Science.gov

Sample records for alces alces population

  1. Harvest-induced phenotypic selection in an island population of moose, Alces alces.

    PubMed

    Kvalnes, Thomas; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Haanes, Hallvard; Røed, Knut H; Engen, Steinar; Solberg, Erling J

    2016-07-01

    Empirical evidence strongly indicates that human exploitation has frequently led to rapid evolutionary changes in wild populations, yet the mechanisms involved are often poorly understood. Here, we applied a recently developed demographic framework for analyzing selection to data from a 20-year study of a wild population of moose, Alces alces. In this population, a genetic pedigree has been established all the way back to founders. We demonstrate harvest-induced directional selection for delayed birth dates in males and reduced body mass as calf in females. During the study period, birth date was delayed by 0.81 days per year for both sexes, whereas no significant changes occurred in calf body mass. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated that both traits harbored significant additive genetic variance. These results show that selective harvesting can induce strong selection that oppose natural selection. This may cause evolution of less favorable phenotypes that become maladaptive once harvesting ceases.

  2. Population genetic structure of moose (Alces Alces) of South-central Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; McDonough, John T.; Barboza, Perry S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Farley, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    The location of a population can influence its genetic structure and diversity by impacting the degree of isolation and connectivity to other populations. Populations at range margins areoften thought to have less genetic variation and increased genetic structure, and a reduction in genetic diversity can have negative impacts on the health of a population. We explored the genetic diversity and connectivity between 3 peripheral populations of moose (Alces alces) with differing potential for connectivity to other areas within interior Alaska. Populations on the Kenai Peninsula and from the Anchorage region were found to be significantly differentiated (FST= 0.071, P < 0.0001) with lower levels of genetic diversity observed within the Kenai population. Bayesian analyses employing assignment methodologies uncovered little evidence of contemporary gene flow between Anchorage and Kenai, suggesting regional isolation. Although gene flow outside the peninsula is restricted, high levels of gene flow were detected within the Kenai that is explained by male-biased dispersal. Furthermore, gene flow estimates differed across time scales on the Kenai Peninsula which may have been influenced by demographic fluctuations correlated, at least in part, with habitat change.

  3. Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces): Late Pleistocene divergence and population expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hundertmark, Kris J.; Shields, Gerald F.; Udina, Irina G.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Danilkin, Alexei A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    We examined phylogeographic relationships of moose (Alces alces) worldwide to test the proposed existence of two geographic races and to infer the timing and extent of demographic processes underpinning the expansion of this species across the Northern Hemisphere in the late Pleistocene. Sequence variation within the left hypervariable domain of the control region occurred at low or moderate levels worldwide and was structured geographically. Partitioning of genetic variance among regions indicated that isolation by distance was the primary agent for differentiation of moose populations but does not support the existence of distinct eastern and western races. Levels of genetic variation and structure of phylogenetic trees identify Asia as the origin of all extant mitochondrial lineages. A recent coalescence is indicated, with the most recent common ancestor dating to the last ice age. Moose have undergone two episodes of population expansion, likely corresponding to the final interstade of the most recent ice age and the onset of the current interglacial. Timing of expansion for the population in the Yakutia–Manchuria region of eastern Asia indicates that it is one of the oldest populations of moose and may represent the source of founders of extant populations in North America, which were colonized within the last 15,000 years. Our data suggest an extended period of low population size or a severe bottleneck prior to the divergence and expansion of extant lineages and a recent, less-severe bottleneck among European lineages. Climate change during the last ice age, acting through contraction and expansion of moose habitat and the flooding of the Bering land bridge, undoubtedly was a key factor influencing the divergence and expansion of moose populations.

  4. Winter body condition of moose (Alces alces) in a declining population in northeastern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    DelGiudice, Glenn D; Sampson, Barry A; Lenarz, Mark S; Schrage, Michael W; Edwards, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of the condition of moose (Alces alces) may be particularly informative to understanding the dynamics of populations and other influential factors. During February-March 2003 to 2005, we assessed the nutritional condition of 79 moose (39 females, 40 males) in northeastern Minnesota by body condition scoring (BCS(F), scale of 0-10); 67 of these by were assessed by ultrasonographic measurements of rump fat (Maxfat), which was used to estimate ingesta-free body fat (IFBF) in all but two of the females. Scores of the BCS(F) were related (r(2)=0.34, P<0.0001) to Maxfat. Body condition scores were not affected by sex × capture-year, capture-year, or age-at-capture, but the mean body condition score of males (6.5 ± 0.2 [SE], n=40) was less (P ≤ 0.009) than that of females (7.4 ± 0.2, n=39). Overall, Maxfat ranged from 0.0 to 4.6 and 0.3 to 2.8 cm in females and males, respectively, and was unaffected by age-at-capture. There was a sex×capture-year effect (P=0.021) on Maxfat; mean values were stable for males during the winters of 2003 to 2005 but in females were lowest during 2003, consistent with the lowest pregnancy rates and lowest winter and spring survival compared to 2004 and 2005. Based on estimates of percent IFBF, late winter-early spring survival in 2003 of at least 11% of the collared animals assessed by Maxfat, 21% of the adult females, specifically, may have been seriously challenged directly by poor condition. Data from this study provide reference values and assessments of body condition of moose that will be an essential component of the additional, comprehensive research needed to better understand the influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the performance of this viable, but declining, population. For future research, we will concentrate on developing a more-reliable BCS which would allow IFBF estimation once rump fat is depleted.

  5. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ussurian moose, Alces alces cameloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun

    2016-11-01

    Ussurian moose (Alces alces cameloides) in Northeast China, which is on the southmost edge of the species' Eurasian range, are facing dramatic decline in population size and distribution areas. We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Ussurian moose, which is thought as the oldest moose subspecies to better understand the evolutionary history of this circumboreal sole extant species. The mitogenome is 16,418 bp in length, consisting of two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region. The overall base composition is A: 33.7%, T: 30.1%, C: 23.2%, and G: 13.0%, with a much higher A + T content. The phylogenetic tree of moose and 10 other most closely related Cervidae species was built.

  7. Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hundertmark, Kris J.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Shields, Gerald F.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide variation was assessed from the mitochondrial control region of North American moose (Alces alces) to test predictions of a model of range expansion by stepping-stone dispersal and to determine whether patterns of genetic variation support the current recognition of 4 subspecies. Haplotypes formed a star phylogeny indicative of a recent expansion of populations. Values of nucleotide and haplotype diversity were low continentwide but were greatest in the central part of the continent and lowest in peripheral populations. Despite low mitochondrial diversity, moose exhibited a high degree of differentiation regionally, which was not explained by isolation by distance. Our data indicate a pattern of colonization consistent with a large central population that supplied founders to peripheral populations (other than Alaska), perhaps through rare, long-distance dispersal events (leptokurtic dispersal) rather than mass dispersal by a stepping-stone model. The colonization scenario does not account for the low haplotype diversity observed in Alaska, which may be derived from a postcolonization bottleneck. Establishment of peripheral populations by leptokurtic dispersal and subsequent local adaptation may have been sufficient for development of morphological differentiation among extant subspecies.

  8. Internal parasitic fauna of elk (Alces alces) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filip, Katarzyna J; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of elk (Alces alces) in Poland at the beginning of 2016 reached over 28 000 individual animals. However, little is still known about health status of elk population in the country. In particular, important health issue tend to be parasitic diseases which are the most common diseases in wild animals. Special emphasis should be given to the parasitofauna of elks. Their ability to move over great distances increases the chance of parasitic infestations in new areas and transmission to other wild animals and livestock. The aim of this article is to describe the parasites occurring in elk in Poland on the basis of previous studies from the country and to compare them with data from neighboring countries. The presented review reveals that elk populations have not been examined for the presence of parasites for decades, and no recent studies in Poland have examined the parasitofauna of this animal. As such, our study shows that assessing the parasites present in elk populations remains an important area of research.

  9. [The role of the Urals in the genetic diversity of the European moose subspecies (Alces alces alces)].

    PubMed

    Kholodova, M V; Korytin, N S; Bol'shakov, V N

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the Uralian moose population and the role of the Ural region in the phylogeographic structure of the European moose were evaluated based on sequence polymorphisms of the mtDNA control region. The nucleotide diversity of the Ural moose was low, whereas haplotype diversity was rather high. It was found that the haplotype pool of the Ural moose reflects both the unique features of their mitochondrial lineages and their connection with Alces alces alces populations of Europe and West Siberia. The structure of median networks and the territorial haplotype distribution support the hypothesis that the mitochondrial lineages typical for this part of the European moose area originate from a late Pleistocene refugium that was located in the Urals.

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway.

  11. A geographical cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in Moose (Alces alces)in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008 – February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA (n=3) and typical histopathological lesions (n=1). To...

  12. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K.; Childress, April L.; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2015-01-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans. PMID:26246636

  13. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rostal, Melinda K; Evans, Alina L; Solberg, Erling J; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-07-01

    Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces alces) adults, yearlings, and calves in Norway sampled from 1992-2000. Additionally, we demonstrated that both induction time and chase time were correlated with initial rectal temperature, although they were not significantly correlated with cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, or creatine kinase. Overall, the reference ranges given here are similar to those given for American moose, with a few differences that can be attributed to environment, testing methodology, or subspecies or species status. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of reference ranges for moose in Norway.

  14. Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Wild Amur Moose (Alces alces cameloides).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanze; Feng, Yuan; Wang, Hongcheng; Yang, Yong; Duan, Yubao; Zhou, Zhengyan; Zhang, Minghai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mt DNA) of Amur Moose (Alces alces cameloides) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male Amur moose. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,305 bp. The genome structure of Amur moose is similar to other moose and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  16. Serosurvey for antibodies against Salmonella species in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) from Norway.

    PubMed

    Aschfalk, Ansgar; Hundertmark, Kris J; Bendiksen, Heidi R; Arnemo, Jon M; Denzin, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    An indirect ELISA was developed as a tool for surveillance of antibodies against Salmonella sp. in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Norway. Serum samples from 303 clinically healthy moose sampled between 1993-2000 were examined. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were detected in samples from 6 individuals (1.98%). This is the first evidence of Salmonella-seropositive free-ranging moose. Possible sources and transmission routes of Salmonella comprising environment, wildlife and man are discussed.

  17. The occurrence and morphology of a lateral metatarsal splint bone in moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Silvia, William J; Peterson, Rolf O; Silvia, William F; Vucetich, John A; Silvia, Alexander W

    2011-02-01

    Moose (Alces alces) appear to be different from most other cervids in that a well-developed metatarsal splint bone is present. It is found apposed to the plantolateral portion of the cannon bone in over 70 % of adults. It averages 3.3 mm in width and extends about 22% of the total length of the metatarsal. It may be derived through calcification of connective tissue or by elongation of the vestigial metatarsal V.

  18. A genetic discontinuity in moose (Alces alces) in Alaska corresponds with fenced transportation infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Farley, Sean D.; McDonough, Thomas J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Barboza, Perry S.

    2015-01-01

    The strength and arrangement of movement barriers can impact the connectivity among habitat patches. Anthropogenic barriers (e.g. roads) are a source of habitat fragmentation that can disrupt these resource networks and can have an influence on the spatial genetic structure of populations. Using microsatellite data, we evaluated whether observed genetic structure of moose (Alces alces) populations were associated with human activities (e.g. roads) in the urban habitat of Anchorage and rural habitat on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. We found evidence of a recent genetic subdivision among moose in Anchorage that corresponds to a major highway and associated infrastructure. This subdivision is most likely due to restrictions in gene flow due to alterations to the highway (e.g. moose-resistant fencing with one-way gates) and a significant increase in traffic volume over the past 30 years; genetic subdivision was not detected on the Kenai Peninsula in an area not bisected by a major highway. This study illustrates that anthropogenic barriers can substructure wildlife populations within a few generations and highlights the value of genetic assessments to determine the effects on connectivity among habitat patches in conjunction with behavioral and ecological data..

  19. A geographic cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Turid; Klevar, Siv; Li, Hong; Hauge, Anna Germundsson

    2015-04-01

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008-February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) DNA (n = 3) and typical histopathologic lesions (n = 1). To study the possibility of subclinical or latent MCF virus (MCFV) infection in this moose population and in red deer (Cervus elaphus), we examined clinically normal animals sampled during hunting in Lesja 2010 by serology and PCR. Sera from 63 moose and 33 red deer were tested for antibodies against MCFV by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To test for MCFVs, a consensus PCR for herpesviral DNA was run on spleen samples from 23 moose and 17 red deer. All samples were antibody and PCR negative. Thus, there is no evidence of previous exposure, subclinical infection, or latent infection in this sample. This seasonal cluster of SA-MCF cases (2008-10) may be attributable to exposure of moose to lambs when OvHV-2 shedding is presumed to be maximal, compounded by an unusual extended grazing period by sheep in the autumn.

  20. Effects of simulated moose Alces alces browsing on the morphology of rowan Sorbus aucuparia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, N.R.D.; Pastor, J.

    2010-01-01

    In much of northern Sweden moose Alces alces browse rowan Sorbus aucuparia heavily and commonly revisit previously browsed plants. Repeated browsing of rowan by moose has created some concern for its long-term survival in heavily browsed areas. We therefore measured how four years of simulated moose browsing at four population densities (0, 10, 30 and 50 moose/1,000 ha) changed plant height, crown width, available bite mass, the number of bites per plant and per plant forage biomass of rowan saplings. Increased biomass removal led to a significant decline in plant height (P < 0.001), but a significant increase in the number of bites per plant (P = 0.012). Increases in the number of bites per plant more than compensated for weak decreases in bite mass, leading to a weak increase in per plant forage biomass (P = 0.072). With the decline in plant height and increase in the number of stems per plant, a greater number of bites remain within the height reach of moose relative to unbrowsed controls. Moose therefore stand to benefit from revisiting previously browsed plants, which may result in feeding loops between moose and previously browsed rowan saplings. ?? 2010 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  1. Insight into the bacterial gut microbiome of the North American moose (Alces alces)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The work presented here provides the first intensive insight into the bacterial populations in the digestive tract of the North American moose (Alces alces). Eight free-range moose on natural pasture were sampled, producing eight rumen samples and six colon samples. Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose. Results A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis, which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families. Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples. The Firmicutes were the most dominant bacteria phylum in both the rumen and the colon. Microarray data available at ArrayExpress, accession number E-MEXP-3721. Conclusions Using PhyloTrac and UniFrac computer software, samples clustered into two distinct groups: rumen and colon, confirming that the rumen and colon are distinct environments. There was an apparent correlation of age to cluster, which will be validated by a larger sample size in future studies, but there were no detectable trends based upon gender. PMID:22992344

  2. The alc-GR system: a modified alc gene switch designed for use in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gethin R; Garoosi, G Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J; Caddick, Mark X; Doonan, John H; Tomsett, A Brian

    2005-07-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: beta-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants.

  3. Complex patterns of population genetic structure of moose, Alces alces, after recent spatial expansion in Poland revealed by sex-linked markers.

    PubMed

    Swisłocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Danyłow, Jan; Owadowska-Cornil, Edyta; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, human activity directly and indirectly influenced the demography of moose in Poland. The species was close to extinction, and only a few isolated populations survived after the Second World War; then, unprecedented demographic and spatial expansions had occurred, possibly generating a very complex pattern of population genetic structure at the present-day margins of the species range in Poland. Over 370 moose from seven populations were collected from Poland, and partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-cr; 607 bp) were obtained. In addition, the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) and Y-chromosome markers (1,982 bp in total) were studied in a chosen set of individuals. Twelve mtDNA haplotypes that all belonged to the European moose phylogroup were recorded. They could be divided into two distinct clades: Central Europe and the Ural Mountains. The first clade consists of three distinct groups/branches: Biebrza, Polesie, and Fennoscandia. The Biebrza group has experienced spatial and demographic expansion in the recent past. Average genetic differentiation among moose populations in Poland at mtDNA-cr was great and significant (ΦST = 0.407, p < 0.001). Using mtDNA-cr data, four separate groups of population were recognized using spatial analysis of molecular variance and principal coordinate analysis, including a relict population in Biebrza National Park, a reintroduced Kampinos National Park population, as well as populations that were descendants of moose that colonized Poland from the east (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine) and the north (former East Prussia). Among all the sequenced Y-chromosome markers, polymorphisms were found in the DBY14 marker in three populations only; four haplotypes were recorded in total. No significant differentiation was detected for this Y-linked marker among moose populations in Poland. Our mtDNA study revealed that a variety of different factors-bottleneck, the presence of

  4. Reproductive failure in moose (Alces alces) due to embryonic mortality and unfertilized oocytes.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Jonas; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on reproductive success is vital for successful management of large ungulates and is often measured by means of observing surviving offspring. In harvested ungulates, postmortem investigations of reproductive organs are used to estimate reproductive potential by obtaining ovulation rates and fetus numbers. However, there are differences in numbers of offspring observed, fetal/embryo counts, and ovulation rates. We hypothesize that the discrepancy between estimated reproductive potential and reproductive outcome in large ungulates is not only due to ova loss but also due to embryonic mortality. We investigated reproductive status in early pregnancy by sampling hunter-harvested moose (Alces alces) in southern Sweden from 2007 to 2011. In all, 213 reproductive organs were examined postmortem, and in confirmed pregnant moose (n = 53), 25 % (19 of 76) embryos were nonviable and 6 % of ova was unfertilized. The discrepancy between the ovulation rate of all pregnant moose (1.49) and the number of expected offspring per pregnant female, when embryonic mortality and unfertilized oocytes were accounted for (1.08), was 27.5 %. An association between inflammation of the inner mucous membrane (endometritis) of the moose's uterus and embryonic mortality was observed. This is the first comprehensive report of embryonic mortality and endometritis in moose. The observed discrepancy between ovulation rates and early embryonic development/survival shows that ovulation rates are indicative but not accurate estimates of moose reproductive rate. The use of ovulation rates as a sole estimator of future offspring rates may lead to an overharvest of a managed moose population.

  5. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum.

  6. Postmortal radiographic diagnosis of laminitis in a captive European moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Keller, A; Peemöller, A; Nygrén, K; Hatt, J-M; Nuss, K

    2009-11-01

    A five year-old bull moose (Alces alces) was culled due to chronic hoof overgrowth that required frequent intervention. Radiographic examination revealed changes in phalangeal bone structure usually considered indicative for laminitis in domestic cattle; similar changes were absent in the hooves of a free-ranging moose of similar age. The captive animal had been maintained in exhibits whose flooring were much harder than the soil in natural moose habitat, and on a diet with a high proportion of easily fermentable carbohydrates. These findings indicate that chronic laminitis should be considered as a potential underlying factor for hoof overgrowth, and that measures aimed at reducing the incidence of laminitis in domestic cattle, such as the use of softer flooring and diets with a higher proportion of fibre, might have prophylactic potential in captive wild ruminants.

  7. Antler stiffness in moose (Alces alces): correlated evolution of bone function and material properties?

    PubMed

    Blob, Richard W; Snelgrove, Jason M

    2006-09-01

    The material properties of bone can vary considerably among skeletal elements from different parts of the body that serve different functions. However, functional demands placed on a specific type of skeletal element also can vary at a variety of scales, such as between different parts of the element, among individuals of a species, and across species. Variation in bone material properties might be correlated with differing functional demands at any of these scales. In this study we performed three-point bending tests on bone specimens extracted from antlers of moose (Alces alces) to test for three types of variation in bone material stiffness (Young's modulus): within the antler structure, between populations of moose, and between moose and other deer species. Because superficial portions of the antler are exposed to greater bending stress and strain than deeper portions, and because the antler beam (the basal shaft that attaches to the skull) is subjected to greater bending moments than more distal parts of the antler, we predicted that superficial bone and bone from the beam would be stiffer than bone from other parts of the antler. Instead, we identified no significant differences in these comparisons. There were also no significant differences in antler stiffness between moose from Michigan and the Yukon, even though the rapid growth required of antlers from northern latitudes like the Yukon has the potential to compromise bone material properties. However, moose have significantly stiffer antlers (11.6 +/- 0.45 GPa, mean +/- SE) than any other deer in the odocoileine lineage. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions of the evolution of antler stiffness in deer indicate a strong potential that high antler stiffness is a derived feature of moose. The unusual palmate shape of moose antlers likely subjects their antler beams to higher bending moments than found in other odocoileines, a factor that may have contributed to the evolutionary divergence of moose antler

  8. Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces): the first report in Europe.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bozena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Reiterová, Katarína; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-02-01

    Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. It is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in moose (Alces alces Linnaeus). Blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern Poland were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by agglutination test (NAT), a commercial competitive screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by western blot (WB) analysis to verify the presence of antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in one of seven moose. The antibody titer was confirmed by NAT (1 : 1 280), cELISA (I = 91%) and ELISA (OD = 0.736). The main immunodominant antigens detected by WB were 120, 70, 55, 35 and 16 kDa proteins. This is the first evidence of N. caninum seropositivity in moose living in a natural environment in Europe.

  9. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTIONS IN MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) IN FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-04-28

    Moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Finland are heavily infested with deer keds, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboschidae). The deer ked, which carries species of the genus Bartonella, has been proposed as a vector for the transmission of bartonellae to animals and humans. Previously, bartonella DNA was found in deer keds as well as in moose blood collected in Finland. We investigated the prevalence and molecular diversity of Bartonella spp. infection from blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. Given that the deer ked is not present in northernmost Finland, we also investigated whether there were geographic differences in the prevalence of bartonella infection in moose. The overall prevalence of bartonella infection was 72.9% (108/148). Geographically, the prevalence was highest in the south (90.6%) and lowest in the north (55.9%). At least two species of bartonellae were identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between bartonella infection and either age or sex; however, moose from outside the deer ked zone were significantly less likely to be infected (P<0.015) than were moose hunted within the deer ked zone.

  10. Gastrointestinal nematodes of moose (Alces alces) in relation to supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Milner, Jos M; Wedul, Sari J; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Winter supplementary feeding of wildlife is controversial because it may promote parasite and disease transmission by host aggregation. We investigated the effect of winter supplemental feeding of Scandinavian moose (Alces alces) on gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection in two counties of southern Norway by comparing fecal egg counts of moose using, and not using, feeding stations between January 2007 and March 2010. We identified three different GI nematodes based on egg morphology. All three were found in Hedmark county while in Telemark county we found only Trichuris sp. (prevalence 33%). Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae (65%) and Nematodirus sp. (26%) in Hedmark was not affected by feeding station use. However, the probability of infection varied significantly between years sampled (Trichostrongylidae) and age class (Nematodirus sp.). Fecal egg counts (FEC), a proxy for intensity of infection, of Trichostrongylidae were higher in the year when winter weather conditions were more challenging and prevalence was higher, and decreased with increasing body mass. Adult moose had higher FECs than did juvenile moose, and female juveniles had lower abundances than did male juveniles. Use of feeding stations did not affect probability of infection with any of the nematodes or intensity of infection with Trichostrongylidae. We discuss our findings in terms of parasite life histories and recommend that parasitologic surveillance be included in the monitoring of feeding programs.

  11. Short-term digestible energy intake in captive moose (Alces alces) on different diets.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Kohlschein, Gina-Marie; Peemöller, Andreas; Hummel, Jürgen; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) are regularly described as problematic animals in captivity, mainly because of their particular digestive physiology and resulting feeding demands. According to the literature, moose regularly reject non-browse forages offered in captivity, which may indirectly lead to an overproportional ingestion of easily digestible feeds and thus chronic acidosis, which may in turn be the cause of their low life expectancy in captivity. By feeding experiments in four animals, this study aimed at testing whether maintaining moose on roughage-only diets appears feasible. The diets used consisted of the typical zoo ration with mixed feeds (including alfalfa hay), and exclusive diets of alfalfa hay, combinations of alfalfa hay and grass hay, alfalfa hay and grass hay and dried browse leaves, and dried browse leaves only. Whereas results confirmed that moose do not ingest grass hay in relevant amounts, digestible energy (DE) intake on alfalfa hay was, at 0.67 ± 0.15 DE MJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), above the estimated maintenance requirement of 0.6, and higher on the browse diets. At least for short-time periods, results contradict previous reports in the literature that alfalfa hay only is not a suitable maintenance diet for moose. At the same time the results promote feeding moose in captivity forage-based diets.

  12. Bartonella infections in deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) and moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Ytrehus, Bjørnar

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals.

  13. Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, Aleksija S; Hill, Janet E; Jardine, Claire M; Bollinger, Trent K

    2009-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a sporadic disease of artiodactyls caused by several viruses in the Gammaherpesvirinae. We report two cases of MCF in free-living moose (Alces alces) from Saskatchewan. One was a thin, dehydrated, adult male found recumbent in 2006. At necropsy, ulcers were found in the intestine, bladder, and corneas. Microscopically, there was lymphocytic vasculitis and perivasculitis in many organs with infrequent fibrinoid necrosis. Ovine herpes virus-2 (OHV-2) was identified by polymerase chain reaction. A segment of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene was 99% identical to published OHV-2 sequences. During a retrospective search of earlier cases, a female moose with lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis examined in 2003 was identified and OHV-2 was amplified from paraffin-embedded tissues from this animal. We believe this to be the first description of MCF in free-ranging moose in North America. Infection requires contact with infected sheep or goats, and MCF in moose may become more prevalent as moose distribution continues to expand into agricultural prairie.

  14. Hair-loss epizootic in moose (Alces alces) associated with massive deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation.

    PubMed

    Madslien, Knut; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Vikøren, Turid; Malmsten, Jonas; Isaksen, Ketil; Hygen, Hans Olav; Solberg, Erling J

    2011-10-01

    Deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) are blood-sucking flies in the family Hippoboscidae; moose (Alces alces) are their main host in Scandinavia. There are no detailed reports of the negative impacts of deer keds on moose. In 2006 and 2007, hunters in southeastern Norway and midwestern Sweden found several moose cadavers with severe alopecia; numerous moose had extensive hair loss. Between February 2006 and June 2007, materials from 23 moose were submitted for laboratory examination and large numbers of deer keds were found in the coat of most animals. The body condition of the moose varied but was poor in animals with severe alopecia. The findings of enormous numbers of deer keds in the coat of the majority of the affected animals and a consistent histologic image (acute to chronic, multifocal to coalescing, eosinophilic to lymphocytic dermatitis), concurrent with the absence of any other lesions, trace element deficiencies, or dermal infections which are known to cause alopecia, suggest that the hair-loss epizootic was linked to massive infestations with deer keds. The emergence of this hair-loss syndrome implies that the dynamics between parasite and host have been disrupted by a currently unknown environmental or ecological factor. A high moose density, combined with extraordinarily mild weather June 2006-June 2007 and a particularly long period with the absence of night-frost in autumn of 2006, may have been ideal for deer ked development, survival, and optimal host acquisition.

  15. The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway.

    PubMed

    Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas

    2016-04-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose.

  16. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) are definitive hosts of Sarcocystis alces and Sarcocystis hjorti from moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether foxes might act as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis alces in moose. In 2 experiments, 6 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 6 blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) were fed muscle tissue from moose containing numerous sarcocysts of S. alces, and euthanazed 7-28 days post-infection (p.i.). Intestinal mucosal scrapings and faecal samples were screened microscopically for Sarcocystis oocysts/sporocysts, which were identified to species by means of species-specific primers and sequence analysis targeting the ssu rRNA gene. All foxes in both experiments became infected with Sarcocystis; the oocysts were fully sporulated by 14 days p.i., containing sporocysts measuring 14-15 x 10 microm. Molecular identification revealed that the oocysts/sporocysts belonged to 2 species, S. alces and Sarcocystis hjorti, although sarcocysts of S. hjorti were only identified in moose subsequent to the infection of foxes. In the first experiment, all 8 foxes also became infected with a Hammondia sp. derived from moose, shedding unsporulated, subspherical oocysts, measuring 10-12 microm in diameter, from 6-7 days p.i. onwards. The study proved that canids (the red fox and arctic fox) are definitive hosts for S. alces and S. hjorti, as had been inferred from the phylogenetic position of these species.

  17. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L)

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Annika M.; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Krizsan, Sophie J.; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose’s self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  18. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L).

    PubMed

    Felton, Annika M; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Krizsan, Sophie J; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose's self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality.

  19. Parasitism of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, on the moose, Alces alces, in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, T; Mustonen, A-M; Roininen, H; Niemelä, P; Ruusila, V; Nieminen, P

    2010-12-01

    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi L. (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is an ectoparasitic fly that spread to Finland in the early 1960s from the southeast across the Soviet border. It is currently a common parasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), in the southern part of the country and its area of distribution is gradually spreading to Finnish Lapland, where it will come into contact with another potential cervid host, the semi-domesticated reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of deer ked parasitism on the moose in eastern Finland. Whole skins of 23 moose were examined for the presence of deer keds, which were extracted and their total numbers estimated. The intensity of deer ked parasitism was correlated to the age, sex, skin area and anatomical region of the host. Bulls had the highest total number of keds (10616 ± 1375) and the highest deer ked density (35.7 ± 4.4 keds/dm(2) of skin). Cows had a higher total number of keds than calves (3549 ± 587 vs. 1730 ± 191), but ked densities on cows and calves were roughly equal (11.8 ± 1.7 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 keds/dm(2) of skin). The density of keds was highest on the anterior back, followed by the posterior back, front limbs, abdomen, head and hind limbs. The sex ratio of deer keds was close to equal (male : female, 1.0 : 1.1). After they had consumed blood, male keds were heavier than females. As the total numbers and densities of deer keds were higher than reported previously on moose or for any other louse fly species, the effects of parasitism on the health of the host species should be determined.

  20. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Jonas; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Björkman, Camilla

    2011-05-11

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans.

  1. Potential Vertical Transmission of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) from Moose (Alces americanus) Dams to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Severud, William J; DelGiudice, Glenn D

    2016-01-01

    North American moose (Alces americanus) frequently become infested with winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus). During capture of neonatal moose in northeastern Minnesota, US, in May-June 2013 and 2014, we recovered adult ticks from neonates, presumably vertically transferred from dams, heretofore, not documented. Infestations on neonates may have population-level implications.

  2. Structural inheritance and difference between Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3 under pressure from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing-He; Du, An; Yang, Ze-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The structural inheritance and difference between Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3 under pressure from first principles are studied. The results indicate that the lattice parameter a are almost the same within Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3, and the value of c in Ti5Al2C3 is the sum of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 which is revealed by the covalently bonded chain in the electron density difference: Al-Ti-C-Ti-Al for Ti2AlC, Al-Ti2-C-Ti1-C-Ti2-Al for Ti3AlC2 and Al-Ti3-C2-Ti3-Al-Ti2-C1-Ti1-C1-Ti2-Al for Ti5Al2C3. The calculated axial compressibilities, volumetric shrinkage, elastic constant c11, c33/c11 ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus of Ti5Al2C3 are within the range of the end members (Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2) in a wide pressure range of 0-100 GPa. Only Ti2AlC is isotropic crystal at about 50 GPa within the Ti-Al-C compounds. All of the Ti 3d density of states curves of the three compounds move from lower energy to higher energy level with pressure increasing. The similarities of respective bond length, bond overlap population (Ti-C, Ti-Al and Ti-Ti), atom Mulliken charges under pressure as well as the electron density difference for the three compounds are discovered. Among the Ti-Al-C ternary compounds, Ti-Ti bond behaves least compressibility, whereas the Ti-Al bond is softer than that of Ti-C bonds, which can also been confirmed by the density of states and electron density difference. Bond overlap populations of Ti-Ti, Ti-C and Ti-Al indicate that the ionicity interaction becomes more and more stronger in the three structures as the pressure increasing. Mulliken charges of Ti1, Ti2, Ti3, C and Al are 0.65, 0.42, 0.39, ‑0.73, ‑0.04 at 0 GPa, respectively, which are consistent with the Pauling scale.

  3. Age structure of moose (Alces alces) killed by gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1967-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nelson, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The age structure of Moose (Alces alces) killed by gray Wolves (Canis lupus) is available from only two national parks in the united States where hunting by people is not allowed and from three areas in Alaska where Moose are hunted (Mech 1966; Peterson et al.1984; Ballard et al. 1987; Mech et al. 1998). The samples of Moose killed by gray Wolves from each hunted area are relatively small (47–117), given that Moose live to 20 or more years (Passmore et al. 1955). This article adds age data from another 77 Moose killed by gray Wolves from a fourth (lightly) human-hunted area and assesses the age structure of all the samples.

  4. Morphological and molecular characteristics of four Sarcocystis spp. in Canadian moose (Alces alces), including Sarcocystis taeniata n. sp.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2014-04-01

    Individual sarcocysts were isolated from fresh or alcohol-fixed muscle samples of two moose from Alberta, Canada, and examined by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular methods, comprising polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the complete18S rRNA gene and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). By LM, four sarcocyst types were recognized, and the sequencing results showed that each type represented a distinct species, i.e. Sarcocystis alces, Sarcocystis alceslatrans, Sarcocystis ovalis and Sarcocystis taeniata n. sp. The finding of S. alceslatrans and S. ovalis has been reported briefly previously, but further details are provided here, including the ultrastructure of sarcoysts of S. alceslatrans as seen by SEM. The species S. alces was found for the first time in Canadian moose, whereas the finding of S. taeniata is the first record of this species in any host. The sarcocysts of S. taeniata were sac-like and about 1,000-1,100 × 60-80 μm in size. By LM, the cysts had a thin and smooth wall with no visible protrusions, whereas SEM revealed that the cyst surface had sparsely but regularly distributed, thin ribbon-like protrusions, about 2 μm long and 0.2 μm wide, lying flat against the surface and leaving most of the cyst surface naked. Similar protrusions have previously been reported from Sarcocystis grueneri in reindeer, which was found by sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses to be the species most closely related to S. taeniata. The phylogenetic analyses further suggested that S. taeniata, like S. alces and S. alceslatrans, use canids as definitive hosts, whereas corvid birds are known definitive hosts for S. ovalis. In contrast to the three other species found, S. taeniata displayed considerable intra-specific and intra-isolate sequence variation (substitutions, insertions/deletions) in certain regions of the 18S rRNA gene.

  5. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Application for Temporary Employment Certification the following: (1) The name and location of each fixed-site... employment in which the fixed-site employer(s) to whom an H-2ALC is furnishing employees will be utilizing... dates when the H-2ALC will be providing the workers to each fixed site, and a description of the...

  6. Control of interfaces in Al-C fibre composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrier, S. G.; Blue, C. A.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The interface of Al-C fiber composite was modified by coating a silver layer on the surface of carbon fibres prior to making composites, in an attempt to improve the wettability between molten aluminum and carbon fibers during infiltration. An electroless plating technique was adopted and perfected to provide a homogeneous silver coating on the carbon fiber surface. Al-C fiber composites were prepared using a liquid infiltration technique in a vacuum. It was found that silver coating promoted the wetting between aluminum and carbon fibers, particularly with polyacrylonitrile-base carbon fibers. However, due to rapid dissolution of silver in molten aluminum, it was believed that the improved infiltration was not due to the wetting behavior between molten aluminum and silver. The cleaning of the fiber surface and the preservation of the cleaned carbon surface with silver coating was considered to be the prime reason for the improved wettability. Interfacial reactions between aluminum and carbon fibers were observed. Amorphous carbon was found to react more with aluminum than graphitic carbon. This is believed to be because of the inertness of the graphitic basal planes.

  7. Analysis of the alcABC operon encoding alcaligin biosynthesis enzymes in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Giardina, P C; Foster, L A; Toth, S I; Roe, B A; Dyer, D W

    1997-07-18

    We previously cloned a B. bronchiseptica (Bb) genomic DNA fragment that complements a Bb alcaligin biosynthesis mutant, and reported the identification of a gene, alcA, with predicted protein sequence similarity to siderophore biosynthesis enzymes from other organisms. In the present study we show that further nt sequencing of this region revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) 3' to alcA that encode putative proteins AlcB and AlcC, with significant sequence similarity to the aerobactin biosynthesis enzymes IucB and IucC, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the three ORFs are encoded on a single transcript, and that this operon is repressed at the transcriptional level by Fe. Primer extension analysis placed the transcriptional start point (tsp) 35 nt from the 5' end of the Fur consensus sequence and 188 nt from the putative start of translation of AlcA.

  8. Changes in ripening-related processes in tomato conditioned by the alc mutant.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, M; Guttieri, M; Kinzer, S; Grierson, D; Tucker, G

    1988-08-01

    The alc mutation affects the ripening and storability of tomato fruit. The alteration of fruit color in alc lines is due to a reduction in total pigment and a reduction in lycopene relative to total carotinoids. Polygalacturonase (PG) activity is reduced to less than 5% of normal, and the isozymes PG2a and PG2b are absent in alc fruit. The level of anti-PG precipitable proteins is also reduced to less than 5% of normal. Total polyA + mRNA is not significantly reduced in ripening alc fruit, but hybridization of polyA + mRNA to different ripening-related cDNA clones showed that specific mRNAs are present at reduced levels in the mutant. Specific mRNA levels were reduced to 10%-80% of normal levels, depending on the cDNA clone used as the probe. PG mRNA was present at 5%-10% of the normal level.All effects of alc on fruit ripening are relived in the line Alcobaca-red, which arose spontaneously from the original alc line, Alcobaca. The Alcobaca-red trait segregates as a single dominant trait at or very near the alc locus, and it is probably the result of a reverse mutation at the alc locus.The chromosomal locations of regions homologous to 5 ripening-related cDNA probes were determined. Regions homologous to 4 of these probes map to chromosomes other than chromosome 10, indicating that the effects of alc are transactive. A cDNA clone for PG was homologous to only one chromosomal region. This region is located on chromosome 10, which is also the chromosome on which alc and nor are located.

  9. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  10. Characteristics of spermatozoa and reproductive organs in relation to age and body weight in Swedish moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Jonas; Söderquist, Lennart; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive biology of game species is vital for sustainable management. In moose (Alces alces), research in reproductive characteristics has focused on the female, whereas there are few studies in male moose. The aim of the present study was to investigate sperm morphology and chromatin integrity (SCSA), and their relationships with testicular and epididymal features, as well as temporal aspects with respect to the hunting season. In total, 143 male moose aged 1.5-11.5 years were sampled from 2008 to 2011. The proportion of normal spermatozoa (PNS) ranged from 1.5% to 82.0%, with a mean of 51%, and the %DFI (DNA fragmentation index) ranged from 2.5% to 36.7% (mean 9.5). PNS decreased temporally, and was positively associated with carcass and testes weight. Body weight and testes weight had positive effect on PNS regardless of age. No effect of any explanatory variables was observed on the DFI. The testis/body weight ratio of moose (0.033%) is among the lowest reported among mammals, indicating a less polygynous mating system than in roe deer and red deer. For reproduction success in moose, a high body weight in males is favorable, as is a balanced sex ratio. Thus, males should not be harvested prior to the time when the majority of females have passed their first oestrus of the season.

  11. The effects of an abundant ectoparasite, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), on the health of moose (Alces alces) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Laaksonen, Sauli; Solismaa, Milla; Aho, Jari; Puukka, Katri; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-09-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, Diptera, Hippoboscidae) is a haematophagous parasitic fly of the moose (Alces alces) and other cervids, and it is very common in southern and central parts of Finland. The aim of this study was to determine how the intensive parasitism caused by the deer ked affects the health and welfare of the moose. Moose blood samples (n = 78) were collected from deer ked-infested and ked-free regions at 62-68° N and analysed for haematology and clinical chemistry. In addition, tissue samples of moose (n = 23) were collected from a deer ked-infested region at 62° N to determine how the parasite load correlates to several physiological variables of the host. The differences in the blood and plasma values between the deer ked-free and ked-infested animals were minor. In the infested regions, the moose had higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations unlikely to have been caused by the parasitism. The intensities of deer keds had no consistent correlations with the values of plasma clinical chemistry, endocrinology, amino acids, tissue enzyme activities or body energy stores. However, the hepatic percentages of several individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the n-3 PUFA sum correlated inversely with the intensity and density of deer keds. Although a wide array of physiological variables was determined, only minor effects caused by the heavy deer ked parasitism could be detected, suggesting that the moose might tolerate this parasite relatively well.

  12. Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) after Induction Treatment Predicts Survival of Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tamas; Müller, Judit; Erdelyi, Daniel J; Csoka, Monika; Kovacs, Gabor T

    2017-01-30

    Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) has been recently established as a prognostic factor of survival in pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). A retrospective analysis of 132 patients treated according the BFM - ALLIC 2002 protocol was performed in a single institution. A possible association between ALC values and Overall Survival (OS) or Event-Free Survival (EFS) was evaluated at multiple time points during induction chemotherapy. ALC higher than 350 cells/μL measured on the 33th day of induction was associated with better Overall- and Event-Free Survival in both Kaplan-Meier (OS 88.6% vs. 40%; p < 0.001 / EFS 81.6% vs. 30%; p < 0.001) and Cox regression (OS HR 8.77 (3.31-23.28); p < 0.001) and EFS HR 6.61 (2.79-15.63); p < 0.001) analyses. There was no association between survival and measured ALC values from earlier time points (day of diagnosis, days 8 and 15) of induction therapy. Patients with low ALC values tend to have higher risk (MR or HR groups) and a higher age at diagnosis (>10 years). With help of day 33 ALC values of 350 cells/μL cutoff it was possible to refine day 33 flow cytometry (FC) Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) results within the negative cohort: higher ALC values were significantly associated with better survival. ALC on day 33 (350 cells/μL) remained prognostic for OS and EFS in multivariate analysis after adjusting it for age, cytogenetics, immunophenotype and FC MRD of induction day 33. According to these findings ALC on day 33 of induction is a strong predictor of survival in pediatric ALL.

