary constrained from seismic and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civile, D.; Lodolo, E.; Vuan, A.; Loreto, M. F.

    2012-07-01

    The plate boundary between the Scotia and Antarctic plates runs along the broadly E-W trending South Scotia Ridge. It is a mainly transcurrent margin that juxtaposes thinned continental and transitional crust elements with restricted oceanic basins and deep troughs. Seismic profiles and regional-scale seismological constraints are used to define the peculiarities of the crustal structures in and around the southern Scotia Sea, and focal solutions from recent earthquakes help to understand the present-day geodynamic setting. The northern edge of the western South Scotia Ridge is marked by a sub-vertical, left-lateral master fault. Locally, a narrow wedge of accreted sediments is present at the base of the slope. This segment represents the boundary between the Scotia plate and the independent South Shetland continental block. Along the northern margin of the South Orkney microcontinent, the largest fragment of the South Scotia Ridge, an accretionary prism is present at the base of the slope, which was possibly created by the eastward drift of the South Orkney microcontinent and the consequent subduction of the transitional crust present to the north. East of the South Orkney microcontinent, the physiography and structure of the plate boundary are less constrained. Here the tectonic regime exhibits mainly strike-slip behavior with some grade of extensional component, and the plate boundary is segmented by a series of NNW-SSE trending release zones which favored the fragmentation and dispersion of the crustal blocks. Seismic data have also identified, along the north-western edge of the South Scotia Ridge, an elevated region - the Ona Platform - which can be considered, along with the Terror Rise, as the conjugate margin of the Tierra del Fuego, before the Drake Passage opening. We propose here an evolutionary sketch for the plate boundary (from the Late Oligocene to the present) encompassing the segment from the Elephant Island platform to the Herdman Bank.

  6. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  7. First Lunar Flashes Observed from Morocco (ILIAD Network): Implications for Lunar Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, Mamoun; Daassou, Ahmed; Baratoux, David; Bouley, Sylvain; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Garcia, Raphael; Colas, Francois

    2015-07-01

    We report the detection of two transient luminous events recorded on the lunar surface on February 6, 2013, at 06:29:56.7 UT and April 14, 2013, 20:00:45.4 from the Atlas Golf Marrakech observatory in Morocco. Estimated visual magnitudes are 9.4 ± 0.2 and 7.7 ± 0.2. We show that these events have the typical characteristics of impact flashes generated by meteoroids impacting the lunar surface, despite proof using two different telescopes is not available. Assuming these events were lunar impact flashes, meteoroid masses are 0.3 ± 0.05 and 1.8 ± 0.3 kg, corresponding to diameters of 7-8 and 14-15 cm for a density of 1500 kg m-3. The meteoroids would have produced craters of about 2.6 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.3 m in diameter. We then present a method based on the identification of lunar features illuminated by the Earthshine to determine the position of the flash. The method does not require any information about the observation geometry or lunar configuration. The coordinates are respectively 08.15° ± 0.15°S 59.1° ± 0.15°E and 26.81° ± 0.15°N 09.10° ± 0.15°W. Further improvement on the determination of the flash position is necessary for seismological applications. This studies demonstrates that permanent lunar impact flashes observation programs may be run in different parts of the globe using mid-sized telescopes. We call for the development of an international lunar impact astronomical detection networks that would represent an opportunity for scientific and cultural developments in countries where astronomy is under-represented.

  8. Citizen Seismology Provides Insights into Ground Motions and Hazard from Injection-Induced Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The US Geological Survey "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system is a highly successful example of citizen seismology. Users around the world now routinely report felt earthquakes via the Web; this information is used to determine Community Decimal Intensity values. These data can be enormously valuable for helping address a key issue that has arisen recently: quantifying the shaking/hazard associated with injection-induced earthquakes. I consider the shaking from 11 moderate (Mw3.9-5.7) earthquakes in the central and eastern United States that are believed to be induced by fluid injection. The distance decay of intensities for all events is consistent with that observed for regional tectonic earthquakes, but for all of the events intensities are lower than values predicted from an intensity prediction equation derived using data from tectonic events. I introduce an effective intensity magnitude, MIE, defined as the magnitude that on average would generate a given intensity distribution. For all 11 events, MIE is lower than the event magnitude by 0.4-1.3 units, with an average difference of 0.8 units. This suggests that stress drops of injection-induced earthquakes are lower than tectonic earthquakes by a factor of 2-10. However, relatively limited data suggest that intensities for epicentral distances less than 10 km are more commensurate with expectations for the event magnitude, which can be explained by the shallow focal depth of the events. The results suggest that damage from injection-induced earthquakes will be especially concentrated in the immediate epicentral region. These results further suggest a potential new discriminant for the identification of induced events. For ecample, while systematic analysis of California earthquakes remains to be done, DYFI data from the 2014 Mw5.1 La Habra, California, earthquake reveal no evidence for unusually low intensities, adding to a growing volume of evidence that this was a natural tectonic event.