  13. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the ruminal bacteria from moose (Alces alces) in Vermont, Alaska, and Norway.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the rumen bacteria of moose (Alces alces) from three distinct geographic locations were investigated. Moose are large, browsing ruminants in the deer family, which subsist on fibrous, woody browse, and aquatic plants. Subspecies exist which are distinguished by differing body and antler size, and these are somewhat geographically isolated. Seventeen rumen samples were collected from moose in Vermont, Alaska, and Norway, and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium chemistry. Overall, 109,643 sequences were generated from the 17 individual samples, revealing 33,622 unique sequences. Members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were dominant in samples from Alaska and Norway, but representatives of the phylum Firmicutes were dominant in samples from Vermont. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotellaceae was the dominant family in all three sample locations, most of which belonged to the genus Prevotella. Within the phylum Firmicutes, the family Lachnospiraceae was the most prevalent in all three sample locations. The data set supporting the results of this article is available in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA), available through NCBI [study accession number SRP022590]. Samples clustered by geographic location and by weight and were heterogenous based on gender, location, and weight class (p < 0.05). Location was a stronger factor in determining the core microbiome than either age or weight, but gender did not appear to be a strong factor. There were no shared operational taxonomic units across all 17 samples, which indicates that these moose may have been isolated long enough to preclude a core microbiome among moose. Other potential factors discussed include differences in climate, food quality and availability, gender, and life cycle.

  14. Chemical and structural composition of Atlantic Canadian moose (Alces alces) incisors with patterns of high breakage.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Cynthia S Kendall; Clough, Michael J; Broders, Hugh G; Tubrett, Mike

    2011-11-15

    Analysis of mammalian teeth can provide information regarding local environmental conditions. For example, a high incidence of breakage and wear within a population may indicate poor food quality. Individuals consuming a diet causing high mechanical stress on their teeth, and/or lacking the appropriate minerals for proper development, could experience degradation of tooth condition. Previously, we documented a high rate of incisor tooth breakage, with age, in two genetically distinct moose populations in Atlantic Canada. In this study, multi-element (11B, 63Cu, 64Zn, 75As, 85Rb, 88Sr, 111Cd, 118Sn, 137Ba, 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U) analyses using laser ablation ICP-MS were performed on moose incisors from multiple North American regions. The purpose was to determine whether the elemental composition of moose incisors varies among regions, and whether that variation is related to tooth degradation among Atlantic Canadian populations. A principal components analysis revealed that nearly 50% of the elemental variation in the inner enamel matrix of moose teeth was explained by three groupings of elements. The element groupings revealed differences among geographic regions, but did not explain the variation between incisors that were broken and those that were not. Regression models indicate that the elemental group which includes Cu, Pb, and Zn is related to decreases in incisal integrity. It is likely that other environmental factors contribute to the occurrence of increased incisor breakage in affected populations. The relationship between food resource quantity and quality, as a function of moose density, is hypothesized to explain loss of tooth integrity.

  15. Trace elements in moose (Alices alces) found dead in Northwestern Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Cox, E.; Gray, B.

    2004-01-01

    The moose (Alces alces) population in bog and forest areas of Northwestern Minnesota has declined for more than 25 years, and more recently the decline is throughout Northwestern Minnesota. Both deficiencies and elevations in trace elements have been linked to the health of moose worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether trace element toxicity or deficiency may have contributed to the decline of moose in Northwestern Minnesota. Livers of 81 moose found dead in Northwestern Minnesota in 1998 and 1999 were analyzed for trace elements. With the exception of selenium (Se) and copper (Cu), trace elements were not at toxic or deficient levels based on criteria set for cattle. Selenium concentrations in moose livers based on criteria set for cattle were deficient in 3.7% of livers and at a chronic toxicity level in 16% of livers. Copper concentrations based on criteria set for cattle were deficient in 39.5% of livers, marginally deficient in 29.5% of livers and adequate in 31% of livers. Moose from agricultural areas had higher concentrations, on average, of Cd, Cu, Mo and Se in their livers than moose from bog and forest areas. Older moose had higher concentrations of Cd and Zn, and lower concentrations of Cu than younger moose. Copper deficiency, which has been associated with population declines of moose in Alaska and Sweden, may be a factor contributing to the decline of moose in Northwestern Minnesota. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Suzanne L.; Kim, Christina J.; Reis, Doug; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen. PMID:26716685

  17. Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Kim, Christina J; Reis, Doug; Wright, André-Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

  18. Structure of V{sub 2}AlC studied by theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Jochen M.; Mertens, Raphael; Music, Denis

    2006-01-01

    We have studied V{sub 2}AlC (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, prototype Cr{sub 2}AlC) by ab initio calculations. The density of states (DOS) of V{sub 2}AlC for antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and paramagnetic configurations have been discussed. According to the analysis of DOS and cohesive energy, no significant stability differences between spin-polarized and non-spin-polarized configurations were found. Based on the partial DOS analysis, V{sub 2}AlC can be classified as a strongly coupled nanolaminate according to our previous work [Z. Sun, D. Music, R. Ahuja, S. Li, and J. M. Schneider, Phys. Rev. B 70, 092102 (2004)]. Furthermore, this phase has been synthesized in the form of thin films by magnetron sputtering. The equilibrium volume, determined by x-ray diffraction, is in good agreement with the theoretical data, implying that ab initio calculations provide an accurate description of V{sub 2}AlC.

  19. Properties of Cr2AlC MAX phase thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Zachary; Donato, Tyler; Rotella, Christopher; Lunk, Carl; Lofland, S. E.; Hettinger, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    Mn+ 1AXn (MAX) phases, where n is 1, 2, and 3, M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group element, and X is either C or N, are ternary carbides with unique properties such as low density, easy machinability, and good oxidation resistance. The MAX phase Cr2AlC is of particular interest for industrial applications to its excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and relatively low synthesis temperature. We prepared Cr2AlC thin films on c-axis oriented single crystal Al2O3, glassy carbon and Si thermal oxide substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering as precursor materials for carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films for ``on-chip'' supercapacitors. Film deposition was optimized using elemental composition data obtained by WDXRF. Optimized films were characterized using XRD and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that textured Cr2AlC films only form when the composition was Al-rich allowing the formation of a Cr5Al8 interfacial layer. As film composition was optimized, the interfacial layer did not form but the XRD peaks associated with the Cr2AlC also decreased in magnitude. Extremely high-textured films were grown when a thin buffer layer of CrAl2 was deposited on the substrate before depositing the Cr2AlC films. This result suggests that Cr2AlC films may not be ideal for CDC applications since the films may ``lift-off'' during conversion due to the existence of the naturally occurring buffer-layer.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  2. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  3. Synthesis, physical properties and band structure of non-magnetic Y3AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghule, S. S.; Garde, C. S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Singh, S.; Rajarajan, A. K.; Laad, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Y3AlC has been synthesized by arc melting and subsequent annealing. Rietveld analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms cubic Pm-3m structure. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of Y3AlC exhibits metallic behaviour. No sign of superconductivity is observed down to the lowest measurement temperatures of 4.2 K in ρ, and 2 K in magnetic susceptibility (χ) and specific heat (Cp) measurements. The value of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ is 1.36 mJ/K2 mol from which the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF) is obtained as 0.57 states/eV.unit cell. The value of Debye temperature θD is estimated to be 315 K. Electronic band structure calculations of Y3AlC reveal a pseudo-gap in the DOS at EF leading to a small value of 0.5 states/eV unit cell which matches quite well with that obtained from γ. Non-zero value of the DOS indicates metallic behaviour as confirmed by our ρ data. Covalent and ionic bonding seem to co-exist with metallic bonding in Y3AlC as indicated by van Arkel- Ketelaar triangle for Zintl-like systems.

  4. Alcadein cleavages by amyloid beta-precursor protein (APP) alpha- and gamma-secretases generate small peptides, p3-Alcs, indicating Alzheimer disease-related gamma-secretase dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hata, Saori; Fujishige, Sayaka; Araki, Yoichi; Kato, Naoko; Araseki, Masahiko; Nishimura, Masaki; Hartmann, Dieter; Saftig, Paul; Fahrenholz, Falk; Taniguchi, Miyako; Urakami, Katsuya; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Martins, Ralph N; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Maeda, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tohru; Nakaya, Tadashi; Gandy, Sam; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2009-12-25

    Alcadeins (Alcs) constitute a family of neuronal type I membrane proteins, designated Alc(alpha), Alc(beta), and Alc(gamma). The Alcs express in neurons dominantly and largely colocalize with the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. Alcs and APP show an identical function as a cargo receptor of kinesin-1. Moreover, proteolytic processing of Alc proteins appears highly similar to that of APP. We found that APP alpha-secretases ADAM 10 and ADAM 17 primarily cleave Alc proteins and trigger the subsequent secondary intramembranous cleavage of Alc C-terminal fragments by a presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase complex, thereby generating "APP p3-like" and non-aggregative Alc peptides (p3-Alcs). We determined the complete amino acid sequence of p3-Alc(alpha), p3-Alc(beta), and p3-Alc(gamma), whose major species comprise 35, 37, and 31 amino acids, respectively, in human cerebrospinal fluid. We demonstrate here that variant p3-Alc C termini are modulated by FAD-linked presenilin 1 mutations increasing minor beta-amyloid species Abeta42, and these mutations alter the level of minor p3-Alc species. However, the magnitudes of C-terminal alteration of p3-Alc(alpha), p3-Alc(beta), and p3-Alc(gamma) were not equivalent, suggesting that one type of gamma-secretase dysfunction does not appear in the phenotype equivalently in the cleavage of type I membrane proteins. Because these C-terminal alterations are detectable in human cerebrospinal fluid, the use of a substrate panel, including Alcs and APP, may be effective to detect gamma-secretase dysfunction in the prepathogenic state of Alzheimer disease subjects.

  5. He+ irradiation induced cracking and exfoliating on the surface of Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. H.; Ao, L.; Li, F. Z.; Peng, S. M.; Zhang, H. B.; Sun, K.; Zu, X. T.

    2017-03-01

    We report a systematic study of the effects of a 400 keV helium ion beam irradiation on the surface morphology and crystal structure of Ti3AlC2 by combined scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Helium irradiation experiments were performed at both room temperature and 500 °C, respectively, with fluence up to 2.0 × 1017 He+/cm2. After irradiation, intragranular orientated cracks grew along the (10 1 bar 0)Ti3AlC2 plane and the surface has started to exfoliate. The formation of the cracks is mainly attributed to the reduction of the lattice parameter along the a direction induced by ion irradiation, and the crack growth is affected by the grain size and the content of impurity phase TiAl3. The surface exfoliation is due to the blistering of He bubbles at the projected depth.

  6. Identification of AlcR, an AraC-Type Regulator of Alcaligin Siderophore Synthesis in Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Elizabeth; Guiso, Nicole; Locht, Camille

    1998-01-01

    A Fur titration assay was used to isolate DNA fragments bearing putative Fur binding sites (FBS) from a partial Bordetella bronchiseptica genomic DNA library. A recombinant plasmid bearing a 3.5-kb DNA insert was further studied. Successive deletions in the cloned fragment enabled us to map a putative FBS at about 2 kb from one end. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an FBS upstream from a new gene encoding an AraC-type transcriptional regulator. The deduced protein displays similarity to PchR, an activator of pyochelin siderophore and ferripyochelin receptor synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Homologous genes in Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis were PCR amplified, and sequence comparisons indicated a very high conservation in the three species. The B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica chromosomal genes were inactivated by allelic exchange. Under low-iron growth conditions, the mutants did not secrete the alcaligin siderophore and lacked AlcC, an alcaligin biosynthetic enzyme. Alcaligin production was restored after transformation with a plasmid bearing the wild-type gene. On the basis of its role in regulation of alcaligin biosynthesis, the new gene was designated alcR. Additional sequence determination showed that alcR is located about 2 kb downstream from the alcABC operon and is transcribed in the same orientation. Two tightly linked open reading frames, alcD and alcE, were identified between alcC and alcR. AlcE is a putative iron-sulfur protein; AlcD shows no homology with the proteins in the database. The production of major virulence factors and colonization in the mouse respiratory infection model are AlcR independent. PMID:9473041

  7. Simulated moose (Alces alces L.) browsing increases accumulation of secondary metabolites in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) along gradients of habitat productivity and solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Bergström, Roger; Wallgren, Märtha; Suominen, Otso; Danell, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    We have addressed the impact of moose (Alces alces L.) on accumulation of secondary metabolites, lignin, and nitrogen in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) along gradients of habitat productivity and solar radiation. The study was conducted within a long-term research project on direct and indirect impacts of moose on the ecosystem. In the experiment, browsing, defecation, and urination corresponding to four different moose densities were simulated for eight years before bilberry tissue was collected and analyzed. Some quantitatively dominant flavonoids were affected by the simulated moose browsing and by habitat productivity and light. The content of flavonoids increased with increasing moose density and light, and decreased with increasing habitat productivity. The higher concentration of secondary metabolites in bilberry from nutrient-poor sites may have resulted from the increased photosynthesis relative to growth, which facilitated secondary metabolism. The higher concentration of secondary metabolites in plants subjected to simulated moose- herbivory might have been caused in part by loss of biomass. In addition, in areas with high biomass loss, i.e., high moose density, a more open canopy was created and more solar radiation could have induced secondary metabolism.

  8. Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Moose (Alces alces gigas), Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Godfroid, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the rose bengal test (RBT) to test for anti-Brucella antibodies in moose (Alces alces gigas), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (Bison bison bison) from various game management units (GMUs) in Alaska, US, sampled from 1982 to 2010. A portion of the sera had previously been tested with the standard plate test (SPT), the buffered Brucella antigen (BBA) card test, and the card test (CARD). No antibody-positive plains bison were identified. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in moose (iELISA, n=4/87; RBT, n=4/87; SPT, n=4/5; BBA, n=4/4) from GMU 23 captured in 1992, 1993, and 1995 and in muskoxen (iELISA, n=4/52; RBT, n=4/52; CARD, n=4/35) from GMUs 26A and 26B captured in 2004, 2006, and 2007. A negative effect of infection on the health of individuals of these species is probable. The presence of antibody-positive animals from 1992 to 2007 suggests presence of brucellae over time. The antibody-positive animals were found in northern Alaska, an area with a historically higher prevalence of Brucella-positive caribou, and a spillover of Brucella suis biovar 4 from caribou may have occurred. Brucella suis biovar 4 causes human brucellosis, and transmission from consumption of moose and muskoxen is possible.

  9. Sarcocystis in moose (Alces alces): molecular identification and phylogeny of six Sarcocystis species in moose, and a morphological description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2008-06-01

    Muscle tissues from 34 moose from Southeastern Norway and two moose from Canada were examined. Sarcocysts were excised and morphologically classified by light microscopy, and some cysts were further examined by scanning electron microscopy or DNA amplification and sequencing at the small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene. In Norwegian moose, three sarcocyst types were recognized, yet five Sarcocystis species were found by sequence analysis. New names were proposed for three species which could be characterised by both morphological and molecular methods, i.e., Sarcocystis alces, Sarcocystis ovalis, and Sarcocystis scandinavica. S. alces was the most prevalent species, whereas S. scandinavica and the two unnamed species were rare and might either use another principal intermediate host or a rare definitive host. The five species in Norwegian moose were different from Sarcocystis alceslatrans isolated from a Canadian moose. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete ssu rRNA gene sequences revealed a close relationship between the six Sarcocystis species from moose and species from reindeer and Sika deer. We conclude that molecular methods are necessary for unequivocal species identification, as different cervid hosts harbour morphologically indistinguishable sarcocysts.

  10. Influence of forage preferences and habitat use on 13C and 15N abundance in wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) and moose (Alces alces) from Canada.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Dorothee G; Hobson, Keith A; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre; Courtois, Rehaume

    2010-03-01

    Stable isotope composition (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of moose (Alces alces) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) hair from the boreal forest of Jacques-Cartier Park and Cote-Nord (Quebec) and arctic tundra of Queen Maud Gulf and Southampton Island (Nunavut) was investigated as an indicator of dietary preferences and habitat use. Values of delta(13)C(hair) and delta(15)N(hair) in moose were consistently lower compared to those of caribou. This is consistent with the depletion in (13)C and (15)N in the plants preferred by moose, essentially browse (shrub and tree leaves), compared to caribou forage, which included significant amounts of graminoids, lichen and fungi. The delta(13)C(hair) values of caribou differed between closed boreal forest and open-tundra ecosystems. This pattern followed that expected from the canopy effect observed in plant communities. Variation in delta(15)N(hair) values of caribou was probably linked to the effect of different climatic conditions on plant communities. This study underlines the potential of isotopic analysis for studies on diet and habitat selection within a pure C(3) plant environment.

  11. Study of the horizontal and vertical dispersion at the atmospheric flow at the Alc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, L.; Roballo, S.; Fisch, G.; Avelar, A.; Girardi, R.; Gielow, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Alcântara Launching Center (ALC) region is situated in the north coast of the Maranhão state and it was simulated in a wind tunnel with an open circuit at Institute Technologic of Aeronautics (ITA). The ALC topography possesses typical characteristics of smooth surface (ocean) close to a roughness surface (continent). The local coast has a relative topographical variation (coastal cliffs) with inclination and 50 m height, being the top a plain area. A mock-up model has been constructed to be inserted at the wind tunnel for the measurements. The Integration Mobile Tower (IMT) is placed at 150 m from the coastal cliff. Consequently the rockets can suffer the influence from intense turbulence resultant of the modification of the wind profile of the proceeding from the ocean as ascending vertically from thr IMT. It was used the Particle Image Velocimetrýs (PIV) technique for the analysis of the vertical dispersion in the central lane from the ocean until the IMT and the hot wire anemometry technique for the horizontal dispersion. The analysis of the vertical dispersion was carried through locating the PIV transversally to the model that simulates the ALC. The vorticity generated above of the coastal cliff has the same intensity of the vorticity generated at the IMT (-2000 s-1) being these the zones of higher turbulence. With regard to the horizontal flow one noticed that the low levels (below 10 m) presented the great speed fluctuations close the coastal cliff. In the high levels (above 10 m), this fluctuations diminished. The high values of turbulent intensities after the step, in the low levels, due to recirculation characterized for low values of speeds average and hight speed fluctuations also was verified in the vertical dispersion.

  12. Extreme Oxidative Durability of TBCs on Ti2AlC MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Harder, Bryan J.; Garg, Anita

    2015-01-01

    APS and PS-PVD YSZ thermal barrier coatings, applied directly to oxidation resistant Ti2AlC substrates, were oxidized in interrupted furnace tests. Temperature was advanced in 50C intervals from 1100 to 1300C, each 500 h long with eleven cooling cycles. Damage only initiated on the APS coating at 1300C after 15 h, with complete delamination after 500 h. The PS-PVD coating survived all testing. Weight change and metallographic analyses indicate that the YSZ-Ti2AlC systems sustained alumina scale growth of 30-40 m. In comparison, widely used Pt-aluminide bondcoats on single crystal superalloy turbine blades exhibit TBC lives equivalent to alumina scale growth up to 7 m, equivalent to just 200 h at 1200C. It is demonstrated that 25x TBC life improvement (or 180C temperature increase) resulted from the close CTE match of Ti2AlC with those of alumina and YSZ.

  13. Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride with high content of Alb or Alc.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changwei; Zhang, Jingbo; Luan, Zhaokun; Peng, Xianjia; Ren, Xiaojing

    2009-01-01

    A novel membrane distillation concentration method was used to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high content of Alb or Alc. 2.52 mol/L PACl1 with 88% Alb and 2.38 mol/L PACl2 with 61% Alc were successfully prepared. Three coagulants, AlCl3, PACl1 and PACl2 were investigated on their hydrolysis behavior and speciation under different conditions. The effects of pH and dilution ratio on Al species distribution were investigated by ferron assay. Experimental result showed that pH had a significant effect on Al species distribution for the three coagulants. Dilution ratio had little effects on Alb and Alc distribution in whole dilution process except the beginning for PACl1 and PACl2. The results indicated that transformation of Al depends largely on their original composition. AlCl3 was the most unstable coagulant among these three coagulants during hydrolysis process. PACl1 and PACl2 with significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products were less affected by the hydrolysis conditions and could maintain high speciation stability under various conditions.

  14. PARP1 promotes nucleotide excision repair through DDB2 stabilization and recruitment of ALC1

    PubMed Central

    Vrouwe, Mischa G.; Marteijn, Jurgen A.; Typas, Dimitris; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Cansoy, Medine; Hensbergen, Paul; Deelder, André; de Groot, Anton; Matsumoto, Syota; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Thoma, Nicolas; Vermeulen, Wim; Vrieling, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The WD40-repeat protein DDB2 is essential for efficient recognition and subsequent removal of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, how DDB2 promotes NER in chromatin is poorly understood. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) as a novel DDB2-associated factor. We demonstrate that DDB2 facilitated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of UV-damaged chromatin through the activity of PARP1, resulting in the recruitment of the chromatin-remodeling enzyme ALC1. Depletion of ALC1 rendered cells sensitive to UV and impaired repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. Additionally, DDB2 itself was targeted by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, resulting in increased protein stability and a prolonged chromatin retention time. Our in vitro and in vivo data support a model in which poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DDB2 suppresses DDB2 ubiquitylation and outline a molecular mechanism for PARP1-mediated regulation of NER through DDB2 stabilization and recruitment of the chromatin remodeler ALC1. PMID:23045548

  15. Increased levels of plasma p3-alcα35, a major fragment of Alcadeinα by γ-secretase cleavage, in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Omori, Chiori; Kaneko, Madoka; Nakajima, Etsuko; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Waragai, Masaaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Morishima-Kawashima, Maho; Saito, Yuhki; Nakaya, Tadashi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Asada, Takashi; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    p3-Alcα is a metabolic fragment of Alcadeinα (Alcα). Similar to the generation of the p3 fragment from amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing, Alcα is cleaved by α- and γ-secretases, leading to the secretion of p3-Alcα peptides into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). p3-Alcα is also detected in the plasma, similar to amyloid-β (Aβ), which is a metabolic fragment of AβPP cleaved by amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretases. Because p3-Alcα is a non-aggregatable and stable peptide, unlike aggregatable Aβ and metabolically labile p3 of AβPP, the changes of p3-Alcα in quality and/or quantity in CSF and plasma are expected to be a marker for assessing alteration of substrate cleavage by γ-secretase, such as Aβ generation from AβPP. The present study describes a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantifying levels of p3-Alcα35, the major form of the p3-Alcα species, and examines levels of p3-Alcα35 in the plasma of three independent Japanese cohorts. In two of the three cohorts, the p3-Alcα35 levels were significantly increased with a concomitant decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination score, or in clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, when compared with age-matched non-demented subjects. The values were significantly lower in AD subjects who were administered donepezil, when compared to AD subjects without donepezil treatment. The increase in plasma p3-Alcα35 levels may indicate an endophenotype in subjects in whom AD is due to a progressing cognitive impairment in subjects with a γ-secretase malfunction, or a disorder of the clearance of peptides.

  16. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  17. Identification of the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein family (PAGs) and some aspects of placenta development in the European moose (Alces alces L.).

    PubMed

    Lipka, Aleksandra; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Majewska, Marta; Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Martyna; Saveljev, Alexander P; Pankratov, Andrey P; Szafranska, Bozena

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the identification and a broad-based characterization of the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) genes expressed in the synepitheliochorial placenta of the Alces alces (Aa; N = 51). We used: (1) both size measurements (cm) of various Aa embryos/fetuses (crown-rump length) and placentomes (PLCs); (2) PCR, Southern and sequencing; (3) Western-blot for total placental glycoproteins; (4) deglycosylation of total cotyledonary proteins; and (5) double heterologous IHC for cellular immune-localization of the PAGs as pregnancy advanced (50-200 days post coitum). The crown-rump length and PLC size measurements permitted a novel pattern estimation of various pregnancy stages in wild Aa. The PLC number varied (5-21) and was the greatest at the mid and late stages of gestation in females bearing singletons or twins. The genomic existence of the identified PAG-like family was named AaPAG-L. Amplicon profiles of the AaPAG-L varied in the number and length (118-2000 bp). Southern with porcine cDNA probes confirmed specificity and revealed dominant AaPAG-L amplicons in males and females. Nucleotide sequences of the AaPAG-L amplicons shared 86.27% homology with the bovine PAG1 (bPAG1) gene. Amino acid AaPAG sequences revealed in silico 88.23% to 100% homology with the bPAG1 precursor. Western-blots revealed a dominant mature 55 kDa AaPAG fraction, and the major ∼48 kDa glycosylated form that was deglycosylated to ∼44 kDa. The AaPAG-Ls was immuno-localized to mono- and bi-nucleated trophectodermal cells (TRD-chorionic epithelium), where signal intensity resembled intense TRD proliferation within developing PLCs as pregnancy advanced. This is the first study identifying the AaPAG-L family in the largest representative among the Cervidae.

  18. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger survey, ears from 18 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 52 moose (Alces alces) shot in the 2 southernmost counties in Norway were collected and examined for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Seventy-two adult ticks, 595 nymphs, and 267 larvae from the roe deer, and 182 adult ticks, 433 nymphs, and 70 larvae from the moose were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in 2.9% of the nymphs collected from roe deer and in 4.4% of the nymphs and 6.0% of the adults collected from moose. The spirochetes were not detected in adult ticks from roe deer, or in larvae feeding on roe deer or moose. In comparison, the mean infection prevalences in questing I. ricinus collected from the same geographical area were 0.5% infection in larvae, 24.5% in nymphs, and 26.9% in adults. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in ticks collected from roe deer was B. afzelii (76.5%), followed by B. garinii (17.6%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.9%). Only B. afzelii (76.7%) and B. garinii (23.3%) were detected in ticks collected from moose. The present study indicates a lower prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in I. ricinus ticks feeding on roe deer and moose compared to questing ticks. This is the first study to report B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in ticks removed from cervids in Norway.

  19. Testing of advanced liquefaction concepts in HTI Run ALC-1: Coal cleaning and recycle solvent treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Derbyshire, F.L.; Givens, E.N.; Hu, J.; Lee, T.L.K.; Miller, J.E.; Stephens, H.P.; Peluso, M.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Liquefaction Concepts Program to promote the development of new and emerging technology that has potential to reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. Laboratory research performed by researchers at CAER, CONSOL, Sandia, and LDP Associates in Phase I is being developed further and tested at the bench scale at HTI. HTI Run ALC-1, conducted in the spring of 1996, was the first of four planned tests. In Run ALC-1, feed coal ash reduction (coal cleaning) by oil agglomeration, and recycle solvent quality improvement through dewaxing and hydrotreatment of the recycle distillate were evaluated. HTI`s bench liquefaction Run ALC-1 consisted of 25 days of operation. Major accomplishments were: 1) oil agglomeration reduced the ash content of Black Thunder Mine coal by 40%, from 5.5% to 3.3%; 2) excellent coal conversion of 98% was obtained with oil agglomerated coal, about 3% higher than the raw Black Thunder Mine coal, increasing the potential product yield by 2-3% on an MAF coal basis; 3) agglomerates were liquefied with no handling problems; 4) fresh catalyst make-up rate was decreased by 30%, with no apparent detrimental operating characteristics, both when agglomerates were fed and when raw coal was fed (with solvent dewaxing and hydrotreating); 5) recycle solvent treatment by dewaxing and hydrotreating was demonstrated, but steady-state operation was not achieved; and 6) there was some success in achieving extinction recycle of the heaviest liquid products. Performance data have not been finalized; they will be available for full evaluation in the new future.

  20. The poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent chromatin remodeler Alc1 induces local chromatin relaxation upon DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Sellou, Hafida; Lebeaupin, Théo; Chapuis, Catherine; Smith, Rebecca; Hegele, Anna; Singh, Hari R.; Kozlowski, Marek; Bultmann, Sebastian; Ladurner, Andreas G.; Timinszky, Gyula; Huet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin relaxation is one of the earliest cellular responses to DNA damage. However, what determines these structural changes, including their ATP requirement, is not well understood. Using live-cell imaging and laser microirradiation to induce DNA lesions, we show that the local chromatin relaxation at DNA damage sites is regulated by PARP1 enzymatic activity. We also report that H1 is mobilized at DNA damage sites, but, since this mobilization is largely independent of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it cannot solely explain the chromatin relaxation. Finally, we demonstrate the involvement of Alc1, a poly(ADP-ribose)- and ATP-dependent remodeler, in the chromatin-relaxation process. Deletion of Alc1 impairs chromatin relaxation after DNA damage, while its overexpression strongly enhances relaxation. Altogether our results identify Alc1 as an important player in the fast kinetics of the NAD+- and ATP-dependent chromatin relaxation upon DNA damage in vivo. PMID:27733626

  1. Inhibition of transcription of cytosine-containing DNA in vitro by the alc gene product of bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed Central

    Drivdahl, R H; Kutter, E M

    1990-01-01

    The alc gene product (gpalc) of bacteriophage T4 inhibits the transcription of cytosine-containing DNA in vivo. We examined its effect on transcription in vitro by comparing RNA polymerase isolated from Escherichia coli infected with either wild-type T4D+ or alc mutants. A 50 to 60% decline in RNA polymerase activity, measured on phage T7 DNA, was observed by 1 min after infection with either T4D+ or alc mutants; this did not occur when the infecting phage lacked gpalt. In the case of the T4D+ strain but not alc mutants, this was followed by a further decrease. By 5 min after infection the activity of alc mutants was 1.5 to 2.5 times greater than that of the wild type on various cytosine-containing DNA templates, whereas there was little or no difference in activity on T4 HMdC-DNA, in agreement with the in vivo specificity. Effects on transcript initiation and elongation were distinguished by using a T7 phage DNA template. Rifampin challenge, end-labeling with [gamma-32P]ATP, and selective initiation with a dinucleotide all indicate that the decreased in vitro activity of the wild-type polymerase relative to that of the alc mutants was due to inhibition of elongation, not to any difference in initiation rates. Wild-type (but not mutated) gpalc copurified with RNA polymerase on heparin agarose but not in subsequent steps. Immunoprecipitation of modified RNA polymerase also indicated that gpalc was not tightly bound to RNA polymerase intracellularly. It thus appears likely that gpalc inhibits transcript elongation on cytosine-containing DNA by interacting with actively transcribing core polymerase as a complex with the enzyme and cytosine-rich stretches of the template. Images PMID:2185231

  2. Preparation of Al-Ce hybrid adsorbent and its application for defluoridation of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Deng, Shubo; Li, Zhijian; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun

    2010-07-15

    A novel Al-Ce hybrid adsorbent with high sorption capacity for fluoride was prepared through the coprecipitation method in this study, and its preparation conditions were optimized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed that the hybrid adsorbent was of amorphous structure and constituted by some aggregated nanoparticles. As the adsorbent had the zero point of zeta potential at pH 9.6, it was very effective in fluoride removal from aqueous solution via electrostatic interaction. The results of sorption experiments including sorption kinetics, isotherms, and the effect of solution pH showed that the sorption of fluoride on the Al-Ce adsorbent was fast and pH-dependent. Especially, the adsorbent had high sorption capacity up to 27.5 mg g(-1) for fluoride at the equilibrium fluoride concentration of 1 mg L(-1), much higher than that of the conventional adsorbents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and zeta potential measurement showed that the hydroxyl groups and the protonated hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface were involved in the fluoride adsorption.

  3. Evaluation of an Al-Ce alloy for laser additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Plotkowski, A.; Rios, O.; Sridharan, N.; ...

    2016-12-27

    Our present research in metal additive manufacturing (AM) focuses on designing processing parameters around existing alloys designed for traditional manufacturing. However, to maximize the benefits of AM, alloys should be designed to specifically take advantage of the unique thermal conditions of these processes. Furthermore, our study focuses on the development of a design methodology for alloys in AM, using a newly developed Al-Ce alloy as an initial case study. To evaluate the candidacy of this system for fusion based additive manufacturing, single-line laser melts were made on cast Al-12Ce plates using three different beam velocities (100, 200, and 300 mm/min).more » The microstructure was evaluated in the as-melted and heat treated conditions (24 hrs at 300°C). An extremely fine microstructure was observed within the weld pools, evolving from eutectic at the outer solid-liquid boundaries to a primary Al FCC dendritic/cellular structure nearer the melt-pool centerline. We rationalized the observed microstructures through the construction of a microstructure selection map for the Al-Ce binary system, which will be used to enable future alloy design. Interestingly, the heat treated samples exhibited no microstructural coarsening.« less

  4. Evaluation of an Al-Ce alloy for laser additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkowski, A.; Rios, O.; Sridharan, N.; Sims, Z.; Unocic, K.; Ott, R. T.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2016-12-27

    Our present research in metal additive manufacturing (AM) focuses on designing processing parameters around existing alloys designed for traditional manufacturing. However, to maximize the benefits of AM, alloys should be designed to specifically take advantage of the unique thermal conditions of these processes. Furthermore, our study focuses on the development of a design methodology for alloys in AM, using a newly developed Al-Ce alloy as an initial case study. To evaluate the candidacy of this system for fusion based additive manufacturing, single-line laser melts were made on cast Al-12Ce plates using three different beam velocities (100, 200, and 300 mm/min). The microstructure was evaluated in the as-melted and heat treated conditions (24 hrs at 300°C). An extremely fine microstructure was observed within the weld pools, evolving from eutectic at the outer solid-liquid boundaries to a primary Al FCC dendritic/cellular structure nearer the melt-pool centerline. We rationalized the observed microstructures through the construction of a microstructure selection map for the Al-Ce binary system, which will be used to enable future alloy design. Interestingly, the heat treated samples exhibited no microstructural coarsening.

  5. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Ti3AlC from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yu-Lei

    2009-11-01

    We perform a first-principles study on the electronic structure and elastic properties of Ti3AlC with an antiperovskite structure. The absence of band gap at the Fermi level and the finite value of the density of states at the Fermi energy reveal the metallic behavior of this compound. The elastic constants of Ti3AlC are derived yielding c11 = 356 GPa, c11 = 55 GPa, c44 = 157 GPa. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G and Young's modulus E are determined to be 156, 151 and 342 GPa, respectively. These properties are compared with those of Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC with a layered structure in the Ti-Al-C system and Fe3AlC with the same antiperovskite structure.

  6. Necropsy findings in 62 opportunistically collected free-ranging moose (Alces alces) from Minnesota, USA (2003-13).

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Armien, Anibal G; Butler, Erika; Schrage, Mike; Stromberg, Bert; Bender, Jeff B; Firshman, Anna M; Carstensen, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Minnesota, US moose population has declined dramatically since the 1990s. All 54 carcasses of moose that died of unknown cause or were euthanized by gun shot by tribal or Department of Natural Resources personnel because of perceived signs of illness between 2003 and 2013 and eight carcasses of moose that died from vehicular accidents between 2009 and 2013 were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and included in our study. The majority of the animals were underweight or cachectic (n = 53; 85%). Neural migration presumably by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was a common finding (n = 28; 45%). Moderate to marked Dermacentor albipictus ("winter tick") ectoparasitism with widespread alopecia was the cause or a contributing cause of death in 14 (23%) cases in which grossly apparent anemia was associated with exhaustion of hepatic iron stores. Hepatic lesions associated with Fascioloides magna were common (n = 37; 60%) but were unlikely to be the cause of death. Environmental factors favoring winter tick survival, habitat expansion of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the survival of terrestrial and aquatic snails (serving as intermediate hosts for P. tenuis and F. magna), might contribute to the seemingly severe parasitic burden in Minnesota's moose population.

  7. The first detection of nematodes Ashworthius sidemi in elk Alces alces (L.) in Poland and remarks of ashworthiosis foci limitations.

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek; Pyziel, Anna M; Moskwa, Bożena

    2013-12-01

    Ashworthius sidemi, a nematode belonging to the family of Trichostrongylidae, is a primary parasite of the Asian deer, mainly sika deer (Cervus nippon), with which it was introduced to Ukraine, as well as Slovakia, the Czech Republic and France. Migrating red deer carried this parasite from neighboring countries to Polish territory. Until now, in Poland, this parasite has been recorded in European bison, red deer, roe deer and fallow deer. As a result of post-mortem examinations of 10 elk, 2 of them from the Augustów Forest and Biebrza Marshes, A. sidemi were found in abomasa for the first time in Poland. The intensity of the invasions was 120 and 7 specimens, respectively. This finding of Ashworthius sidemi in elk indicates a further expansion of the focus of ashworthiosis in BiaŁowieża towards the north into the Biebrza Marshes and the Augustowska Forest. The growth of the elk population and their tendency for long distance migrations can contribute to the spread of the parasitosis in much greater distances than deer. On the basis of our own research and data from the literature, the current spread of ashworthiosis in Poland is discussed.

  8. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    DOE PAGES

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ±more » 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.« less

  9. Carbon diffusion in alumina from carbon and Ti{sub 2}AlC thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Guenette, Mathew C.; Tucker, Mark D.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; McKenzie, David R.; Ionescu, Mihail

    2011-04-15

    Carbon diffusion is observed in single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates from carbon and Ti{sub 2}AlC thin films synthesized via pulsed cathodic arc deposition. Diffusion was found to occur at substrate temperatures of 570 deg. C and above. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is estimated to be of the order 3x10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/s for deposition temperatures in the 570-770{sup o}C range by examining elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) elemental depth profiles. It is suggested that an appropriate diffusion barrier may be useful when depositing carbon containing thin films on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates at high temperatures.

  10. Imaging spread-F structures using GPS observations at Alcântara, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musman, S.; Jahn, J.-M.; LaBelle, J.; Swartz, W. E.

    During October 1994, a dual-frequency GPS receiver was operated in Alcântara, Brazil, at the same site where the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) was performing spread-F measurements for an ongoing rocket campaign. We present data for two nights during which several spread-F plumes drifted through the field-of-view of CUPRI. Fluctuations in the total electron content (TEC) measured with the GPS receiver were correlated with those plumes. We define a “roughness” measure from a specialized high frequency filter. Plots of “roughness” in a magnetic longitude versus time space show initially low activity followed by regions of dramatic localized onsets and a slower subsequent decline. Features in the roughness image are well-correlated with plumes in the CUPRI backscatter power map.

  11. Identification and Characterization of alcR, a Gene Encoding an AraC-Like Regulator of Alcaligin Siderophore Biosynthesis and Transport in Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Fiona C.; Kang, Ho Young; Brickman, Timothy J.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    1998-01-01

    A Bordetella bronchiseptica iron transport mutant was isolated following an enrichment procedure based on streptonigrin resistance. The mutant displayed a growth defect on iron-restricted medium containing ferric alcaligin as the sole iron source. In addition to the apparent inability to acquire iron from the siderophore, the mutant failed to produce alcaligin as well as two known iron-regulated proteins, one of which is the AlcC alcaligin biosynthesis protein. A 1.6-kb KpnI-PstI Bordetella pertussis DNA fragment mapping downstream of the alcaligin biosynthesis genes alcABC restored both siderophore biosynthesis and expression of the iron-regulated proteins to the mutant. Nucleotide sequencing of this complementing 1.6-kb region identified an open reading frame predicted to encode a protein with strong similarity to members of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, for which we propose the gene designation alcR. Primer extension analysis localized an iron-regulated transcription initiation site upstream of the alcR open reading frame and adjacent to sequences homologous to the consensus Fur repressor binding site. The AlcR protein was produced by using an Escherichia coli expression system and visualized in electrophoretic gels. In-frame alcR deletion mutants of B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica were constructed, and the defined mutants exhibited the alcR mutant phenotype, characterized by the inability to produce and transport alcaligin and express the two iron-repressed proteins. The cloned alcR gene provided in trans restored these siderophore system activities to the mutants. Together, these results indicate that AlcR is involved in the regulation of Bordetella alcaligin biosynthesis and transport genes and is required for their full expression. PMID:9473040

  12. Discovery of carbon-vacancy ordering in Nb4AlC3–x under the guidance of first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Wu, Erdong; Zhou, Yanchun

    2015-01-01

    The conventional wisdom to tailor the properties of binary transition metal carbides by order-disorder phase transformation has been inapplicable for the machinable ternary carbides (MTCs) due to the absence of ordered phase in bulk sample. Here, the presence of an ordered phase with structural carbon vacancies in Nb4AlC3–x (x ≈ 0.3) ternary carbide is predicted by first-principles calculations, and experimentally identified for the first time by transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with the first-principles prediction, the ordered phase, o-Nb4AlC3, crystalizes in P63/mcm with a = 5.423 Å, c = 24.146 Å. Coexistence of ordered (o-Nb4AlC3) and disordered (Nb4AlC3–x) phase brings about abundant domains with irregular shape in the bulk sample. Both heating and electron irradiation can induce the transformation from o-Nb4AlC3 to Nb4AlC3–x. Our findings may offer substantial insights into the roles of carbon vacancies in the structure stability and order-disorder phase transformation in MTCs. PMID:26388153

  13. Experimental and first-principles investigation of the electronic structure anisotropy of Cr2AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnet, M.; Jaouen, M.; Mauchamp, V.; Cabioc'h, T.; Hug, G.

    2014-11-01

    The anisotropy of the electronic structure of the MAX phase Cr2AlC has been investigated by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) at the C K edge, and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Al K , Cr L2 ,3, and Cr K edges. The experimental spectra were interpreted using either a multiple-scattering approach or a full-potential band-structure method. The anisotropy is found to be small around C atoms because of the rather isotropic nature of the octahedral site, and of the averaging of the empty C p states probed by EELS at the C K edge. In turn, a pronounced anisotropy of the charge distribution around Al atoms is evidenced from polarized XAS measurements performed on textured Cr2AlC sputtered thin films. From the analysis of the XAS data using the multiple-scattering feff code, it is demonstrated that the probed thin film is constituted of 70 % (0001) and 30 % (10 1 ¯3 ) grains oriented parallel to the film surface. A decomposition of the calculated spectrum in coordination shells allows for the ability to connect XAS fine structures to the Cr2AlC structure. Combining high-resolution data with up-to-date multiple-scattering calculations, it is shown that the crystalline orientations of the grains present in a probe of 100 ×100 μ m 2 can be determined from the Cr K edge. Interestingly, it is also revealed that a static disorder is involved in the studied thin films. These findings highlight that, given the overall agreement between experimental and calculated spectra, the Cr2AlC electronic structure is accurately predicted using density functional theory.