  9. Coronal seismology of flare-excited longitudinal slow magnetoacoustic waves in hot coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Ofman, L.; Sun, X.; Provornikova, E. A.; Davila, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA in 94 and 131 bandpasses. These oscillations show similar physical properties (such as period, decay time, and trigger) as those slow-mode standing waves previously detected by the SOHO/SUMER spectrometer in Doppler shift of flare lines formed above 6 MK. The multi-wavelength AIA observations with high spatio-temporal resolution and wide temperature coverage enable us to measure both thermal and wave properties of the oscillating hot plasma with unprecedented accuracy. These new measurements can be used to diagnose the complicated energy transport processes in flare plasma by a technique called coronal seismology based on the combination of observations and MHD wave theory. From a detailed case study we have found evidence for thermal conduction suppression in hot loops by measuring the polytropic index and analyzing the phase relationship between the temperature and density wave signals. This result is not only crucial for better understanding the wave dissipation mechanism but also provides an alternative mechanism to explain the puzzles of long-duration events and X-ray loop-top sources which show much slower cooling than expected by the classical Spitzer conductive cooling. This finding may also shed a light on the coronal heating problem because weak thermal conductivity implies slower cooling of hot plasma in nanoflares, so increasing the average coronal temperature for the same heating rate. We will discuss the effects of thermal conduction suppression on the wave damping and loop cooling based on MHD simulations.

  10. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SEISMOLOGY OF A CORONAL LOOP SYSTEM BY THE FIRST TWO MODES OF STANDING KINK WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Hao, Q.; Cheng, X.; Chen, P. F.; Ding, M. D.; Erdélyi, R.; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.

    2015-02-01

    We report the observation of the first two harmonics of the horizontally polarized kink waves excited in a coronal loop system lying southeast of AR 11719 on 2013 April 11. The detected periods of the fundamental mode (P {sub 1}), its first overtone (P {sub 2}) in the northern half, and that in the southern one are 530.2 ± 13.3, 300.4 ± 27.7, and 334.7 ± 22.1 s, respectively. The periods of the first overtone in the two halves are the same considering uncertainties in the measurement. We estimate the average electron density, temperature, and length of the loop system as (5.1 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}, 0.65 ± 0.06 MK, and 203.8 ± 13.8 Mm, respectively. As a zeroth-order estimation, the magnetic field strength, B = 8.2 ± 1.0 G, derived by the coronal seismology using the fundamental kink mode matches with that derived by a potential field model. The extrapolation model also shows the asymmetric and nonuniform distribution of the magnetic field along the coronal loop. Using the amplitude profile distributions of both the fundamental mode and its first overtone, we observe that the antinode positions of both the fundamental mode and its first overtone shift toward the weak field region along the coronal loop. The results indicate that the density stratification and the temperature difference effects are larger than the magnetic field variation effect on the period ratio. On the other hand, the magnetic field variation has a greater effect on the eigenfunction of the first overtone than the density stratification does for this case.

  11. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Deschamps, Anne; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Mazabraud, Yves; Delouis, Bertrand; Clouard, Valérie; Hello, Yann; Crozon, Jacques; Marcaillou, Boris; Graindorge, David; Vallée, Martin; Perrot, Julie; Bouin, Marie-Paule; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Charvis, Philippe; St-Louis, Mildor

    2011-11-01

    After the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake, we deployed a mainly offshore temporary network of seismologic stations around the damaged area. The distribution of the recorded aftershocks, together with morphotectonic observations and mainshock analysis, allow us to constrain a complex fault pattern in the area. Almost all of the aftershocks have a N-S compressive mechanism, and not the expected left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. A first-order slip model of the mainshock shows a N264°E north-dipping plane, with a major left-lateral component and a strong reverse component. As the aftershock distribution is sub-parallel and close to the Enriquillo fault, we assume that although the cause of the catastrophe was not a rupture along the Enriquillo fault, this fault had an important role as a mechanical boundary. The azimuth of the focal planes of the aftershocks are parallel to the north-dipping faults of the Transhaitian Belt, which suggests a triggering of failure on these discontinuities. In the western part, the aftershock distribution reflects the triggering of slip on similar faults, and/or, alternatively, of the south-dipping faults, such the Trois-Baies submarine fault. These observations are in agreement with a model of an oblique collision of an indenter of the oceanic crust of the Southern Peninsula and the sedimentary wedge of the Transhaitian Belt: the rupture occurred on a wrench fault at the rheologic boundary on top of the under-thrusting rigid oceanic block, whereas the aftershocks were the result of the relaxation on the hanging wall along pre-existing discontinuities in the frontal part of the Transhaitian Belt.

  12. Results of well-bore flow logging for six water-production wells completed in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Conde R.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last several years, an improved conceptual understanding of the aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, New Mexico, has lead to better knowledge about the location and extent of the aquifer system. This information will aid with the refinement of ground-water simulation and with the location of sites for future water-production wells. With an impeller-type flowmeter, well-bore flow was logged under pumping conditions along the screened interval of the well bore in six City of Albuquerque water-production wells: the Ponderosa 3, Love 6, Volcano Cliffs 1, Gonzales 2, Zamora 2, and Gonzales 3 wells. From each of these six wells, a well-bore flow log was collected that represents the cumulative upward well-bore flow. Evaluation of the well-bore flow log for each well allowed delineation of the more productive zones supplying water to the well along the logged interval. Yields from the more productive zones in the six wells ranged from about 70 to 880 gallons per minute. The lithology of these zones is predominantly gravel and sand with varying amounts of sandy clay.

  13. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  14. Toward a service-oriented e-infrastructure for data mining and data-intensive modeling applications in seismology: the VERCE (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe) initiative.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; van Hemert, Jano

    2010-05-01

    Global and regional seismology monitoring systems are continuously operated and are transmitting a growing wealth of seismological data in Europe and from around the world. This opens exciting opportunities for a large range of geophysical research. The multi-use nature of these data puts a great premium on open-access data archive infrastructures that are well integrated in the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)—an ESFRI initiative of the solid earth community. To exploit the full potential of this cornucopia of data and to guarantee optimal operation and design of the high-cost monitoring facilities, we need to new methods for data visualisation, data analysis and data modelling (imaging/inversion). Recent breakthroughs in theory and data analysis allow every byte of continuous seismological records to be used, extracting for example coherent information contained in background seismic "noise". This enables entirely new and exciting approaches for the imaging of wave sources and structures, the investigations of environmental changes, and the monitoring of volcanic and earthquake hazards. Data integration and data analysis applications are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Enabling advanced data analysis of these data within a well-designed data-aware distributed computing environment is becoming instrumental. Based on a set of data analysis and data modelling application requirements, the VERCE strategy will be presented here. The strategy of VERCE is to provide a comprehensive architecture and framework adapted to the scale and the diversity of these applications. It aims to integrate the community data infrastructure with Grid and HPC infrastructures. The first novel aspect of VERCE is a service-oriented architecture that provides well-equipped workbenches with an efficient communication layer between data and Grid infrastructures, which is augmented with bridges to European HPC facilities. The second novel aspect is the coupling between Grid

  15. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  16. LAPTAG High School Plasma Physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick

    1999-11-01

    Six years ago an alliance of about thirty high schools and community colleges, and the UCLA physics department was initiated. LAPTAG (Los Angeles teachers Alliance Group) started with laboratory tours, a Web based astronomy course and a seismology project funded by the Office of the President of the University of California. Laptag has a website: [ http://coke.physics.ucla.edu/laptag] in which these projects as well as websites of the individual schools may be found. Recently we were funded by DOE to construct a plasma physics laboratory, which will reside at UCLA, but used by the high school teachers and their students. The machine is presently under construction by a team of eight high school teachers under the supervision of UCLA plasma physicists. The plasma will be generated by a helicon source, and then drift into a field free test chamber surrounded by confining permanent magnets. The preliminary experiments will be on ion acoustic waves and the mapping of the p! lasma potential. Presently we are giving the teachers a summer course in plasma Physics after which they will write a laboratory manual and lecture notes for a high school laboratory based course. In some schools this will be offered as part of an "AP" course and at others as a special laboratory. The courses will be taught by the high school teachers and offered this Fall semester. We will present pictures of the device, preliminary data, and course material.

  17. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraò, Angela; Pesaresi, Damiano; Bragato, Pier Luigi; di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton

    2010-05-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake (magnitude M=6.4) occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-east Italy (NI) seismic network: it currently consists of 11 very sensitive broad band and 23 more simple short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 89 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. At OGS-CRS we then adapted existing programs and created new ones like: a customized web-accessible server to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, plus scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time web site has also been recently designed and made operative in the framework of the DPC-INGV S3 Project.

  18. Using seismology to raise science awareness in kindergarten and elementary levels, with the help of high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.; Moreira, G.; Afonso, I. P.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Melo, M. O.; Neto, R. P.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Hartmann, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching students, aged from 4 up to 18 years old, is a challenging task. It continuously implies new strategies and new subjects adapted to all of them. This is even more evident, when we have to teach natural-hazards scientific aspects and safe attitudes toward risk. We often see that most of the high-school students (16 -18 years old) are not motivated for extra-curricular activities implying science and/or behaviours changes. But, they have a very positive response when we give them some responsibility. On top of that, we also realised that young children are quite receptive to the involvement of older students in the school environment Taking this into consideration, our project use the k12 students to prepare scientific activities and subjects, based in questions, which they need to answer themselves. The students need to answer those questions and, only then, adapt and teach the right answers to the different school-levels. With this approach, we challenged the students to solve three questions: How to use a SEP seismometer at school, and its data? How to set up a shaking table? How to introduce waves and vibrations contents to all ages of students? During the project they developed many science skills, and worked in straight cooperation with teachers, the parents association and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz. As a result, it was possible to reach all school students with the help of the k-12 ones. This is an outcome of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  19. Scaling in natural and laboratory earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S. A. F.; Violay, M.; Di Toro, G.; Bistacchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory experiments reproducing seismic slip conditions show extreme frictional weakening due to the activation of lubrication processes. Due to a substantial variability in the details of the weakening transient, generalization of experimental results and comparison to seismic observations have not been possible so far. Here we show that during the weakening, shear stress τ is generally well matched by a power law of slip u in the form τ∝u-α (with 0.35 < α < 0.6). The resulting fracture energy Gf can be approximated by a power law in some aspects in agreement with the seismological estimates G'. It appears that Gf and G' are comparable in the range 0.01 < u < 0.3 m. However, G' surpasses Gf at larger slips: at u≈10 m, G'≈108 and Gf≈106. Possible interpretations of this misfit involve the complexity of damage and weakening mechanisms within mature fault zone structures.