  14. A high-temperature neutron diffraction study of Nb2AlC and TiNbAlC

    DOE PAGES

    Bentzel, Grady W.; Lane, Nina J.; Vogel, Sven C.; ...

    2014-12-16

    In this paper, we report on the crystal structures of Nb2AlC and TiNbAlC actual composition (Ti0.45,Nb0.55)2AlC compounds determined from Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction patterns in the 300-1173 K temperature range. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients of a Nb2AlC sample in the a and c directions are, respectively, 7.9(5)x10-6 K-1 and 7.7(5)x10-6 K-1 on one neutron diffractometer and 7.3(3)x10-6 K-1 and 7.0(2)x10-6 K-1 on a second diffractometer. The respective values for the (Ti0.45,Nb0.55)2AlC composition - only tested on one diffractometer - are 8.5(3)x10-6 K-1 and 7.5(5)x10-6 K-1. These values are relatively low compared to other MAX phases. Like othermore » MAX phases, however, the atomic displacement parameters show that the Al atoms vibrate with higher amplitudes than the Ti and C atoms, and 1 more along the basal planes than normal to them. In addition, when the predictions of the atomic displacement parameters obtained from density functional theory are compared to the experimental results, good quantitative agreement is found for the Al atoms. In case of the Nb and C atoms, the agreement was more qualitative.« less

  15. Heavy metal contents of paddy fields of Alcácer do Sal, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Henriques, F S

    1990-01-01

    Recent claims of metal contamination in the lower reaches of the Sado River, in the Alcácer do Sal region, Portugal, a major rice-producing area were investigated by carrying out metal surveys in the area. The elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were measured in the soil and in rice plant parts--roots, shoots and grain--as well as in some weeds growing in the Sado banks, near the paddy fields. Results showed that the metal contents of paddy soils were similar to background concentrations, with the exception of Zn and Cu, which were above those concentrations and reached their highest levels at Vale de Guizo, the monitored station located furthest upstream in the Sado River. At some sites, plant roots accumulated relatively large amounts of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, but the shoot levels of these metals were within the normal range for rice plants. It is possible that varying, but significant, amounts of Fe associated with the roots were in the form of ferric hydroxide plaque covering their surfaces. Copper levels in the shoots of rice were below the normal contents cited for this plant in the literature. Metal levels of river sediments collected near Vale de Guizo seem to corroborate the possibility of some metal contamination in the Sado River, most probably derived from pyrites mining activity in the upper zone of the Sado basin.

  16. Cold spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Benjamin R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hauch, Benjamin; Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Coatings of Ti2AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ∼90 μm in thickness using powder particles of <20 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the phase-content of the deposited coatings to be identical to the powders indicating that no phase transformation or oxidation had occurred during the coating deposition process. The coating exhibited a high hardness of about 800 HK and pin-on-disk wear tests using abrasive ruby ball counter-surface showed the wear resistance of the coating to be significantly superior to the Zry-4 substrate. Scratch tests revealed the coatings to be well-adhered to the Zry-4 substrate. Such mechanical integrity is required for claddings from the standpoint of fretting wear resistance and resisting wear handling and insertion. Air oxidation tests at 700 °C and simulated LOCA tests at 1005 °C in steam environment showed the coatings to be significantly more oxidation resistant compared to Zry-4 suggesting that such coatings can potentially provide accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding.

  17. On the small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in Ti3AlC2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Tao; Zhan, Xun; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Tilt-dominated grain boundaries have been investigated in depth in the deformation of MAX phases. In stark contrast, another important type of grain boundaries, twist grain boundaries, have long been overlooked. Here, we report on the observation of small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in a typical MAX phase Ti3AlC2 compressed at 1200 °C, which comprise hexagonal screw dislocation networks formed by basal dislocation reactions. By first-principles investigations on atomic-scale deformation and general stacking fault energy landscapes, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the twist sub-grain boundaries are most likely located between Al and Ti4f (Ti located at the 4f Wyckoff sites of P63/mmc) layers, with breaking of the weakly bonded Al–Ti4f. The twist angle increases with the increase of deformation and is estimated to be around 0.5° for a deformation of 26%. This work may shed light on sub-grain boundaries of MAX phases, and provide fundamental information for future atomic-scale simulations. PMID:27034075

  18. Oxidation Resistance of Materials Based on Ti3AlC2 Nanolaminate at 600 °C in Air.

    PubMed

    Ivasyshyn, Andrij; Ostash, Orest; Prikhna, Tatiana; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Basyuk, Tatiana

    2016-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of Ti3AlC2-based materials had been investigated at 600 °C in static air for 1000 h. It was shown that the intense increase of weight gain per unit surface area for sintered material with porosity of 22 % attributed to oxidation of the outer surface of the specimen and surfaces of pores in the bulk material. The oxidation kinetics of the hot-pressed Ti3AlC2-based material with 1 % porosity remarkably increased for the first 15 h and then slowly decreased. The weight gain per unit surface area for this material was 1.0 mg/cm(2) after exposition for 1000 h. The intense initial oxidation of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be eliminated by pre-oxidation treatment at 1200 °C in air for 2 h. As a result, the weight gain per unit surface area for the pre-oxidized material did not exceed 0.11 mg/cm(2) after 1000 h of exposition at 600 °C in air. It was demonstrated that the oxidation resistance of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be significantly improved by niobium addition.

  19. Measuring the spectrum of mutation induced by nitrogen ions and protons in the human-hamster hybrid cell line A(L)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed to charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and heavier ions, during space flights. Therefore, studying the biological effectiveness of these sparsely and densely ionizing radiations is important to understanding the potential health effects for astronauts. We evaluated the mutagenic effectiveness of sparsely ionizing 55 MeV protons and densely ionizing 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions using cells of two human-hamster cell lines, A(L) and A(L)C. We have previously characterized a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in the human-hamster hybrid cell lines A(L)C and A(L). CD59(-) mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen encoded by the CD59 gene located at 11p13. Deletion of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the A(L) hybrid, so that CD59 mutants that lose the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. In contrast, deletion of the 11p15.5 region is not lethal in the hybrid A(L)C, allowing for the detection of chromosome loss or other chromosomal mutations involving 11p15.5. The 55 MeV protons and 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions were each about 10 times more mutagenic per unit dose at the CD59 locus in A(L)C cells than in A(L) cells. In the case of nitrogen ions, the mutations observed in A(L)C cells were predominantly due to chromosome loss events or 11p deletions, often containing a breakpoint in the pericentromeric region. The increase in the CD59(-) mutant fraction for A(L)C cells exposed to protons was associated with either translocation of portions of 11q onto a hamster chromosome, or discontinuous or "skipping" mutations. We demonstrate here that A(L)C cells are a powerful tool that will aid in the understanding of the mutagenic effects of different types of ionizing radiation.

  20. Moose (Alces alces) reacts to high summer temperatures by utilizing thermal shelters in boreal forests - an analysis based on airborne laser scanning of the canopy structure at moose locations.

    PubMed

    Melin, Markus; Matala, Juho; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tiilikainen, Raisa; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Maltamo, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Packalen, Petteri

    2014-04-01

    The adaptation of different species to warming temperatures has been increasingly studied. Moose (Alces alces) is the largest of the ungulate species occupying the northern latitudes across the globe, and in Finland it is the most important game species. It is very well adapted to severe cold temperatures, but has a relatively low tolerance to warm temperatures. Previous studies have documented changes in habitat use by moose due to high temperatures. In many of these studies, the used areas have been classified according to how much thermal cover they were assumed to offer based on satellite/aerial imagery data. Here, we identified the vegetation structure in the areas used by moose under different thermal conditions. For this purpose, we used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data extracted from the locations of GPS-collared moose. This provided us with detailed information about the relationships between moose and the structure of forests it uses in different thermal conditions and we were therefore able to determine and differentiate between the canopy structures at locations occupied by moose during different thermal conditions. We also discovered a threshold beyond which moose behaviour began to change significantly: as day temperatures began to reach 20 °C and higher, the search for areas with higher and denser canopies during daytime became evident. The difference was clear when compared to habitat use at lower temperatures, and was so strong that it provides supporting evidence to previous studies, suggesting that moose are able to modify their behaviour to cope with high temperatures, but also that the species is likely to be affected by warming climate.

  1. The effect of size and density on the mean retention time of particles in the reticulorumen of cattle ( Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus) and moose ( Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Tervoort, Theo A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Particle passage from the reticulorumen (RR) depends on particle density and size. Forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the RR. Particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). We investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in the RR of cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus) as a pilot study, and of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n 4) and moose (Alces alces; n 2) both fed two diets (browse and grass). Faeces were analysed for plastic residues for 13 d after dosing to calculate mean retention times (MRT). The results confirmed previous findings of differences in absolute MRT between species. Comparing muskoxen with moose, there was no difference in the effect of particle density on the MRT between species but particle size had a more pronounced effect on the MRT in muskoxen than in moose. This indicated a stronger 'filter-bed effect' in muskoxen, in accord with the reports of stratified RR contents in this species v. the absence of RR content stratification in moose. Low-density particles were retained longer in both species fed on grass diets, indicating a contribution of forage type to the 'filter-bed effect'. The results indicate that retention based on particle size may differ between ruminant species, depending on the presence of a fibre mat in the RR, whereas the density-dependent mechanism of sedimentation in the RR is rather constant across species.

  2. Relative importance of hydrolyzed Al(III) species (Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c)) during coagulation with polyaluminum chloride: a case study with the typical micro-polluted source waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; He, Wenjie; Chow, Christopher W K

    2007-12-15

    The relative importance of three different Al species, Al(a) (monomeric species, instantaneous reacted species), Al(b) (medium polymer species, reacted less than 120 min), and Al(c) (colloidal or solid species, no reaction), defined by timed complexation reaction rate measured by using ferron reagent in polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated in terms of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), UV(254), and turbidity removal efficiencies. Micro-polluted, typical North China, source waters were used to conduct the experiments. The results show that DOC removal is correlated well to the content of Al(b). Removal of UV(254) is determined by the content of Al(b) and Al(c), particularly Al(c). Turbidity removal is primarily related to the content of Al(c); however, Al(b) could destabilize particles efficiently, and the flocs formed by Al(b) are not as large as those formed by Al(c), which affected the settling efficiency. Unlike the preformed Al(b), the in situ formed Al(b) could remove turbidity more efficiently since Al(c) is the dominant final species formed during coagulation. Al(a) shows a strong ability to react with some unsatisfied coordinate bonds of organic matter to facilitate particle and DOC removal. The distinct coagulation feature of Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c) can be applied to develop tailor-made PACl (with the correct distribution of Al species) to match the characteristics of raw water for optimized coagulation.

  3. The Cretaceous (Cenomanian) continental record of the Laje do Coringa flagstone (Alcântara Formation), northeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Manuel Alfredo; Lindoso, Rafael Matos; Mendes, Ighor Dienes; Carvalho, Ismar de Souza

    2014-08-01

    The fossil taxa of the Cenomanian continental flora and fauna of São Luís Basin are observed primarily in the bone bed of the Laje do Coringa, Alcântara Formation. Many of the disarticulated fish and tetrapod skeletal and dental elements are remarkably similar to the chronocorrelate fauna of Northern Africa. In this study, we present a summary of the continental flora and fauna of the Laje do Coringa bone-bed. The record emphasizes the existence of a trans-oceanic typical fauna, at least until the early Cenomanian, which may be interpreted as minor evolutionary changes after a major vicariant event or as a result of a land bridge across the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, thereby allowing interchanges between South America and Africa. The paleoenvironmental conditions in the northern Maranhão State coast during that time were inferred as forested humid areas surrounded by an arid to semi-arid landscape.

  4. Anisotropic swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ang, Caen K.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; ...

    2015-12-17

    Mn + 1AXn (MAX) phase materials based on Ti–Al–C have been irradiated at 400 °C (673 K) with fission neutrons to a fluence of 2 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), corresponding to ~ 2 displacements per atom (dpa). We report preliminary results of microcracking in the Al-containing MAX phase, which contained the phases Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3. Equibiaxial ring-on-ring tests of irradiated coupons showed that samples retained 10% of pre-irradiated strength. Volumetric swelling of up to 4% was observed. Phase analysis and microscopy suggest that anisotropic lattice parameter swelling caused microcracking. Lastly, variants of titanium aluminum carbide may bemore » unsuitable materials for irradiation at light water reactor-relevant temperatures.« less

  5. Chymotrypsins from the deer (Cervidae) family. Isolation, partial characterization and primary-structure studies of chymotrypsins A and B from both moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus elaphus) pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, R M; Stevenson, K J

    1976-01-01

    1. An anionic and a cationic chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) were isolated from the pancreas glands of the moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus elaphus). The A and B chymotrypsins from each species were purified to homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, affinity chromatography on 4-phenylbutylamine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE- and CM-cellulose. 2. The molecular weight and pH optimum of each chymotrypsin were similar to those of the corresponding ox A and B chymotrypsins. 3. The substrate specificities of the chymotrypsins were investigated by digestion of glucagon and the oxidized B chain of insulin. The primary specificity of each chymotrypsin for aromatic amino acid residues was further established by determining the Km and kcat for the hydrolysis of a number of synthetic amino acid ester substrates. 4. The amino acid composition and total number of residues of moose and elk chymotrypsin A were similar to those of ox chymotrypsin A. An even greater similarity was observed among the B chymotrypsins of the three species. 5. The A chymotrypsins of moose and elk were fragmented to their constituent 'A', 'B' and 'C' polypeptide chains by succinylation (3-carboxypropionylation), reduction and alkylation of the native enzymes. In each case, the two major chains ('B' and 'C') were separated and isolated. By comparison of the amino acid compositions of moose, elk and oxy 'B' and 'C' chains, a greater difference was observed among the three A chymotrypsins than was suggested by the amino acid compositions of the native enzymes alone. 6. Peptides were isolated from the disulphide bridge and active-site regions of the A and B chymotrypsins of moose and elk by diagonal peptide-'mapping' techniques. From the amino acid compositions of the isolated peptides (assuming maximum homology) and from a comparison of diagonal peptide 'maps', there was established a high degree of primary-structure identity among the mooae, elk and ox chymotrypsins. Tentative sequences

  6. [REBEn in the context of the history of Brazilian nursing: the significance of remembering Dr. Glete de Alcântara].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Leite, Joséte Luzia; Leite, Juçara Luzia; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora

    2002-01-01

    This is a Social History study which aims at recuperating the professional trajectory of Glete de Alcântara in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem/REBEn (Brazilian Journal of Nursing), initially called Anais de Enfermagem. It is based on the concept of memory of Maurice Halbwach, and on the concept of generation of Daniel Pécaut. The study contextualizes the professional development of Glete de Alcântara in the history of the Brazilian nursing, highlighting the creation of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo (EERP/USP) in Ribeirão Preto. The sources for the study were documents obtained in the Centro de Memória da Escola de Enfermagem (Memory Center of the School of Nursing) of Ribeirão Preto and in ABEN (Brazilian Association of Nursing) in Brasília. Data obtained in this association were mainly collected from its record books the journals.

  7. CUPRI observations of the east-west power asymmetry in oblique type-I echoes from the equatorial electrojet above Alcântara, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.

    Radar observations of the equatorial electrojet at oblique incidence made by the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) from Alcântara, Brazil show the same east-west asymmetry in the echo strength seen previously at Jicamarca, Peru, namely type-I echoes from the west are stronger than those from the east [Balsley, 1965]. One early theory attributed the results at Jicamarca to topographical asymmetries with the Andes Mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west [Ierkic et al., 1980]. However, the lack of comparable topographical features at Alcântara now implies that this postulate is no longer tenable. Other proposed theories are then examined, but none has so far been found to be fully consistent with both the CUPRI and the Jicamarca data.

  8. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization Task Order No. 1 (Block II). Database Documentation Book for OC-ALC MABPAB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-11

    Sept 89 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technology Insertion (TI) / Industrial 1 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Process Improvement (IPI) Task Order No. (Set1t 1)Cnrc...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Technology Inser ion (TI)/ Industrial Process Improvement (IPI) Data Base ocumentation Book Volume, for OC-.ALC/MABPAB (Sheet...COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES -WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. TECHNOLOGY INSERTION- ENGINEERING SERVICES PROCESS

  9. Same night observations of spread-F by the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru and CUPRI in Alcântara, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.; Woodman, Ronald F.

    50-MHz echoes from equatorial spread-F were observed on several nights by both the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) in Peru and the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) in Alcântara, Brazil. Although little detailed correlation is expected between sites separated by such large distances, the night of October 17, 1994 shows some remarkable similarities between Peru and Brazil. On this night spread-F commenced at both Jicamarca and Alcântara as thin bottomside layers situated near 320 km altitude at nearly the same local times. Later, major plumes erupted that reached to over 1000 km altitude at both sites. Since plumes normally drift west to east, these are obviously not the same structures but the similarities indicate that conditions for spawning them must have been coincidentally very similar on this night. The next two nights which produced plumes over Brazil, but only bottomside layers over Peru, emphasize that local conditions on the same night can be very different at the two locations. The importance of having a sufficiently wide beam for exploring spread-F over a large altitude range at the Alcântara site is also explored.

  10. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  11. Chromosomal mutations and chromosome loss measured in a new human-hamster hybrid cell line, ALC: studies with colcemid, ultraviolet irradiation, and 137Cs gamma-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Small mutations, megabase deletions, and aneuploidy are involved in carcinogenesis and genetic defects, so it is important to be able to quantify these mutations and understand mechanisms of their creation. We have previously quantified a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in a hamster-human hybrid cell line AL. S1- mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen, S1, which is encoded by the M1C1 gene at 11p13 so that mutants can be detected via a complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay in which S1+ cells are killed and S1- cells survive. But loss of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the AL hybrid, so that mutants that have lost the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. To circumvent this, we fused AL with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a new hybrid, ALC, in which the requirement for maintaining 11p15.5 is relieved, allowing us to detect mutations events involving loss of 11p15.5. We evaluated the usefulness of this hybrid by conducting mutagenesis studies with colcemid, 137Cs gamma-radiation and UV 254 nm light. Colcemid induced 1000 more S1- mutants per unit dose in ALC than in AL; the increase for UV 254 nm light was only two-fold; and the increase for 137Cs gamma-rays was 12-fold. The increase in S1- mutant fraction in ALC cells treated with colcemid and 137Cs gamma-rays were largely due to chromosome loss and 11p deletions often containing a breakpoint within the centromeric region.

  12. Substantiation of Epitaxial Growth of Diamond Crystals on the Surface of Carbide Fe3AlC0.66 Phase Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dzevin, Ievgenij M; Mekhed, Alexander A

    2017-12-01

    Samples of Fe-Al-C alloys of varying composition were synthesized under high pressures and temperatures. From X-ray analysis data, only K-phase with usual for it average parameter of elemental lattice cell, a = 0.376 nm, carbide Fe3C and cubic diamond reflexes were present before and after cooling to the temperature of liquid nitrogen.Calculations were made of the parameters of unit cells, the enthalpy of formation of the Fe3AlC, Fe3.125Al0.825C0.5, Fe3.5Al0.5C0.5, Fe3.5Al0.5C, Fe3Al0.66C0.66, and Fe3AlC0.66 unit cells and crystallographic planes were identified on which epitaxial growth of the diamond phase was possible, using density functional theory as implemented in the WIEN2k package.The possibility of epitaxial growth of diamond crystals on Fe3AlC0.66 (K-phase) nanoparticles was, therefore, demonstrated. The [200] plane was established to be the most suitable plane for diamond growth, having four carbon atoms arranged in a square and a central vacancy which can be occupied by carbon during thermal-and-pressure treatment. Distances between carbon atoms in the [200] plane differ by only 5% from distances between the carbon atoms of a diamond. The electronic structure and energetic parameters of the substrate were also investigated. It was shown that the substrate with at least four intermediate layers of K-phase exhibits signs of stability such as negative enthalpy of formation and the Fermi level falling to minimum densities of states.

  13. Phase Evaluation in Al2O3 Fiber-Reinforced Ti2AlC During Sintering in the 1300 degrees C-1500 degrees C Temperature Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    14—elements, X is either a C and/or N and n = 1,2,3) are a group of nanolayered ternary carbides and nitrides.14 These phases have a hexagonal unit...The only study on fiber-reinforced MAX phases is that of a recent article in which we reinforced Ti2AlC and Ti3SiC2 with SiC fibers and showed that...x,Six)C2 solid solutions.41 The same study, however, showed that SiC fibers can be used to reinforce Ti3SiC2. The purpose of this study was to

  14. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mabel T.; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Master, Emma R.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36–0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25–50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  15. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

    PubMed

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  16. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.

    2011-05-01

    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  17. Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts.

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo

    2011-11-01

    Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp.

  18. V OLATILEC ALC: a silicate melt-H 2O-CO 2 solution model written in Visual Basic for excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Sally; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2002-06-01

    We present solution models for the rhyolite-H 2O-CO 2 and basalt-H 2O-CO 2 systems at magmatic temperatures and pressures below ˜5000 bar. The models are coded as macros written in Visual Basic for Applications, for use within Microsoft ® Excel (Office'98 and 2000). The series of macros, entitled V OLATILEC ALC, can calculate the following: (1) Saturation pressures for silicate melt of known dissolved H 2O and CO 2 concentrations and the corresponding equilibrium vapor composition; (2) open- and closed-system degassing paths (melt and vapor composition) for depressurizing rhyolitic and basaltic melts; (3) isobaric solubility curves for rhyolitic and basaltic melts; (4) isoplethic solubility curves (constant vapor composition) for rhyolitic and basaltic melts; (5) polybaric solubility curves for the two end members and (6) end member fugacities of H 2O and CO 2 vapors at magmatic temperatures. The basalt-H 2O-CO 2 macros in V OLATILEC ALC are capable of calculating melt-vapor solubility over a range of silicate-melt compositions by using the relationships provided by Dixon (American Mineralogist 82 (1997) 368). The output agrees well with the published solution models and experimental data for silicate melt-vapor systems for pressures below 5000 bar.

  19. CUPRI observations of persistence asymmetry reversals in up-down vertical type-I echoes from the equatorial electro jet above Alcântara, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.

    High resolution vertical radar measurements of the equatorial electrojet above Alcântara, Brazil, were made with the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) as part of the Guará Dip Equator Campaign. Type-I spectra obtained from the main body of the electrojet during strong daytime conditions show a preponderance of upward phase velocities as a function of time. However, the data from a few kilometers higher show a persistence of downward phase velocities. This reversal in sign of the most persistent type-I peak occurs regularly in our data whenever the electrojet is strongly driven. The persistence of upward phase velocities is similar to that seen earlier at Jicamarca but the reversal in sign of the dominating mode has not been previously observed, nor is it consistent with current electrojet theories. Another unexpected result from the Alcântara data set is that the absolute values of the phase velocities of the type-I spectra peaks decrease with altitude. This is through a region where the temperature (and hence the acoustic velocity) should be increasing with altitude. Hence, the saturation of the type-I peak phase velocities is not just a simple function of the acoustic velocity.

  20. Long-term corrosion tests of Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC in oxygen containing LBE at temperatures up to 700 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Weisenburger, A.; Müller, G.

    2016-12-01

    Two MAX-phase materials, Ti3SiC and Ti2AlC, were tested at 550 °C, 650 °C and 700 °C up to 10 000 h in LBE (lead-bismuth-eutectic) containing of 10-6 and 10-8 wt% oxygen. It was found that secondary phases have a strong influence on corrosion effects. Ti3SiC showed a surface disintegration at 550°C/10-6 wt% oxygen after longer exposure, while a 4-7 μm thick TiO2 layer with Pb-Bi inclusions was detected on Ti2AlC. However, Ti3SiC is protected by a double layered oxide with an outer part of TiO2 and a mixed inner layer of SiO2 and TiO2 at the higher temperatures. Ti2AlC formed a TiO2 surface layer containing Al2O3. Some defects could be observed on the Ti3SiC surface in LBE containing 10-8 wt% oxygen at 550 °C and 650 °C. The secondary phases between the Ti3SiC grains showed strong oxidation at 700 °C. Due to the high Al solubility in LBE, Ti2AlC experienced strong dissolution attack after longer exposure times at 650 and 700 °C.

  1. Effects of neutron irradiation of Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 in the 121-1085 °C temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Gan, Jian; Caspi, El'ad N.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2017-02-01

    Herein we report on the formation of defects in response to neutron irradiation of polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 samples exposed to total fluences of ≈6 × 1020 n/m2, 5 × 1021 n/m2 and 1.7 × 1022 n/m2 at irradiation temperatures of 121(12), 735(6) and 1085(68)°C. These fluences correspond to 0.14, 1.6 and 3.4 dpa, respectively. After irradiation to 0.14 dpa at 121 °C and 735 °C, black spots are observed via transmission electron microscopy in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2. After irradiation to 1.6 and 3.4 dpa at 735 °C, basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = ½ [0001] are observed in Ti3SiC2, with loop diameters of 21(6) and 30(8) nm after 1.6 dpa and 3.4 dpa, respectively. In Ti3AlC2, larger dislocation loops, 75(34) nm in diameter are observed after 3.4 dpa at 735 °C, in addition to stacking faults. Impurity particles of TiC, as well as stacking fault TiC platelets in the MAX phases, are seen to form extensive dislocation loops under all conditions. Cavities were observed at grain boundaries and within stacking faults after 3.4 dpa irradiation, with extensive cavity formation in the TiC regions at 1085 °C. Remarkably, denuded zones on the order of 1 μm are observed in Ti3SiC2 after irradiation to 3.4 dpa at 735 °C. Small grains, 3-5 μm in diameter, are damage free after irradiation at 1085 °C at this dose. The results shown herein confirm once again that the presence of the A-layers in the MAX phases considerably enhance their irradiation tolerance. Based on these results, and up to 3.4 dpa, Ti3SiC2 remains a promising candidate for high temperature nuclear applications as long as the temperature remains >700 °C.

  2. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Riparian forests provide ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being. The Pepital River is the main water supply for Alcântara (Brazil) and its forests are disappearing. This is affecting water volume and distribution in the region. Promoting forest restoration is imperative. In deprived regions, restoration success depends on the integration of ecology, livelihoods and traditional knowledge (TEK). In this study, an interdisciplinary research framework is proposed to design riparian forest restoration strategies based on ecological data, TEK and social needs. Methods This study takes place in a region presenting a complex history of human relocation and land tenure. Local populations from seven villages were surveyed to document livelihood (including ‘free-listing’ of agricultural crops and homegarden tree species). Additionally, their perceptions toward environmental changes were explored through semi-structured interviews (n = 79). Ethnobotanical information on forest species and their uses were assessed by local-specialists (n = 19). Remnants of conserved forests were surveyed to access ecological information on tree species (three plots of 1,000 m2). Results included descriptive statistics, frequency and Smith’s index of salience of the free-list results. Results The local population depends primarily on slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture to meet their needs. Interviewees showed a strong empirical knowledge about the environmental problems of the river, and of their causes, consequences and potential solutions. Twenty-four tree species (dbh > 10 cm) were found at the reference sites. Tree density averaged 510 individuals per hectare (stdv = 91.6); and 12 species were considered the most abundant (density > 10ind/ha). There was a strong consensus among plant-specialists about the most important trees. The species lists from reference sites and plant-specialists presented an important convergence

  3. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI) Task Order Number 1. Data Base Documentation Book for SA-ALC/MATPSS (Assembly and Test GTE’s)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-14

    8217 -- - AD-A237 070 JMENTATION PAGE _ N tt t *. 0 ’t o0t o f im lt0 e o mn’t0 tfverage Itott I ( flh t Ett 9 ain q ’ tc "I"? O" 3t W turce* i i...technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI).D(taas%V’ocumentatioh ,ook Folume-; f or SA-ALC/MATPSS (Assembl’V & Test GTE’s X . this...ffo6A Fir W~ r-uFL sTAgTFR &FEs) 13e r14 JET FUE STRT~ER (jFS) c! ?6O7A ,F15 (&/FI-RAL 6-iARt9,-; X k/6rR )27I2A F/ ACcfKS~tQR VR,]F (,FARBcX (At&-) Od

  4. CUPRI observations of pre-sunrise vertical type-I echoes from the equatorial electrojet above Alcântara, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.

    1997-10-01

    The Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) made high resolution vertical radar measurements of the equatorial electrojet above Alcântara, Brazil from mid-August to mid-October, 1994, as part of the Guará Dip Equator Campaign. Spectra obtained during the period of a few hours before sunrise show the usual nighttime persistence asymmetry wherein there is a preponderance of downward type-I phase velocities as a function of time. These are the first high resolution measurements in South America of this effect at a location other than Jicamarca, Peru. Furthermore the CUPRI interferometer phase data clearly indicate that when changes in the sign of the dominate type-I peaks occur, they are tied to the normal phase progressions of the large scale waves. No reversal of the asymmetry (as does occur in the daytime) was seen in this nighttime period.

  5. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  6. H Ly-alpha transmittance of thin foils of C, Si/C, and Al/C for keV particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Jenkins, D. G.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1992-01-01

    A class of instruments designed for remote sensing of space plasmas by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENA) uses a thin foil as both a signal generator and a light shield. An ENA imager must look directly at the ENA source region, which is also usually an intense source of H Ly-alpha (1216 A) photons. It is desirable to minimize the energy threshold for ENA detectors, at the same time maximizing the blocking of H Ly-alpha. Optimizing filter design to meet these two contrary requirements has led us to measure the transmittance of thin C, Si/C, and Al/C foils at H Ly-alpha. Our results indicate that (1) transmittance of less than 0.0007 can be achieved with 7 micro-g/sq cm Si on 1.7 micro-g/sq cm C; (2) an Si/C composite foil with a thin carbon layer is more effective in blocking UV radiation while having the lowest energy threshold of all the foils measured; and (3) transmittance of Si/C foils of known Si and C thicknesses cannot be accurately predicted, but must be measured.

  7. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) subsidize gray wolves (Canis lupus) during a moose (Alces americanus) decline: A case of apparent competition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L. David

    2016-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Minnesota have declined by 55% since 2006. Although the cause is unresolved, some studies have suggested that Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) contributed to the decline. After the Moose decline, wolves could either decline or switch prey. To determine which occurred in our study area, we compared winter wolf counts and summer diet before and after the Moose decline. While wolf numbers in our study area nearly doubled from 23 in winter 2002 to an average of 41 during winters 2011–2013, calf:cow ratios (the number of calves per cow observed during winter surveys) in the wider Moose range more than halved from 0.93 in 2002 to an average of 0.31 during 2011–2013. Compared to summer 2002, wolves in summers 2011–2013 consumed fewer Moose and more White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). While deer densities were similar during each period, average vulnerability, as reflected by winter severity, was greater during 2011–2013 than 2002, probably explaining the wolf increase. During the wolf increase Moose calves remained a summer food item. These findings suggest that in part of the Moose range, deer subsidized wolf numbers while wolves also preyed on Moose calves. This contributed to a Moose decline and is a possible case of apparent competition and inverse-density-dependent predation.

  8. cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of ethanol-inducible rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 isozyme 3a (P-450ALC).

    PubMed Central

    Khani, S C; Zaphiropoulos, P G; Fujita, V S; Porter, T D; Koop, D R; Coon, M J

    1987-01-01

    Administration of ethanol to rabbits is known to induce a unique liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, termed isozyme 3a or P-450ALC, which is responsible for the increased oxidation of ethanol and other alcohols and the activation of toxic or carcinogenic compounds such as acetaminophen and N-nitrosodimethylamine. To further characterize this cytochrome P-450 we have identified cDNA clones to isozyme 3a by immunoscreening, DNA hybridization, and hybridization-selection. The cDNA sequence determined from two overlapping clones contains an open reading frame of 1416 nucleotides, and the first 25 amino acids of this reading frame correspond to residues 21-45 of cytochrome P-450 3a. The complete polypeptide, including residues 1 to 20, contains 492 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 56,820. Cytochrome P-450 3a is approximately 55% identical in sequence to P-450 isozymes 1 and 3b and 48% identical to isozyme 2. Hybridization of clone p3a-2 to electrophoretically fractionated rabbit liver poly(A)+ RNA revealed multiple bands, but, with a probe derived from the 3' nontranslated portion of this cDNA, only a 1.9-kilobase band was observed. Treatment of rabbits with imidazole, which increases the content of isozyme 3a, resulted in a transient increase in form 3a mRNA, but this was judged to be insufficient to account for the known 4.5-fold increase in form 3a protein. Genomic DNA analysis indicated that the cytochrome P-450 3a gene does not belong to a large subfamily. Images PMID:3027695

  9. Internal architecture of mixed tide- and storm-influenced deposits: an example from the Alcántara Formation, northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce

    1997-12-01

    The uppermost portion of the Itapecuru Group is exposed in the eastern margin of the Sao Luis Basin, northern Brazil, where it consists of two units: the Alcantara Formation (Cenomanian) and the Cujupe Formation (Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary? [Rossetti, D.F., Truckenbrodt, W., 1997. Revisão estratigrdfica para os depósitos do Albiano-Terciário Inferior (?) na Bacia de Sao Luis (MA), norte do Brasil. Bol. Mus. Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Ciênc. Terra), in press]). The Alcântara Formation, which contains the large-scale structures discussed in this paper, consists of deposits attributed to mid- to upper-shoreface, foreshore, tidal channel, and lagoon/washover environments attributed to a regressive, barred shoreline. Several types of large-scale cross bedding (i.e., simple foreset, compound, mixed, undulatory, and intricately bounded) were recognized in the shoreface facies association. These structures are interpreted to record the interaction of storm and tidal processes. The storm influence is suggested by a combination of factors, mostly including: (a) the genetic association with other storm-generated sedimentary structures (i.e., swaley cross stratification and undulating parallel lamination with internal truncations); (b) the deposition on prominent surfaces formed by storm erosion, which are defined by large-scale, either symmetrical or asymmetrical scours arranged in a regular, repeating pattern; (c) the sedimentary features formed under combined (unidirectional and oscillatory) flow processes (e.g., compound/mixed bedding with superimposed either swaley cross sets or complexly truncating cross sets with highly undulating boundaries; large-scale, undulatory and intricately bounded cross beddings); and (d) the lateral change in structural styles within short distances, which records frequent modification from asymmetrical to symmetrical/nearly symmetrical bedform profiles (more likely to occur under storm-generated combined flows). The tidal

  10. Hyperfine rather than spin splittings dominate the fine structure of the B {sup 4}Σ{sup −}–X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} bands of AlC

    SciTech Connect

    Clouthier, Dennis J. Kalume, Aimable

    2016-01-21

    Laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength resolved emission spectra of the B {sup 4}Σ{sup −}–X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} band system of the gas phase cold aluminum carbide free radical have been obtained using the pulsed discharge jet technique. The radical was produced by electron bombardment of a precursor mixture of trimethylaluminum in high pressure argon. High resolution spectra show that each rotational line of the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of AlC is split into at least three components, with very similar splittings and intensities in both the P- and R-branches. The observed structure was reproduced by assuming b{sub βS} magnetic hyperfine coupling in the excited state, due to a substantial Fermi contact interaction of the unpaired electron in the aluminum 3s orbital. Rotational analysis has yielded ground and excited state equilibrium bond lengths in good agreement with the literature and our own ab initio values. Small discrepancies in the calculated intensities of the hyperfine lines suggest that the upper state spin-spin constant λ′ is of the order of ≈0.025–0.030 cm{sup −1}.

  11. A critical evaluation of GGA + U modeling for atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, M; Alling, B; Rosen, J

    2015-03-11

    In this work we critically evaluate methods for treating electron correlation effects in multicomponent carbides using a GGA + U framework, addressing doubts from previous works on the usability of density functional theory in the design of magnetic MAX phases. We have studied the influence of the Hubbard U-parameter, applied to Cr 3d orbitals, on the calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, magnetic order, bulk modulus and electronic density of states of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro-, and five different antiferromagnetic spin configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic orders in the search for MAX phases with finite magnetic moments in the ground state. We show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation (U = 0 eV), the magnetic ground state of Cr2AC (A = Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments, and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values. By comparing GGA and GGA + U results with experimental data we find that using a U-value larger than 1 eV results in structural parameters deviating strongly from experimentally observed values. Comparisons are also done with hybrid functional calculations (HSE06) resulting in an exchange splitting larger than what is obtained for a U-value of 2 eV. Our results suggest caution and that investigations need to involve several different magnetic orders before lack of magnetism in calculations are blamed on the exchange-correlation approximations in this class of magnetic MAX phases.

  12. Stabilizing Spatially-Structured Populations through Adaptive Limiter Control

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Pratha; Dey, Sutirth

    2014-01-01

    Stabilizing the dynamics of complex, non-linear systems is a major concern across several scientific disciplines including ecology and conservation biology. Unfortunately, most methods proposed to reduce the fluctuations in chaotic systems are not applicable to real, biological populations. This is because such methods typically require detailed knowledge of system specific parameters and the ability to manipulate them in real time; conditions often not met by most real populations. Moreover, real populations are often noisy and extinction-prone, which can sometimes render such methods ineffective. Here, we investigate a control strategy, which works by perturbing the population size, and is robust to reasonable amounts of noise and extinction probability. This strategy, called the Adaptive Limiter Control (ALC), has been previously shown to increase constancy and persistence of laboratory populations and metapopulations of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the effects of ALC on the fluctuations and persistence of metapopulations. We show that at high migration rates, application of ALC does not require a priori information about the population growth rates. We also show that ALC can stabilize metapopulations even when applied to as low as one-tenth of the total number of subpopulations. Moreover, ALC is effective even when the subpopulations have high extinction rates: conditions under which another control algorithm had previously failed to attain stability. Importantly, ALC not only reduces the fluctuation in metapopulation sizes, but also the global extinction probability. Finally, the method is robust to moderate levels of noise in the dynamics and the carrying capacity of the environment. These results, coupled with our earlier empirical findings, establish ALC to be a strong candidate for stabilizing real biological metapopulations. PMID:25153073

  13. Adaptive limiter control of unimodal population maps.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Hilker, Frank M

    2013-11-21

    We analyse the adaptive limiter control (ALC) method, which was recently proposed for stabilizing population oscillations and experimentally tested in laboratory populations and metapopulations of Drosophila melanogaster. We thoroughly explain the mechanisms that allow ALC to reduce the magnitude of population fluctuations under certain conditions. In general, ALC is a control strategy with a number of useful properties (e.g. being globally asymptotically stable), but there may be some caveats. The control can be ineffective or even counterproductive at small intensities, and the interventions can be extremely costly at very large intensities. Based on our analytical results, we describe recipes how to choose the control intensity, depending on the range of population sizes we wish to target. In our analysis, we highlight the possible importance of initial transients and classify them into different categories.

  14. Population structure and genetic diversity of moose in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer I; Hundertmark, Kris J; Bowyer, R Terry; McCracken, Kevin G

    2009-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) are highly mobile mammals that occur across arboreal regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) range across much of Alaska and are primary herbivore consumers, exerting a prominent influence on ecosystem structure and functioning. Increased knowledge gained from population genetics provides insights into their population dynamics, history, and dispersal of these unique large herbivores and can aid in conservation efforts. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure of moose (n = 141) with 8 polymorphic microsatellites from 6 regions spanning much of Alaska. Expected heterozygosity was moderate (H(E) = 0.483-0.612), and private alleles ranged from 0 to 6. Both F(ST) and R(ST) indicated significant population structure (P < 0.001) with F(ST) < 0.109 and R(ST) < 0.125. Results of analyses from STRUCTURE indicated 2 prominent population groups, a mix of moose from the Yakutat and Tetlin regions versus all other moose, with slight substructure observed among the second population. Estimates of dispersal differed between analytical approaches, indicating a high level of historical or current gene flow. Mantel tests indicated that isolation-by-distance partially explained observed structure among moose populations (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.01). Finally, there was no evidence of bottlenecks either at the population level or overall. We conclude that weak population structure occurs among moose in Alaska with population expansion from interior Alaska westward toward the coast.

  15. Sarcocystis species in moose (Alces alces), bison (Bison, bison), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1980-12-01

    The transmission of Sarcocystis spp from naturally infected moose, bison, and pronghorn was attempted in laboratory-raised coyotes and dogs. Infected musculature from a moose was feed to a dog and a coyote, and 12 days later, both animals shed sporocysts. Sporocysts were 14 to 17 X 8.5 to 10.5 micron (av 14.5 X 8.8). A coyote was fed muscle from a bison, and 11 days later, it shed sporocysts. The sporocysts were 14 to 16 X 9 to 11 micron (14.0 X 9.0). Infected tissues from a pronghorn were fed to a dog; the dog did not shed sporocysts. Two morphologically distinct sarcocysts (thick walled and thin walled) were found in masculature of a moose. The name, Sarcocystis alceslatrans, sp n, is proposed for the thin-walled sarcocysts in the mouse.

  16. Assessing and modeling moose (Alces alces) habitats with airborne laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, M.; Packalén, P.; Matala, J.; Mehtätalo, L.; Pusenius, J.