  20. Eagle Pass Jr. High Seismology Team: Strategies for Engaging Middle School "At-Risk" Students in Authentic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, M. R.; Ellins, K. K.; Frohlich, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, during my participation in the NSF-sponsored Texas Earth & Space Science (TXESS) Revolution professional development program, I was awarded an AS-1 seismograph through IRIS's Seismographs in Schools Program. This program serves to create an international educational seismic network that allows teachers across the country and around the world to share seismic data in real-time using online tools, classroom activities, and technical support documents for seismic instruments. Soon after receiving my AS-1, I founded and began sponsoring the Eagle Pass Jr. High Seismology Team which consists of selected 7th and 8th grade students. Eagle Pass Jr. High is a Title 1 school that serves a predominantly "at-risk" Hispanic population. We meet after school once a week to learn about earthquakes, seismic waves, analyze recorded seismic event data using computer software programming, and correspond with other students from schools around the country. This team approach has been well received by fellow TXESS Revolution teachers with AS-1 seismographs and will be implemented by David Boyd, STEM coordinator for Williams Preparatory Academy in Dallas, Texas this fall 2011. All earthquakes recorded by our seismograph station (EPTX), which has remained online and actively recording seismic data since 2008, are catalogued and then plotted on a large world map displayed on my classroom wall. A real-time seismogram image updates every five minutes and along with all earthquakes recorded since installation can be viewed on our webpage http://www.iris.edu/hq/ssn/schools/view/eptx. During the 2010-2011 school year, my seismology team and I participated in an earthquake research study led by Dr. Cliff Frohlich at the Institute for Geophysics. The study examined seismograms and felt reports for the 25 April 2010 Alice, Texas, earthquake, in order to investigate its possible connection to oil and gas production in the Stratton oil and gas field. A research paper detailing our findings

  1. Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-Tien Shan junction zone from seismology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume

  2. Seismological studies of tectonics in the Toba region and in the Banda sea, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi

    By using arrival time data from the Indonesian Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (MGA), International Seismological Center (ISC) and United State Geological Survey (USGS), and the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions of Harvard, I studied the tectonic features in north Sumatra and Banda arc, Indonesia. In north Sumatra, the study was focused on the subducted slab and attenuation beneath Toba---the world's largest Quaternary caldera. In the Banda arc, I studied the unusual shape of the slab where a part of Australian continent has been subducted under the oceanic plate. Toba was formed 75ka, resulting in a caldera of the area of 25km x 100km. The age and area of the caldera suggest that the magma remains partially molten. Seismograms at the stations near the caldera showed that P- and S-waves have been attenuated. This attenuation was studied using both qualitative and quantitative method to locate the magma system. By applying both methods, the results indicate that the magma chamber is shallower than 20km. In Banda area, hypocenters were determined using a combination of local and teleseismic data to reveal the slab geometry. Because a flat-lying slab at 600km depth is unusual, the accuracy of the hypocenters within this slab was studied in more detail. Statistically several hypocenters in this region have been accurately located using probability density functions. The shape of the slab shown by the hypocenter distribution reveals high contortion beneath the Banda sea. The stress distribution revealed from the P,T and B axes of fault plane solutions suggests that the stress field is controlled by both gravity and contortion within the slab. The subduction process in Banda region has changed since the Australian continent plate collided with the Banda arc. Strike slip earthquakes seem to concentrate along the extension of the Terera-Aiduna fault to the southwest in Wetar backarc thrust. I conclude that the extension of Terera-Aiduna fault in the subducted

  3. AlpArray - technical strategies for large-scale European co-operation in broadband seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbourne, A.; Clinton, J.; Hetenyi, G.; Pequegnat, C.; Wilde-Piorko, M.; Villasenor, A.; Comelli, P.; AlpArray Working Group

    2012-04-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 32 institutes in 12 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area, from the Black Forest in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with high-quality broadband seismometers by combining the ~400 existing permanent stations with an additional 400+ instruments from mobile pools. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage while also deploying densely spaced stations along swaths across key parts of the Alpine chain. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. Significant progress has already been made in outlining the scientific goals and funding strategy. A brief overview of these aspects of the initiative will be presented here. However, we will concentrate on the technical aspects: How efficient large-scale integration of existing infrastructures can be achieved. Existing permanent station coverage within the greater Alpine area has been collated and assessed for data availability, allowing strategies to be developed for network densification to ensure a robust backbone network: An anticipated deployment strategy has been drawn up to optimise array coverage and data quality. The augmented backbone network will be supplemented by more densely spaced temporary arrays targeting more specific scientific questions. For these temporary arrays, a strategy document has been produced to outline standards for station installation, data acquisition, processing, archival and dissemination. All these operations are of course vital. However, data