    2013-08-01

    In the analysis of forest resources, the use of ALS (airborne laser scanning) enables detailed three dimensional (3D) descriptions of forests and their vegetation. Simultaneously, ecologists have recognized that 3D information on vegetation is highly important in analyzing the habitat suitability of a given site. Recently, animals’ habitat preferences have been analyzed, for example, with GPS-collared animals. This has resulted in detailed knowledge about the animals’ movements both spatially and temporally. This study combines 3D information on vegetation obtained from ALS data with information about animal locations from GPS data. The aim was to map and analyze the habitat preferences of moose. The study area was located on the west coast of Finland. The data consisted of 18 GPS-collared moose (monitored from 2009 to 2010) and ALS data collected in 2010. We investigated how habitat structure changes as a function of distance to observed moose locations and how observed moose locations differ from randomly selected locations in terms of 3D structure. We also created a model-based habitat suitability map and tested it against moose occurrences. The results suggested that there are clear differences between the areas occupied and not occupied by moose and that these differences can be detected from ALS data. More importantly, ALS proved its potential in linking 3D descriptions of vegetation directly to observed moose locations without any proxy variables. These observations strongly support future studies.

  17. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Juan; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive. PMID:28151983

  18. Impact of the Phase 2 Infantry Advanced Leader Course (ALC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Transfer of Training: Background and Definition .....................................................................3 Training Transfer Model...Transfer of Training: Background and Definition Effective training has the potential to increase knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and to enable...agreeableness, extraversion and emotional stability (see Burke & Hutchins, 2007; Blume et al., 2010). Of the “Big Five” personality dimensions

  19. Automatic Loudspeaker Control (ALC). A Summary of Development and Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    DeJnuryg98 Wahigtn ACU20362&) 4. CNRAER O PAESUSE~ a4 MO IORING AGEANCZA I NA E A ADDR RESSI dill PROGrn’ C nrlin lt. I. S C RITY CL ASSNT RO JE T th p T AS...opae Cotptsing Onfi pce s 15 EUIYA, o isportly S. r in aITIUINd pAnnedN syteo epmet this reportas rvdsalsigo L ouet vial fpro e NoC andli lapp e...for easy probing. The power supply and transformer are connected to the printed circuit board at P3 and P ,,, re- spectively, by connector terminated

  20. The many faces of population density.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Stephen J; Schaefer, James A

    2005-09-01

    Population density, one of the most fundamental demographic attributes, may vary systematically with spatial scale, but this scale-sensitivity is incompletely understood. We used a novel approach-based on fully censused and mapped distributions of eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) dreys, beaver (Castor canadensis) lodges, and moose (Alces alces)--to explore the scale-dependence of population density and its relationship to landscape features. We identified population units at several scales, both objectively, using cluster analysis, and arbitrarily, using artificial bounds centred on high-abundance sites. Densities declined with census area. For dreys, this relationship was stronger in objective versus arbitrary population units. Drey density was inconsistently related to patch area, a relationship that was positive for all patches but negative when non-occupied patches were excluded. Drey density was negatively related to the proportion of green-space and positively related to the density of buildings or roads, relationships that were accentuated at coarser scales. Mean drey densities were more sensitive to scale when calculated as organism-weighted versus area-weighted averages. Greater understanding of these scaling effects is required to facilitate comparisons of population density across studies.

  1. The Content of Copper and Molybdenum in the Liver, Kidneys, and Skeletal Muscles of Elk (Alces alces) from North-Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Skibniewski, Michał; Skibniewska, Ewa M; Kośla, Tadeusz; Olbrych, Katarzyna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the content of Cu and Mo in the liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles of elks from north-eastern Poland. The investigation material comprised samples obtained in 2010 from 35 animals. Animals were grouped according to age (elks up to 2 years and over than 3 years). The metal concentrations were determined using coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mean Cu concentrations in the liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles were 23.08, 5.03, and 2.36 mg∙kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. The mean Mo content in the examined samples was as follows: 0.92, 0.42, and 0.05 mg∙kg(-1) wet weight (w.w.) in the liver, kidneys, and muscles. In the analysis of correlation between the Cu and Mo levels in particular organs, the presence of significant dependence (p ≤ 0.05) was observed in the liver of animals studied. The mean Cu content in the liver of animals studied is lower compared with data reported from Sweden, Russia, and North America. Concentrations of Cu and Mo in the kidneys and skeletal muscles of Polish elks are similar to data noted in healthy animals from Scandinavian region. The results suggest that elks from north-eastern Poland may be threatened by primary Cu deficiency.

  2. Physical characteristics of rumen contents in four large ruminants of different feeding type, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), bison (Bison bison), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Fritz, Julia; Bayer, Dorothee; Nygren, Kaarlo; Hammer, Sven; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hummel, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Based on morphological and physiological observations, it has been suggested that differences exist in the degree that reticuloruminal (RR) contents are stratified between various ruminant species. However, the occurrence of stratification has hardly been measured in non-domestic species. Forestomach contents of free-ranging moose (n=22) and red deer (24) shot during regular hunting procedures, and of captive (but 100% forage fed) addax (6) and bison (10) culled for commercial or management purposes were investigated. There was no difference between the species in the degree by which RR ingesta separated according to size due to buoyancy characteristics in vitro. However, RR fluid of moose was more viscous than that of the other species, and no difference in moisture content was evident between the dorsal and the ventral rumen in moose, in contrast to the other species. Hence, the RR milieu in moose appears less favourable for gas or particle separation due to buoyancy characteristics. These findings are in accord with notable differences in RR papillation between the species. In moose, particle separation is most likely restricted to the reticulum, whereas in the other species, the whole rumen may pre-sort particles in varying degrees; a possible explanation for this pattern is a hypothetically lesser saliva production and fluid throughput in moose. The results suggest that differences in RR physiology may occur across ruminant species. The RR sorting mechanism should be considered a dynamic process that is better measured by its result--the significantly smaller particle size in the distal digestive tract when compared to the RR--than by regional differences in particle size within the RR.

  3. Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Wik, Lotta; Mikko, Sofia; Klingeborn, Mikael; Stéen, Margareta; Simonsson, Magnus; Linné, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2009-05-01

    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  5. Relationship between Cd and Zn concentration in the kidneys, liver, and muscles of moose (Alces alces) from north-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Skibniewski, Michał; Skibniewska, Ewa M; Kośla, Tadeusz; Olbrych, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the cadmium and zinc content in the kidneys and liver of moose from north-eastern Poland. Animals were divided with respect to their age. The mean concentration of cadmium in the kidneys of moose studied was 11.31 mg kg(-1), while in the liver it amounted to 2.68 mg kg(-1). Age had a significant effect on the content of cadmium in both organs. In the muscles of most animals studied, the cadmium concentrations were below the detection limit. Elevated concentrations were found in three individuals only. Older animals had over six times higher concentrations of cadmium in both kidneys and liver than younger individuals. The cadmium content in kidneys increased with animals' age while no such relationship was found for zinc. Although older animals had higher mean concentrations of zinc in kidneys, liver, and muscles, the two age groups did not differ significantly. The mean concentration of zinc in the kidneys of moose studied was 38.83 mg kg(-1), while in the liver it amounted to 29.03 mg kg(-1). The cadmium concentration in the kidneys was significantly correlated with the cadmium concentration in the liver (r = 0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and with the zinc concentration in the kidneys (r = 0.52, p ≤ 0.01). The data obtained within study correspond with analyses results of the organs of healthy moose in Sweden.

  6. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  7. Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies in moose (Alces americana), Maine, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lubelczyk, Charles; Elias, Susan P; Kantar, Lee; Albert, Jennifer; Hansen, Stephen; Saxton-Shaw, Kali; MacMillan, Katharine; Smith, Leticia B; Eisen, Rebecca; Swope, Bethany; Smith, Robert Pease; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Moose sera were collected from harvested animals during the 2010 hunting season in Maine. Of the 145 serum samples screened by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), 16 (11%) had antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Positive samples were collected from Aroostook County (n=13), Somerset County (n=2), and Piscataquis County (n=1) in northern and central Maine. Preliminary mosquito surveillance revealed the presence of enzootic and bridge vectors mosquitoes, including Culiseta (Climacura) melanura (Coquillett), Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen), and Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) perturbans (Walker). Select mosquito species were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of EEEV. None were positive. This is the first report of EEEV in moose from Maine.

  8. Processing and Characterization of Porous Ti2AlC with Controlled Porosity and Pore Size

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    fabricated by spark plasma sintering , were also characterized. The effects of porosity and/or pore size on the room temperature elastic moduli...pressureless- sintered without NaCl pore former, or fabricated by spark plasma sintering , were also characterized. The effects of porosity and/or pore size...as well as several samples sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Furthermore, we demon- strate that the developed methodology can be implemented

  9. Materials Data on Ta4AlC3 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Geophysical prospection of the Roman city of Pollentia, Alcúdia (Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranieri, G.; Godio, A.; Loddo, F.; Stocco, S.; Casas, A.; Capizzi, P.; Messina, P.; Orfila, M.; Cau, M. A.; Chávez, Mª. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the geophysical investigation carried out in the Roman city of Pollentia, in the island of Mallorca. The ancient city was identified in the 19th century. Old and new archaeological excavations have helped to uncover a residential area, a theatre, the forum, several necropolises and other remains of the city, but a large unexplored area has still to be investigated. For instance, the limits of the ancient town and the presence of harbour structures are still unknown. The geophysical survey has covered an area of more than 20.000 m2 by integrating magnetic, electromagnetic, electrical and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods. Many unseen archaeological features were clearly revealed by the interpretation of the resistivity maps and GPR time slices. A new method for the visualisation of the geophysical evidence based on VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) 3D data representation provides promising results to drive future excavations. The VRML shows a great potentiality for the digital visualization of the site aimed at its exploitation and usability even without the archaeological excavation.

  11. Materials Data on Nb3AlC2 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-23

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Nb2AlC (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-23

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. The Effects of Employing HVM on C-130 Aircraft at WR-ALC to Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    information system capability 16 enables the synchronized planning, scheduling, data collection, and analysis required to implement a highly choreographed ...support requirements such as standard work through visual workcards, choreographed tasks, and required material through POU kits to ensure the...is accomplished on the aircraft. If daily work is standardized in terms of work performed and choreographed in sequence; the condition of the

  14. Materials Data on Mn3AlC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on Nd3AlC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. EVALUATION OF PROPYLENE CARBONATE IN AIR LOGISTICS CENTER (ALC) DEPAINTING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes a two-phase, laboratory-scale screening study that evaluated solvent blends containing propylene carbonate (PC) as a potential replacement for methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in aircraft radome depainting operations. The study was conducted at Oklahoma City Air L...

  17. Analysis of the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s (ALC) Contract Management Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, 2007) Table 2. AT&L Workforce by Generation (From Amour , 2002) These main issues are what led...June 14, 2007, from http://www.afmc.af.mil/library/mission.asp Amour , S. (2002, November 6). Generation Y They’ve arrived at work with a new attitude

  18. Materials Data on Dy3AlC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Sc3AlC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Ho3AlC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Nb4AlC3 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-01

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on Y3AlC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. The cumulative effect of consecutive winters' snow depth on moose and deer populations: a defence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McRoberts, R.E.; Mech, L.D.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    1. L. D. Mech et al. presented evidence that moose Alces alces and deer Odocoileus virginianus population parameters re influenced by a cumulative effect of three winters' snow depth. They postulated that snow depth affects adult ungulates cumulatively from winter to winter and results in measurable offspring effects after the third winter. 2. F. Messier challenged those findings and claimed that the population parameters studied were instead affected by ungulate density and wolf indexes. 3. This paper refutes Messier's claims by demonstrating that his results were an artifact of two methodological errors. The first was that, in his main analyses, Messier used only the first previous winter's snow depth rather than the sum of the previous three winters' snow depth, which was the primary point of Mech et al. Secondly, Messier smoothed the ungulate population data, which removed 22-51% of the variability from the raw data. 4. When we repeated Messier's analyses on the raw data and using the sum of the previous three winter's snow depth, his findings did not hold up.

  4. Depression of belowground respiration rates at simulated high moose population densities in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Persson, Inga-Lill; Nilsson, Mats B; Pastor, John; Eriksson, Tobias; Bergström, Roger; Danell, Kjell

    2009-10-01

    Large herbivores can affect the carbon cycle in boreal forests by changing productivity and plant species composition, which in turn could ultimately alter litter production, nutrient cycling, and the partitioning between aboveground and belowground allocation of carbon. Here we experimentally tested how moose (Alces alces) at different simulated population densities affected belowground respiration rates (estimated as CO2 flux) in young boreal forest stands situated along a site productivity gradient. At high simulated population density, moose browsing considerably depressed belowground respiration rates (24-56% below that of no-moose controls) except during June, where the difference only was 10%. Moose browsing depressed belowground respiration the most on low-productivity sites. Soil moisture and temperature did not affect respiration rates. Impact of moose on belowground respiration was closely linked to litter production and followed Michaelis-Menten dynamics. The main mechanism by which moose decrease belowground respiration rates is likely their effect on photosynthetic biomass (especially decreased productivity of deciduous trees) and total litter production. An increased productivity of deciduous trees along the site productivity gradient causes an unequal effect of moose along the same gradient. The rapid growth of deciduous trees may offer higher resilience against negative effects of moose browsing on litter production and photosynthate allocation to roots.

  5. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  6. Investigation, control and epizootiology of anthrax in a geographically isolated, free-roaming bison population in northern Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Gates, C C; Elkin, B T; Dragon, D C

    1995-01-01

    In July 1993 anthrax caused significant mortality in an isolated, free-ranging population of bison (Bos bison athabascae) west of Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories. There was no previous record of anthrax in this area. An emergency response was undertaken to reduce the scale of environmental contamination and dissemination of anthrax spores and hence to reduce the likelihood of future outbreaks. One-hundred-and-seventy-two bison, 3 moose (Alces alces), and 3 black bear (Ursus americanus) carcasses were found. Visual detection of carcasses was enhanced with the use of an airborne, remote infrared sensing camera mounted externally on a helicopter. Fifty-five percent of the carcasses were located in forested or shrub-covered sites where detection would not have been likely without the thermal imaging equipment. Carcasses were disposed of by incineration and the sites were decontaminated with formaldehyde. Application of formaldehyde to carcasses prevented scavenging. The outbreak occurred after a prolonged period of drying between April and mid-July 1993 which followed several successive years of flooding of bison habitat. The "spore concentration hypothesis" provides the most conservative explanation for the occurrence of anthrax under the observed conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:8548686

  7. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navinder J; Leonardsson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS)'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana), moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents) may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS) populations as well.

  8. An analytical platform for cumulative impact assessment based on multiple futures: the impact of petroleum drilling and forest harvesting on moose (Alces alces) and marten (Martes americana) habitats in northeastern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Strimbu, Bogdan; Innes, John

    2011-07-01

    The combined influence on the environment of all projects occurring in a single area is evaluated through cumulative impact assessments (CIA), which consider the consequences of multiple projects, each insignificant on its own, yet important when evaluated collectively. Traditionally, future human activities are included in CIA using an analytical platform, commonly based on complex models that supply precise predictions but with reduced accuracy. To compensate for the lack of accuracy in current CIA approaches, we propose a shift in the paradigm governing CIA. The paradigm shift involves a change in the focus of CIA investigations from the detailed analysis of one unlikely future to the identification of the patterns describing multiple potential future changes in the environment. To illustrate the approach, a set of 144 possible and equally likely futures were developed that aimed to identify the potential impacts of forest harvesting and petroleum drilling on the habitat suitability of moose and marten in northeast British Columbia, Canada. The evolution of two measures of habitat suitability (average habitat suitability index and surface of the stands with habitat suitability index >0.5) revealed that the human activities could induce cycles in the habitat dynamics of moose and marten. The planning period of 100 years was separated into three distinct periods following a sinusoidal pattern (i.e., increase - constant - decrease in the habitat suitability measures). The attributes that could induce significant changes in the assessment of environment are the choice of harvesting age and species.

  9. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IP) Task Order Number 14. Contract Summary Report/Quick Fix Plan for SA-ALC/MAEPNC (Cleaning). Volume 5. SA-ALC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-16

    DISASSEMBLE ITEM SORT PER PICTURE BOOK If[PLACE IN BASKET OR O PALLET I TAG FOR PROCESS iA AUTOMATED CLEANING j.YES - CLEANUREQUIED NO HAND CLEANING...requiring cleaning are sorted by cleaning process and placed in stainless steel wire baskets or onto plastic pallets . A stainless steel tag is attached to...engine parts can be stored/hung while they await assembly. With this arrangement (rather than the current system of storing these parts in the stacker

  10. Applications of Adaptive Learning Controller to Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    FIGURE 37. Location of Two Sub- Phase Histories to be Utilized in Estimating Misfocus Coefficients A and C . . . A8 FIGURES 38.-94. ALC Learning Curves ...FIGURES (Concl uded) FIGURE 23. ALC Learning Curve .... .................. ... 45 .- " FIGURE 24. ALC Learning Curve ......... ................. 47 FIGURE...25. ALC Learning Curve .... .................. ... 48 FIGURE 26. ALC Learning Curve ....... .... ... .... 50 FIGURE 27. ALC Learning Curve

  11. A new dinosaur (Theropoda, Spinosauridae) from the Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Cajual Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Azevedo, Sergio A K; Machado, Elaine B; Carvalho, Luciana B de; Henriques, Deise D R

    2011-03-01

    A new spinosaurid taxon, Oxalaia quilombensis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on the anterior part of a snout and a fragment of a maxilla. These specimens were collected at the Laje do Coringa site, Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of the São Luis Basin. Unlike Cristatusaurus and Suchomimus, Oxalaia quilombensis lacks serrations on the teeth. The new species differs from Angaturama limai by having the anterior part of the premaxillae more expanded and by lacking a sagittal premaxillary crest. It further differs from Spinosaurus cf. S. aegyptiacus and the Algerian spinosaurid by the rounder shape of the terminal expansion. Furthermore, xalaia quilobensis has one functional tooth followed by two replacement teeth, a feature not previously observed in theropods. Oxalaia quilombensis appears to be more closely related to the spinosaurids found in North Africa than to the Brazilian members of this clade and thus further increases the diversity of these enigmatic predatory dinosaurs in this country.

  12. 40 CFR 721.2535 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu alc.-blocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 1,1â²-methylanebis[4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2535 Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato... chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2535 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu alc.-blocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 1,1â²-methylanebis[4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2535 Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato... chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2535 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu alc.-blocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 1,1â²-methylanebis[4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2535 Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato... chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2535 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu alc.-blocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,1â²-methylanebis[4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2535 Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato... chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2535 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu alc.-blocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 1,1â²-methylanebis[4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2535 Benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato... chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,1′-methylanebis[4-isocyanato-, homopolymer, Bu...

  17. Technology Insertion Engineering Services Process Characterization Task Order No. 1. (Block II). Database Documentation Book for OC-ALC MATPCA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-11

    as possible, the Taguchi method of using fractional factorials in the form of orthogonal arrays is considered a method of choice. Two terms require...8217,-=- ,--, 11 I II .44 .44"I . 0 c p ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (. TABLE40 EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES - EXP

  18. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1 Volume 3. OC-ALC Book 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    Douglas Missile Systems Company 6.14-14 TASK ORDER NO. 1 PROCESS CHARACTERIZATION *i ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (L4...Systems Company 6.15-12 TASK ORDER NO. 1 PROCESS CHARACTERIZATION 0ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (L4) TABLE 6.15.2-2...1 PROCESS CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (L4) TABLE 6.16.2-2 EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES EXP

  19. Arthroscopic Latarjet and Capsular Shift (ALCS) procedure: a new "freehand" technique for anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone defects.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Deepak N

    2015-03-01

    Anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone loss has been described as "bony-instability," and this condition is usually treated with an anterior glenoid bone grafting procedure (Latarjet procedure). The Latarjet procedure involves transfer of the horizontal limb of the coracoid process along with the conjoint tendon to the anterior glenoid rim, and is traditionally performed as an open surgical procedure. Recently, an arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure has been described; the technique necessitates the use of specialized instrumentation and involves excision of the entire anterior capsule to facilitate coracoid fixation. We describe a new "freehand" arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure, and, in addition, a simultaneous capsular shift to further optimize mid and end range stability. This technique eliminates the use of additional instrumentation and can be done using routine arthroscopic instruments. Preliminary experience with this technique suggests that the arthroscopic Latarjet and capsular shift is a technically demanding procedure. Glenohumeral capsule can be preserved, and this should be attempted wherever possible to optimize stability. Additional specialized instrumentation would probably reduce surgical time; however, the procedure can be performed with routine instruments.

  20. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl; Schmidt, Frederick; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, Katherine A.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  1. The effect of composition and cooling rate on the structure of rapidly solidified (Fe, Ni)3Al-C alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, S. A.; Koch, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The quench rate-metastable structure dependence in the Fe-20Ni-8Al-2C wt pct alloy has been experimentally studied. The nonequilibrium gamma-prime and gamma phases were noted in foils 65-100 microns thick, while at higher quench rates (thinner samples) the matrix was found to be in a disordered fcc gamma phase with kappa carbide precipitates. With the addition of silicon to the alloys, the nonequilibrium gamma-prime and gamma structures are observed at higher cooling rates.

  2. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  3. Patterns and causes of demographic variation in a harvested moose population: evidence for the effects of climate and density-dependent drivers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Glen S

    2011-11-01

    1. Better understanding of the mechanisms affecting demographic variation in ungulate populations is needed to support sustainable management of harvested populations. While studies of moose Alces alces L. populations have previously explored temporal variation in demographic processes, managers responsible for populations that span large heterogeneous landscapes would benefit from an understanding of how demography varies across biogeographical gradients in climate and other population drivers. Evidence of thresholds in population response to manageable and un-manageable drivers could aid resource managers in identifying limits to the magnitude of sustainable change. 2. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the relative importance of population density, habitat abundance, summer and winter climatic conditions, primary production, and harvest intensity in explaining spatial variation in moose vital rates in Ontario, Canada. Tree regression was used to test for thresholds in the magnitudes of environmental predictor variables that significantly affected population vital rates. 3. Moose population growth rate was negatively related to moose density and positively related to the abundance of mixed deciduous habitat abundant in forage. Calf recruitment was negatively related to a later start of the growing season and calf harvest. The ratio of bulls to cows was related to male harvest and hunter access, and thresholds were evident in predictor variables for all vital rate models. 4. Findings indicate that the contributions of density-dependent and independent factors can vary depending on the scale of population process. The importance of density dependence and habitat supply to low-density ungulate populations was evident, and management strategies for ungulates may be improved by explicitly linking forest management and harvest. Findings emphasize the importance of considering summer climatic influences to ungulate populations, as

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of the Bordetella Alcaligin Siderophore Biosynthesis Operon

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho Young; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    1998-01-01

    The alc gene cluster of Bordetella pertussis includes three genes, alcA, alcB, and alcC, which are involved in alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis in response to iron starvation. The production of AlcA, AlcB, and AlcC in Bordetella cells and the transcriptional organization of alcA, alcB, and alcC were investigated by using a set of three alc′-′lacZ gene fusion constructs that were contiguous with the known promoter upstream of alcA and extended to fusion junctions within each alc cistron. All three alc′-′lacZ fusions exhibited iron-repressible reporter gene expression which was abolished by deletion of the 105-bp alcA promoter-operator region. In an immunoblot analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for β-galactosidase, the AlcA-LacZ, AlcB-LacZ, and AlcC-LacZ hybrid proteins were detected in Bordetella cells grown under iron-depleted conditions. A B. pertussis mutant in which the 105-bp alcA promoter-operator region was deleted by allelic exchange was unable to produce detectable levels of siderophore. Hybridization analysis using gene-specific probes showed that alc-specific transcript levels in the mutant were negligible compared with those of the wild-type parent. These results confirm that alcA, alcB, and alcC are cotranscribed from an iron-regulated control region immediately upstream of alcA. Transcript analysis using hybridization probes representing regions downstream of alcC demonstrated that alc transcription extends approximately 3.6 kb further downstream from the alcC coding region, suggesting the cotranscription of additional, uncharacterized alcaligin system genes. PMID:9473039

  5. Benefits of migration in relation to nutritional condition and predation risk in a partially migratory moose population.

    PubMed

    White, Kevin S; Barten, Neil L; Crouse, Stacy; Crouse, John

    2014-01-01

    The costs and benefits of alternative migratory strategies are often framed in the context of top-down and bottom-up effects on individual fitness. This occurs because migration is considered a costly behavioral strategy that presumably confers explicit benefits to migrants in the form of either decreased predation risk (predation risk avoidance hypothesis) or increased nutrition (forage maturation hypothesis). To test these hypotheses, we studied a partially migratory moose (Alces alces) population and contrasted explicit measures of predation risk (i.e., offspring survival) and nutrition (i.e., accumulation of endogenous energy reserves) between resident and migratory subpopulations. We relied on data collected from migratory and nonmigratory radio-marked moose (n = 67) that inhabited a novel study system located in coastal Alaska between 2004 and 2010. In this area, 30% of the population resides year-round on a coastal foreland area, while 48% migrate to either a small island archipelago or a subalpine ridge system (the remainder exhibited one of six different low-occurrence strategies). Overall, we determined that accumulation of body fat during the growing season did not differ between migratory or resident modalities. However, calf survival was 2.6-2.9 times higher for individuals that migrated (survival, islands = 0.49 +/- 0.16 [mean +/- SE], n = 35; ridge = 0.52 +/- 0.16, n = 33) than those that did not (survival, resident = 0.19 +/- 0.08, n = 57). Our results support the predation risk avoidance hypotheses, and suggest that migration is a behavioral strategy that principally operates to reduce the risk of calf predation and does not confer explicit nutritional benefits. We did not directly detect trade-offs between predation risk and nutrition for migratory individuals. Yet we identify an indirect life history mechanism that may mildly dampen the apparent fitness benefits of migration. The proximate factors accounting for differences in migration

  6. An expanding population of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) in elk (Cervus canadensis) and other ungulates in Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Butterworth, Eric W; Woods, John G

    2015-04-01

    Giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) populations readily expand under suitable conditions. Although extirpated from the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains in the early 1960s, the fluke reappeared following natural spread through mountain passes from British Columbia. Herein, we assessed epizootiology of the fluke population two decades later. Between 1984 and 1991, 534 ungulates, including 381 elk (Cervus canadensis), 68 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 54 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 31 moose (Alces alces) from adjacent areas of Alberta (AB) and British Columbia (BC), Canada, were examined for giant liver flukes. Prevalence in elk increased from 53% to 79% (1984-91) in Banff National Park (BNP) in AB and 77% to 100% (1985-89) in Kootenay National Park (KNP) in BC. Super-infections (>100 flukes) were more common in later years. Generally, prevalence increased over time and with increasing age of elk. Intensity was lowest in young-of-year (BNP 8±5, KNP 3), but similar in yearlings (BNP 36±11, KNP 23±8) and adults (BNP 33±5, KNP 32±6). Prevalence was similar in male and female elk. Intensity was higher in males (BNP 47±7, KNP 46±12) than in females (BNP 28±6, KNP 22±4), although the maximum number of flukes (545) occurred in a female elk. Prevalence and intensity differed among other species of ungulates but patterns were similar in each park. Prevalence was lower in mule deer (BNP 6%, KNP 4%) than in white-tailed deer (BNP 44%, KNP 28%) and moose (BNP 52%, KNP 63%). Intensity differed among these species but never exceeded 30 flukes. Gravid flukes occurred only in elk and white-tailed deer. Transmission occurred primarily in late summer-fall and in wet habitats. At least seven elk died as a direct result of fluke infection. In this region, elk and white-tailed deer maintain the F. magna population with spillover into moose and, rarely, mule deer.

  7. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. Book 1. Database Documentation Book. OO-ALC MANPRC (Overview Layouts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    steels will electropolish and 1. Carbon steels trouble degreasing. High-nickel al- plate smoother at longer reverse cy- 2. Nickel e loys, 16% or higher...PV-RI 1.00 REM RPL PAPRWRK SIGN OFF DOC 101001 .012 0090 UP 01 24 .05 SHOTPEEN SM STEEL PART/MSK .278 .003 ,017 2 0010 E ZMA-CP-S2 1,00 MS SMALL...E RJP-PU-R1 1,00 REM RP. PPIWM SIGN OFF DOC .01001 ,012 0090 UP 01 24 ,05 SHOTPEEN SM STEEL PART/MASK .278 .003 .017 2 0010 E ZMA-CP-2 1,00 MASK SW.L

  8. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI) Task Order Number 15, Data Base Documentation Book SA-ALC/MAE & MAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-14

    HSG. 2675.73 2174 207 198 61.8 2623.65 2016 197 198 59.8 𔃻lIW IZZLE 180 1524.31 -1183 106 108 19.1 1794.91 1412 -110 108 22 𔃻I iE NOZZLE 397...1162.1 147.0 144.0 36.7 AO=ZMY CASE 457.2 199.4 262.5 264.0 13.8 B , HCP 180 1270.5 415.6 146.0 144.0 21.1 BACStIP 397 771.7 726.4 265.5 264.0 23.5

  9. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI). Task Order no. 1 (Misc Manufacturing). Book 1. Database Documentation Book for OO-ALC MANPWW (Overview Layouts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    materials to be sprayed. These basic forms are gas combustion and electric arc. The gas combustion process uses oxygen and acetylene as a heating source...OS Acetylene . Technical. Dissolved In-N-800 iydreen 23-0-192 Oxygo. Technical. Gas and Liquid STANDARDI MIL ITART MIL-STD-808 Grinding of Chrome...about layout3 equipment and processes r or this ROC. *Misc Manufacturing - Flame spr’ay, casting, heat treat, welding 14. SUBJECT TERMS ~ )T

  10. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. Book 1 of 2. Database Documentation Book. OO-ALC MANPRB (Overview Layouts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    MNS 4-1’/S#9ED N//f PRESEL/T Jr475 A/ID R46 IArA AE A-ED / r AO Z~’f/RS TI/ATr /;T /Y IP TO0 XPeC/F/C/7,eT 6O’! TIf/I rACEr r,6 4 , ?r ’Vr T0 PA’i k/AZZ...16.02 0.0009 0.S709 117 26578A 1620ND0S3797G ORG BRAC 14.56 0.0008 0.9797 118 15521A 1630008562073 FBIul PP 14.35 0.0008 0.9805 119 69887A 1620007057261

  11. Molecular dynamic study of the mechanism of formation of 2D carbon nanostructures in a solid Al-C nanocomposite grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galashev, A. E.; Elshina, L. A.; Muradymov, R. V.

    2016-12-01

    The behavior of graphene fragments in the structural fcc grains of aluminum was studied by molecular dynamics. In the course of structural relaxation, the graphene sheets united, twisted, and shifted toward the grain boundaries. The structure of the formed nanocomposite grain was studied in detail by statistical geometry. The distributions of Voronoi polyhedra according to the number of faces and of faces according to the number of sides were determined, including those after elimination of small-scale thermal fluctuations from the model. The angular distributions of the nearest geometrical neighbors were calculated, and the selfdiffusion coefficients were determined.

  12. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IP) Task Order Number 18. Contract Summary Report/Quick Fix Plan for OO-ALC (Optical Repair).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-30

    ITEM SERIAL NO 10 MOOEL.CESIGN- SERIES ~I I STOCK( NUMBER [ 12 OPTIONAL 13 SERIAL NUMBER IA NOUN DISPAITCH PERK RCC’OP I1 STAT CN NO WCRK yO BE AC:OMPLISHE...15 DATE SCHED 6 DATt COMPLETED 7 PART NUMBER A TECH DATA 9 ITEM SERIAL NO 10 MODEL DESIGN SERIES I I STOCK NUMBER 12 OPTIONAL 13 SFRIAL NUMBER 14 NOUN...PMNUBE UTEHDATA 9 ITEM SERIAL NO f* SO MOOIEL.DIESIGN- SERIES I I STOCK NUMBER 12 OPTIONAL 13 SERIAL NUMBER Ii NOUN 55 16 1? is 19 20 DISPATCH PERF

  13. Substantiation of Epitaxial Growth of Diamond Crystals on the Surface of Carbide Fe3AlC0.66 Phase Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzevin, Ievgenij M.; Mekhed, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    Samples of Fe-Al-C alloys of varying composition were synthesized under high pressures and temperatures. From X-ray analysis data, only K-phase with usual for it average parameter of elemental lattice cell, a = 0.376 nm, carbide Fe3C and cubic diamond reflexes were present before and after cooling to the temperature of liquid nitrogen.

  14. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. (Block 2). Database Documentation Book. Book 1 of 2. OC-ALC MATPCB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-11

    0.375 0. 160 inch inch m3 4 6 L-119382-0 1. 0.542 - 0.552 inch diameter through 0. 150 - 0.157 inch for hardface buildup hole 5. 0.016 - 0.047 inch radius...2. 0.177 - 0.181 inch 6. 1.945 - 1.955 inches 3. 0. 550 - 0.570 inch 7. Weld build up ( hardface overlay) 4. 0.060 - 0.070 inch for parent metal

  15. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. Book 2 of 3. Database Documentation Book. OO-ALC MANPGW (Brakes - WCD’S)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    m........e...m.... M Pe N In - NM 99 t N ~ im c 4N wm9 mo vc vwv Name P - Nt 9-4np @-MmNmne - m i ov4cen c 90cn0 0 9cm.me,-eC- meM N4 --9 men C P ...0--N0-4O ow &=W& 400000 0000 0000c00 00000 0 0000000000000000 S0000000 00 0000000c00000 0 00000000000000000c ILMO m9-N-4ccM p a t 09-4- 0Mmnn dom99 MM...4NM4N W4CN MC9 -4 n N-4 44 N 4 O1ane4N0 ; 40 nw i 40 hn- " moNP. *9- v AnWCn -0 qmm 4 kn 40 " m t-- 4 n : -w4 rn - Inq n NO6P.". P N-04"C~tr oq C 4 N

  16. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. Book 3 of 3. Database Documentation Book. OO-ALC MANPGW (Brakes - Profiles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    l 17%’ if- I- 0 L1L1 -I I I -1--- 00 U)) co 4Z0 J I cc I I IK IL I I IL I - - - I 0 I I I I- I I -I alI I l ol : IZ ICA a .~ I MEI I 0~ .~ I I 0-I ImeI...DRILL AND TAP OLE . 5250W .1525 0020 E RJP-PW-R1 1.00 REM RPI. PAPRWRK SIGN OFF DOC .01001 .010 9000 JA 01 00 .00 LABOR STANDRD HISTORY .000 .000 .000...CLEANED A-ND PROTECTE:’i (C/P MOVE) FOR __________ MOVES BETWIEEN O.-PERA-T :OEN/D:. ESPA *T(H _____ _____ ______ STA1T IONS. :~ 4::: 4 :::: . . *W A

  17. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization Task Order No. 1. Book 2 of 3. Database Documentation Book. OO-ALC MANPGP (Wheels - WCD’S)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    bEAFIN! BCRE & LOCK RING GROOVE M 8FPAIF IN-OARr) IAW lIG EB & PAGE 1£ PARA X-1 _’C/P MCVE _ _.- Z40 70 TREAT (DOW 7, *C/P MOVE 13 i&0 IrPREGNA IE tC...SPECIIIED- IN ’THIS rOCUM--fT ___ HAE UKWN THOROUGHLY TRAINEE AND A Ei FAMILIA . WIT’- ALL PER’ININT SAFETY PRACTICES ArL- HAZARDS GCNTAINED IN THE BASIC...04265 053 0090 E RWB-D-HT- 1.00 REM EAT SHIELD (SINGLE PC) .00217 .002 0100 E RJP-DW-TI 1.00 REM LIL PAPRWRK SIGN BOFF DOC .01001 .012 0006 EB 0 -1 25

  18. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI) Task Order Number 1. OC-ALC/MATPCC, Electromechanical Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-11

    I- ! • :.. I, I I I I .I I- -- o I -I I ... I " I Il :.: -II I I ," " , I I I ’ I "I Ii 𔃻 _ I I I~ I , -. ,- I , ,- - I . - -I - . ... I ... I...II.I QI , I. , II H, .0 - - I -.l -I - - I - I I: LL1 " L I !Ii II... l I I I I- I °i 0 Ii I I I ! llii il J I g ul Il l l l m kli j ii ll LI...I2 1~ lIl tfl i l[ft11 1111.Iil is 11 w 4I -1T1TT7 TE r r lI-Illlit ii II il z t m iI I 11 lii ill II C4C ui i -weN I ~ -x TTT TT TTOT -m l l QIII

  19. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (⩽400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30⩽400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD.

  20. The ratio of absolute lymphocyte count at interim of therapy to absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis predicts survival in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuping; Luo, Zebin; Yang, Shilong; Jia, Ming; Zhao, Haizhao; Xu, Weiqun; Tang, Yongmin

    2015-02-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) after therapy has been reported to be an independent prognostic factor for clinical outcome in leukemia. This study mainly analyzed ALC at interim of therapy on day 22 (ALC-22) and the ratio of ALC-22 to ALC at diagnosis (ALC-0) on the impact of survival and the relation of ALC to lymphocyte subsets in 119 pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Univariate analysis revealed that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio <10% was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR)=12.24, P=0.0014) and event-free survival (EFS) (HR=3.3, P=0.0046). In multivariate analysis, ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=6.92, P=0.0181) and EFS (HR=2.78, P=0.0329) after adjusting for age, white blood cell (WBC) count and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. A Spearman correlation test showed that CD3+ T cells had a negative correlation with ALC-0 (r=-0.7204, P<0.0001) and a positive correlation with ALC-22 (r=0.5061, P=0.0071). These data suggest that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio may serve as a more effective biomarker to predict survival in pediatric B-ALL and ALC is mainly associated with CD3+ T cells.

  1. Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation.

  2. Analysis of Government Accountability Office Bid Protests in Air Force Source Selections over the Past Two Decades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    ALCs) include Oklahoma City ALC, Tinker AFB ; Ogden ALC, Hill AFB ; Warner Robins ALC, Robins AFB ; and, before 2001, Sacramento ALC, McClellan AFB ...she had worked with in the past. Megan McKeever was always ready to provide helpful administrative support. xvii Abbreviations AFB Air Force base...are Langley Air Force Base ( AFB ), Air Combat Command; Peterson AFB , Air Force Space Command; Scott AFB , Air Mobility Command; Ramstein Air Base

  3. Continuous Process Improvement at Tinker Air Logistics Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Abstract The Air Logistics Complexes (ALC) represent the Air Force’s largest Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) Operations. The ALCs strive to...this problem is important to the ALCs because it provides a roadmap for how to sustain Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul ( MRO ) actions with less...ALC) represent the Air Force’s largest Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) Operations. The ALCs strive to become leaner by reducing Work In

  4. A review of current evidence for acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2014-06-01

    Despite numerous antidepressants available, many patients with depression do not achieve adequate response rendering needs for novel antidepressants with different mechanism of actions. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a potential antidepressant with novel mechanism of action because of its diverse functions related with neuroplasticity. Animal and cellular models suggest that ALC's neuroplasiticity effect, membrane modulation, and neurotransmitter regulation may play an important role in treatment of depression. Four randomized clinical studies (RCT) demonstrated the superior efficacy of ALC over placebo (PBO) in patients with depression. Two RCTs showed its superior efficacy over PBO in dysthymic disorder, and 2 other RCTs showed that it is equally effective as fluoxetine and amisulpride in treatment of dysthymic disorder. ALC was also effective in improving depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia and minimal hepatic encephalopathy. It was also found to be equally tolerable to PBO and better tolerable than fluoxetine and amisulpride. In conclusion, ALC may be potentially effective and tolerable next treatment option with novel action mechanisms for patients with depression, in particular older population and patients with comorbid medical conditions who are vulnerable to adverse events from antidepressants. However, more clinical trial data with adequately-powered, well-designed and advanced methodology will be mandatory to conclude whether ALC as a monotherapy or augmentation agent may be efficacious and clinically beneficial for depression.

  5. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  6. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  7. Software Supportability Risk Assessment in OT&E (Operational Test and Evaluation): Historical Baselines for Risk Profiles. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-07

    ORS OC-ALC 8-52 BNST OC-ALC B-52 FTSS OC-ALC 8-52 MC-1 EXEC 00-ALC B-52 MC-2 EXEC OC-ALC E- 3 INS OC-ALC E-3A OMEGA OC-ALC E-3A SMCP OC-ALC E-3A SRCP OC...293 SOFTIAR SWORTRILITY RISK ASSESSMENT IN OTAin 3 (OPERRTIONAL TEST RIM EVA.. (U) ION CORP RLIIUIERWE ENY TI.f CT9 W-5050T-O- WCMLSSIFIED F2901-U...lb. 1*ESTfl.CTIVI; MA04KING.- N/A None .SECURITY~ CLASSIFICATION AbUTNOAITY 3 . OISRIUUTION/AVAILAUILITY UPF MIORT N/A Unlimited -- O CLASSI P SCAT

  8. Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

  9. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  10. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  11. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI). Task Order no. 1 (Misc Manufacturing). Book 2. Database Documentation Book for OO-ALC MANPWW. Analysis of the 80/20 Listing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    CCNTA:NED ’IN THE BASIC TrECHNICAL ORDER (T.0.) AND I ,(. • S.LSPFI..PEMENTS REFERENCED IN BLOCK 8 01: THIS AI LC FORM 958, ’H: ______-_________ !PtF...89) 9 0z P co I- j CO~ z Distrbutisn ctptr A. A-p oived t r -"Ib~ lc relear 9162 c~Snb~tOI ~91-02828 DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY...m 0 lo "a 0 MN*N"" 0od ft0 goo 00o0 co0oa 08 0 000 0000 go0 0 c 888000 coo 0 a0000 L5Z- AI 01000 00 00 00000 00 0 0 000 4AU~ 0N 0 C C* 1. 0nj04uN M-4

  12. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. Volume 3. OC-ALC Book 1 of 2. Revision A. Contract Summary Report and Quick Fix Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (L9) 6.6-11 6.7.2-1 MATPCB L4 (23) TAGUCHI ORTHOGONAL ARRAY THROUGHPUT EXPERIMENTAL...RESULTS - FY 88 6.7-13 6.7.2-2 ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (L4) 6.7-14 6.7.4-1 SUMMARY OF INVESTMENT COST AND...6.14-13 6.14.2-2 ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (L4 ) 6.14-15 6.15.2-1 L4 TAGUCHI ORTHOGONAL ARRAY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

  13. Final Report for CRADA Agreement , AL-C-2006-01 with Microsens Biotechnologies: Detection of the Abnormal Prion Protein in Blood by Improving the Extraction of this Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerr, Mary Jo

    2009-03-31

    Several conditions were examined to optimize the extraction protocol using Seprion beads for the abnormal prion protein. Different combinations of water, hexafluro-2-propanol and formic acid were used. The results of these extraction protocols showed that the magnetic beads coated with Seprion reagents were subject to degradation, themselves, when the extraction conditions that would solubilize the abnormal prion protein were used. These compounds caused interference in the immunoassay for the abnormal prion protein and rendered these protocols incompatible with the assay systems. In an attempt to overcome this problem, another approach was then used. The coated beads were used as an integral part of the assay platform. After washing away denaturing agents, the beads with the 'captured' abnormal prion were incubated directly in the immunoassay, followed by analysis by the capillary electrophoresis. When a capillary electrophoresis electro-kinetic separation was attempted, the beads disturbed the analysis making it impossible to interpret. A pressure separation method was then developed for capillary electrophoresis analysis. When 20 samples, 5 of which were positive were analyzed, the assay identified 4 of the 5 positives and had no false positives. When a larger number of samples were analyzed the results were not as good - there were false positives and false negatives. It was then observed that the amount of beads that were loaded was dependent upon how long the beads were allowed to settle before loading them into the capillary. This resulted in unacceptable variations in the results and explained that when large numbers of samples were evaluated the results were not consistent. Because the technical difficulties with using the Seprion beads could not be overcome at this time, another approach is underway that is outside of the scope of this CRADA. No further agreements have been developed. Because the results were not favorable, no manuscripts were written nor intellectual property developed.