  4. Integrating seismological and tectonic studies to constrain lithospheric evolution at complex plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin Peter

    The relative motion of tectonic plates across their boundaries generates deformation in the surrounding lithosphere. How this deformation is expressed reflects both present-day plate configurations and how plate boundaries evolve. To understand the behavior of plate boundaries, we must study how they have developed. The advances made in seismology over the past fifty years---both in observation and application---provide tools ideal for such analysis. Here, I use these tools to investigate the tectonic evolution of complex plate boundaries. I focus on two areas that have experienced geologically recent plate tectonic variations---the Mendocino triple junction in northern California, and the Australia:Pacific plate boundary south of New Zealand. In northern California, the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction over the past ˜10Ma has driven a synchronous pattern of thickening and thinning of North American crust. In studying this deformation I find major thinning is localized to a narrow region of crust in the Redwood Valley area. This thinning is accompanied by a steeply dipping Moho (>15°), and by high Poisson's Ratio's in the lower crust, characteristic of layers of melt. These melts may link to shallow (˜10km) dike injections that drive a migrating sequence of seismicity in the shallow crust near Lake Pillsbury. The limited data sets available led me to develop new tools in receiver function and crustal velocity ratio analyses that significantly improve our ability to resolve spatial changes in crustal properties. The application of these techniques forms a second major aspect of this thesis. Finally, I analyze the deformation of Australian lithosphere adjacent to the plate boundary south of New Zealand. I perform earthquake relocations on the distribution of intra- and inter-plate seismicity, and combined with plate reconstructions since the late Oligocene show that deformation occurs over a ˜150km wide area west of the current plate boundary

  5. Volcanic unrest leading to the July-August 2001 lateral eruption at Mt. Etna: Seismological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicali, Simona; Barberi, Graziella; Cocina, Ornella; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    mid-level volcanic plumbing system by ascending magma and precursory local stress field reorientations, demonstrating that seismological analysis can be used to detect subtle local stress changes that herald eruptive activity.

  6. ASDF: A New Adaptable Data Format for Seismology Suitable for Large-Scale Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Spinuso, A.; Tromp, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the amounts of available data as well as computational power opens the possibility to tackle ever larger and more complex problems. This comes with a slew of new problems, two of which are the need for a more efficient use of available resources and a sensible organization and storage of the data. Both need to be satisfied in order to properly scale a problem and both are frequent bottlenecks in large seismic inversions using ambient noise or more traditional techniques.We present recent developments and ideas regarding a new data format, named ASDF (Adaptable Seismic Data Format), for all branches of seismology aiding with the aforementioned problems. The key idea is to store all information necessary to fully understand a set of data in a single file. This enables the construction of self-explaining and exchangeable data sets facilitating collaboration on large-scale problems. We incorporate the existing metadata standards FDSN StationXML and QuakeML together with waveform and auxiliary data into a common container based on the HDF5 standard. A further critical component of the format is the storage of provenance information as an extension of W3C PROV, meaning information about the history of the data, assisting with the general problem of reproducibility.Applications of the proposed new format are numerous. In the context of seismic tomography it enables the full description and storage of synthetic waveforms including information about the used model, the solver, the parameters, and other variables that influenced the final waveforms. Furthermore, intermediate products like adjoint sources, cross correlations, and receiver functions can be described and most importantly exchanged with others.Usability and tool support is crucial for any new format to gain acceptance and we additionally present a fully functional implementation of this format based on Python and ObsPy. It offers a convenient way to discover and analyze data sets as well as making

  7. The Seismic Tool-Kit (STK): an open source software for seismology and signal processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    We present an open source software project (GNU public license), named STK: Seismic ToolKit, that is dedicated mainly for seismology and signal processing. The STK project that started in 2007, is hosted by SourceForge.net, and count more than 19 500 downloads at the date of writing. The STK project is composed of two main branches: First, a graphical interface dedicated to signal processing (in the SAC format (SAC_ASCII and SAC_BIN): where the signal can be plotted, zoomed, filtered, integrated, derivated, ... etc. (a large variety of IFR and FIR filter is proposed). The estimation of spectral density of the signal are performed via the Fourier transform, with visualization of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) in linear or log scale, and also the evolutive time-frequency representation (or sonagram). The 3-components signals can be also processed for estimating their polarization properties, either for a given window, or either for evolutive windows along the time. This polarization analysis is useful for extracting the polarized noises, differentiating P waves, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, ... etc. Secondly, a panel of Utilities-Program are proposed for working in a terminal mode, with basic programs for computing azimuth and distance in spherical geometry, inter/auto-correlation, spectral density, time-frequency for an entire directory of signals, focal planes, and main components axis, radiation pattern of P waves, Polarization analysis of different waves (including noize), under/over-sampling the signals, cubic-spline smoothing, and linear/non linear regression analysis of data set. A MINimum library of Linear AlGebra (MIN-LINAG) is also provided for computing the main matrix process like: QR/QL decomposition, Cholesky solve of linear system, finding eigen value/eigen vectors, QR-solve/Eigen-solve of linear equations systems ... etc. STK is developed in C/C++, mainly under Linux OS, and it has been also partially implemented under MS-Windows. Usefull links: http