  14. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI). Task Order no. 1 (Misc Manufacturing). Book 3. Database Documentation Book for OO-ALC MANPWW. Main Landing Gear Except C5 - WCD’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    DATE 3 . REPORT rYPE AND DATES COVERED 115Dc89, Aug 88 - Dec 89 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technology insertion (TI)/Industrial 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Process...NUMBEROFPAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. _ft -’, ; T-,O. 4S1-57- 3 30 34 36 1 Is 2--2 422 IQ2 ~31 c~~ 44 ~’ 45 o31 41 262 53 550 27 6 65 26 O3 4 66’A...Packing 108. Tube 3 . Washer 53. Ring 108A. Packing, 0-ring 4 . Bolt 54. Rod 1086. Ring Backup 5. Pin 55. Tube 109. Tube 6. Nut 56. Washer 109A. Packing O

  15. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization. Task Order No. 1. Book 2 of 5. Database Documentation Book. OO-ALC MANPRA (C5 Main Landing Gear - WCD’S)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    P ..... 21 IA tTNTO @A1P OP*AINIIITN C INTR/AI 3 OUET $ DIPTH FNCINLAC lb ____ __ coal_ a...u40 0. ;-w~~4 U n rvz tn 40’- ___ ___ __ ___ 0 co ’-9 0 - un- ’ p ~~0 01- (’ -J-J _jW J0 𔃽< o O.fl I-. 8 - EU Li4D~~ cc -F- r-- 00 CL cL a--L Cc LU zz...Aft Strut Aumbly (Sheet 14 of 18) 2-126 T.O. 4S1-93-4 389 E- ) 389A 3896 -s CN;,~Z.AA$. elUSE P N 4G�!; rA SC,- wir - TI-S CO)NFIGUAATICN.

  16. Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Schmitt, S M; Williams, D G

    1986-10-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from moose from Michigan's Isle Royale National Park. Sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in Vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to California serogroup viruses, in particular Jamestown Canyon (JC), La Crosse/snowshoe hare (LAC/SSH), and trivittatus (TVT) viruses. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected in 71% of 31 and 65% of 20 moose from Algonquin and Isle Royale, respectively. An additional six moose from Algonquin and five from Isle Royale showed evidence of multiple infection. One juvenile moose from Isle Royale had specific neutralizing antibody to TVT virus. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected also in 54% of 50 elk from Michigan; 20 of the 50 elk showed evidence of multiple infection. While no single serum sample showed specific neutralizing antibody only to LAC/SSH virus, its presence in sera from some animals may have been masked by the high prevalence of antibody to JC virus.

  17. The Untold Story of Being Designated an Alternate Level of Care Patient

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Rose; Jarrett, Pamela; Stewart, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Much of the research and policy reports on Alternate Level of Care (ALC) in Canada have focused on the impact ALC has on acute care services. To date, the experiences and opinions of those who must wait in hospital for alternate services have been largely absent from discussions. Method: A qualitative study was conducted with patients and families designated as ALC in one urban and two rural hospitals in Atlantic Canada. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: a perception of normalcy, being old but not sick and anticipating relocation to another facility. Conclusions: ALC is an important issue for patients and their families. Policy directives aimed at addressing the causes and impacts of ALC, identification and provision of appropriate supportive care in the community and sensitivity to the impact of ALC for individuals designated as ALC are needed. PMID:26571470

  18. Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, D.L.; Cox, E.W.; Ballard, W.B.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lenarz, M.S.; Custer, T.W.; Barnett, T.; Fuller, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Several potential proximate causes may be implicated in a recent (post-1984) decline in moose (Alces alces andersoni) numbers at their southern range periphery in northwest Minnesota, USA. These causes include deleterious effects of infectious pathogens, some of which are associated with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), negative effects of climate change, increased food competition with deer or moose, legal or illegal hunting, and increased predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Long-standing factors that may have contributed to the moose decline include those typically associated with marginal habitat such as nutritional deficiencies. We examined survival and productivity among radiocollared (n = 152) adult female and juvenile moose in northwest Minnesota during 1995–2000, and assessed cause of death and pathology through carcass necropsy of radiocollared and non-radiocollared animals.Aerial moose surveys suggested that hunting was an unlikely source of the numerical decline because the level of harvest was relatively low (i.e., approx. 15% / 2 yr) and the population usually grew in years following a hunt. The majority of moose mortalities (up to 87% of radiocollared moose [n = 76] and up to 65% of non-radiocollared moose [n = 84]) were proximally related to pathology associated with parasites and infectious disease. Liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) infections apparently constituted the greatest single source of mortality and caused significant pathology in the liver, thoracic and peritoneal cavities, pericardial sac, and lungs. Mortality due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was less prevalent and was manifested through characteristic neurological disease. Several mortalities apparently were associated with unidentified infectious disease, probably acting in close association with malnutrition. Bone-marrow fat was lower for moose dying of natural causes than those dying of anthropogenic factors or

  19. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Brain Volumes in Controls and Alcohol Dependent Individuals in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly comorbid condition in AUD, and its influence on age-related brain atrophy has not been evaluated. We performed 1.5T quantitative MRI in non-smoking controls (nsCON; n=54), smoking light drinking controls (sCON, n=34), and 1-week-abstinent, treatment-seeking non-smoking alcohol dependent individuals (nsALC, n=35) and smoking ALC (sALC, n=43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS),. nsCON and sALC showed greater age-related volume losses than nsALC in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. nsALC and sALC demonstrated smaller volumes than nsCON in most cortical ROIs. sCON had smaller volumes than nsCON in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. nsALC and sALC had smaller volumes than sCON in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between nsALC and sALC were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in sCON and sALC. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD. PMID:22943795

  20. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Polymorphism and the Risk of Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis among East Asians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene has been implicated in the development of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) in East Asians. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations between the ALDH2 polymorphism and the risk of ALC. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang and Veipu databases up to January 10, 2015. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using either the fixed- or random effects model. Results A total of twelve case-control studies included 1003 cases and 2011 controls were included. Overall, the ALDH2 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of ALC (*1/*2 vs. *1/*1: OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.61–0.99). However, in stratification analysis by country, we failed to detect any association among Chinese, Korean or Japanese populations. Conclusion The pooled evidence suggests that ALDH2 polymorphism may be an important protective factor for ALC in East Asians. PMID:27189280

  1. Critical update for the clinical use of L-carnitine analogs in cardiometabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mingorance, Carmen; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Rosalía; Justo, María Luisa; Alvarez de Sotomayor, María; Herrera, María Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) are two naturally occurring carnitine derivates formed by carnitine acetyltransferase. The beneficial cardiovascular effects of ALC and PLC have been extensively evaluated in animals and humans during the last 20 years. For instance, many clinical trials have suggested ALC and PLC as potential strategies in the management of peripheral arterial disease, heart and cerebral ischemia, and congestive heart failure. As a result, several experts have already aimed to revise the clinical evidence supporting the therapeutic use of ALC and PLC. On the basis of their conclusions, our aim was a critical review of the effectiveness of ALC and PLC in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore we also describe recent studies that have addressed the emerging use of ALC and PLC amelioration of the insulin resistant state and its related morbidities.

  2. Polyamine content of long-keeping alcobaca tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Dibble, A R; Davies, P J; Mutschler, M A

    1988-02-01

    Fruit of tomato landrace Alcobaca, containing the recessive allele alc, ripen more slowly, with a reduced level of ethylene production, and have prolonged keeping qualities. The levels of polyamines in pericarp tissues of alc and ;wild type' Alc (cv Rutgers and Alcobaca-red) fruit were measured by HPLC in relation to ripening. Putrescine was the predominant polyamine with a lower content of spermidine, while spermine was just detectable. The level of putrescine was high at the immature green stage and declined in the mature green stage. In Alc fruit the decline persisted but in alc fruit the putrescine level increased during ripening to a level similar to that present at the immature green stage. There was no pronounced change or difference in spermidine levels. The enhanced polyamine level in alc fruit may account for their ripening and storage characteristics.

  3. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  4. Documentation and Evaluation of Depot Maintenance Cost System Coding and Reporting by Department of Defense Depots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    quick and total distribution of goods to its worldwide customers [Ref. 31. Sacramento ALC and its host facility, McClellan AFB , employ nearly 18,000...the Air Force’worldwide. Sacramento ALC is physically located at McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento , California. Other ALCs are located at Air Force...in this study is based on information . obtained from on-site visits to the Sacramento Air Logistics Center, Sacramento , Cali,.for-ia, and the Naval

  5. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Logistics Complex AMC Army Materiel Command AMCOM Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command ANAD Anniston Army Depot AOIB Army Organic...Complex (ALC) (supply and maintenance), Oklahoma City ALC (supply and maintenance), Warner Robins ALC (supply), Anniston Army Depot, Corpus Christi...NIINs NOTE: CCAD = Corpus Christi Army Depot, TYAD = Tobyhanna Army Depot, LEAD = Letterkenny Army Depot, ANAD = Anniston Army Depot. RAND RR398-4.1 C

  6. Laser Depaint Technology for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    distribution unlimited. (Case number 88ABW-2011-1310) 3 Hand SandingChemical Stripping Problem Statement Plastic Media Blasting • US Air Force...Impacts: • Reduce stripping time and replace chemicals and blast media usage • Potential reductions at OC-ALC include: – 13,200 gallons paint stripper...Offices • Approval for production usage has been granted by 1of the 3 major weapon systems processed at OC-ALC • Based on positive results, Ogden ALC

  7. Effect of in situ delivery of acetyl-L-carnitine on peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery in transected sciatic nerve in rat.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Mohammad Reza; Ghayour, Sina Jangkhahe

    2014-12-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve injuries is still one of the most challenging tasks and concerns in neurosurgery, plastic and orthopedic surgery. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) loaded chitosan conduit as an in situ delivery system of ALC in bridging the defects was studied using a rat sciatic nerve regeneration model. A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT/ALC) filled with 10 μL ALC (100 ng/mL). In control group (CHIT), the conduit was filled with the same volume of the phosphate buffered solution. The regenerated fibers were studied 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after surgery. The functional and electrophysiological studies confirmed faster recovery of the regenerated axons in ALC treated than control group (P < 0.05). The mean ratios of gastrocnemius muscles weight were measured. There was statistically significant difference between the muscle weight ratios of CHIT/ALC and CHIT groups (P<0.05). Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in CHIT/ALC were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, the location of reactions to S-100 in CHIT/ALC was clearly more positive than CHIT group. ALC when loaded in a chitosan conduit resulted in improvement of functional recovery and quantitative morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.

  8. Optimal Threshold and Time of Absolute Lymphocyte Count Assessment for Outcome Prediction after Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Milton, Denái R; Guindani, Michele; Rondon, Gabriela; Chen, Julianne; Al-Atrash, Gheath; Rezvani, Katayoun; Champlin, Richard; Ciurea, Stefan O

    2016-03-01

    The recovery pace of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is prognostic after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Previous studies have evaluated a wide range of ALC cutoffs and time points for predicting outcomes. We aimed to determine the optimal ALC value for outcome prediction after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A total of 518 patients who underwent BMT for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2010 were divided into a training set and a test set to assess the prognostic value of ALC on days 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, as well as the first post-transplantation day of an ALC of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 1000/μL. In the training set, the best predictor of overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was ALC on day 60. In the entire patient cohort, multivariable analyses demonstrated significantly better OS, RFS, and NRM and lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with an ALC >300/μL on day 60 post-BMT, both including and excluding patients who developed GVHD before day 60. Among the patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors assessed, only busulfan-based conditioning was significantly associated with higher ALC values on day 60 in both cohorts. The optimal ALC cutoff for predicting outcomes after BMT is 300/μL on day 60 post-transplantation.

  9. Absolute lymphocyte count at the end of induction therapy is a prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hirase, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Takahashi, Hironobu; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Saito, Atsuro; Kozaki, Aiko; Ishida, Toshiaki; Yanai, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have reported that the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) during induction therapy is predictive of treatment outcome in de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, the significance of ALC on outcomes remains controversial. In the present study, we assessed the significance of ALC at day 29 (ALC-29), the end of induction therapy, on outcomes in our Japanese cohort. The outcomes of 141 patients aged ≤18 years with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled on the JACLS ALL-02 at our hospitals were analyzed in terms of ALC-29. Patients with ALC-29 ≥750/μL (n = 81) had a superior 5-year EFS (95.2 ± 2.7 vs 84.3 ± 4.8 %, P = 0.016) and OS (100 vs 87.0 ± 4.7 %, P = 0.0062). A multivariate analysis identified ALC-29 ≥750/μL as a significant predictor of improved EFS and OS after controlling for confounding factors. A multiple linear regression model revealed a significant inverse relationship between the percentage of blasts in bone marrow on day 15 and ALC-29 (P = 0.005). These results indicate that ALC is a simple prognostic factor in childhood ALL, and, thus, has the potential to refine current risk algorithms.

  10. Determination/Validation of Technologies for Treatment/Recycle of Contaminated Sludges: Phase 1 - Site/Sludge Characterization and Laboratory Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    the feed solution upstream of pH adjustment. The alkalinity of borax will reduce the caustic consumption accordingly and the resultant boric acid ...0.1 is boric acid /borate (B(OH)3/B(OH);"). The major value of using a buffer is in achieving compliance residual metal levels with less caustic...metals S(C) Biosludge Minimization OC-ALC (C-1) Acid hydrolysis SA-ALC (C-2) Wet air oxidation WR-ALC (C-3) TEES S(D) Resource Recovery OC-ALC (D-1

  11. Bare sclera resection followed by mitomycin C and/or autograft limbus conjunctiva in the surgery for pterygium: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tan; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the recurrence and complications after bare sclera resection (BSR) combined with mitomycin C (MMC) treatment and/or autograft limbus conjunctiva (ALC) in the surgery for pterygium. METHODS Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the differences in patient outcomes between BSR of pterygium with or without MMC and/or ALC. All included studies were randomized trials of patients with pterygium who received BSR followed by MMC and/or ALC in the surgery. The recurrence of pterygium and other complications resulting from different treatments were extracted for analysis. RESULTS Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The recurrence of pterygium with intraoperative (IO) MMC was higher than that with ALC (OR=2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.45-3.91, I2=29%). Postoperative MMC resulted in an incidence of recurrence similar to that of ALC (OR=0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.30-1.42, I2=0%), and IO MMC treatment in combination with ALC produced similar patient outcomes to ALC alone (OR=0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.01, I2=16%). Other complications such as punctate epitheliopathy, scleral thinning and ischemia, irritation and persistent epithelium defect, were more common in patients in the MMC group as compared to those treated with ALC. CONCLUSION The recurrence of pterygium with BSR followed by ALC is lower than that of BSR followed by MMC, and the incidence of other complications is lower. While ALC is a more effective strategy for treating pterygium, the quality of the ALC transplant should be considered when the patient has a history of glaucoma. PMID:26558227

  12. Early lymphocyte recovery at 28 d post-transplant is predictive of reduced risk of relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia transplanted with peripheral blood stem cell grafts.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Fotios V; Messner, Hans A; Loach, David; Uhm, Jieun; Gupta, Vikas; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Seftel, Matthew D; Kuruvilla, John; Kim, Dennis D

    2014-10-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is potentially curative for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Impact of lymphocyte recovery on post-transplant outcomes has been suggested but reports are conflicting. We evaluated the impact of lymphocyte recovery at 28 d post-HCT in 191 AML patients using peripheral blood stem cells as graft. Patients were divided into those with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 0.5 × 10(9) /L (n = 111, 58%; high ALC group) and those with ALC < 0.5 × 10(9) /L (n = 80, 42%; low ALC group), at day 28 post-transplant. With a median follow-up of 49 months, overall survival (OS) was significantly improved in the high ALC group (59% at 3 yr) vs. patients with low ALC (40% at 3 yr, P = 0.03). Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was significantly lower in the high ALC group (16% at 3 yr) vs. low ALC group (36% at 3 yr, P = 0.001). Multivariable analysis for CIR demonstrated high ALC group as an independent factor decreasing relapse risk (P = 0.03, HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.26-0.92). Multivariable analysis for OS and non-relapse mortality did not demonstrate ALC ≥ 0.5 × 10(9) /L at 28 d post-transplant to be predictive. We conclude that lymphocyte recovery with ALC ≥ 0.5 × 10(9) /L at day 28 post-transplant is associated with less relapse in AML patients undergoing allogeneic peripheral blood HCT, but without survival benefit.

  13. Potential utility of soluble p3-alcadein α plasma levels as a biomarker for sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kamogawa, Kenji; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takita, Rie; Miki, Tetsuro; Konno, Tomoko; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Alcadeins (Alcs) constitute a family of neuronal type I membrane proteins (α, β, γ) that share identical localization and function to the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) in the brain. Alcs are proteolyzed in neurons through successive cleavages via secretases, resulting in non-aggregative p3-Alc, where p3 corresponds to the AβPP-fragment. We found p3-Alcα detected in human plasma reflected the pathological process of amyloid-β accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and therefore investigated the utility of p3-Alcα as a plasma biomarker in AD. We measured p3-Alcα plasma levels in 83 sporadic-AD, 18 mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and 24 control subjects using the sandwich-ELISA system. Pooled samples with previously published data (171 AD and 45 controls) were also analyzed. The plasma p3-Alcα concentrations in patients with AD and MCI were significantly higher compared with control subjects (224.7 ± 40.4, 223.3 ± 53.9, and 189.1 ± 32.9 pg/ml, respectively; p = 0.0012). In AD patients, the plasma p3-Alcα concentration significantly correlated with age (r = 0.23, p = 0.037) and serum creatinine levels (r = 0.23, p = 0.0012). Even after adjusting for confounding factors of age, gender, renal function, and ApoE-ε4, high plasma p3-Alcα levels were correlated with significant AD risk, with an odds ratio 1.47 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.93, p = 0.0019) for every 10 pg/ml increase. Pooled analysis further confirmed these findings. Increased plasma p3-Alcα, evident in the early stages of cognitive impairment, suggests that Alc metabolites are useful plasma biomarkers of AD.

  14. Oxidation of Alumina-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James; Garg, Anita; Harder, Bryan; Nesbitt, James; Gabb, Timothy; Gray, SImon

    2017-01-01

    Protective coatings for high temperature turbine components are based on YSZ thermal barriers and oxidation resistant, alumina-forming NiAl or NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC MAX phases are thus of special interest because of good oxidation resistance and CTE that can match Al2O3 and YSZ. Their alumina scales grow according to cubic kinetics due to grain growth in the scale, with initial heating dominated by fast TiO2 growth. Protective cubic kinetics are also found in high pressure burner rig tests of MAXthal 211 Ti2AlC, but with reduced rates due to volatile TiO(OH)2 formation in water vapor. YSZ-coatings on bulk Ti2AlC exhibit remarkable durability up to 1300C in furnace tests and at least a 25x life advantage compared to superalloys. At another extreme, Cr2AlC is resistant to low temperature Na2SO4 hot corrosion and exhibits thermal cycling stability bonded to a superalloy disk material. Accordingly, sputtered Cr2AlC coatings on disk specimens prevented hot corrosion detriments on LCF. Breakaway oxidation (Ti2AlC), scale spallation (Cr2AlC), interdiffusion, and processing as coatings still present serious challenges. However the basic properties of MAX phases provide some unusual opportunities for use in high temperature turbines.

  15. Acetyl-L-Carnitine as an Adjunctive Therapy in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasi, Seyed-Hesameddin; Heidari, Shahram; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Tabrizi, Mina; Ghaleiha, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether a previous observed Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) treatment effect could be repeated in an ALC adjunctive therapy treatment trial of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. This was a six-week, randomized clinical trial undertaken in an outpatient child and adolescent…

  16. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    A large body of evidence points to the positive effects of dietary supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). Its use has shown health benefits in neuroinflammation, which is a common denominator in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. ALC is the principal acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (LC), and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism, acting as a donor of acetyl groups and facilitating the transfer of fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria during beta-oxidation. Dietary supplementation of ALC exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressive and analgesic effects in painful neuropathies. ALC also has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Moreover, ALC exhibits positive effects on mitochondrial metabolism, and shows promise in the treatment of aging and neurodegenerative pathologies by slowing the progression of mental deterioration. In addition, ALC plays neuromodulatory effects on both synaptic morphology and synaptic transmission. These effects are likely due to affects of ALC through modulation of gene expression on several targets in the central nervous system. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on effects of ALC in the nervous system.

  17. Transcription and protein synthesis inhibitors influence long-term effects of acetyl-l-carnitine on non-associative learning in the leech.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna; Scuri, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is the principal acetyl ester of L-carnitine and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism. ALC affects several targets in the nervous system. Along this line of investigation, we analyzed the long-term effects of ALC on elementary nonassociative learning in the swimming induction model of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, in which nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin produces a more rapid swim response to a test stimulus (sensitization). In this simplified model a single ALC administration blocked the sensitizing effects of nociceptive stimulation in swim induction showing increasingly long lasting effects. Herein, we have analyzed the long-term effects of ALC on sensitization and dishabituation. Leeches were treated with inhibitors of either transcription or protein synthesis 30 min after the administration of ALC and, subsequently, subjected to noxious stimuli: the animals exhibited a sensitized swimming response 6 days after ALC treatment but not after 2 hours indicating that the long-term suppressive effects of ALC on sensitization/dishabituation needed mRNA and protein synthesis.

  18. Aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite as a novel drug carrier of fenofibrate for the enhancement of drug release and oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Shao, Yating; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare the aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite to enhance the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Antisolvent precipitation coupled with an immediate freeze-drying method was adopted to incorporate fenofibrate into aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite (ALC). The optimal composition of the ALC formulation was determined as the ratios of aminoclay to krill oil of 3:1 (w/w), krill oil to fenofibrate of 2:1 (w/w), and antisolvent to solvent of 6:4 (v/v). The morphological characteristics of ALC formulation were determined using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction, which indicated microcrystalline state of fenofibrate in ALC formulation. The ALC formulation achieved almost complete dissolution within 30 minutes, whereas the untreated powder and physical mixture exhibited less than 15% drug release. Furthermore, ALC formulation effectively increased the peak plasma concentration (C max) and area under the curve (AUC) of fenofibric acid (an active metabolite) in rats by approximately 13- and seven-fold, respectively. Furthermore, ALC formulation exhibited much lower moisture sorption behavior than the lyophilized formulation using sucrose as a cryoprotectant. Taken together, the present findings suggest that ALC formulation is promising for improving the oral absorption of poorly soluble fenofibrate.

  19. Prognostic value of lymphocyte/monocyte ratio in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: correlation with International Prognostic Score and tumor associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jakovic, Ljubomir R; Mihaljevic, Biljana S; Andjelic, Bosko M; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Perunicic Jovanovic, Maja D; Babic, Dragan D; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Z

    2016-08-01

    We studied the prognostic significance of the absolute lymphocyte/monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC), its contribution to the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Score (IPS), and evaluated if ALC/AMC could serve as a proxy for the frequency of CD68 + tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in 101 patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified best cut-off values of 2.0 for ALC/AMC and 25% for CD68 + TAM. Patients with ALC/AMC < 2, IPS > 2 and > 25% CD68 + TAM had an inferior overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Spearman's test also uncovered a significant correlation between the ALC/AMC and TAM. Multivariate analysis identified ALC/AMC < 2, IPS > 2 and > 25% CD68 + TAM as poor prognostic factors of OS and EFS. After evaluating ALC/AMC and IPS, we stratified patients into three progressively-worse-outcome groups (low-risk: 0 risk factors; intermediate: 1 risk factor; high: 2 risk factors). Our study encourages the combination of ALC/AMC with IPS, for refining risk prediction in advanced HL patients.

  20. Motivation, Test Results, Gender Differences, and Foreign Languages: How Do They Connect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammit, Susan A.

    The testing of 32,000 students in Australia and New Zealand participating in The Australian Language Certificates (ALC) provided the opportunity to examine students' attitude and learning preferences when studying a language other than English. The ALC offered the opportunity to learn seven languages in a Languages Other Than English (LOTE)…

  1. Seroprevalence, isolation, first genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii, and possible congenital transmission in wild moose from Minnesota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are widespread in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but little is known of its prevalence in other cervids in the USA. Moose (Alces alces) is a popular large game animal, hunted for its meat and trophy antlers. Here, we report seroprevalence, isolation and genet...

  2. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in...

  3. Aminoclay–lipid hybrid composite as a novel drug carrier of fenofibrate for the enhancement of drug release and oral absorption

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Shao, Yating; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare the aminoclay–lipid hybrid composite to enhance the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Antisolvent precipitation coupled with an immediate freeze-drying method was adopted to incorporate fenofibrate into aminoclay–lipid hybrid composite (ALC). The optimal composition of the ALC formulation was determined as the ratios of aminoclay to krill oil of 3:1 (w/w), krill oil to fenofibrate of 2:1 (w/w), and antisolvent to solvent of 6:4 (v/v). The morphological characteristics of ALC formulation were determined using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction, which indicated microcrystalline state of fenofibrate in ALC formulation. The ALC formulation achieved almost complete dissolution within 30 minutes, whereas the untreated powder and physical mixture exhibited less than 15% drug release. Furthermore, ALC formulation effectively increased the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) of fenofibric acid (an active metabolite) in rats by approximately 13- and seven-fold, respectively. Furthermore, ALC formulation exhibited much lower moisture sorption behavior than the lyophilized formulation using sucrose as a cryoprotectant. Taken together, the present findings suggest that ALC formulation is promising for improving the oral absorption of poorly soluble fenofibrate. PMID:27042061

  4. Sense of Belonging and First-Year Academic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Steve; Zhou, Mingming; Gervan, Ted; Wiebe, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a broad range of factors that affect the sense of belonging of undergraduate students taking a first-year academic literacy course (ALC) at a multicultural, multilingual university in Vancouver, Canada. Students who fail to meet the university's language and literacy requirements are required to pass ALC before they can…

  5. Exploring Dimensions of Social Inclusion among Alternative Learning Centres in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Dawn X.; Barnes, Rachelle Redmond

    2016-01-01

    Increasing disparities in out-of-school suspension and dropout rates have led a number of school districts to develop alternative models of education to include alternative learning centres (ALCs). Using an exploratory mixed methods design, this study explores dimensions of social inclusion among ALCs, located in the southeastern region of the…

  6. Echinococcus granulosus in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Nylund, Minna; Koski, Perttu

    2003-02-13

    Echinococcus granulosus is shown to occur in eastern Finland in a sylvatic cycle involving wolves (Canis lupus) as the definitive host and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and probably also elk (Alces alces) and the wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus) as intermediate hosts. Even though the prevalence of E. granulosus in reindeer has increased in recent years, it is still very low (<0.013%). The results suggest, however, that the reindeer is a good sentinel animal to show the contamination of soil with Echinococcus eggs. This is the first report of wolves acting as a definitive host for E. granulosus in northern Europe. The parasite seems to be quite common in the Finnish wolf population, with a prevalence of approximately 30% in both intestinal and faecal samples. The present results and previous ones indicate that E. granulosus infection has not spread to dogs in the reindeer herding area.

  7. High elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested Colorado moose.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Ivy K; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (Alces alces). Of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout Colorado, USA, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bCI]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bCI=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. Although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis were reported among the harvested moose we examined, the pervasiveness of this parasite may motivate further study of the potential effects of elaeophorosis on moose survival and population performance in the southern Rocky Mountains. Our data suggest histopathology may be more sensitive than gross examination in detecting elaeophorosis in harvested moose.

  8. Molting in Salmonella Enteritidis-challenged laying hens fed alfalfa crumbles. II. Fermentation and microbial ecology response.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, K D; McReynolds, J L; Hume, M E; Dunkley, C S; Callaway, T R; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine microbial population shifts and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) responses in the gastrointestinal tract of Salmonella Enteritidis-challenged molted and nonmolted hens fed different dietary regimens. Fifteen Salmonella-free Single Comb Leghorn hens (>50 wk old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups of 5 birds each based on diet in 2 trials: 100% alfalfa crumbles (ALC), full-fed (FF, nonmolted) 100% commercial layer ration, and feed withdrawal (FW). A forced molt was induced by either a 12-d alfalfa diet or FW. In all treatment groups, each hen was challenged by crop gavage orally 4 d after molt induction with a 1-mL inoculum containing 10(6) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. Fecal and cecal samples (d 4, 6, 8, 11, and necropsy on d 12) were collected postchallenge. Microbial population shifts were evaluated by PCR-based 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and SCFA concentrations were measured. Total SCFA in fecal and cecal contents for FW molted hens were generally lower (P < or = 0.05) in the later stages of the molt period when compared to ALC and FF treatment groups. The overall trend of SCFA in cecal and fecal samples exhibited similar patterns. In trials 1 and 2, hens molted with ALC diet generally yielded more similar amplicon band patterns with the FF hens in both fecal and cecal samples by the end of the molting period than with FW hens. The results of these studies suggest that ALC molted hens supported microflora and fermentation activities, which were more comparable to FF hens than FW hens by the end of the molting period.

  9. Free Breathing Static Dehumidification Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    1?336 FREE NNERTHIN STATIC DMIDIFICATIOU SYS*kNS(U) RJR In__ FORME PRCKRGING EVJRTIN ROENCY WIIT-RTTERMO WD ON S A M~Y Jfh 97 DST -7-R-1 LOL lSSFFI...0 . LiW- M -. ’*5 iq - a . L O 37 Figure 12. Field Layout at SM-ALC/ DST , McClellan AFB CA .tr 4j w, I , D 4.- 4, 4J 4) :3 4j CCD ko LL o. 0.U UU -4 4...USAeLE11 I Wash DC 20330 HQ Ar’SC/LG’ I O)C-ALC/ DST Tinker Ar’B OK 73145 U0-ALC/ OST 1 Hill AFB UT 84406 SA-ALC/ DST i I. Kelly AeBN TIX 78241 SM-ALC

  10. Technical Raster Transfer Installation Drawing: Waveguide LPCR-130-2 Radar. Submitted By: Lockheed Aeronautical Systems. Supporting: WR-ALC/TILCA’s EDCARS Program Contract Number F33657-90-C-0071-P000l3BL2. MIL-STD-1840A, MIL-R-28002A (Raster). Quick Short Test Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    0002600 del del del del del del del del del del del del del del e gs 0002620 M dc4 "dc4bs be. nl [ % d #em v a 9 AFCTN Test Report AFCTB Test Report 94-110...94-106 0002640 dcl c bs so d q dcl Q gs dcl b # etx enq H 0002660 so bs a stx 8 g # D t G dc4 8 0 G dle so 0002700 d p S # soh h @ ( . bel I bs dle 8

  11. Fetal programming of adult Leydig cell function by androgenic effects on stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Karen R; Smith, Lee B; Atanassova, Nina; Macpherson, Sheila; McKinnell, Chris; van den Driesche, Sander; Jobling, Matthew S; Chambers, Thomas J G; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido; O'Hara, Laura; Platts, Sophie; Renato de Franca, Luiz; Lara, Nathália L M; Anderson, Richard A; Sharpe, Richard M

    2014-05-06

    Fetal growth plays a role in programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders, which in men, are associated with lowered testosterone levels. Fetal growth and fetal androgen exposure can also predetermine testosterone levels in men, although how is unknown, because the adult Leydig cells (ALCs) that produce testosterone do not differentiate until puberty. To explain this conundrum, we hypothesized that stem cells for ALCs must be present in the fetal testis and might be susceptible to programming by fetal androgen exposure during masculinization. To address this hypothesis, we used ALC ablation/regeneration to identify that, in rats, ALCs derive from stem/progenitor cells that express chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II. These stem cells are abundant in the fetal testis of humans and rodents, and lineage tracing in mice shows that they develop into ALCs. The stem cells also express androgen receptors (ARs). Reduction in fetal androgen action through AR KO in mice or dibutyl phthalate (DBP) -induced reduction in intratesticular testosterone in rats reduced ALC stem cell number by ∼40% at birth to adulthood and induced compensated ALC failure (low/normal testosterone and elevated luteinizing hormone). In DBP-exposed males, this failure was probably explained by reduced testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, which is associated with increased histone methylation (H3K27me3) in the proximal promoter. Accordingly, ALCs and ALC stem cells immunoexpressed increased H3K27me3, a change that was also evident in ALC stem cells in fetal testes. These studies highlight how a key component of male reproductive development can fundamentally reprogram adult hormone production (through an epigenetic change), which might affect lifetime disease risk.

  12. Possible interaction between MAOA and DRD2 genes associated with antisocial alcoholism among Han Chinese men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tso-Jen; Huang, San-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Wen; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-Lin; Wang, Yu-Shan; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Ko, Huei-Chen; Shih, Jean-Chen; Lu, Ru-Band

    2007-01-30

    Both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and dopamine D(2) receptor (DRD2) genes have been considered as candidate genes for antisocial personality disorder with alcoholism (Antisocial ALC) [Parsian, A., 1999. Sequence analysis of exon 8 of MAO-A gene in alcoholics with antisocial personality and normal controls. Genomics. 45, 290-295.; Samochowiec, J., Lesch, K.P., Rottmann, M., Smolka, M., Syagailo, Y.V., Okladnova, O., Rommelspacher, H., Winterer, G., Schmidt, L.G., Sander, T., 1999. Association of a regulatory polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene with antisocial alcoholism. Psychiatry. Res. 86, 67-72.; Schmidt, L.vG., Sander, T., Kuhn, S., Smolka, M., Rommelspacher, H., Samochowiec, J., Lesch, K.P., 2000. Different allele distribution of a regulatory MAO-A gene promotor polymorphism in antisocial and anxious-depressive alcoholics. J. Neural .Transm. 107, 681-689.]. However, the association between alcoholism and MAOA or DRD2 gene has not been universally accepted [Lee, J.F., Lu, R.B., Ko, H.C., Chang, F.M., Yin, S.J., Pakstis, A.J., Kidd, K.K., 1999. No association between DRD(2) locus and alcoholism after controlling the ADH and ALDH genotypes in Chinese Han population. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 23, 592-599.; Lu, R.B., Lin, W.W., Lee, J.F., Ko, H.C., Shih, J.C., 2003. Neither antisocial personality disorder nor antisocial alcoholism association with MAOA gene among Han Chinese males in Taiwan. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 27, 889-893.]. Since dopamine is metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPAL) via monoamine oxidase (MAO) [Westerink, B.H., de Vries, J.B., 1985. On the origin of dopamine and its metabolite in predominantly noradrenergic innervated brain areas. Brain. Res. 330, 164-166.], the interaction between MAOA and DRD2 genes might be related to Antisocial ALC. The present study aimed to determine whether Antisocial ALC might be associated with the possible interactions of DRD2 gene with MAOA gene. Of the 231 Han Chinese

  13. Effects of Dietary Alpha-lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-carnitine on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Arbor Acres Broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Ma, Qiugang; Huang, Jin; Yin, Haicheng; Liu, Laiting

    2014-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of 486 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to 9 dietary treatments, 9 treatments were group A (0 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC), group B (50 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC), group C (100 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC), group D (0 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC), group E (50 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC), group F (100 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC), group G (0 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC), group H (50 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC), group I (100 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC). Birds were slaughtered at 42 days old. Average daily gain (ADG), average feed intake (AFI), feed conversion rate (FCR), eviscerated rate, breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, liver weight, muscle color (L* value, a* value, b* value), pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem were measured. Results showed that there existed an interaction between LA and ALC in growth performance of broilers, carcass traits and meat quality. The overall result is that high level of LA and ALC led to lower AFI, ADG (p<0.01), lower abdominal fat percentage, liver weight (p<0.01), lower L* value, a* value, and b* value of breast muscle, L* value of thigh muscle (p<0.05), and higher FCR (p<0.01), eviscerated rate (p<0.01), breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage (p<0.05), a* value, pH 45 min and pH 24 h of thigh muscle (p<0.01). These results suggested that dietary LA and ALC contributed to the improvement of meat quality in broilers.

  14. Absolute lymphocyte count recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesook T; Armand, Philippe; Frederick, David; Andler, Emily; Cutler, Corey; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin P; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome; Ho, Vincent T

    2015-05-01

    Immune reconstitution is critical for clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine the impact of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery on clinical outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study of 1109 adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic HSCT from 2003 through 2009, excluding patients who died or relapsed before day 30. The median age was 51 years (range, 18 to 74) with 52% undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning and 48% undergoing myeloablative conditioning HSCT with T cell-replete peripheral blood stem cells (93.7%) or marrow (6.4%) grafts. The median follow-up time was 6 years. To determine the threshold value of ALC for survival, the entire cohort was randomly split into a training set and a validation set in a 1:1 ratio, and then a restricted cubic spline smoothing method was applied to obtain relative hazard estimates of the relationship between ALC at 1 month and log hazard of progression-free survival (PFS). Based on this approach, ALC was categorized as ≤.2 × 10(9) cells/L (low) or >.2 × 10(9) cells/L. For patients with low ALC at 1, 2, or 3 months after HSCT, the overall survival (OS) (P ≤ .0001) and PFS (P ≤ .0002) were significantly lower and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P ≤ .002) was significantly higher compared with patients with ALC > .2 × 10(9) cells/L at each time point. When patients who had low ALC at 1, 2, or 3 months after HSCT were grouped together and compared, their outcomes were inferior to those of patients who had ALC > .2 × 10(9) cells/L at 1, 2, and 3 months after HSCT: the 5-year OS for patients with low ALC was 28% versus 46% for patients with ALC > .2 × 10(9) cells/L, P < .0001; the 5-year PFS was 21% versus 39%, P < .0001, respectively and 5-year NRM was 40% versus 18%, P < .0001, respectively. This result remained consistent when other prognostic factors, including occurrence of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), were adjusted for in

  15. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on bony craniofacial development: a mouse MicroCT study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Liang, Yun; Ren, Xiaowei; Anthony, Charles Bruce; Goodlett, Charles R; Ward, Richard; Zhou, Feng C

    2013-08-01

    Craniofacial bone dysmorphology is an important but under-explored potential diagnostic feature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This study used longitudinal MicroCT 3D imaging to examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on craniofacial bone growth in a mouse model. C57BL/6J dams were divided into 3 groups: alcohol 4.2% v/v in PMI® liquid diet (ALC), 2 weeks prior to and during pregnancy from embryonic (E) days 7-E16; pair-fed controls (PF), isocalorically matched to the ALC group; chow controls (CHOW), given ad libitum chow and water. The MicroCT scans were performed on pups on postnatal days 7 (P7) and P21. The volumes of the neurocranium (volume encased by the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones) and the viscerocranium (volume encased by the mandible and nasal bone), along with total skull bone volume, head size, and head circumference were evaluated using general linear models and discriminant analyses. The pups in the alcohol-treated group, when compared to the chow-fed controls (ALC vs CHOW) and the isocaloric-fed controls (ALC vs PF), showed differences in head size and circumference at P7 and P21, the total skull volume and parietal bone volume at P7, and volume of all the tested bones except nasal at P21. There was a growth trend of ALC < CHOW and ALC < PF. While covarying for gender and head size or circumference, the treatment affected the total skull and mandible at P7 (ALC > CHOW), and the total skull, parietal bone, and occipital bone at P21 (ALC < CHOW, ALC < PF). While covarying for the P7 measures, the treatment affected only the 3 neurocranial bones at P21 (ALC < CHOW, ALC < PF). Discriminant analysis sensitively selected between ALC and CHOW (AUC = 0.967), between ALC and PF (AUC = 0.995), and between PF and CHOW (AUC = 0.805). These results supported our hypothesis that craniofacial bones might be a reliable and sensitive indicator for the diagnosis of prenatal alcohol exposure. Significantly, we found that the neurocranium (upper

  16. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on brain volumes in controls and alcohol-dependent individuals in early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly co-morbid condition in AUD and its influence on age-related brain atrophy have not been evaluated. We performed 1.5 T quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in non-smoking controls [non-smoking light drinking controls (nsCONs); n = 54], smoking light drinking controls (sCONs, n = 34), and one-week abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALC) non-smokers (nsALCs, n = 35) and smokers (sALCs, n = 43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS). The nsCONs and sALCs showed greater age-related volume losses than the nsALCs in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. The nsALCs and sALCs demonstrated smaller volumes than the nsCONs in most cortical region of interests (ROIs). The sCONs had smaller volumes than the nsCONs in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. The nsALCs and sALCs had smaller volumes than the sCONs in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between the nsALCs and sALCs were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in the sCONs and sALCs. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD.

  17. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1-x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  18. Acetyl-l-carnitine restores synaptic transmission and enhances the inducibility of stable LTP after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Kitti; Frank, Rita; Szabó, József; Knapp, Levente; Kis, Zsolt; Farkas, Tamás; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2016-09-22

    Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it can therefore be administered safely even in relatively high doses. In previous experiments, ALC pretreatment proved to be effective against global hypoperfusion. In the present study, we investigated whether ALC can be protective in an OGD model. We are not aware of any earlier study in which the long-term potentiation (LTP) function on hippocampal slices was measured after OGD. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an effective ALC concentration has an effect on synaptic plasticity after OGD in the hippocampal CA1 subfield of rats. A further aim was to investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effect of this compound. The experiments revealed that ALC is neuroprotective against OGD in a dose-dependent manner, which is manifested not only in the regeneration of the impaired synaptic transmission after the OGD, but also in the inducibility and stability of the LTP. In the case of the most effective concentration of ALC (500μM), use of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) revealed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a key role in the restoration of the synaptic transmission and plasticity reached by ALC treatment.

  19. Acetyl-L-carnitine and oxaloacetate in post-treatment against LTP impairment in a rat ischemia model. An in vitro electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Mészáros, J; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Vécsei, L; Toldi, J

    2015-06-01

    A high proportion of research relating to cerebral ischemia focuses on neuroprotection. The application of compounds normally present in the organism is popular, because they do not greatly influence the synaptic activity by receptor modulation, and can be administered without serious side effects. Oxaloacetate (OxAc) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are such favorable endogenous molecules. ALC can exert a protective effect by improving the energy state of the neurons under ischemic conditions. A promising neuroprotective strategy is glutamate scavenging, which can be achieved by the intravenous administration of OxAc. This study involved the possible protective effects of ALC and OxAc in different post-treatment protocols against long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment. Ischemia was induced in rats by 2-vessel occlusion, which led to a decreased LTP relative to the control group. High-dose (200 mg/kg) ALC or OxAc post-treatment resulted in a higher potentiation relative to the 2VO group, but it did not reach the control level, whereas low-dose ALC (100 mg/kg) in combination with OxAc completely restored the LTP function. Many previous studies have concluded that ALC can be protective only as pretreatment. The strategy described here reveals that ALC can also be neuroprotective when utilized as post-treatment against ischemia.

  20. Acetyl-l-carnitine prevents serotonin-induced behavioural sensitization and dishabituation in Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna; Ristori, Chiara; Brunelli, Marcello; Scuri, Rossana

    2013-09-15

    Several studies suggest that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) might influence learning processes. Along this line of investigation, we have previously shown that ALC impaired sensitization and dishabituation induced by nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, in the behavioural paradigm of the swim induction (SI). In previous works we showed that 5HT was involved in both sensitization and dishabituation of SI acting through the second messenger cAMP. In this work, we have reported that for given doses and temporal ranges ALC was able to block sensitization and to impair dishabituation mimicked by the injection of 5-HT or 8Br-cAMP, a membrane permeable analogue of cAMP. Our results show that a single treatment with 2mM ALC was the most effective concentration to block the onset of sensitization induced by 5-HT injection and its major effects occurred 11 days after ALC treatment. 2mM ALC also blocked sensitization induced by 8Br-cAMP injection, whereas, ALC did not completely abolish dishabituation induced by 5-HT or 8Br-cAMP injection at the tested concentrations and at every time point.

  1. Acetyl-L-carnitine ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction following contusion spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Lyttle, Travis S; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) administration on mitochondrial dysfunction following tenth thoracic level contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Initial results from experiments in vitro with naïve mitochondria showed that, in the absence of pyruvate, ALC can be used as an alternative substrate for mitochondrial respiration. Additionally, when added in vitro to mitochondria isolated from 24 h injured cords, ALC restored respiration rates to normal levels. For administration studies in vivo, injured rats were given i.p. injections of saline (vehicle) or ALC (300 mg/kg) at 15, 30 or 60 min post-injury, followed by one booster after 6 h. Mitochondria were isolated 24 h post-injury and assessed for respiration rates, activities of NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. SCI significantly (p < 0.05) decreased respiration rates and activities of all enzyme complexes, but ALC treatment significantly (p < 0.05) maintained mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities compared with vehicle treatment. Critically, ALC administration in vivo at 15 min and 6 h post-injury versus vehicle, followed once daily for 7 days, significantly (p < 0.05) spared gray matter. In summary, ALC treatment maintains mitochondrial bioenergetics following contusion SCI and, thus, holds great potential as a neuroprotective therapy for acute SCI.

  2. Characterizing absolute lymphocyte count profiles in dimethyl fumarate–treated patients with MS

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf; Phillips, J. Theodore; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Chang, Ih; Novas, Mark; Rana, Jitesh; Marantz, Jing L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), is a disease-modifying therapy with potential immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. In clinical trials, DMF was associated with reduced white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts. Current US prescribing information recommends obtaining a complete blood count, including absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), before initiating and during DMF treatment. Methods: We conducted an integrated analysis of phase 2b/3/long-term extension studies of DMF in MS (N = 2,470) to characterize ALC profiles. Results: Mean ALCs decreased by 30% during the first year and then plateaued, remaining above the lower limit of normal (LLN). Among patients treated ≥6 months (N = 2,099), 2.2% experienced ALCs <500 mm3 persisting ≥6 months. ALCs remained ≥LLN in 84% and 76% of patients during the first 6 and 12 months, respectively; of these, 0.1% and 0%, respectively, developed ALCs <500 mm3 persisting ≥6 months at any time. Evidence of ALC improvement following DMF discontinuation was observed. DMF efficacy was not substantially different in patients with and without lymphopenia. Conclusion: Lymphocyte monitoring provides effective means for early identification of patients at risk for developing severe, prolonged lymphopenia. PMID:27347439

  3. Chronic cigarette smoking in alcohol dependence: associations with cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate levels in the extended brain reward system.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic smoking in alcohol dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain morphology and metabolite levels in large lobar regions (e.g. frontal lobe). Here, we evaluated if these abnormalities are specifically apparent in several cortical and select subcortical components of the extended brain reward system (BRS), a network that is critically involved in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. We studied 33 non-smoking and 43 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) with 1 week of abstinence and 42 non-smoking Controls. At 1.5 Tesla, we obtained regional measures of cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA; a surrogate marker of neuronal integrity) concentration in major components of the BRS as well as the corresponding measures throughout the cortex. Smoking ALC and non-smoking ALC demonstrated decreased thickness compared with Controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the total BRS, total frontal cortex and global cortex. Smoking ALC had significantly decreased thickness compared to non-smoking ALC in the ACC, insula, the total BRS and total frontal cortex. Smoking ALC had also lower NAA concentrations than both non-smoking ALC and Controls in the DLPFC, insula, superior corona radiata and the total BRS. Alcohol consumption and common medical and psychiatric co-morbidities did not mediate differences between smoking and non-smoking ALC. This dual modality magnetic resonance (MR) study indicated that chronic smoking in ALC was associated with significant cortical thinning and NAA abnormalities in anterior brain regions that are implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.

  4. White matter fiber compromise contributes differentially to attention and emotion processing impairment in alcoholism, HIV-infection, and their comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Schulte, T; Müller-Oehring, E M; Sullivan, E V; Pfefferbaum, A

    2012-10-01

    Alcoholism (ALC) and HIV-1 infection (HIV) each affects emotional and attentional processes and integrity of brain white matter fibers likely contributing to functional compromise. The highly prevalent ALC+HIV comorbidity may exacerbate compromise. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and an emotional Stroop Match-to-Sample task in 19 ALC, 16 HIV, 15 ALC+HIV, and 15 control participants to investigate whether disruption of fiber system integrity accounts for compromised attentional and emotional processing. The task required matching a cue color to that of an emotional word with faces appearing between the color cue and the Stroop word in half of the trials. Nonmatched cue-word color pairs assessed selective attention, and face-word pairs assessed emotion. Relative to controls, DTI-based fiber tracking revealed lower inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ilf) integrity in HIV and ALC+HIV and lower uncinate fasciculus (uf) integrity in all three patient groups. Controls exhibited Stroop effects to positive face-word emotion, and greater interference was related to greater callosal, cingulum and ilf integrity. By contrast, HIV showed greater interference from negative Stroop words during color-nonmatch trials, correlating with greater uf compromise. For face trials, ALC and ALC+HIV showed greater Stroop-word interference, correlating with lower cingulate and callosal integrity. Thus, in HIV, conflict resolution was diminished when challenging conditions usurped resources needed to manage interference from negative emotion and to disengage attention from wrongly cued colors (nonmatch). In ALC and ALC+HIV, poorer callosal integrity was related to enhanced emotional interference suggesting curtailed interhemispheric exchange needed between preferentially right-hemispheric emotion and left-hemispheric Stroop-word functions.

  5. Using Pop-II models to predict effects of wolf predation and hunter harvests on elk, mule deer, and moose on the northern range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, John A.; Singer, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of establishing a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in Yellowstone National Park were predicted for three ungulate species—elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and moose (Alces alces)—using previously developed POP-II population models. We developed models for 78 and 100 wolves. For each wolf population, we ran scenarios using wolf predation rates of 9, 12, and 15 ungulates/wolf/year. With 78 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our modeled elk population estimated were 5-18% smaller than the model estimate without wolves. With 100 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our elk population estimated were 11-30% smaller than the population estimates without wolves. Wolf predation effects were greater on the modeled mule deer population than on elk. With 78 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, we predicted the mule deer population could be 13-44% larger than without wolves. With 100 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, the mule deer population was 0-36% larger than without wolves. After wolf recovery, our POP-II models suggested moose harvests would have to be reduced at least 50% to maintain moose numbers at the levels predicted when wolves were not present. Mule deer and moose population data are limited, and these wolf predation effects may be overestimated if population sizes or male-female ratios were underestimated in our population models. We recommend additional mule deer and moose population data be obtained.

  6. Contractor Logistics Support in the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB . After the BRAC Commission voted in FY 1995 to close McClellan , the Air Force chose CLS for the F-117. The... Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB would also have been the depot for the F-22. The original sustainment plan for organic sup- port was premised on a fleet of...major depots until the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission in 1995 recommended closure of two ALCs.1 Kelly and McClellan AFBs closed in

  7. Real power regulation for the utility power grid via responsive loads

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J [Knoxville, TN; Kirby, Brendan J [Knoxville, TN; Kisner, Roger A

    2009-05-19

    A system for dynamically managing an electrical power system that determines measures of performance and control criteria for the electric power system, collects at least one automatic generation control (AGC) input parameter to at least one AGC module and at least one automatic load control (ALC) input parameter to at least one ALC module, calculates AGC control signals and loads as resources (LAR) control signals in response to said measures of performance and control criteria, propagates AGC control signals to power generating units in response to control logic in AGC modules, and propagates LAR control signals to at least one LAR in response to control logic in ALC modules.

  8. Effects of dietary α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, and sex on antioxidative ability, energy, and lipid metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jia, R; Bao, Y H; Zhang, Y; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-lipoic acid (LA), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), and sex on antioxidative ability, energy, and lipid metabolism in broilers. A total of 972 one-day-old broilers with equal sex were randomly assigned in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design using 3 LA, 3 ALC levels, and 2 sexes (6 replications, 9 birds/replication). The LA and ALC levels were 0, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that increased LA or ALC resulted in increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and decreased levels of malondialdehyde in serum and liver of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, with increasing addition of LA or ALC, an increased (P < 0.01) level of insulin (Ins), as well as decreased (P < 0.05) levels of glucose and glucagon (Glu), were observed in serum of broilers. Total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acid, lipoprotein lipase, and lipase levels increased (P < 0.05) in serum with increased administration of LA or ALC. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.05) interaction of LA × ALC was observed for serum and liver SOD, serum GSH-Px, glucose, and TG levels. Birds fed diets containing 50 mg/kg of LA and 50 mg/kg of ALC had higher serum and liver SOD activities and lower serum glucose and TG levels than those fed diets containing 100 mg/kg of LA or ALC alone. The main effect of sex and all interactions among main effects (except LA × ALC) were not significant (P > 0.05) for all of the above parameters. Overall, the present data indicate that LA or ALC supplementation, or both, at low levels (50 or 100 mg/kg) improved antioxidative ability, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism in broilers, and synergistic effects by the combined supplementation of LA and ALC were indicated by serum and liver SOD activities and serum glucose and TG levels.

  9. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zald, Harold S.J.; Spies, Thomas A.; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J.; Olsen, Keith A.; Steel, E. Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  10. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA.

    PubMed

    Zald, Harold S J; Spies, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J; Olsen, Keith A; Steel, E Ashley

    2016-04-15

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  11. Modulation of myelin basic protein gene expression by acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna; Federighi, Giuseppe; Macchi, Monica; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Durante, Mauro; Brunelli, Marcello

    2011-08-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), the acetyl ester of L-carnitine, is a naturally occurring molecule which plays an essential role in intermediary and mitochondrial metabolism. It has also neurotrophic and antioxidant actions, demonstrating efficacy and high tolerability in the treatment of neuropathies of various etiologies. ALC is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, although little is known regarding its effects on gene expression. Suppression subtractive hybridization methodology was used for the generation of subtracted complementary DNA libraries and the subsequent identification of differentially expressed transcripts in the rat brain after chronic ALC treatments. We provided evidence for a downregulation of the expression of all of the isoforms of myelin basic protein gene following prolonged ALC treatment, indicating a possible role in the modulation of myelin basic protein turnover, stabilizing and maintaining myelin integrity.

  12. Acute care alternate-level-of-care days due to delayed discharge for traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Amy, Chen; Zagorski, Brandon; Chan, Vincy; Parsons, Daria; Vander Laan, Rika; Colantonio, Angela

    2012-05-01

    Alternate-level-of-care (ALC) days represent hospital beds that are taken up by patients who would more appropriately be cared for in other settings. ALC days have been found to be costly and may result in worse functional outcomes, reduced motor skills and longer lengths of stay in rehabilitation. This study examines the factors that are associated with acute care ALC days among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used the Discharge Abstract Database to identify patients with ABI using International Classification of Disease-10 codes. From fiscal years 2007/08 to 2009/10, 17.5% of patients with traumatic and 14% of patients with non-traumatic brain injury had at least one ALC day. Significant predictors include having a psychiatric co-morbidity, increasing age and length of stay in acute care. These findings can inform planning for care of people with ABI in a publicly funded healthcare system.

  13. Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): a widespread, multi-host lungworm of wild North American ungulates, with an emended diagnosis for the genus and explorations of biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. is established for a recently discovered protostrongylid nematode found in caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and moose (Alces americanus), hosts that collectively occupy an extensive geographic range across northern North America. Descripti...

  14. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts.

  15. Hidden spin-order-induced room-temperature ferroelectricity in a peculiar conical magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Liu, Xin-Zhi; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Studer, Andrew; Rule, Kirrily; Zhai, Kun; Yan, Li-Qin; Shang, Da-Shan; Klose, Frank; Liu, Yun-Tao; Chen, Dong-Feng; Sun, Young

    2017-03-01

    A novel mechanism of spin-induced ferroelectricity is unraveled in the alternating longitudinal conical (ALC) magnetic structure. Because the noncollinear ALC structure possesses a c -axis component with collinear ↑-↑-↓-↓ spin order, spin-driven ferroelectricity along the c axis due to the exchange striction mechanism is predicted. Our experiments verify this prediction in the Y-type hexaferrite B a0.3S r1.7C o2F e11Al O22 , where ferroelectricity along the c axis is observed up to room temperature. Neutron diffraction data clearly reveal the ALC phase and its evolution with magnetic fields. The c -axis electric polarization can be well modulated by applying either a b -plane or c -axis magnetic fields, even at 305 K. This kind of spin-induced ferroelectricity associated with the ALC magnetic structure provides a new resource of type II multiferroics.

  16. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS - COMPARING DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alc...

  17. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  18. Programmed Depot Maintenance Capacity Assessment Tool: Workloads, Capacity, and Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Texas; McClellan AFB , Sacramento , California.; and PEMCO Aeroplex, Birmingham, Alabama. 3 For the purposes of this analysis, we wished to exclude any...and Budgeting System SM-ALC Sacramento Air Logistics Center SPD system program director TSAR Theater Simulation of Airbase Resources TSG tanker...BRAC) Commission’s report that recommended closing the Sacramento Air Logistics Center (SM-ALC), among other U.S. Department of Defense (DoD

  19. Upregulation of mGlu2 receptors via NF-κB p65 acetylation is involved in the Proneurogenic and antidepressant effects of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Bortolotto, Valeria; Valente, Maria Maddalena; Ubezio, Federica; Koverech, Aleardo; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2013-10-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring molecule with an important role in cellular bioenergetics and as donor of acetyl groups to proteins, including NF-κB p65. In humans, exogenously administered ALC has been shown to be effective in mood disturbances, with a good tolerability profile. No current information is available on the antidepressant effect of ALC in animal models of depression and on the putative mechanism involved in such effect. Here we report that ALC is a proneurogenic molecule, whose effect on neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal neural progenitors is independent of its neuroprotective activity. The in vitro proneurogenic effects of ALC appear to be mediated by activation of the NF-κB pathway, and in particular by p65 acetylation, and subsequent NF-κB-mediated upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2) expression. When tested in vivo, chronic ALC treatment could revert depressive-like behavior caused by unpredictable chronic mild stress, a rodent model of depression with high face validity and predictivity, and its behavioral effect correlated with upregulated expression of mGlu2 receptor in hippocampi of stressed mice. Moreover, chronic, but not acute or subchronic, drug treatment significantly increased adult born neurons in hippocampi of stressed and unstressed mice. We now propose that this mechanism could be potentially involved in the antidepressant effect of ALC in humans. These results are potentially relevant from a clinical perspective, as for its high tolerability profile ALC may be ideally employed in patient subpopulations who are sensitive to the side effects associated with classical antidepressants.

  20. Risk Assessment Report, Davis Global Communications Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-23

    Bruce Sarazin 10 Cottonwood Street Woodland, California 95695 SM-ALC/JAE Attn: Martin Keck 5213 Arnold Avenue McClellan AFB, California 95692 SM-ALC/EMR...VOC emissions during sprinkler irrigation was estimated using water-to-air transfer coefficients measured with radon (Prichard and Gesell , 1981). This...U.S. EPA, 1991). These data indicate 30 to 90 percent volatilization of radon from water, depending upon water use (Prichard and Gesell , 1981). The

  1. A prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral acetyl-L-carnitine for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanjue; Shu, Yongqian; Liu, Baorui; Liu, Ping; Wu, Changping; Zheng, Rongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhuang, Zhixiang; Deng, Yongchuan; Zheng, Leizhen; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Bin; Ouyang, Xuenong; Gao, Jianfei; Xu, Nong; Li, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Su; Liang, Chaofan; Yao, Yang

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The study was carried out as a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and paralleled clinical study. A total of 239 patients with CIPN were selected as the study subjects. Of the 239 subjects, 118 subjects received 3 g/day ALC orally for 8 weeks and 121 received a placebo. The primary endpoint was improvement of peripheral neuropathy by at least one grade. Patient status was assessed at week 4, 8 and 12 after enrollment into the study. In both the full analysis set (FAS) and the per-protocol set (PPS), peripheral sensory neuropathy was significantly ameliorated in the ALC group with 50.5 and 51.6% patients meeting the primary endpoint at week 8, compared with 24.1 and 23.1% of patients in the placebo group (P<0.001 in both sets). Secondary endpoints, such as the nerve electrophysiological examination and the Karnofsky physical score were also significantly improved in patients receiving ALC treatment, as compared with the placebo group (FAS, P=0.0463 and P=0.022; PPS, P=0.0076 and P=0.0064, respectively). Cancer-associated fatigue was significantly alleviated following ALC treatment in the PPS (P=0.0135). In the safety analysis set, the difference in adverse events incidence between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.3903). There were only two severe adverse events in the ALC group, which were not associated with the effect of ALC. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that in Chinese patients with cancer, oral administration of ALC is effective at ameliorating peripheral sensory neuropathy induced by chemotherapy, as well as reducing of cancer-associated fatigue and improving physical conditions.

  2. Computed MISTR Requirement Changes and Parts Support - Analysis of a Mismatch.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-09

    gratitude to the "I" Division, Sacramento Air Logistics Center (ALC), for sponsoring this research. John Keith and other members of the ALC were of...5. Maintenance Inventory Control Records 6. Output generated by G062 for IMS 8 Research Hypothesis The pen or pencil adjusting of the Air Force Logis ...AFB OH, September 1976. 5. .manaement of Items Sub ject to Repair (MITR). AFLC Regulation 05-1z. Wright-PatEterson KFff OHT, 2 August, 1978. 6. Baird

  3. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 27, Number 1, Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Production Grover Dunn, Debra K. Walker, Sue A. Dryden 8 Financial Edward Koenig; James Stuart; Brigadier General Frank R. Faykes, USAF 9 Workforce...Development Jim McGinley (advisor), AFMC Financial Management Gene Kinslow , OC-ALC Plans & Programs Randy Young (advisor), OC-ALC/FM Michael W. Blasdel...Brigadier General Frank R. Faykes, USAF payments (the current Air Force model) over which the Air Force has no management control and 5 years as DMAG

  4. Environmental Assessment for Infrastructure Improvements in the Base Developed Area at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    lakes and extensive wetlands surround the airfield. Among these are Bear, Polaris, Moose , Hidden, Pike, Rainbow, Scout, Grayling, and Tar Kettle...lakes. Creeks that can be found in the vicinity of the airfield include French and Moose creeks. The ROI is defined to not require wetland permits or be...Eielson AFB. Common species include moose (Alces alces), black bear (Ursus americanus), grizzly bear (U. arctos), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus

  5. Environmental Assessment for Infrastructure Improvements in the Base Developed Area at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    and extensive wetlands surround the airfield. Among these are Bear, Polaris, Moose , Hidden, Pike, Rainbow, Scout, Grayling, and Tar Kettle lakes...Creeks that can be found in the vicinity of the airfield include French and Moose creeks. The ROI is defined to not require wetland permits or be located...Common species include moose (Alces alces), black bear (Ursus americanus), grizzly bear (U. arctos), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), marten

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Moose, Lake Superior Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Jordan, Peter A.; Terrell, James W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the moose (Alces alces). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Overcoming Hurdles Implementing Multi-skilling Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Johnson Chair Dr. K. L. Schultz Member iv AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-124 Abstract Ogden ALC at Hill AFB has been authorized to promote wage...demonstration project (108th Congress, 2003). The NDAA authorized the Naval Aviation Depots to promote workers certified in multiple trades at the...subject to copyright protection in the United States. 14. ABSTRACT Ogden ALC at Hill AFB has been authorized to promote wage grade employees if they are

  8. A prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral acetyl-L-carnitine for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuanjue; Shu, Yongqian; Liu, Baorui; Liu, Ping; Wu, Changping; Zheng, Rongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhuang, Zhixiang; Deng, Yongchuan; Zheng, Leizhen; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Bin; Ouyang, Xuenong; Gao, Jianfei; Xu, Nong; Li, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Su; Liang, Chaofan; Yao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The study was carried out as a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and paralleled clinical study. A total of 239 patients with CIPN were selected as the study subjects. Of the 239 subjects, 118 subjects received 3 g/day ALC orally for 8 weeks and 121 received a placebo. The primary endpoint was improvement of peripheral neuropathy by at least one grade. Patient status was assessed at week 4, 8 and 12 after enrollment into the study. In both the full analysis set (FAS) and the per-protocol set (PPS), peripheral sensory neuropathy was significantly ameliorated in the ALC group with 50.5 and 51.6% patients meeting the primary endpoint at week 8, compared with 24.1 and 23.1% of patients in the placebo group (P<0.001 in both sets). Secondary endpoints, such as the nerve electrophysiological examination and the Karnofsky physical score were also significantly improved in patients receiving ALC treatment, as compared with the placebo group (FAS, P=0.0463 and P=0.022; PPS, P=0.0076 and P=0.0064, respectively). Cancer-associated fatigue was significantly alleviated following ALC treatment in the PPS (P=0.0135). In the safety analysis set, the difference in adverse events incidence between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.3903). There were only two severe adverse events in the ALC group, which were not associated with the effect of ALC. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that in Chinese patients with cancer, oral administration of ALC is effective at ameliorating peripheral sensory neuropathy induced by chemotherapy, as well as reducing of cancer-associated fatigue and improving physical conditions. PMID:28105133

  9. Structural brain differences in alcohol-dependent individuals with and without comorbid substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Abe, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Pennington, David; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 50% of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) also use other substances. Therefore, brain structural abnormalities observed in alcohol dependent individuals may not be entirely related to alcohol consumption. This MRI study assessed differences in brain regional tissue volumes between short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals without (ALC) and with current substance use dependence (polysubstance users, PSU). Methods Nineteen, one-month-abstinent PSU and 40 ALC as well as 27 light-drinkers (LD) were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Whole brain T1-weighted images were segmented automatically into regional gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. MANOVA assessed group differences of intracranial volume-normalized tissue volumes of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes as well as regional subcortical GM volumes. The volumetric measures were correlated with neurocognitive measures to assess their functional relevance. Results Despite similar lifetime drinking and smoking histories, PSU had significantly larger normalized WM volumes than ALC in all lobes. PSU also had larger frontal and parietal WM volumes than LD, but smaller temporal GM volumes as well as smaller lenticular and thalamic nuclei than LD. By contrast, ALC had smaller frontal, parietal, and temporal GM, thalamic GM and cerebellar volumes than LD. ALC also had more sulcal CSF volumes than both PSU and LD. Conclusion One-month-abstinent ALC and PSU exhibited different patterns of gross brain structural abnormalities. The larger lobar WM volumes in PSU in the absence of widespread GM volume loss contrast with widespread GM atrophy in ALC. These structural differences between ALC and PSU may demand different treatment approaches to mitigate specific functionally relevant brain abnormalities. PMID:25263262

  10. A High Performance Fiber Optic Telemetry Link for Use in a Space Radiation Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    KIDMAN ATTN 39, WEAPONS DEPT ATTN 00-ALC-AMMETH, P. BERTHEL CHINA LAKE , CA 93555 ATTN 00-ALC-MM DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE COMM1ANDING OFFICER HILL AFB...TECHNICAL LIBRARY COMAC ROAD PO BOX 5000 DEER PARK, NY 11729 BINGHAMTON, NY 13902 EFFECTS TECHNOLOGY, INC GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ATTN TECHNICAL...CENTER HARTWELL ROAD 1150 MACBRIDE AVENUE BEDFORD, MA 01730 LITTLE FALLS, NY 07424 RAYTHEON CO SPERRY RAND CORP ATTN H. FLESCHER SPERRY DIVISION ATTN M

  11. Titan II. Reliability and Aging Surveillance Program (RASP) Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-02

    following organizations: SAC OGDEN ALC * LGBT *MMER XPQM *MMCO BM MMCP V DEFS MMCR DOKM MMCT DOTM MMEW ~- V -~ -DOXX S • ,. _ X PQ T * Indicates...age and service on the Titan II Weapon System. This responsibility includes publication and dissemina- tion of reports and information. CINCSAC/ LGBT ...semiannually by the scheduling subcommittee composed of CINCSAC/ LGBT and Ogden ALC/ MMCO and MMER. LGBT will have primary responsibility for scheduling

  12. Rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects of acetyl-l-carnitine mediated by PI3K/AKT/BDNF/VGF signaling pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Lu, Y; Xue, Z; Li, C; Wang, C; Zhao, X; Zhang, J; Wei, X; Chen, X; Cui, W; Wang, Q; Zhou, W

    2015-01-29

    The possible involvement of the PI3K/AKT/BDNF/VGF signaling in rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects of antidepressants has been explored progressively by more studies. However, whether this signaling participates in the antidepressant-like effects of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) has not been examined. Herein, we assessed the antidepressant-like effects of ALC using the forced swimming test (FST). Our results demonstrated the dose-effect relationship of acute administration of ALC (5, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) and showed that it dose-dependently decreased the immobility time on FST of mice. In addition, ALC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) also reversed depressive-like behavior and the down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neuropeptide VGF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm. Further, intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of LY294002 (10 nmol/side), a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, significantly prevented the antidepressant-like effect of ALC (100mg/kg, i.p.). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ALC exerts rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects that might be mediated by the PI3K/AKT/BDNF/VGF signaling pathway.

  13. Elevated lymphocyte count at time of acute myeloid leukemia diagnosis is associated with shorter remission.

    PubMed

    Bar, Merav; Othus, Megan; Park, Hanahlyn M; Sandhu, Vicky; Chen, Xueyan; Wood, Brent L; Estey, Elihu

    2015-01-01

    In solid tumors, decreased absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis was found to be associated with poorer outcome, but there is only limited data on the impact of ALC in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we evaluated the prognostic value of ALC on outcome in 259 adult patients with AML who responded to induction therapy. Higher than normal ALC at diagnosis was associated with shorter remission (HR 4.06; p < 0.001), and decreased relapse free and overall survival (HR 3.47; p < 0.001 and HR 3.85; p < 0.001 respectively). Flow cytometry showed low frequency of natural killer (NK) cells and high frequency of CD4+ T cells (which includes the subset of T regulatory cells) in the high ALC group. Low frequency of NK cells and potentially high frequency of inhibitory T regulatory cells may result in weaker immune responses against residual leukemia and may explain the poorer outcome of the high ALC group.

  14. Absolute lymphocyte count is associated with minimal residual disease level in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Hua; Tang, Yong-Min; Song, Hua; Yang, Shi-Long; Shi, Shu-Wen; Xu, Wei-Qun

    2013-06-01

    The prognostic value of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been a recent matter of debate in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the current study, ALCs at the time of diagnosis (ALC-0), after 7 days of initial therapy (ALC-8) and at interim of the induction therapy (ALC-22) were examined in Chinese children with B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL and correlated with the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 22 of induction therapy. Medical and laboratory records of 140 patients diagnosed with childhood BCP ALL were retrieved and analyzed. ALC-22 is significantly correlated with MRD level at day 22 of therapy and can be a good prognostic factor for childhood BCP-ALL. Furthermore, lymphocyte count at initial diagnosis is correlated with MRD level at day 22 in childhood BCP-ALL with the immnunophenotype of CD19(pos)/CD10(pos)/CD34(pos)/CD45(neg) and role as a new prognostic factor was determined.

  15. Initial absolute lymphocyte count as a prognostic factor for outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Caroline; Bertoli, Sarah; Elhamri, Mohamed; Vergez, Francois; Borel, Cecile; Huguet, Françoise; Michallet, Mauricette; Dumontet, Charles; Recher, Christian; Thomas, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at presentation has been associated with survival in various malignancies. However, its prognostic value in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been established. In a series of 1702 newly diagnosed patients with AML, we evaluated the prognostic value of ALC at diagnosis with regard to induction chemotherapy response, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Low initial ALC (< 1 × 10(9)/L) appeared as a poor prognostic factor for DFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.02), while higher ALC (> 4.5 × 10(9)/L) showed a lower response rate after one (p = 0.004) or two induction chemotherapy courses (p = 0.01). However, ALC did not appear as an independent predictor of outcome in a multivariate analysis model also including age, cytogenetics and white blood cell count. Examination of lymphocyte subsets is warranted to specify the relationship between ALC at diagnosis and clinical outcome in AML.

  16. Absolute lymphocyte count as predictor of overall survival for patients with multiple myeloma treated with single autologous stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Reece, Donna E; Trudel, Suzanne; Chen, Christine; Franke, Norman; Winter, Andrew; Tiedemann, Rodger; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Post-autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) studies have demonstrated that absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery is associated with prolonged survival in some hematological malignancies. To assess whether ALC recovery has prognostic significance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing single ASCT, we conducted a retrospective analysis of ALC at different time-points in patients with MM. In total 769 consecutive patients who underwent single ASCT from January 2000 to December 2007 were evaluated. An ALC of ≥ 1400 cells/μL at day 0, day 15 and day 90 significantly correlated with a better overall survival (OS) (median OS of 111, 90.7 and 84 months vs. 74, 70.5 and 65 months, respectively, p < 0.001 for all time-points). Multivariate analysis showed that ALC is an independent prognostic factor for OS after ASCT. In conclusion, ALC is a surrogate marker of the host immune system that correlates with better survival in patients with MM undergoing single ASCT. Immunomodulatory drugs, vaccination strategies and cellular therapies in MM should be investigated.

  17. Differentially Expressed Genes in Hirudo medicinalis Ganglia after Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Federighi, Giuseppe; Macchi, Monica; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scuri, Rossana; Brunelli, Marcello; Durante, Mauro; Traina, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supra-physiological concentration, is neuroprotective. It is involved in membrane stabilization and in enhancement of mitochondrial functions. It is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and painful neuropathies. ALC is known to improve the cognitive capability of aged animals chronically treated with the drug and, recently, it has been reported that it impairs forms of non-associative learning in the leech. In the present study the effects of ALC on gene expression have been analyzed in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The suppression subtractive hybridisation methodology was used for the generation of subtracted cDNA libraries and the subsequent identification of differentially expressed transcripts in the leech nervous system after ALC treatment. The method detects differentially but also little expressed transcripts of genes whose sequence or identity is still unknown. We report that a single administration of ALC is able to modulate positively the expression of genes coding for functions that reveal a lasting effect of ALC on the invertebrate, and confirm the neuroprotective and neuromodulative role of the substance. In addition an important finding is the modulation of genes of vegetal origin. This might be considered an instance of ectosymbiotic mutualism. PMID:23308261

  18. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  19. Protective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on cisplatin cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Altun, Zekiye Sultan; Güneş, Dilek; Aktaş, Safiye; Erbayraktar, Zübeyde; Erbayrktar, Zübeyde; Olgun, Nur

    2010-03-01

    The most widely used platinum-derived drug is cisplatin in neuroblastoma (NB) chemotherapy, which is severely neurotoxic. Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) is a natural occurring compound with a neuroprotective activity in several experimental paradigms. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ALC on cisplatin induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in NB cells. SH-SY5Y (N-Myc negative) and KELLY (N-Myc positive) human NB cell lines were used. Cisplatin induced apoptosis was assessed by using a Cell Death Detection ELISA(PLUS) kit. Lipid peroxidation levels were determined by HPLC analysis. Glutathione levels were determined spectrophotometrically. ALC was used prophylactic or after cisplatin application. The level of cisplatin doses were determined in both type of NB cells at which 50% cell death occurred along with synchronized apoptosis induced. Prophylactic 10 and 50 micromol of ALC concentrations were decreased cisplatin induced lipid peroxidation compared to controls that normally exhibited apoptosis especially in SH-SY5Y cells. Cisplatin caused oxidative stress through decreasing glutathione levels in both cell types. ALC were effectively inhibited the increase in cisplatin induced oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation formation in NB cells. We suggested that prophylactic ALC would be a useful agent for cisplatin induced toxicity in NB cells.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with l-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on ischemic injury in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhongxia; Wang, Tao; Niu, Jingya; Cui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shunjiang

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of stroke is hampered by the lack of neuroprotective drugs against ischemic insults beyond the acute phase. Carnitine plays important roles in mitochondrial metabolism and in modulating the ratio of coenzyme A (CoA)/acyl-CoA. Here, we investigate the neuroprotective effects of l-carnitine (LC) and Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) pre-treatment on ischemic insults under the same experimental conditions. We used a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to evaluate the protective roles of LC and ALC in acute focal cerebral ischemia in vivo and to understand the possible mechanisms using model of PC12 cell cultures in vitro. Results showed that ALC, but not LC, decreased infarction size in SD rats after MCAO in vivo. However, both LC and ALC pretreatment reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell injury and decreased OGD-induced cell apoptosis and death in vitro; at the same time, both of them increased the activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and ATPase, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in vitro. Thus, our findings suggested that LC and ALC pre-treatment are highly effective in the prevention of neuronal cell against ischemic injury in vitro, however, only ALC has the protective effect on neuronal cell injury after ischemia in vivo.

  1. Solid-solution nanocrystallite formation by high-energy milling.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hanjung; Jung, Suna; Cho, Sung-Wook; Kil, Dae-Sup; Roh, Ki-Min; Lim, Jae-Won

    2013-09-01

    Solid-solution nanocrystalline powders were prepared by the high-energy milling of Ti alloys with graphite. The B1 structure (NaCl-like structure) phases, (Ti, Cr)C and (Ti, Al)C, were formed during the milling process of Ti-Cr + graphite and Ti-Al + graphite, and the synthetic procedures were investigated in terms of the phase evolution from XRD data. The (Ti, Al)C phase was obtained after milling for 20 hr at BPR = 40:1 (under a more severe condition), while the (Ti, Cr)C phase formed after milling for 20 hr at BPR = 20:1 (a relatively soft condition). The difference in the tendency to create a solid solution with Ti in the B1 structure caused a difference in the synthetic behavior of (Ti, Al)C and (Ti, Cr)C. In other words, (Ti, Cr)C is formed earlier than (Ti, Al)C during milling because the atomic size of Cr (0.166 nm) is similar to that of Ti (0.176 nm), which leads to the straightforward formation of the solid-solution (Ti, Cr)C as compared to when (Ti, Al)C is used. As a result, the crystallite size of the (Ti, Al)C phase (2-3 nm) synthesized at a later stage becomes smaller than that of the (Ti, Cr)C phase (5 10 nm) formed at an earlier stage during milling.

  2. The use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor decreases heavy alcohol exposure-induced inflammatory response and tissue damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tsung M; Subeq, Yi M; Yang, Fwu L; Hsu, Bang G; Lin, Nien T; Lee, Ru P

    2013-10-01

    Alcohol intoxication and psychiatric medication overdoses, including antidepressants, are common emergency room events. Heavy alcohol and antidepressant exposure are able to induce changes in cytokines disturbing normal physiology. We examined the inflammatory and physiological effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication after heavy alcohol exposure. Rats were randomly divided into Alc (EtOH 5g/kg, intravenous infusion for 3 h), SSRI (paroxetine oral intake) and Alc+SSRI groups. Serum samples were collected to measure blood ethanol, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Lactate dehydrogenase levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were also examined. Liver, pancreas and lungs were removed after sacrifice and any pathological changes were catalogued. Ethanol infusion resulted in blood levels of ethanol of >100 mg/dL after ethanol infusion. Serum levels of aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, TNF-α and IL-6 in the Alc+SSRI group were lower than in the Alc group. Moreover, pathological damages to the liver, pancreas and lungs were slightly lower in the Alc+SSRI group than in the Alc group. These findings suggested that SSRI is able to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thereby reduce liver and pancreas damage after heavy alcohol exposure.

  3. The neural correlates of priming emotion and reward systems for conflict processing in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Schulte, T; Jung, Y-C; Sullivan, E V; Pfefferbaum, A; Serventi, M; Müller-Oehring, E M

    2016-11-04

    Emotional dysregulation in alcoholism (ALC) may result from disturbed inhibitory mechanisms. We therefore tested emotion and alcohol cue reactivity and inhibitory processes using negative priming. To test the neural correlates of cue reactivity and negative priming, 26 ALC and 26 age-matched controls underwent functional MRI performing a Stroop color match-to-sample task. In cue reactivity trials, task-irrelevant emotion and alcohol-related pictures were interspersed between color samples and color words. In negative priming trials, pictures primed the semantic content of an alcohol or emotion Stroop word. Behaviorally, both groups showed response facilitation to picture cue trials and response inhibition to primed trials. For cue reactivity to emotion and alcohol pictures, ALC showed midbrain-limbic activation. By contrast, controls activated frontoparietal executive control regions. Greater midbrain-hippocampal activation in ALC correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption and higher anxiety. With negative priming, ALC exhibited frontal cortical but not midbrain-hippocampal activation, similar to the pattern observed in controls. Higher frontal activation to alcohol-priming correlated with less craving and to emotion-priming with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that neurofunctional systems in ALC can be primed to deal with upcoming emotion- and alcohol-related conflict and can overcome the prepotent midbrain-limbic cue reactivity response.

  4. Cancer therapy improvement with mesoporous silica nanoparticles combining photodynamic and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Huang, Y. Z.; Shi, S. G.; Tang, S. H.; Li, D. H.; Chen, X. L.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we develop novel mesoporous silica composite nanoparticles (hm-SiO2(AlC4Pc)@Pd) for the co-delivery of photosensitizer (PS) tetra-substituted carboxyl aluminum phthalocyanine (AlC4Pc) and small Pd nanosheets as a potential dual carrier system to combine photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photothermal therapy (PTT). In the nanocomposite, PS AlC4Pc was covalently conjugated to a mesoporous silica network, and small Pd nanosheets were coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica by both coordination and electrostatic interaction. Since small Pd nanosheets and AlC4Pc display matched maximum absorptions in the 600-800 nm near-infrared (NIR) region, the fabricated hm-SiO2(AlC4Pc)@Pd nanocomposites can generate both singlet oxygen and heat upon 660 nm single continuous wavelength (CW) laser irradiation. In vitro results indicated that the cell-killing efficacy by simultaneous PDT/PTT treatment using hm-SiO2(AlC4Pc)@Pd was higher than PDT or PTT treatment alone after exposure to a 660 nm CW-NIR laser.