  8. Application of Stacking Technique in ANA: Method and Practice with PKU Seismological Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Tang, Y.; Ning, J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2010-12-01

    Cross correlation of ambient noise records is now routinely used to get dispersion curve and then do seismic tomography; however little attention has been paid to array techniques. We will present a spacial-stacking method to get high resolution dispersion curves and show practices with the observation data of PKU seismological array. Experiential Green Functions are generally obtained by correlation between two stations, and then the dispersion curves are obtained from the analysis of FTAN. Popular method to get high resolution dispersion curves is using long time records. At the same time, if we want to get effectual signal, the distance between the two stations must be at least 3 times of the longest wavelength. So we need both long time records and appropriate spaced stations. Now we use a new method, special-stacking, which allows shorter observation period and utilizes observations of a group of closely distributed stations to get fine dispersion curves. We correlate observations of every station in the station group with those of a far station, and then stack them together. However we cannot just simply stack them unless the stations in the station group at a circle, of which the center is the far station owing to dispersion characteristics of the Rayleigh waves. Thus we do antidispersion on the observation data of every station in the array, then do stacking. We test the method using the theoretical seismic surface wave records which obtained by qseis06 compiled by Rongjiang Wang both with and without noise. For the cases of three imaginary stations (distance is 1 degree) have the same underground structure and without noise, result is that the center station had the same dispersion with and without spacial-stacking. Then we add noise to the theoretical records. The center station's dispersion curves obtained by our method are much closer to the dispersion curve without noise than contaminated ones. We can see that our method has improved the resolution of

  9. The Showa Sanriku earthquake of 02 March 1933: A global seismological reassessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    After 83 years, the great normal-faulting earthquake of 02 March 1933, which took place off the Japan Trench and produced a devastating tsunami on the Sanriku coast and damaging waves in Hawaii, remains the largest recorded normal-faulting earthquake. This study uses advanced methods to investigate this event using far-field seismological and tsunami data and complements a sister study by Uchida et al. [2015] which used exclusively arrival times at Japanese stations. Our relocation of the mainshock (39.22°N, 144.45°E, with a poorly constrained depth of less than 40 km) places it in the outer trench slope, below a seafloor depth of ˜ 6500 m, in a region of horst-and-graben structure, with fault scarps approximately parallel to the axis of the Japan Trench. Relocated aftershocks show a band of genuine shallow aftershocks parallel to the Japan Trench under the outer-trench slope and a region of post-mainshock events landward of the trench axis that occur over roughly the same latitude range and are thought to be the result of stress transfer to the interplate thrust boundary following the normal-faulting rupture. Based on a combination of P-wave first motions and inversion of surface-wave spectral amplitudes, we propose a normal faulting focal mechanism (φ = 200°, δ = 61°, λ = 271°), and a seismic moment M0 = (7±1) × 1028 dyn*cm (Mw = 8.5). A wide variety of data, including the distribution of isoseismals, the large magnitudes (up to 8.9) proposed by early investigators before the standardization of magnitude scales, estimates of energy-to-moment ratios, and the tentative identification of a T wave at Pasadena (and possibly Riverside), clearly indicate that this seismic source was exceptionally rich in high-frequency wave energy, suggesting a large apparent stress and a sharp rise time, and consistent with the behavior of many smaller shallow normal-faulting earthquakes. Hydrodynamic simulations based on a range of possible sources consistent with the above

  10. A seismological perspective of the shallow magma and hydrothermal systems under Kilauea Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouet, B. A.; Dawson, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    The past 20 years have seen great strides in our understanding of Kilauea Volcano, in large part due to technological developments and improvements in seismological instrumentation, which now allow the surface effects of subterranean volcanic processes to be imaged in unprecedented detail. High-resolution tomography provided an image of 3D velocity anomalies down to a scale of a few hundred meters, providing indirect evidence for the presence of reservoirs under the summit region of Kilauea. A sharper image of a shallow hydrothermal reservoir under Kilauea Caldera was obtained from frequency-slowness analyses of long-period (LP) seismicity recorded on three small-aperture seismic antennas deployed in the summit caldera. Located within the top 500 m below the caldera floor and extending ~0.6 km and ~1 km in the east-west and north-south directions, this hydrothermal reservoir broadly overlaps the east wall of the Halemaumau pit crater. Further evidence of hydrothermal processes within this zone was obtained from a study of a well-recorded LP event, indicating a source mechanism consistent with the resonance of a horizontal steam-filled crack at a depth of ~150 m near the eastern rim of Halemaumau. Recurring very-long-period (VLP) signals originating in the repeated activation of a compact source region near sea level immediately beneath this hydrothermal reservoir have allowed a gradually emerging view of the shallowest segment of the magma transport pathway under the caldera. Further elaboration of our image of the magma pathway structure, made possible through detailed modeling of VLP signals accompanying degassing activity at a new vent formed in Halemaumau in March 2008, points to a dominant dike segment in the form of a nearly vertical east-trending dike. The inferred dike features a ~20° clockwise rotation in strike under the east edge of Halemaumau, where it intersects a sub-vertical north-striking dike. The triple junction made by the intersection of the