  5. Cancer therapy improvement with mesoporous silica nanoparticles combining photodynamic and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z X; Huang, Y Z; Shi, S G; Tang, S H; Li, D H; Chen, X L

    2014-07-18

    In this work, we develop novel mesoporous silica composite nanoparticles (hm-SiO2(AlC4Pc)@Pd) for the co-delivery of photosensitizer (PS) tetra-substituted carboxyl aluminum phthalocyanine (AlC4Pc) and small Pd nanosheets as a potential dual carrier system to combine photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photothermal therapy (PTT). In the nanocomposite, PS AlC4Pc was covalently conjugated to a mesoporous silica network, and small Pd nanosheets were coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica by both coordination and electrostatic interaction. Since small Pd nanosheets and AlC4Pc display matched maximum absorptions in the 600-800 nm near-infrared (NIR) region, the fabricated hm-SiO2(AlC4Pc)@Pd nanocomposites can generate both singlet oxygen and heat upon 660 nm single continuous wavelength (CW) laser irradiation. In vitro results indicated that the cell-killing efficacy by simultaneous PDT/PTT treatment using hm-SiO2(AlC4Pc)@Pd was higher than PDT or PTT treatment alone after exposure to a 660 nm CW-NIR laser.

  6. Interaction between Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin Receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B), may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism’s heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Methods We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC) group (n = 120) and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC) group (n = 153)] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Conclusion Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan’s Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism. PMID:22550993

  7. Intensive or conventional insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients? A population-based study on metabolic control and quality of life (The JEVIN-trial).

    PubMed

    Schiel, R; Müller, U A

    1999-01-01

    Long-term micro- and macrovascular complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Up to the present it is not clear whether intensified or conventional insulin treatment is more effective to keep blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range. In the present trial 90% (n = 117) of all insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients aged 16 to 60 years and living in the city of Jena (100,247 inhabitants), Thuringia, Germany were examined. Fourty patients (34%) were on intensive insulin therapy (ICT, > or = 2 injections of normal- and > or = 1 injection of NPH-/mixed-insulin/day, > or = 1 insulin-dose adjustments/week, > or = 2 blood-glucose self-tests/day) and 77 patients (66%) were on conventional insulin therapy (CIT). Patients with ICT had more injections/d (4.3 +/- 0.7 vs CIT 2.4 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001), more insulin-dose adjustments/week < or = 11.5 +/- 8.2 vs 2.2 +/- 5.2, p < 0.001) and more blood-glucose self-tests/week (25.2 +/- 5.7 vs 9.6 +/- 8.8, p < 0.001). Patients with ICT had higher insulin doses (0.71 +/- 0.32 vs 0.47 +/- 0.2 IU/kg body wt/d, p < 0.001), were younger (50.5 +/-6.7 vs 54.0 +/- 5.9 years, p = 0.004) and they had a non-significant tendency to a better HbAlc (8.7 +/- 2.2 vs 9.2 +/- 2.0%, p = 0.23, HPLC, Diamat, normal range 4.4-5,9%). There was a negative correlation between HbAlc and the frequency of blood-glucose self-tests/week (r = -0.23, p = 0.019) and the number of insulin-dose adjustments/week (r = -0.33, p < 0.001). There were no differences between the groups as regards body-mass index (29.7 +/-4.9 vs 28.0 +/- 4.5 kg/m2, p = 0.06), diabetes duration (12.3 +/- 6.9 vs 12.2 +/- 7.5 years, p = 0.96), duration of insulin therapy (4.2 +/-3.5 versus 4.5 +/- 4.8 years, p = 0.67), incidence of acute complications (severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic coma), prevalence of retino-, nephro- and neuropathy (assessed according to Young et al.) and education or socio-economic factors. Also, in respect of

  8. Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, José L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass−1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass−1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05), while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05). Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29–109%, P<0.05). However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05) and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05). Conclusion We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to

  9. Escalated aggression after alcohol drinking in male mice: dorsal raphé and prefrontal cortex serotonin and 5-HT(1B) receptors.

    PubMed

    Faccidomo, Sara; Bannai, Makoto; Miczek, Klaus A

    2008-11-01

    A significant minority of individuals engages in escalated levels of aggression after consuming moderate doses of alcohol (Alc). Neural modulation of escalated aggression involves altered levels of serotonin (5-HT) and the activity of 5-HT(1B) receptors. The aim of these studies was to determine whether 5-HT(1B) receptors in the dorsal raphé (DRN), orbitofrontal (OFC), and medial prefrontal (mPFC) cortex attenuate heightened aggression and regulate extracellular levels of 5-HT. Male mice were trained to self-administer Alc by performing an operant response that was reinforced with a delivery of 6% Alc. To identify Alc-heightened aggressors, each mouse was repeatedly tested for aggression after consuming either 1.0 g/kg Alc or H2O. Next, a cannula was implanted into either the DRN, OFC, or mPFC, and subsets of mice were tested for aggression after drinking either Alc or H(2)O prior to a microinjection of the 5-HT(1B) agonist, CP-94,253. Additional mice were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the mPFC, through which CP-94,253 was perfused and samples were collected for 5-HT measurement. Approximately 60% of the mice were more aggressive after drinking Alc, confirming the aggression-heightening effects of 1.0 g/kg Alc. Infusion of 1 microg CP-94,253 into the DRN reduced both aggressive and motor behaviors. However, infusion of 1 microg CP-94,253 into the mPFC, but not the OFC, after Alc drinking, increased aggressive behavior. In the mPFC, reverse microdialysis of CP-94,253 increased extracellular levels of 5-HT; levels decreased immediately after the perfusion. This 5-HT increase was attenuated in self-administering mice. These results suggest that 5-HT(1B) receptors in the mPFC may serve to selectively disinhibit aggressive behavior in mice with a history of Alc self-administration.

  10. The costs and benefits of a migratory species under different management schemes.

    PubMed

    Skonhoft, Anders

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyses how different management schemes influence the exploitation and economics of a wildlife population--the moose (Alces alces)--that is both a value (harvesting income) and a pest (forestry damage). Two regimes are explored; the unified management scheme where the wildlife manager aims to find harvesting quotas that maximise the overall benefit of the moose population, and the market solution where the landowners follow their narrow self-interests and maximise their private profit. Because the moose is partly a migratory species, these regimes will differ both with respect to harvesting income and browsing damage, and the landowners will experience different profit. The unified scheme is very similar to the actual Scandinavian management, while the market solution is closer to the management policy one finds in North America. In the first part of the paper it is shown how the harvesting quotas and browsing damage under these two regimes are influenced by dispersal as well as other ecological and economic factors. In the last part of the paper it is demonstrated that under the unified management regime the present practice of neglecting migration may lead to sub-optimally sized populations of migrating moose and an overall economic loss. It is also shown that neglecting migration leads to a substantial profit transfer among the landowners. The model is supported by a real life numerical example.

  11. Changes in interacting species with disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Glen F.

    1987-03-01

    Human-influenced changes in the diversity and abundance of native wildlife in a southern boreal forest area, which became a national park in 1975, are used to develop working hypotheses for predicting and subsequently measuring the effects of disturbance or restoration programs on groups of interacting species. Changes from presettlement conditions began with early 1900 hunting, which eliminated woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and elk ( Cervus elaphus), and reduced moose ( Alces alces) to the low numbers which still persist. Increases in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), as these other cervid species became less abundant or absent, provided enough alternative food to sustain the system's carnivores until plant succession on previously burned or logged areas also caused deer to decline. With increased competition for reduced food, carnivore species also became less abundant or absent and overexploited some prey populations. The abilities of interacting species to maintain dynamically stable populations or persist varied with their different capacities to compensate for increased exploitation or competition. These relationships suggested a possible solution to the problem of predicting the stability of populations in disturbed systems. For the 1976 1985 period, a hypothesis that the increased protection of wildlife from exploitation in a national park would restore a more diverse, abundant, and productive fauna had to be rejected.

  12. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M.; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-01

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management. PMID:28128311

  13. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-27

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management.

  14. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  15. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  16. Population Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  17. Stabilizing population.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Mitchell, J

    1998-04-01

    This article is a reprint of the Worldwatch Institute's "State of the World Report," Chapter 10: "Building a New Economy." 16 countries reached zero population growth by 1997. 33 countries have stabilized population, which amounts to 14% of world population. It is estimated that by 2050 population will include an additional 3.6 billion people beyond the present 6 billion. About 60% of the added population will be in Asia, an increase from 3.4 billion in 1995 to 5.4 billion in 2050. China's current population of 1.2 billion will reach 1.5 billion. India's population is expected to rapidly rise from 930 million to 1.53 billion. Populations in the Middle East and North Africa are expected to double in size. Sub-Saharan population is expected to triple in size. By 2050, Nigeria will have 339 million people, which was the entire population of Africa in 1960. There is a great need to stabilize population in a number of currently unstabilized countries. In 1971, Bangladesh and Pakistan had the same population; however, by 2050, Pakistan, without a strong commitment to reducing population growth, will have 70 million more people than Bangladesh. Population stabilization will depend on removal of physical and social barriers that prevent women from using family planning services and thereby help them control their own unwanted fertility. Stabilization will require poverty alleviation and removal of the need for large families. Family size is reduced with lower infant and child mortality risk, increased education, a higher legal age of marriage, and investment in stabilization programs. Solutions to global population growth cannot wait for health reform and budget deficit reductions.

  18. Using predator-prey theory to predict outcomes of broadscale experiments to reduce apparent competition.

    PubMed

    Serrouya, Robert; Wittmann, Meike J; McLellan, Bruce N; Wittmer, Heiko U; Boutin, Stan

    2015-05-01

    Apparent competition is an important process influencing many ecological communities. We used predator-prey theory to predict outcomes of ecosystem experiments aimed at mitigating apparent competition by reducing primary prey. Simulations predicted declines in secondary prey following reductions in primary prey because predators consumed more secondary prey until predator numbers responded to reduced prey densities. Losses were exacerbated by a higher carrying capacity of primary prey and a longer lag time of the predator's numerical response, but a gradual reduction in primary prey was less detrimental to the secondary prey. We compared predictions against two field experiments where endangered woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) were victims of apparent competition. First, when deer (Odocoileus sp.) declined suddenly following a severe winter, cougar (Puma concolor) declined with a 1-2-year lag, yet in the interim more caribou were killed by cougars, and caribou populations declined by 40%. Second, when moose (Alces alces) were gradually reduced using a management experiment, wolf (Canis lupus) populations declined but did not shift consumption to caribou, and the largest caribou subpopulation stabilized. The observed contrasting outcomes of sudden versus gradual declines in primary prey supported theoretical predictions. Combining theory with field studies clarified how to manage communities to mitigate endangerment caused by apparent competition that affects many taxa.

  19. Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Peroxidation, and Oxidative Damage of Arsenic in Rat.

    PubMed

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Omidi, Ameneh; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Sabzevari, Samin; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Sabzevari, Omid

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental contaminant present around the world in both organic and inorganic forms. Oxidative stress is postulated as the main mechanism for As-induced toxicity. This study was planned to examine the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on As-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of control (saline), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 20 mg/kg), ALC (300 mg/kg), and NaAsO2 plus ALC. Animals were dosed orally for 28 successive days. Blood and tissue samples including kidney, brain, liver, heart, and lung were collected on the 28th day and evaluated for oxidative damage and histological changes. NaAsO2 exposure caused a significant lipid peroxidation as evidenced by elevation in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as sulfhydryl group content (SH group) was significantly suppressed in various organs following NaAsO2 treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, NaAsO2 administration increased serum values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Our findings revealed that co-administration of ALC and NaAsO2 significantly suppressed the oxidative damage induced by NaAsO2. Tissue histological studies have confirmed the biochemical findings and provided evidence for the beneficial role of ALC. The results concluded that ALC attenuated NaAsO2-induced toxicity, and this protective effect may result from the ability of ALC in maintaining oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  20. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Structural Damage on Endothelial Cells via ILK-Related MMP-9 Activity.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, S; Salta, S; Bravo, J; Silva, A P; Summavielle, T

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant highly used worldwide. Recent studies evidenced the involvement of METH in the breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) integrity leading to compromised function. The involvement of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the degradation of the neurovascular matrix components and tight junctions (TJs) is one of the most recent findings in METH-induced toxicity. As BBB dysfunction is a pathological feature of many neurological conditions, unveiling new protective agents in this field is of major relevance. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has been described to protect the BBB function in different paradigms, but the mechanisms underling its action remain mostly unknown. Here, the immortalized bEnd.3 cell line was used to evaluate the neuroprotective features of ALC in METH-induced damage. Cells were exposed to ranging concentrations of METH, and the protective effect of ALC 1 mM was assessed 24 h after treatment. F-actin rearrangement, TJ expression and distribution, and MMPs activity were evaluated. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) knockdown cells were used to assess role of ALC in ILK mediated METH-triggered MMPs' activity. Our results show that METH led to disruption of the actin filaments concomitant with claudin-5 translocation to the cytoplasm. These events were mediated by MMP-9 activation in association with ILK overexpression. Pretreatment with ALC prevented METH-induced activation of MMP-9, preserving claudin-5 location and the structural arrangement of the actin filaments. The present results support the potential of ALC in preserving BBB integrity, highlighting ILK as a new target for the ALC therapeutic use.

  1. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  2. Acetyl-L-carnitine provides effective in vivo neuroprotection over 3,4-methylenedioximethamphetamine-induced mitochondrial neurotoxicity in the adolescent rat brain.

    PubMed

    Alves, E; Binienda, Z; Carvalho, F; Alves, C J; Fernandes, E; de Lourdes Bastos, M; Tavares, M A; Summavielle, T

    2009-01-23

    3,4-Methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a worldwide abused stimulant drug, with persistent neurotoxic effects and high prevalence among adolescents. The massive release of 5-HT from pre-synaptic storage vesicles induced by MDMA followed by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) metabolism, significantly increases oxidative stress at the mitochondrial level. l-Carnitine and its ester, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), facilitate the transport of long chain free fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane enhancing neuronal anti-oxidative defense. Here, we show the potential of ALC against the neurotoxic effects of MDMA exposure. Adolescent male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control saline solution, isovolumetric to the MDMA solution, administered i.p.; MDMA (4x10 mg/kg MDMA, i.p.); ALC/MDMA (100 mg/kg 30 min of ALC prior to MDMA, i.p.) and ALC (100 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were killed 2 weeks after exposure and brains were analyzed for lipid peroxidation, carbonyl formation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion and altered expression of the DNA-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial complexes I (NADH dehydrogenase, NDII) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COXI) from the respiratory chain. Levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were also assessed. The present work is the first to successfully demonstrate that pretreatment with ALC exerts effective neuroprotection against the MDMA-induced neurotoxicity at the mitochondrial level, reducing carbonyl formation, decreasing mtDNA deletion, improving the expression of the respiratory chain components and preventing the decrease of 5-HT levels in several regions of the rat brain. These results indicate potential benefits of ALC application in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Chronic alcohol drinking alters neuronal dendritic spines in the brain reward center nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng C; Anthony, Bruce; Dunn, Kenneth W; Lindquist, W Brent; Xu, Zao C; Deng, Ping

    2007-02-23

    Alcohol is known to affect glutamate transmission. However, how chronic alcohol affects the synaptic structure mediating glutamate transmission is unknown. Repeated alcohol exposure in a subject with familial alcoholic history often leads to alcohol addiction. The current study adopts alcohol-preferring rats, which are known to develop high drinking. Two-photon microscopy analysis indicates that chronic alcohol of 14 weeks either, under continuous alcohol (C-Alc) or with repeated deprivation (RD-Alc), causes dysmorphology--thickened, beaded, and disoriented dendrites that are reminiscent of reactive astrocytes--in a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. The density of dendritic spines was found differentially lower in the nucleus accumbens of RD-Alc and C-Alc groups as compared with those of Water groups. Large-sized spines and multiple-headed spines were increased in the RD-Alc group. The NMDA receptor subunit NR1 proteins, as analyzed with Western blot, were upregulated in C-Alc, but not in RD-Alc. The upregulated NMDA receptor subunits of NR1 however, are predominantly a splice variant isoform with truncated exon 21, which is required for membrane-bound trafficking or anchoring into a spine synaptic site. These maladaptations may contribute to the transformation of spines. The changes, in density and head-size of spines and the corresponding NMDA receptors, demonstrated an alteration of microcircuitry for glutamate reception. The current study demonstrates for the first time that chronic alcohol exposure causes structural alteration of dendrites and their spines in the key reward brain region in animals that have a genetic background leading to alcohol addiction.

  4. Clinical impact of absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Huo, Ming-Rui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-02-01

    Currently, limited information is available regarding the effects of early lymphocyte recovery on transplant outcomes in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the association of Day 30 absolute lymphocyte count (ALC-30) with transplant outcomes in 60 consecutive pediatric patients with hematological malignancies receiving T-cell-repleted transplantation from an haploidentical related donors. After median follow-up of 36 months (range, 1.4-75 months), higher relapse rate was observed in patients with an ALC-30 < 300 cells/μL compared to patients with an ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL (35.5% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.049). More patients died of infections in those with an ALC-30 < 300 cells/μL compared with patients with an ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL (25.8% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.015). The ALC-30 above the cutoff value 300 cells/μL was associated with improved overall-survival (HR 0.301, 95% CI 0.117-0.771; P = 0.012), leukemia free survival (HR 0.195, 95% CI 0.078-0.498; P=0.002), less relapse (HR 0.224 95% CI 0.070-0.717; P = 0.012), and less transplant- related mortality (HR=0.166; 95%CI 0.037-0.750; P = 0.020). Our results suggest that a higher ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL) could be a useful and simple tool to predict pediatric patients with a superior outcome after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation.

  5. Genetic and Behavioral Determinants of Hippocampal Volume Recovery During Abstinence from Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Hoefer, Michael E.; Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Truran, Diana; Hutchison, Kent E.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) have smaller hippocampi and poorer neurocognition than healthy controls. Results from studies on the association between alcohol consumption and hippocampal volume have been mixed, suggesting that comorbid or premorbid factors (i.e., those present prior to the initiation of alcohol dependence) determine hippocampal volume in ALC. We aimed to characterize the effects of select comorbid (i.e., cigarette smoking) and premorbid factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] genotype [Val66Met rs6265]) on hippocampal volume in an ALC cohort followed longitudinally into extended abstinence. One hundred twenty-one adult ALC in treatment (76 smokers, 45 non-smokers) and 35 non-smoking light-drinking controls underwent quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, BDNF genotyping, and neurocognitive assessments. Representative subgroups were studied at 1 week, 1 month, and at an average of 7 months of abstinence. ALC had smaller hippocampi than healthy controls at all time points. Hippocampal volume at 1 month of abstinence correlated with lower visuospatial function. Smoking status did not influence hippocampal volume or hippocampal volume recovery during abstinence. However, only BDNF Val homozygotes tended to have hippocampal volume increases over 7 months of abstinence, and Val homozygotes had significantly larger hippocampi than Met carriers at 7 months of abstinence. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype, but not smoking status or measures of drinking severity, regulate functionally relevant hippocampal volume recovery in abstinent ALC. Future studies aimed at exploring genetic determinants of brain morphometry in ALC may need to evaluate individuals during extended abstinence after the acute environmental effects of chronic alcohol consumption have waned. PMID:25262572

  6. Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow; Morgan, Scott; Hames, Peter; Strain, Martha; Owen, Christopher; Shimizu, Kenneth; Wilson, Karen; Shaller, David; Doktomomtaz, Said; Leung, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000-metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment safety. Remote operation of the ALC runs via the Antenna Monitor & Control (AMC) computer, which orchestrates the tracking functions of the entire antenna. This software provides a graphical user interface for local control, monitoring, and identification of faults as well as, at a high level, providing for the digital control of the axis brakes so that the servo of the AMC may control the motion of the antenna. Specific functions of the ALC also include routines for startup in cold weather, controlled shutdown for both normal and fault situations, and pump switching on failure. The increased monitoring, the ability to trend key performance characteristics, the improved fault detection and recovery, the centralization of all control at a single panel, and the simplification of the user interface have all reduced the required workforce to run 70-meter antennas. The ALC also increases the antenna availability by reducing the time required to start up the antenna, to diagnose faults, and by providing additional insight into the performance of key parameters that aid in preventive maintenance to avoid key element failure. The ALC User Display (AUD) is a graphical user interface with hierarchical display structure, which provides high-level status information to the operation of the ALC, as well as detailed information for virtually all aspects of the ALC via drill-down displays. The operational status of an item, be it a function or assembly, is shown in the higher-level display. By pressing the item on the display screen, a new screen opens to show more detail of the function/assembly. Navigation tools and the map button allow immediate access to all screens.

  7. The rapid rejection of allogeneic lymphocytes by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism (NK activity).

    PubMed Central

    Rolstad, B; Fossum, S; Bazin, H; Kimber, I; Marshall, J; Sparshott, S M; Ford, W L

    1985-01-01

    The fate of allogeneic lymphocytes (AO or DA) transferred to non-immune PVG recipients was studied in the light of previous evidence (Heslop & McNeilage, 1983; Rolstad & Ford, 1983) that allogeneic lymphocytes can be rapidly destroyed in certain strain combinations of rats and mice by a mechanism that is distinct from either T-cell mediated immunity or an alloantibody response. AO lymphocytes injected into PVG recipients were discriminated from syngeneic lymphocytes within 15-30 min of i.v. injection, as testified by the excess release of 51Cr into the lymph plasma of the recipient. The following experiments were intended to distinguish between natural antibody and natural killer (NK) cells as the mechanism responsible for the allogeneic lymphocyte cytotoxicity (ALC) displayed by PVG rats. Nude rats treated from birth with anti-mu chain serum and shown to be lacking B and T lymphocytes, as well as being profoundly deficient in immunoglobulin, displayed more aggressive ALC than did control nude rats which, in turn, showed stronger ALC than did euthymic rats. Serum from PVG nude rats exerted no inhibitory or destructive effect on allogeneic lymphocytes in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity system, an assay of graft-versus-host activity, or when injected into 3-4-week-old PVG rats which had not yet developed ALC. Treatment of nude rats with anti-asialo GM 1 antiserum depressed ALC and NK activity in parallel, thus adding to a wide range of circumstances in which ALC and NK activity are closely correlated. In conclusion, ALC is implemented by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism independent of immunoglobulin, but the precise identity of the effector cell in the recipients' lymphatic tissues remains to be settled. Images Figure 2 PMID:3972430

  8. Effect of aluminium on dissolved organic matter mineralization in an allophanic and kaolinitic temperate rain forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Carolina; Matus, Francisco; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) and it influence on the mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and thus on carbon (C) sequestration in forest soils is poorly understood. We hypothesized that an addition of Al to the soil solution beyond a molar Al:C ratio of 0.1, induces precipitation of the organic matter which leads to an excess Al in the soil solution causing an inhibitory effect for growing microorganisms. We investigated the effect of Al concentrations for the potential of C biodegradation at different Al:C ratios from DOM and Ah mineral soil horizons from two temperate rain forest soils from southern Chile. Dissolved organic matter and surface mineral horizons were incubated with initial molar Al:C ratio from 0.08 to 1.38 found under at field conditions. Mineralization was quantified by measurement of C-CO2 evolved during 15 days. Increasing the initial Al:C ratio > 0.12, led to a considerable reduction in mineralization (up to 70%). For Al:C ratio < 0.12, the mineralization rates from DOM and mineral soils were unaffected. Consequently, there would be a considerable reduction in the biodegradation of DOM and thus an increased in the C sequestration in mineral soils with molar Al:C ratio > 0.12. The observed DOM losses in the stream water of pristine southern forests can be explained by increasing the bioavailability of organic C for Al:C ratio < 0.12. Aluminium concentration had a marked effect at the spectral ART-FTIR bands assigned to cellulose-like and aromatic compounds in Ah mineral soil, diminishing the mineralization. The present results were also confirmed by the Al fluorescence using a confocal microscopy.

  9. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  10. A population geographer's population pyramid.

    PubMed

    Sternstein, L

    1989-07-01

    A population geographer cannot depend on the standard population profile because it does not reflect spatial distribution of the desired characteristics. A more revealing approach is the modified box-and- whisker plot with the vertical lines of the box placed at the 1st and 3rd quartiles and the whiskers defining the variance. The geography of the age-sex structure variability in Thailand was examined using this method and by mapping and classifying all the age-sex structures. Classification of these structures includes comparing adjacent age-sex group differences, determining population profiles at each significance level, and spatially portraying each population structure. If the profile includes a 10th or more of the districts, it is called a uniform population profile. One should not generalize over a wide grouping of data because data is not normally regular. Geographical mapping given a usable description of the findings only when appropriate subdivisions of the data are utilized.

  11. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ.

  12. Markers for Ongoing or Previous Hepatitis E Virus Infection Are as Common in Wild Ungulates as in Humans in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Anette; Lin, Jay; Magnius, Lars; Karlsson, Marie; Belák, Sándór; Widén, Frederik; Norder, Heléne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with zoonotic spread, infecting both domestic and wild animals. About 17% of the Swedish population is immune to HEV, but few cases are reported annually, indicating that most infections are subclinical. However, clinical hepatitis E may also be overlooked. For identified cases, the source of infection is mostly unknown. In order to identify whether HEV may be spread from wild game, the prevalence of markers for past and/or ongoing infection was investigated in sera and stool samples collected from 260 hunted Swedish wild ungulates. HEV markers were found in 43 (17%) of the animals. The most commonly infected animal was moose (Alces alces) with 19 out of 69 animals (28%) showing HEV markers, followed by wild boar (Sus scrofa) with 21 out of 139 animals (15%), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with 2 out of 30 animals, red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 1 out of 15 animals, and fallow deer (Dama dama) 0 out of 7 animals. Partial open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of the viral genomes from the animals were sequenced and compared with those from 14 endemic human cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three humans were infected with HEV strains similar to those from wild boar. These results indicate that wild animals may be a source of transmission to humans and could be an unrecognized public health concern. PMID:27657108

  13. Muon spin spectroscopy of ferrocene: characterization of muoniated ferrocenyl radicals.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain

    2014-06-14

    Radicals formed by the reaction of muonium (Mu), a light isotope of hydrogen, with ferrocene and ferrocene-d10 have been studied with the avoided level crossing muon spin resonance (ALC-μSR) and longitudinal field muon spin relaxation (LF-μSR) techniques between 10 and 100 K. A single type of radical was observed in each compound and the muon hyperfine coupling constants (hfcc) and the muon spin relaxation rates were measured as a function of temperature. A previous report concerning the observation of Mu adducts of ferrocene (U. A. Jayasooriya et al. Chem. - Eur. J., 2007, 13, 2266-2276) appears to be incorrect. DFT calculations were performed to aid in the assignment of the ALC-μSR spectra. A tentative assignment is that the observed radicals were formed by Mu addition to the exterior of the cyclopentadienyl rings and that the structures are distorted due to interactions with neighbouring molecules. The temperature dependence of the muon hfcc can be explained assuming the population of two levels with different muon hfccs separated by 1.4 ± 0.1 kJ mol(-1). The temperature dependence of the width and amplitude of the Δ1 resonance and the muon spin relaxation rate suggests that the electron spin relaxation rate increase with temperature, but the relaxation mechanism is unknown.

  14. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    PubMed

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus.

  15. Mobility of moose-comparing the effects of wolf predation risk, reproductive status, and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Wikenros, Camilla; Balogh, Gyöngyvér; Sand, Håkan; Nicholson, Kerry L; Månsson, Johan

    2016-12-01

    In a predator-prey system, prey species may adapt to the presence of predators with behavioral changes such as increased vigilance, shifting habitats, or changes in their mobility. In North America, moose (Alces alces) have shown behavioral adaptations to presence of predators, but such antipredator behavioral responses have not yet been found in Scandinavian moose in response to the recolonization of wolves (Canis lupus). We studied travel speed and direction of movement of GPS-collared female moose (n = 26) in relation to spatiotemporal differences in wolf predation risk, reproductive status, and time of year. Travel speed was highest during the calving (May-July) and postcalving (August-October) seasons and was lower for females with calves than females without calves. Similarly, time of year and reproductive status affected the direction of movement, as more concentrated movement was observed for females with calves at heel, during the calving season. We did not find support for that wolf predation risk was an important factor affecting moose travel speed or direction of movement. Likely causal factors for the weak effect of wolf predation risk on mobility of moose include high moose-to-wolf ratio and intensive hunter harvest of the moose population during the past century.

  16. Distribution and density of moose in relation to landscape characteristics: Effects of scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, J.A.K.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Bowyer, R.T.; Saperstein, L.; Maier, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the relation between early winter distribution and density of female moose (Alces alces L.) and habitat heterogeneity in interior Alaska. We tested for effects of vegetation type, topography, distance to rivers and towns, occurrence and timing of fire, and landscape metrics. A spatial linear model was used to analyze effects of independent variables organized at multiple scales. Because densities of moose vary widely as a result of differences in management and other factors, a spatial response surface of the log of moose density was fit to remove large-scale effects. The analysis revealed that the densest populations of moose occurred closer to towns, at moderate elevations, near rivers, and in areas where fire occurred between 11 and 30 years ago. Furthermore, moose tended to occur in areas with large compact patches of varied habitat and avoided variable terrain and nonvegetated areas. Relationships of most variables with moose density occurred at or below 34 km2, suggesting that moose respond to environmental variables within a few kilometres of their location. The spatial model of density of moose developed in this study represents an important application for effective monitoring and management of moose in the boreal forest. ?? 2005 NRC.

  17. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gondim, L F P; McAllister, M M; Mateus-Pinilla, N E; Pitt, W C; Mech, L D; Nelson, M E

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether deer can transmit Neospora caninum, brains of naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were fed to 4 dogs; 2 of these dogs shed oocysts. Oocysts from 1 of the dogs were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for N. caninum and negative for Hammondia heydorni. The internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence of the new strain (designated NC-deer1) was identical to N. caninum from domestic animals, indicating that N. caninum is transmitted between wild and domestic animals, often enough to prevent divergent evolution of isolated populations of the parasite. NC-deerl oocysts were administered to a calf that developed a high antibody titer, providing evidence that N. caninum from wildlife can infect cattle. In addition, N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus), 12/113 (11%) coyotes (Canis latrans), 50/193 (26%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose (Alces alces). These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. We speculate that hunting by humans favors the transmission of N. caninum from deer to canids, because deer carcasses are usually eviscerated in the field. Infection of canids in turn increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  18. Calculation of lung-heart ratios for single-photon emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, E.J.; King, M.A.; Glick, S.J.; Villegas, B.J.

    1996-06-01

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of simple iterative reconstruction techniques in calculating lung-heart activity ratios (LHRs). The LHR has been shown to be an effective indicator of the severity of coronary artery disease in cardiac SPECT. A study was conducted with a mathematical cardiac torso phantom that modelled uptake of {sup 201}Tl in the heart and lung regions. The projection data included only the effects of nonuniform photon attenuation. The data were first reconstructed with zeroth-order Chang and a variant of the Bellini method, both of which utilize information from the nonuniform attenuation map. This nonuniform (NU) Bellini method compensates exactly for attenuation in the heart region, but is incorrect for other regions in the medium. These reconstructions were then used as the initial estimates in the iterative Chang, variable step-size (VSS) Chang, and Morozumi methods,m for one and five iterations. The average heart count (AHC) and average lung count (ALC) were calculated using region-of-interest (ROI) templates derived from the true activity map. The population mean LHR was tabulated as the ratio of the ALC to AHC. Using the same reconstruction procedure, the authors also calculated the sample mean LHR and standard deviation from 21 noisy 3D reconstructions.

  19. Parasites of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis cultured in Nayarit, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Vasquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria

    2010-09-01

    The pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is collected and cultured in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and the improvement and promotion of its culture are seen as a possible source for the economic development of coastal populations. However, information about the parasite fauna of the pleasure oyster is almost completely lacking. A histopathological survey carried out in two estuaries, Boca del Camichín and Pozo Chino, revealed the presence of hypertrophied gametes, rickettsiales-like prokaryotes (RLPs), the protozoan Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan Nematopsis sp., Ancistrocoma-like ciliates (ALCs), Sphenophrya-like ciliates, a turbellarian Urastoma sp., and encysted crustaceans. In general, prevalence and intensity of parasites were similar in both localities except that ALCs and encysted crustaceans were more prevalent in Pozo Chino than in Boca del Camichín. Perkinsus marinus and RLPs seem to represent a more significant risk for the health of pleasure oysters than do the other parasites, and surveillance and control of these parasites are needed for the development of pleasure oyster culture.

  20. Invasion rate of deer ked depends on spatiotemporal variation in host density.

    PubMed

    Meier, C M; Bonte, D; Kaitala, A; Ovaskainen, O

    2014-06-01

    Invasive parasites are of great global concern. Understanding the factors influencing the spread of invading pest species is a first step in developing effective countermeasures. Growing empirical evidence suggests that spread rates are essentially influenced by spatiotemporal dynamics of host-parasite interactions, yet approaches modelling spread rate have typically assumed static environmental conditions. We analysed invasion history of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) in Finland with a diffusion-reaction model, which assumed either the movement rate, the population growth rate, or both rates may depend on spatial and temporal distribution of moose (Alces alces), the main host of deer ked. We fitted the model to the data in a Bayesian framework, and used the Bayesian information criterion to show that accounting for the variation in local moose density improved the model's ability to describe the pattern of the invasion. The highest ranked model predicted higher movement rate and growth rate of deer ked with increasing moose density. Our results suggest that the historic increase in host density has facilitated the spread of the deer ked. Our approach illustrates how information about the ecology of an invasive species can be extracted from the spatial pattern of spread even with rather limited data.

  1. Salt licks do not increase local densities of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, an abundant ectoparasite of cervids.

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Roininen, H; Mustonen, A-M

    2014-09-01

    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is a common ectoparasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). Salt licks are widely used to manipulate moose movements to prevent damage to saplings and traffic accidents. They may cause moose to gather in small areas, which could create aggregates of deer ked pupae as the parasite is a short-distance flyer and its dispersion depends on its hosts. We investigated whether the population density of flying deer keds could be influenced by manipulating salt licks and how environmental variables affect parasite density. Densities were estimated in 40 experimental sites with four treatments (no salt licks, introduced salt licks, removed salt licks, permanent salt licks) in September during 2007-2010. Forest edges, mixed forests on mineral soil and coniferous forests on peat soil were the habitats with high numbers of parasites. The manipulation of salt licks seemed to be ineffective in reducing the density of deer keds as the only factor to show statistical significance with parasite numbers in the mixed-model analysis was year of determination. Annual deer ked densities correlated with the abundance of moose in the region. Moreover, high spring and summer temperatures seemed to increase the numbers of flying imagos.

  2. [Population education].

    PubMed

    Niang, M

    1992-12-01

    Africa has the highest population growth rate in the world (3%). It has 650 million people (about 900 million in 2000). Rapid population growth has serious consequences which, if not addressed, will be disastrous. This worrisome situation has led some governments to adopt demographic policies to slow down population growth. The UN Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recommends that schools provide population education. Various population conferences have popularized population education in schools among African countries. UNESCO began its regional program on population education in Africa in 1969. National family life and population education (FL/PE) projects have increased from 4 in 1970 to 32 in 1990 (17 in French- and Portuguese-speaking Africa and 5 in English-speaking Africa). These projects teach students about the links between demographic problems and socioeconomic factors and contemporary culture. They aim for total development of the individual and improvement of the quality of life for the individual, family, and community. Topics covered in FL/PE are birth rate; fertility; health; and maternal, infant, and child mortality; unwanted pregnancy; illegal abortion; sexually transmitted diseases; rural-urban migration; and urbanization. Benin introduced FL/PE at all levels of its education system while Senegal, Guinea, Mauritania, and Zaire introduced it to only the primary and secondary school levels. Some countries teach FL/PE as one discipline while most countries (e.g., Senegal) have integrated it into other disciplines (e.g., geography). FL/PE should begin in primary schools because they have the most students and prepare students for middle schools, which provide FL/PE. Elementary education in Senegal is being overhauled to introduce current major problems bit by bit. Senegal also wants to incorporate FL/PE into literacy and adult education programs. Integration of FL/PE into other disciplines should be encouraged.

  3. Population growth.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Despite efforts to reduce population growth, the World Bank projects a world population of 10 billion by 2050, with 7 billion living in developing countries. From October 1979 to September 1984, the US Agency for International Development (AID) funded the Research Triangle Institute's (RTI) Integrated Population and Development Planning (IPDP) project to assess rapid population growth effects in 25 developing countries. In October 1984, US AID extended funding for the program, nicknamed INPLAN, for 3 years, at a cost of $6.3 million. Up to 50% of people in developing countries are under age 15, a fact that guarantees large population increases for the next 50-75 years. Also, many regions have been slow to correlate high fertility with socioeconomic development, and in some areas, fertility is actually increasing. INPLAN aims to make governments more aware of population dynamics and to provide training and tools for effective development planning. 40% of INPLAN's work will be done in Africa, 25% in Latin America, and 20% in Asia, with some activity in the Near East. One project in Egypt, involving the use of model generation by microcomputer, was developed by RTI to show rural to urban migration and rapid population growth affects on the educational system. INPLAN expects to develop several other planning sector models on labor force and employment, health and family planning, food supply, housing, and urban development, and apply them to 20-25 countries. Another project provided 9 microcomputer systems and training to Nigerian government agencies. IMPLAN will purchase and distribute 60 such systems in the future.

  4. Calculation of core-level excitation in some MAX-phase compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liaoyuan; Rulis, Paul; Ching, W. Y.

    2013-07-01

    We report first-principles spectroscopic calculation of core level excitations in five MAX-phase compounds. The spectra of Ti-K edges in Ti2AlC and Ti2AlN, C-K edge in Ti2AlC, N-K edge in Ti2AlN, and Nb-K edge in Nb2AlC are calculated and found to be in good agreement with reported experimental measurements. Based on this agreement, the Al-K and Al-L3 edges in the same five phases plus the Cr-K and C-K edges in Cr2AlC and the C-K edge in Nb2AlC are calculated as theoretical predictions. We further analyze the anisotropy in the calculated spectra to gain additional insights on the structure-properties relationships in these MAX-phase compounds. These results are further discussed in the context of the local atomic environments of the M, A, and X elements in MAX-phase compounds and in relation to their fundamental electronic structures.

  5. The African Laser Centre: Transforming the Laser Community in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi

    2012-02-01

    We describe the genesis and programs of the African Laser Centre (ALC), which is an African nonprofit network of laser users that is based in Pretoria, South Africa. Composed of over thirty laboratories from countries throughout the continent of Africa, the ALC has the mission of enhancing the application of lasers in research and education. Its programs include grants for research and training, equipment loans and donations, student scholarships, faculty grants for visits to collaborators' institutions, conferences, and technician training. A long-term goal of the ALC is to bring a synchrotron light source to Africa, most probably to South Africa. One highly popular program is the biennial conference series called the US-Africa Advanced Studies Institute, which is funded by the ALC in collaboration with the U.S. National Science Foundation and the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. The Institutes typically bring about thirty faculty and graduate students from the U.S. to venues in Africa in order to introduce U.S. and African graduate students to major breakthroughs in targeted areas that utilize lasers. In this presentation, we will summarize the ALC achievements to date and comment on the path forward.

  6. Acetyl-L-carnitine: from a biological curiosity to a drug for the peripheral nervous system and beyond.

    PubMed

    Onofrj, Marco; Ciccocioppo, Fausta; Varanese, Sara; di Muzio, Antonio; Calvani, Menotti; Chiechio, Santina; Osio, Maurizio; Thomas, Astrid

    2013-08-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria. Carnitine acetylation enables the function of CoA and facilitates elimination of oxidative products. Beyond this metabolic activity, ALC provides acetyl groups for acetylcholine synthesis, exerts a cholinergic effect and optimizes the balance of energy processes. Acetylcarnitine supplementation induces neuroprotective, neurotrophic and analgesic effects in the peripheral nervous system. In the recent studies, ALC, by acting as a donor of acetyl groups to NF-kb p65/RelA, enhanced the transcription of the GRM2 gene encoding the mGLU2 receptors, inducing long-term upregulation of the mGluR2, evidencing therefore that its long-term analgesic effects are dependent on epigenetic modifications. Several studies, including double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group studies and few open studies showed the effect of ALC in diseases characterized by neuropathies and neuropathic pain: the studies included diabetic neuropathy, HIV and antiretroviral therapy-induced neuropathies, neuropathies due to compression and chemotherapeutic agents. Double-blinded studies involved 1773 patients. Statistical evaluations evidenced reduction of pain, improvements of nerve function and trophism. In conclusion, ALC represents a consistent therapeutic option for peripheral neuropathies, and its complex effects, neurotrophic and analgesic, based on epigenetic mechanism, open new pathways in the study of peripheral nerve disease management.

  7. Acetyl-l-carnitine protects dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of Parkinson's disease in the rat.

    PubMed

    Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Bashiri, Keyhan; Kiasalari, Zahra; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Sedaghat, Reza; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2017-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide in which nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) are lost, with clinical motor and non-motor symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, stooping posture and cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD and to explore some involved mechanisms. In this experimental study, intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received ALC at doses of 100 or 200mg/kg/day for 1 week. ALC (200mg/kg) lowered apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry and reduced the latency to initiate and the total time in the narrow beam test, reduced striatal malondialdehyde (MDA), increased catalase activity and glutathione (GSH) level, prevented reduction of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and striatal TH-immunoreactivity, and lowered striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its immunoreactivity as an indicator of astrogliosis, and nuclear factor NF-kappa B and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as reliable markers of neuroinflammation. Meanwhile, ALC at both doses mitigated nigral DNA fragmentation as a valuable marker of apoptosis. The results of this study clearly suggest the neuroprotective effect of ALC in 6-OHDA-induced model of PD through abrogation of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, astrogliosis, and oxidative stress and it may be put forward as an ancillary therapeutic candidate for controlling PD.