  11. Status of the Ocean Bottom Seismology Component of the Cascadia Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, D. R.; Allen, R. M.; Collins, J. A.; Dziak, R. P.; Hooft, E. E.; Livelybrooks, D.; McGuire, J. J.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Tolstoy, M.; Trehu, A. M.; Wilcock, W. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Cascadia Initiative (CI) is an onshore/offshore seismic and geodetic experiment that takes advantage of an Amphibious Array to study questions ranging from megathrust earthquakes to volcanic arc structure to the formation, deformation and hydration of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates. This diverse set of objectives are all components of understanding the overall subduction zone system and require an array that provides high quality data that crosses the shoreline and encompasses relevant plate boundaries. In October 2010, an open community workshop was convened in Portland, Oregon that produced a series of recommendations to maximize the scientific return of the CI and to develop deployment plans for the offshore component of the experiment. The NSF Cascadia Initiative Workshop Report1 presents the scientific objectives of the CI, the resources involved and the community-defined ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment plan. Over its planned 4-year data acquisition period, the offshore portion of the Cascadia Initiative will involve the deployment and recovery of ~280 OBSs at ~160 different sites and a total of about 14 cruises. In addition, the 2010 CI workshop envisioned a significant education and outreach component that would be integrated into the operational plans. The Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET) is a group of scientists who are leading the seagoing expeditions to deploy and recover OBSs and are developing related Education and Outreach modules. The CIET is knowledgeable about the science and operational objectives of the CI, includes individuals with chief scientist experience, ones who have not yet been to sea and representatives from both the EAR and OCE communities. It is anticipated that there will be berths for students, post-docs and other scientists to participate in either deployment or recovery legs, thus providing the seismological community with opportunities to gain valuable experience in planning and carrying out an OBS

  12. How real-time seismological data can be used at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, Antonio; Bobbio, Antonella; Cantore, Luciana; Del Gaudio, Sergio; Elia, Luca; Festa, Gaetano; Lucca, Ernestina; Miranda, Nicola; Orefice, Antonella; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-04-01

    The feasibility and possible implementation of real time-earthquake risk reduction systems focused on the decrease of the building vulnerability and people exposure, are important issues of the EU projects REAKT (Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion) and NERA (Network of European research infrastructures for earthquake risk assessment and mitigation). Both projects aim at developing methodologies based on earthquake forecasting, early-warning and real-time vulnerability systems, to establish best practices for their use for risk mitigation actions. In this framework, it is important to apply real-time mitigation actions to different situations (trains, industries, hospitals, bridges, schools, and so on). For schools, advanced seismic stations are being installed in different European countries, to enable rapid and user-friendly analysis, data modeling and interpretation. All of these activities will be performed by teachers and students. In Italy three high-schools located in the Irpinia region (Southern Italy), and two in the Naples outskirts are involved in such projects. The schools host a strong-motion station which is integrated in the earthquake Early-Warning System (EWS) network deployed along the southern Apenninic chain. Data streams are analyzed in real-time by the software platform PRESToPlus, which provides both threshold based regional and on-site early-warning. The early-warning application for the schools could be defined as 'passive' because they will receive the alert from the PRESToPlus EWS. However, it will be also possible to monitor the ground-shaking really experienced at these sites, so to update the information flowing into the EEW system from the whole network. Educational activities involving both teachers and students are planned for the schools which participate in the early-warning projects. These activities are aimed at providing a basic knowledge about seismology in general, and on seismic early

  13. How real-time seismological data can be used at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantore, L.; Emolo, A.; Festa, G.; Bobbio, A.; Zollo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility and possible implementation of real time-earthquake risk reduction systems focused on the decrease of the building vulnerability and people exposure, are important issues of the EU projects REAKT (Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion) and NERA (Network of European research infrastructures for earthquake risk assessment and mitigation). Both projects aim at developing methodologies based on earthquake forecasting, early-warning and real-time vulnerability systems, to establish best practices for their use for risk mitigation actions. In this framework, it is important to apply real-time mitigation actions to different situations (trains, industries, hospitals, bridges, schools, and so on). For schools, advanced seismic stations are being installed in different European countries, to enable rapid and user-friendly analysis, data modeling and interpretation. All of these activities will be performed by teachers and students. In Italy three high-schools located in the Irpinia region (Southern Italy), and two in the Naples outskirts are involved in such projects. The schools host a strong-motion station which is integrated in the earthquake Early-Warning System (EWS) network deployed along the southern Apenninic chain. Data streams are analyzed in real-time by the software platform PRESToPlus, which provides both threshold based regional and on-site early-warning. The early-warning application for the schools could be defined as 'passive' because they will receive the alert from the PRESToPlus EWS. However, it will be also possible to monitor the ground-shaking really experienced at these sites, so to update the information flowing into the EEW system from the whole network. Educational activities involving both teachers and students are planned for the schools which participate in the early-warning projects. These activities are aimed at providing a basic knowledge about seismology in general, and on seismic early

  14. Real Time Data for Seismology at the IRIS Data Management Center, AN Nsf-Sponsored Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.; Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C.; Weertman, B. R.; Casey, R.; Stromme, S.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    When IRIS was incorporated in 1984, it committed to provide long-term support for the science of seismology. It first upgraded analog networks by installing observatory grade digital seismic recording equipment (by constructing the Global Seismic Network to upgrade the World Wide Standardized Seismographic Network) that became the backbone of the International Federation of Digital Seismic Networks (FDSN), and in 1990 constructed a state-of-the-art data center that would allow free and open access to data to everyone. For the first decade, IRIS leveraged a complicated system of telemetry which laid the foundation for delivering (relatively) high rate and continuous seismic time series data to the IRIS Data Management Center, which was designed to accept data that arrived with highly variable latencies and on many media formats. This meant that science had to often wait until data became complete, which at the time was primarily related to studying earthquakes or similar events. During the 1990's, numerous incremental but small improvements were made to get data into the hands of users with less latency, leveraging dialup, satellite telemetry, and a variety of Internet protocols. But beginning in 2000, the IRIS Data Management Center began the process of accumulating data comprehensively in real time. It was first justified because it eliminated the time-consuming transcription and manual data handling on various media formats, like magnetic tapes, CD's and DVD's. However, the switch to real-time telemetry proved to be a major improvement technologically because it not only simplified data transfer, it opened access to a large volume of previously inaccessible data (local resource limitations), and many networks began willingly providing their geophysical data to the broad research community. It also enabled researchers the ability to process data in different and streamlined ways, by incorporating data directly into workflows and processing packages. Any network on

  15. Significant breakthroughs in monitoring networks of the volcanological and seismological French observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lemarchand, A.; Francois, B.; Bouin, M.; Brenguier, F.; Clouard, V.; Di Muro, A.; Ferrazzini, V.; Shapiro, N.; Staudacher, T.; Kowalski, P.; Agrinier, P.

    2013-12-01

    Others authors: S. Tait (1), D. Amorese (4,1), JB de Chabalier (1), A. Anglade (4,1), P. Kowalski (5,1),the teams in the IPGP Volcanological and Seismological observatories In the last few years, French West Indies observatories, in collaboration with the Seismic Research Center (University of West Indies-Trinidad), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 16 new permanent stations have been installed to strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 21 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, GNSS sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer to the observatories of Trinidad (SRC), Guadeloupe (OVSG), Martinique (OVSM). To improve the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to enhance the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding (D. Kurrle R. Widmer-Schnidrig, 2005) of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120 sec). This renewed network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanism interactions in the Lesser Antilles arc. Since 2010, the UnderVolc research program has been an opportunity to reinforce the existing volcanic seismic network of Piton de la Fournaise on La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). 20 broadband seismometers, 20 short-period sensors, and 26 GNSS receivers now cover the volcano. The program successfully developed many new data treatment tools. They have proven to be well-adapted for monitoring volcanic activity such as the tracking of seismic velocity changes inferred from seismic noise, or the injection of dike and the resulting deformations. This upgrade has now established the monitoring network of La Réunion hot spot to high quality standards which will foster the scientific attractiveness of OVPF-IPGP. During

  16. Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of

  17. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  18. Production seismology: The use of shear waves to monitor and mode production in a poro-reactive and interactive reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Crampin, S.; Zatsepin, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    A new understanding of stressed fluid-saturated porous rock shows that rock responds to small changes in stress, pressure, and other phenomena, by modifying the micro-scale geometry of intergranular microcracks and pores. We show that shear-wave propagation is directly coupled to this internal fluid/rock geometry, so that the micro-scale deformation can be monitored by analyzing the behavior of seismic shear waves. The shear waves carry three-dimensional information and are much more sensitive than P-waves to the possibly-marginal anisotropic changes in reservoirs during hydrocarbon production. These fluid/rock changes can be numerically modeled, and can be monitored in detail by analyzing shear waves along a few appropriate ray paths. Consequently, shear-wave technology could provide a feedback mechanism for production engineers for controlling the progress of production fronts and in the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. In order to implement such techniques, high-frequency shear waves need to be recorded along comparatively short ray paths within the reservoir itself. This a new requirement for seismology which existing exploration technologies cannot meet. Possible techniques for production seismology are suggested.

  19. Long-term accumulation and improvements in seismic event data for