  8. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine.

    PubMed

    Ames, Bruce N; Liu, Jiankang

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative mitochondrial decay is a major contributor to aging. Some of this decay can be reversed in old rats by feeding them normal mitochondrial metabolites, acetylcarnitine (ALC) and lipoic acid (LA), at high levels. Feeding the substrate ALC with LA, a mitochondrial antioxidant, restores the velocity of the reaction (K(m)) for ALC transferase and mitochondrial function. The principle appears to be that, with age, increased oxidative damage to protein causes a deformation of structure of key enzymes with a consequent lessening of affinity (K(m)) for the enzyme substrate. The effect of age on the enzyme-binding affinity can be mimicked by reacting it with malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product that increases with age). In old rats (vs. young rats), mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin level, respiratory control ratio, and cellular O(2) uptake are lower; oxidants/O(2), neuron RNA oxidation, and mutagenic aldehydes from lipid peroxidation are higher. Ambulatory activity and cognition decline with age. Feeding old rats ALC with LA for a few weeks restores mitochondrial function; lowers oxidants, neuron RNA oxidation, and mutagenic aldehydes; and increases rat ambulatory activity and cognition (as assayed with the Skinner box and Morris water maze). A recent meta-analysis of 21 double-blind clinical trials of ALC in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease showed significant efficacy vs. placebo. A meta-analysis of 4 clinical trials of LA for treatment of neuropathic deficits in diabetes showed significant efficacy vs. placebo.

  9. Utilization of solid "elemental" sulfur by the phototrophic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum: a sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Franz, Bettina; Lichtenberg, Henning; Hormes, Josef; Modrow, Hartwig; Dahl, Christiane; Prange, Alexander

    2007-04-01

    The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum can use elemental sulfur as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The elemental sulfur is taken up, transformed into intracellular sulfur globules and oxidized to sulfate. Commercially available "elemental" sulfur usually consists of the two species cyclo-octasulfur and polymeric sulfur. The authors investigated whether only one sulfur species is used or at least preferred when Alc. vinosum takes up elemental sulfur and forms globules. To this end, Alc. vinosum was cultivated photolithoautotrophically with two types of elemental sulfur that differed in their cyclo-octasulfur : polymeric sulfur ratio, as well as with pure polymeric sulfur. Sulfur speciation was analysed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and sulfate contents were determined by HPLC to quantify the amount of elemental sulfur being taken up and oxidized by Alc. vinosum. The results show that Alc. vinosum uses only the polymeric sulfur (sulfur chain) fraction of elemental sulfur and is probably unable to take up and form sulfur globules from cyclo-octasulfur. Furthermore, direct cell-sulfur contact appears to be necessary for uptake of elemental sulfur by Alc. vinosum.

  10. Taurine Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats Through Inhibition of TLR4/MyD88 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chen, Mu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that overconsumption of ethanol contributes in many ways to the pathogenesis of hepatic injury. Although studies indicate that taurine decreases lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, the protective effect of taurine against alcohol-induced liver injury is still unclear. To clarify the precise signaling involved in the beneficial effect of taurine on alcohol-induced liver injury, rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) control (Ctl), (2) alcohol (Alc), (3) Alc+taurine (Tau), and (4) Alc+silymarin (Sil). The Tau and Sil groups had lower lymphocyte infiltration and significantly lower TLR-4/MyD88 and IκB/NFκB compared to the Alc group. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were also significantly lower in the Tau and Sil groups than in the Alc group. The experimental results indicated that hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced inflammation may be mediated by decreased TLR-4/MyD88 signaling. PMID:26090712

  11. Midbrain-driven emotion and reward processing in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, E M; Jung, Y-C; Sullivan, E V; Hawkes, W C; Pfefferbaum, A; Schulte, T

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired control over emotionally motivated actions, possibly associated with abnormalities in the frontoparietal executive control network and midbrain nodes of the reward network associated with automatic attention. To identify differences in the neural response to alcohol-related word stimuli, 26 chronic alcoholics (ALC) and 26 healthy controls (CTL) performed an alcohol-emotion Stroop Match-to-Sample task during functional MR imaging. Stroop contrasts were modeled for color-word incongruency (eg, word RED printed in green) and for alcohol (eg, BEER), positive (eg, HAPPY) and negative (eg, MAD) emotional word content relative to congruent word conditions (eg, word RED printed in red). During color-Stroop processing, ALC and CTL showed similar left dorsolateral prefrontal activation, and CTL, but not ALC, deactivated posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus. An interaction revealed a dissociation between alcohol-word and color-word Stroop processing: ALC activated midbrain and parahippocampal regions more than CTL when processing alcohol-word relative to color-word conditions. In ALC, the midbrain region was also invoked by negative emotional Stroop words thereby showing significant overlap of this midbrain activation for alcohol-related and negative emotional processing. Enhanced midbrain activation to alcohol-related words suggests neuroadaptation of dopaminergic midbrain systems. We speculate that such tuning is normally associated with behavioral conditioning to optimize responses but here contributed to automatic bias to alcohol-related stimuli.

  12. Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior overall survival after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Han, Wei; Chen, Huan; Wang, Feng-Rong; Lv, Meng; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether early lymphocyte recovery, after unmanipulated, haploidentical, blood and marrow transplant (HBMT), affected clinical outcomes in 78 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia evolving from MDS. Lymphocyte recovery was based on the absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 (ALC-30). Patients with high ALC-30 (≥ 300 cells/μL) had lower relapse rates (13.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.049) and lower incidence of bacterial infections (3.4% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.015) than those with low ALC-30 values. Multivariate analysis showed that a high ALC-30 was associated with improved overall survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.099, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.029-0.337; p < 0.0001), improved leukemia-free survival (HR: 0.245, 95% CI: 0.112-0.539; p < 0.0001), lower relapse rate (HR: 0.096, 95% CI: 0.011-0.827; p = 0.033) and lower transplant-related mortality (TRM, HR: 0.073, 95% CI: 0.016-0.324; p = 0.001). Combinations of three mismatches in the human leukocyte antigen loci were associated with a higher TRM (HR: 5.026, 95% CI: 1.392-18.173; p = 0.014). Our results suggest that the ALC-30 can predict a favorable OS after unmanipulated HBMT.

  13. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  14. Kampuchea: population.

    PubMed

    The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) recently reported that Kampuchea has an estimated population of 6 million. The count was made to determine future United Nations aid to Kampuchea. The count, made by administrators in Kampuchea's 19 provinces, reached a total of 6.4 million versus the 5.75 million estimated by the central government in Phnom Penh. The population estimate made by the Kampuchea provincial administrators surprised observers of the country, including UN representatives, in view of the country's decade of experience with war and destruction, which took a heavy toll on the population; the fatalities in the Vietnamese invasion of 1979, and the ensuing famine of that year. The 1979 vital statistics of Kampuchea are presented in Table 1. Kampuchean refugees at the Thai border camps were reported to be reluctant to go back to their country in spite of reports of good foodgrain harvests and improved prospects for living. The refugees' main concern was their fear and hate of both the Vietnamese troops and the Khmer Rouge.

  15. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  16. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  17. Actions and interactions of alcohol and insulin-like growth factor-1 on female pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Dees, W Les; Srivastava, Vinod; Hiney, Jill K

    2009-11-01

    Alcohol (ALC) is a drug that is capable of disrupting reproductive function in adolescent humans, as well as immature rhesus monkeys and rats. Critical to determining the mechanism(s) of the effects of ALC on the pubertal process is to have a better understanding of the important events involved in the initiation of puberty. For years it has been hypothesized that there may be metabolic signals capable of linking somatic growth to the activation of the reproductive system at the time of puberty. In recent years it has been shown that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one such signal that plays an early role in the pubertal process. In this review, we will describe the actions and interactions of ALC and IGF-1 on molecular and physiological processes associated with pubertal development.

  18. Acetyl-L-carnitine normalizes the impaired long-term potentiation and spine density in a rat model of global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Gellért, L; Oláh, G; Kis, Zs; Takakuwa, H; Iwamori, N; Ono, E; Toldi, J; Farkas, T

    2014-06-06

    As a consequence of an ischemic episode, energy production is disturbed, leading to neuronal cell death. Despite intensive research, the quest for promising neuroprotective drugs has largely failed, not only because of ineffectiveness, but also because of serious side-effects and dosing difficulties. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is an essential nutrient which plays a key role in energy metabolism by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation. It is an endogenous compound and can be used at high dose without toxicity in research into ischemia. Its neuroprotective properties have been reported in many studies, but its potential action on long-term potentiation (LTP) and dendritic spine density has not been described to date. The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the possible protective effect of ALC after ischemic insults inflicted on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model in rats. For electrophysiological measurements, LTP was tested on hippocampal slices. The Golgi-Cox staining technique was used to determine spine density. 2VO resulted in a decreased, unstable LTP and a significant loss of dendritic spines. ALC administered after 2VO was not protective, but as pretreatment prior to 2VO it restored LTP nearly to the control level. This finding paralleled the histological analysis: ALC pretreatment resulted in the reappearance of dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells. Our data demonstrate that ALC administration can restore hippocampal function and spine density. ALC probably acts by enhancing the aerobic metabolic pathway, which is inhibited during and following ischemic attacks.

  19. Demonstrating the self-healing behaviour of some selected ceramics under combustion chamber conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farle, A.; Boatemaa, L.; Shen, L.; Gövert, S.; Kok, J. B. W.; Bosch, M.; Yoshioka, S.; van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W. G.

    2016-08-01

    Closure of surface cracks by self-healing of conventional and MAX phase ceramics under realistic turbulent combustion chamber conditions is presented. Three ceramics namely; Al2O3, Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC are investigated. Healing was achieved in Al2O3 by even dispersion of TiC particles throughout the matrix as the MAX phases, Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC exhibit intrinsic self-healing. Fully dense samples (>95%) were sintered by spark plasma sintering and damage was introduced by indentation, quenching and low perpendicular velocity impact methods. The samples were exposed to the oxidizing atmosphere in the post flame zone of a turbulent flame in a combustion chamber to heal at temperatures of approx. 1000 °C at low pO2 levels for 4 h. Full crack-gap closure was observed for cracks up to 20 mm in length and more than 10 μm in width. The reaction products (healing agents) were analysed by scanning electron microscope, x-ray microanalysis and XRD. A semi-quantification of the healing showed that cracks in Al2O3/TiC composite (width 1 μm and length 100 μm) were fully filled with TiO2. In Ti2AlC large cracks were fully filled with a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. And in the Cr2AlC, cracks of up to 1.0 μm in width and more than 100 μm in length were also completely filled with Al2O3.

  20. Alumina-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Material Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Harder, Bryan J.; Garg, Arnita; Nesbitt, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Coatings for high temperature turbine components are based on low conductivity YSZ thermal barriers and protective NiAl, NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Good oxidation hot corrosion resistance, intermediate CTE, and strain tolerance of Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC MAX phases are thus of special interest. Their alumina scale growth follows a cubic law in accord with FeCrAlY alloys, with oxygen grain boundary diffusivity: Dgb 1.8 x 10-10 exp(-375 kJmole) m3s. Protective cubic kinetics are also found in high pressure burner rig (6 atm., 25 ms) and TGA tests of MAXthal 211Ti2AlC. The initial portion (0.1 hr) is dominated by fast TiO2 growth (with little evidence of scale volatility in high pressure water vapor, as found for SiO2 scales). Bulk Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC substrates show promise as potential bond coats for YSZ TBCs in 1000-1200 C furnace life (500 h) tests. Cr2AlC is proving to be very resistant to 700-900 C Na2SO4 hot corrosion and is of interest for disk alloys. Preliminary diffusion bonded Cr2AlC-superalloy hybrid couples have survived 1000 hr interrupted furnace tests at 800C with no indication of cracking or debonding. Diffusion zones of -NiAl+Cr7C3 were produced in these above 1000 C, but did not grow to any great extent after 1000 hr at 800 C. Processing as coatings presents challenges, however the basic properties of MAX phases provide novel opportunities for high temperature turbine components.

  1. Tank 241-AZ-101 and tank 241-AZ-102, airlift circulator operation vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-06-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs). The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-AZ-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No.2E98-082 and No.2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds.

  2. Wastewater sludge dewaterability enhancement using hydroxyl aluminum conditioning: Role of aluminum speciation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bingdi; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Qiandi; Huang, Yangrui; Meng, Chenrui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-11-15

    Chemical conditioning is one of the most important processes for improve the performance of sludge dewatering device. Aluminum salt coagulant has been widely used in wastewater and sludge treatment. It is generally accepted that pre-formed speciation of aluminum salt coagulants (ASC) has an important influence on coagulation/flocculation performance. In this study, the interaction mechanisms between sludge particles and aluminum salt coagulants with different speciation of hydroxy aluminum were investigated by characterizing the changes in morphological and EPS properties. It was found that middle polymer state aluminum (Alb) and high polymer state aluminum (Alc) performed better than monomer aluminum and oligomeric state aluminum (Ala) in reduction of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and compressibility of wastewater sludge due to their higher charge neutralization and formed more compact flocs. Sludge was significantly acidified after addition Ala, while pH was much more stable under Alb and Alc conditioning due to their hydrolysis stability. The size of sludge flocs conditioned with Alb and Alc was small but flocs structure was denser and more compact, and floc strength is higher, while that formed from Ala is relatively large, but floc structure was loose, floc strength is relatively lower. Scanning environmental microscope analysis revealed that sludge flocs conditioned by Alb and Alc (especially PAC2.5 and Al13) exhibited obvious botryoidal structure, this is because sludge flocs formed by Alb and Alc were more compact and floc strength is high, it was easy generated plentiful tiny channels for water release. In addition, polymeric aluminum salt coagulant (Alb, Alc) had better performance in compressing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) structure and removing sticky protein-like substances from soluble EPS fraction, contributing to improvement of sludge filtration performance. Therefore, this study provides a novel solution for improving sludge

  3. Alizarin Complexone Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: A Smart System Integrating Glucose-Responsive Double-Drugs Release and Real-Time Monitoring Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhen; He, Dinggeng; Cai, Linli; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yang, Xue; Li, Liling; Li, Siqi; Su, Xiaoya

    2016-04-06

    The outstanding progress of nanoparticles-based delivery systems capable of releasing hypoglycemic drugs in response to glucose has dramatically changed the outlook of diabetes management. However, the developed glucose-responsive systems have not offered real-time monitoring capabilities for accurate quantifying hypoglycemic drugs released. In this study, we present a multifunctional delivery system that integrates both delivery and monitoring issues using glucose-triggered competitive binding scheme on alizarin complexone (ALC) functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). In this system, ALC is modified on the surface of MSN as the signal reporter. Gluconated insulin (G-Ins) is then introduced onto MSN-ALC via benzene-1,4-diboronic acid (BA) mediated esterification reaction, where G-Ins not only blocks drugs inside the mesopores but also works as a hypoglycemic drug. In the absence of glucose, the sandwich-type boronate ester structure formed by BA binding to the diols of ALC and G-Ins remains intact, resulting in an fluorescence emission peak at 570 nm and blockage of pores. Following a competitive binding, the presence of glucose cause the dissociation of boronate ester between ALC and BA, which lead to the pores opening and disappearance of fluorescence. As proof of concept, rosiglitazone maleate (RSM), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was doped into the MSN to form a multifunctional MSN (RSM@MSN-ALC-BA-Ins), integrating with double-drugs loading, glucose-responsive performance, and real-time monitoring capability. It has been demonstrated that the glucose-responsive release behaviors of insulin and RSM in buffer or in human serum can be quantified in real-time through evaluating the changes of fluorescence signal. We believe that this developed multifunctional system can shed light on the invention of a new generation of smart nanoformulations for optical diagnosis, individualized treatment, and noninvasive monitoring of diabetes management.

  4. Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Iii. Organization Of fucoglucuronogalactans within the adhesive stalks of achnanthes longipes

    PubMed

    Wustman; Lind; Wetherbee; Gretz

    1998-04-01

    Achnanthes longipes is a marine, biofouling diatom that adheres to surfaces via adhesive polymers extruded during motility or organized into structures called stalks that contain three distinct regions: the pad, shaft, and collar. Four monoclonal antibodies (AL.C1-AL.C4) and antibodies from two uncloned hybridomas (AL.E1 and AL.E2) were raised against the extracellular adhesives of A. longipes. Antibodies were screened against a hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble-fraction. The hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble fraction was fractionated to yield polymers in three size ranges: F1, >/= 20,000, 000 Mr; F2, congruent with100,000 Mr; and F3, <10,000 Mr relative to dextran standards. The congruent with100,000-Mr fraction consisted of highly sulfated (approximately 11%) fucoglucuronogalactans (FGGs) and low-sulfate (approximately 2%) FGGs, whereas F1 was composed of O-linked FGG (F2)-polypeptide (F3) complexes. AL.C1, AL.C2, AL.C4, AL.E1, and AL.E2 recognized carbohydrate complementary regions on FGGs, with antigenicity dependent on fucosyl-containing side chains. AL.C3 was unique in that it had a lower affinity for FGGs and did not label any portion of the shaft. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry indicated that low-sulfate FGGs are expelled from pores surrounding the raphe terminus, creating the cylindrical outer layers of the shaft, and that highly sulfated FGGs are extruded from the raphe, forming the central core. Antibody-labeling patterns and other evidence indicated that the shaft central-core region is related to material exuded from the raphe during cell motility.

  5. Neurotrophic peptides, ADNF-9 and NAP, prevent alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation in fetal brains of C57BL/6 mouse.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Weedman, Jason M; Nkrumah-Abrokwah, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to induce fetal brain growth deficits at different embryonic stages. We focused this study on investigating the neuroprotective effects against alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation using activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF)-9, a peptide (SALLRSIPA) derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, and NAP, a peptide (NAPVSIPQ) derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein. We used an established fetal alcohol exposure mouse model. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched pregnant females were assigned to the following groups: (1) ethanol liquid diet (ALC) group with 25 % (4.49 %, v/v) ethanol-derived calories, (2) pair-fed (PF) control group, (3) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of ADNF-9 (ALC/ADNF-9) group, (4) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of NAP (ALC/NAP) group, (5) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of ADNF-9 (PF/ADNF-9) group, and (6) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of NAP (PF/NAP) group. On day 15 (E15), fetal brains were collected, weighed, and assayed for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. ADNF-9 or NAP was administered daily from E7 to E15 alongside PF or ALC liquid diet exposure. Our results show that NAP and ADNF-9 significantly prevented alcohol-induced weight reduction of fetal brains. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining; NAP or ADNF-9 administration alongside alcohol exposure significantly prevented alcohol-induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells in primordium of the cingulate cortex and ganglionic eminence. These findings may pave the path toward potential therapeutics against alcohol intoxication during pregnancy stages.

  6. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves behavior and dendritic morphology in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Nicolai, Raffaella; Lopez, Carla M; D'Iddio, Stefania; Iannoni, Emerenziana; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 girls. Approximately 90% of cases are caused by spontaneous mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Girls with RTT suffer from severe motor, respiratory, cognitive and social abnormalities attributed to early deficits in synaptic connectivity which manifest in the adult as a myriad of physiological and anatomical abnormalities including, but not limited to, dimished dendritic complexity. Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), an acetyl group donor, ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits in other disease models through a variety of mechanisms including altering patterns of histone acetylation resulting in changes in gene expression, and stimulating biosynthetic pathways such as acetylcholine. We hypothesized ALC treatment during critical periods in cortical development would promote normal synaptic maturation, and continuing treatment would improve behavioral deficits in the Mecp2(1lox) mouse model of RTT. In this study, wildtype and Mecp2(1lox) mutant mice received daily injections of ALC from birth until death (postnatal day 47). General health, motor, respiratory, and cognitive functions were assessed at several time points during symptom progression. ALC improved weight gain, grip strength, activity levels, prevented metabolic abnormalities and modestly improved cognitive function in Mecp2 null mice early in the course of treatment, but did not significantly improve motor or cognitive functions assessed later in life. ALC treatment from birth was associated with an almost complete rescue of hippocampal dendritic morphology abnormalities with no discernable side effects in the mutant mice. Therefore, ALC appears to be a promising therapeutic approach to treating early RTT symptoms and may be useful in combination with other therapies.

  7. Population strategy.

    PubMed

    Kunii, C

    1989-12-01

    In this article, Chojiro Kunii, chairman and executive director of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP), briefly describes the evolution of the INtegrated Family Planning, Nutrition, and Parasite Control Project (IP). The IP project began in Japan during the post-war period, when midwives and public health nurses introduced family planning alongside maternal and child health care services to make it more acceptable to people. Based on Japan's experience, JOICFP formed an international cooperation project based on parasite control, family planning, and nutrition. Introduced in several Asian countries in the mid-1970s, the project was quickly transported to Central and South America. And in 1983, Africa witnesses its first IP project. This took place in the Masama district of Tanzania, where the results of deworming quickly captures the attention of the population, making it easier for family planning workers to spread their message. In the 2 regions where the IP project was introduced, contraceptive prevalence among women has increased from 9.3% to 33%, and from 27% to 60%. Tanzania is now considering incorporating the IP project in its next 5-year development plan. Other African countries have followed suit. Kunii explains that JOICFP's Ip project enjoys support from both IPPF and UNFPA. He adds that, for its 2nd stage of development, the IP project hopes to become a union of family planning and preventive health. This new phase can already be observed in Asian countries. In developing its population strategy, JOICFP learned from the experience' of Japan, which demonstrated the importance of balancing quantity and quality.

  8. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2017-02-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuation-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  9. Acoustic tests on a new motor generator system for the Minuteman launch control centers at Alpha 01 and Sierra 00, Malmstrom AFB, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairman, Terry M.

    1991-05-01

    Field tests of the acoustic performance of a new motor generator system (MGS) were performed at Minuteman Launch Control Centers (LCC) Alpha 01 and Sierra 00, Malmstrom AFB, MT. This same MGS unit was accepted for use after the Hill Engineering Test Facilities (HETF) acoustic performance studies conducted in 1988. Rivet Mile from the Ogden ALC began installation of the new MGS at Malmstrom in the spring of 1990. Performance tests were requested by 00-ALC/MMGRMM, and SAC, to compare with the HETF data and document the LCC acoustic environment with the new MGS operating in a field setting. This report presents our findings.

  10. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils in body composition and lipid regulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Scalerandi, María Victoria; Gonzalez, Marcela Aida; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que las mezclas de Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (ALC) de origen comercial o natural diferencialmente afectan diferencialment al estado nutricional y al metabolismo lipídico. Objetivo: Investigar el efecto de dos preparaciones de ALC como complemento de grasas dietarias con diferentes proporciones de ácidos grasos (AG) n-9, n-6 y n-3 sobre composición corporal, niveles de triacilglicéridos (TG) y metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Métodos: Se alimentó a ratones en crecimiento con dietas con aceite de oliva, maíz y canola, o colza suplementadas con una mezcla equimolecular de ALC (mezcla-ALC) o aceites ricos en ácido ruménico (AR) por 30 días. Se evaluó: ganancia de peso, composición corporal, peso de tejidos, niveles de TG plasmáticos y séricos, y parámetros de regulación lipídica. Resultados: Independientemente de las grasas dietarias, la mezcla-ALC redujo el peso corporal y depósitos grasos relacionados con hepatomegalia, incremento de TG séricos y descenso de TG musculares. El aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática producida por la mezcla-ALC a aceites de oliva y maíz por incremento de la secreción de TG. AR decreció los depósitos grasos sin hepatomegalia, esteatosis hepática e hipertrigliceridemia. Aceite de oliva previno el incremento de TG musculares inducidos por suplementación con AR al aceite de maíz y canola. Discusión y conclusión: Las proporciones de AG insaturados dietarios modularon la respuesta de mezcla-ALC y AR al metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Finalmente, aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática inducida por mezcla-ALC, y los efectos benéficos más notorios fueron observados cuando aceite de oliva fue suplementado con AR, debido a la reducida acreción de lípidos sin cambios en los niveles de TG.

  11. Alternative Level of Care: Canada's Hospital Beds, the Evidence and Options

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jason M.; Crump, R. Trafford

    2013-01-01

    Patients designated as alternative level of care (ALC) are an ongoing concern for healthcare policy makers across Canada. These patients occupy valuable hospital beds and limit access to acute care services. The objective of this paper is to present policy alternatives to address underlying factors associated with ALC bed use. Three alternatives, and their respective limitations and structural challenges, are discussed. Potential solutions may require a mix of policy options proposed here. Inadequate policy jeopardizes new acute care activity-based funding schemes in British Columbia and Ontario. Failure to address this issue could exacerbate pressures on the existing bottlenecks in the community care system in these and other provinces. PMID:23968671

  12. Microstructural Influence on Dynamic Properties of Age Hardenable FeMnAl Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    dependent on the separation distance between the two crystal slabs and modeled using the universal binding energy relation ( UBER ) 28, 29: GC (x... UBER fit results for pure Fe3AlC gave a cleavage energy of GC=5.04 J/m2 and an ideal stress ζ max=40 GPa with the maximum stress and separation...distance λ at 163 0.46 Å, which corresponds to an ideal strain of 12.3%. The UBER fit results for a phosphorus doped Fe3AlC supercell showed that the

  13. Chemically sensitive amorphization process in the nanolaminated Cr2AC (A = Al or Ge) system from TEM in situ irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnet, Matthieu; Mauchamp, Vincent; Oliviero, Erwan; Jaouen, Michel; Cabioc'h, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    The effect of 320 keV Xe2+ ion-irradiation in Cr2AlC and Cr2GeC is investigated in situ in the transmission electron microscope. Both compounds amorphize at moderate fluences (1013-1014 Xe cm-2) but exhibit different amorphization mechanisms, bearing witness of the major influence of the chemical composition of the nanolaminated Mn+1AXn phases. It is proposed that amorphization takes place via a direct impact amorphization process in Cr2GeC whereas it is governed by a defect accumulation process in Cr2AlC.

  14. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  15. Histopathological and electrophysiological indices of rotenone-evoked dopaminergic toxicity: Neuroprotective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Gough, B; Raymick, J; Beaudoin, M A; Ali, S F; Virmani, A; Binienda, Z K

    2015-10-08

    Exposure to the natural pesticide, rotenone, a potent mitochondrial toxin, leads to degeneration in striatal nerve terminals and nigral neurons. Rotenone-induced behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological changes in rats mimic those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, protective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the brain dopaminergic toxicity after a prolonged exposure to rotenone were evaluated using electrophysiological and immunolabeling methods. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.p. with rotenone alone (1 mg/kg) or rotenone with ALC (either 10 or 100 mg/kg; ALC10 or ALC100, respectively) once daily on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22, 24, 26, 29, 31, 33 and 37. Control rats received either 100mg/kg ALC or vehicle (30% Solutol HS 15 in 0.9% saline) injections. Animals were weighed on injection days and monitored daily. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) was assessed within two days after treatment using compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) detected from the tail muscle through surface receiver electrodes installed around the distal part of the tail. Rats were perfused immediately after testing with 4% paraformaldehyde and immunohistochemical analysis of dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and microglial CD11b marker was performed in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in order to estimate dopaminergic neuronal and transporter damage. Additionally, effects of ALC on preventing microglial or astrocytic hypertrophy were also evaluated. In rats exposed to rotenone and rotenone/ACL10, a significant increases in both proximal (S1) and distal (S2) motor latency and a decrease in MCV were detected in tail nerves (p<0.05). The conduction parameters in rats co-treated with rotenone/ACL100 were not different from control. It was found that 100 mg/kg ALC prevented loss of TH and a decline of DAT level in the midbrain and also prevented

  16. Failure Analysis and Prevention for the Air Logistics Center Engineer: CAStLE Course Development Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    also, as structure Enginer this class has a lot of information that will keep us up todate and we can apply to problems that we deal on daily basis...CAStLE course was directly on target with the current needs of the ALC engineer. This specialized course was delivered on-site with up -to-date...programs, the Engineering Directorate seeks to ensure their engineers are up to date in topics which are relevant to the ALC engineer. To this end, they

  17. The Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS): A system integration approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mercer Engineering Research Center (MERC), under contract to the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1989, has been actively involved in providing the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) with a robotic workcell designed to perform rework automated defastening and hole location/transfer operations on F-15 wings. This paper describes the activities required to develop and implement this workcell, known as the Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS). AARS is scheduled to be completely installed and in operation at WR-ALC by September 1994.

  18. Molecular dynamics study on core-shell structure stability of aluminum encapsulated by nano-carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Yi; Zhai, Dong; Zhou, Kai; Pan, Deng

    2017-02-01

    A ReaxFF reactive forcefield for aluminum-carbon composite system has been developed to investigate structural stability and thermal decomposition mechanism of nano-carbon materials coating aluminum particles. Research results indicated the Al@C particles were structurally stable in a broad temperature range from room temperature up to 2735 K. In particular, the broken carbon cage self-healed to reconstruct a more stable Al@C core-shell structure after Al atoms sequentially departing from carbon cage during thermal decomposition, proffering an effective protection for aluminum surface-activeness.

  19. Global Population Profile: 2002. International Population Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Matthew; McDevitt, Thomas; Stanecki, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Global Population Profile: 2002 summarizes the most important trends in global population at the dawn of the 21st century. The presentation is organized around four themes: (1) Global Population; (2) Growth, Global Population; (3) Composition, Contraceptive Prevalence in the Developing World; and (4) the AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century. This…

  20. Testing predator-prey theory using broad-scale manipulations and independent validation.

    PubMed

    Serrouya, Robert; McLellan, Bruce N; Boutin, Stan

    2015-11-01

    A robust test of ecological theory is to gauge the predictive accuracy of general relationships parameterized from multiple systems but applied to a new area. To address this goal, we used an ecosystem-level experiment to test predator-prey theory by manipulating prey abundance to determine whether predation was density dependent, density independent, compensatory or depensatory (inversely density dependent) on prey populations. Understanding the nature of predation is of primary importance in community ecology because it establishes whether predation has little effect on prey abundance (compensatory), whether it promotes coexistence (density dependent) and reduces the equilibrium of prey (density independent) or whether it can be destabilizing (depensatory). We used theoretical predictions consisting of functional and numerical equations parameterized independently from meta-analyses on wolves (Canis lupus) and moose (Alces alces), but applied to our specific wolf-moose system. Predictions were tested by experimentally reducing moose abundance across 6500 km(2) as a novel way of evaluating the nature of predation. Depensatory predation of wolves on moose was the best explanation of the population dynamic - a mechanism that has been hypothesized to occur but has rarely been evaluated. Adding locally obtained kill rates and numerical estimates to the independent data provided no benefit to model predictions, suggesting that the theory was robust to local variation. These findings have critical implications for any organism that is preyed upon but that also has, or will be, subject to increased human exploitation or perturbations from environmental change. If depensatory predation is not accounted for in harvest models, predicted yields will be excessive and lead to further population decline.

  1. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators’ primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves’ choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population. PMID:28030549

  2. European Bison as a Refugee Species? Evidence from Isotopic Data on Early Holocene Bison and Other Large Herbivores in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bocherens, Hervé; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)—the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe—into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores—aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)—from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species. PMID:25671634

  3. European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bocherens, Hervé; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Drucker, Dorothée G; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species.

  4. Genetic and in silico comparative mapping of the polyphenol oxidase gene in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Rosy; Raman, Harsh; Johnstone, Katie; Lisle, Chris; Smith, Alison; Martin, Peter; Matin, Peter; Allen, Helen

    2005-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are involved in the time-dependent darkening and discolouration of Asian noodles and other wheat end products. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from Chara (moderately high PPO activity)/WW2449 (low PPO activity) was screened for PPO activity based on L-DOPA and L-tyrosine assays using whole seeds. Both these assays were significantly genetically correlated (r = 0.91) in measuring the PPO activity in this DH population. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis utilising a skeleton map enabled us to identify a major QTL controlling PPO activity based on L-DOPA and L-tyrosine on the long arm of chromosome 2A. The simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker GWM294b explained over 82% of the line mean phenotypic variation from samples collected in both 2000 and 2003. Four SSR markers were validated for PPO linkage in genetically diverse backgrounds and proven to correctly predict the PPO activity in more than 92% of wheat lines. Physical mapping using deletion lines of Chinese Spring has confirmed the location of the GWM294b, GWM312 and WMC170 on chromosome 2AL, between deletion breakpoints 2AL-C to 0.85. In order to identify functional gene markers, data searches for alignments between rice BAC/PAC clones assembled on chromosome 1 and 4, chromosome 7, and (1) the wheat expressed sequence tags mapped in deletion bin (2AL-C to 0.85) and (2) the coding sequence of a previously cloned wheat PPO gene were made and found significant sequence similarities with the PPO gene or common central domain of tyrosinase. Available PPO gene sequences in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database have revealed that there is a significant molecular diversity at the nucleotide and amino acid level in the wheat PPO genes.

  5. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Hersey, Kent; Holland, A. Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8–9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980–2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring–summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring–summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year t ) and delayed (year t−1) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics.

  6. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Kevin L; Klaver, Robert W; Hersey, Kent R; Holland, A Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2015-08-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8-9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980-2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring-summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring-summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year(t)) and delayed (year(t-1)) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics.

  7. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  8. An Approach Toward Understanding Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Tash, Jeffrey P.

    2008-10-01

    Among the most conspicuous environmental effects of roads are vehicle-related mortalities of wildlife. Research to understand the factors that contribute to wildlife-vehicle collisions can be partitioned into several major themes, including (i) characteristics associated with roadkill hot spots, (ii) identification of road-density thresholds that limit wildlife populations, and (iii) species-specific models of vehicle collision rates that incorporate information on roads (e.g., proximity, width, and traffic volume) and animal movements. We suggest that collision models offer substantial opportunities to understand the effects of roads on a diverse suite of species. We conducted simulations using collision models and information on Blanding’s turtles ( Emydoidea blandingii), bobcats ( Lynx rufus), and moose ( Alces alces), species endemic to the northeastern United States that are of particular concern relative to collisions with vehicles. Results revealed important species-specific differences, with traffic volume and rate of movement by candidate species having the greatest influence on collision rates. We recommend that future efforts to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions be more proactive and suggest the following protocol. For species that pose hazards to drivers (e.g., ungulates), identify collision hot spots and implement suitable mitigation to redirect animal movements (e.g., underpasses, fencing, and habitat modification), reduce populations of problematic game species via hunting, or modify driver behavior (e.g., dynamic signage that warns drivers when animals are near roads). Next, identify those species that are likely to experience additive (as opposed to compensatory) mortality from vehicle collisions and rank them according to vulnerability to extirpation. Then combine information on the distribution of at-risk species with information on existing road networks to identify areas where immediate actions are warranted.

  9. Disease spectrum of alcoholic liver disease in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ang; Chang, Binxia; Sun, Yin; Lin, Huiming; Li, Baosen; Teng, Guangju; Zou, Zheng-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption in China has substantially increased over the last 3 decades and the number of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is rising at an alarming rate. However, accurate and representative data on time trends in its hospitalization rates are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the current status and burden of ALD in China by analyzing the data from a large tertiary referral hospital, Beijing 302 Hospital. Data were retrospectively recorded from patients diagnosed as ALD in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013. The disease spectrum and biochemical parameters of each patient were collected. The patients with ALD accounted for 3.93% (7422) of all patients (188,902) with liver diseases between 2002 and 2013. The number of patients hospitalized with ALD increased from 110 in 2002 to 1672 in 2013. The ratio of patients hospitalized with ALD to all patients hospitalized with liver diseases was rising almost continuously and increased from 1.68% in 2002 to 4.59% in 2013. Most patients with ALD were male. Age distribution of ALD hospitalization showed that the highest rate was in 40- to 49-year-old group in subjects. Notably, the annual proportion of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) increased 2.43 times from 2002 to 2013. We found the highest levels of mean corpuscular volume, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, total bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and alkaline phosphatase in SAH patients, while serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin, and cholinesterase were significantly decreased in SAH group. Among these ALD, the SAH patient population has the worst prognosis. Alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC) is the most common ALD, and annual admissions for ALC increased significantly during the analyzed period. The number of hospitalized patients with ALD and the annual hospitalization rate of ALD were increasing continuously in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013. More attention should be paid to develop

  10. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  11. Density-dependent habitat selection and partitioning between two sympatric ungulates.

    PubMed

    van Beest, Floris M; McLoughlin, Philip D; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-08-01

    Theory on density-dependent habitat selection predicts that as population density of a species increases, use of higher quality (primary) habitat by individuals declines while use of lower quality (secondary) habitat rises. Habitat partitioning is often considered the primary mechanism for coexistence between similar species, but how this process evolves with changes in population density remains to be empirically tested for free-ranging ungulates. We used resource-selection functions to quantify density effects on landscape-scale habitat selection of two sympatric species of ungulates [moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis)] in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada (2000-2011). The density of elk was actively reduced from 1.2 to 0.4 elk km(-2) through increased hunting effort during the period of study, while moose density decreased without additional human influence from 1.6-0.7 moose km(-2). Patterns of habitat selection during winter by both species changed in accordance to expectations from density-dependent habitat-selection theory. At low intraspecific density, moose and elk did not partition habitat, as both species selected strongly for mixed forest (primary habitat providing both food and cover), but did so in different areas segregated across an elevational gradient. As intraspecific density increased, selection for primary habitat by both species decreased, while selection for secondary, lower quality habitat such as agricultural fields (for elk) and built-up areas (for moose) increased. We show that habitat-selection strategies during winter for moose and elk, and subsequent effects on habitat partitioning, depend heavily on the position in state space (density) of both species.

  12. Large herbivores and aquatic-terrestrial links in southern boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Bump, Joseph K; Tischler, Keren B; Schrank, Amy J; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2009-03-01

    1. Concurrent measurement of population dynamics and associated spatio-temporal patterns of resource flow across aquatic-terrestrial boundaries are rare, yet necessary to understand the consequences of cross-habitat resource flux. Long-term study of the moose Alces alces (L.) population in Isle Royale National Park (Lake Superior, USA) provides an opportunity to examine the patterns of resource flux from aquatic to terrestrial habitats over approximately50 years. 2. We analysed the spatio-temporal dynamics of aquatic-derived nitrogen (N) that moose transfer to terrestrial systems by using excretion models, foraging parameters, moose densities, and moose carcass locations (n = 3616) collected from 1958-2005. 3. Results suggest that moose transfer significant amounts of aquatic-derived N to terrestrial systems, which likely increases terrestrial N availability in riparian zones. A seasonal increase in terrestrial N availability when moose are foraging on N-rich aquatic macrophytes would contrast with the depression of soil N mineralization previously attributed indirectly to moose. 4. Aquatic foraging by moose and moose carcass locations are significantly clustered at multiple scales, indicating that grey wolves Canis lupus (L.) and moose can create concentrated areas of resource transfer due to clustered predation and foraging patterns. 5. This study shows that patterns of faunal-mediated resource transfer can depend significantly on predator-prey dynamics, and that large predators in this system influence herbivore-controlled resource transfer between ecosystems. Given the circumpolar extent of moose, they constitute an important, unquantified aquatic-terrestrial resource vector in boreal systems.

  13. Population control II: The population establishment today.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Although population assistance represents a relatively small share of official development assistance, it influences many other aspects of development planning. The organizations that comprise the population establishment have a common purpose--the reduction of population growth in the Third World--but they are not homogeneous and sometimes have conflicting goals and strategies. National governments, multilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, academic centers, and pressure groups all contribute to creating and sustaining what has become a virtual population control industry. Through scholarships, travel grants, awards, and favorable publicity, Third World elites have been encouraged to join the population establishment. The World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities have pursued explicit strategies for pressuring Third World governments to design and implement population policies, most recently in Africa.

  14. Simulating Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  15. Predicting Population Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Uses graphs to involve students in inquiry-based population investigations on the Wisconsin gray wolf. Requires students to predict future changes in the wolf population, carrying capacity, and deer population. (YDS)

  16. 20 CFR 655.1306 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A Labor Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is still in an active recruitment period, as defined by § 655.102(f)(3). (2) The H-2ALC must conduct... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assurances and obligations of H-2A Labor... Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1306 Assurances and...

  17. 20 CFR 655.1306 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A Labor Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is still in an active recruitment period, as defined by § 655.102(f)(3). (2) The H-2ALC must conduct... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assurances and obligations of H-2A Labor... Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1306 Assurances and...

  18. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1302 Required pre-filing activity. (a) Time of filing of... requirements for H-2ALCs are set forth in § 655.106. (b) General attestation obligation. An employer must... as specified in this section. (c) Retention of documentation. An employer filing an Application...

  19. The role of regional organisations in building capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun

    When one thinks of the future of a people, such thoughts often result in visions and ideas that can transform the society. As we entered the 21st century, many African countries and their political leaders evolved a variety of visions for their country and their people. The attainment of the goals enshrined in such visionary documents demands societal mastery of the key tools of transformation including science and technology. Mastery means the appreciation, understanding, study, digestion and appropriate utilization of these tools through the evolution of policies that each country can aim at, commit to and budget for. The African Leadership Conference (ALC) on Space Science and Technology was borne out of such a necessity; ALC is a vehicle that offers Africa the opportunity to actively participate, at a commensurate level, in the space enterprise. Through space exploration and utilization, humankind is now evolving new processes that offer better, more reliable and cheaper alternatives to known products and methodologies as well as new directions/solutions to long standing problems. This paper addresses the goals of ALC as well as those capabilities ALC believes Africa should commit to, invest in and effectively utilise in to attain its own transformation.

  20. High-Performance Metal/Carbide Composites with Far-From-Equilibrium Compositions and Controlled Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liangfa; O’Neil, Morgan; Erturun, Veysel; Benitez, Rogelio; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Karaman, Ibrahim; Radovic, Miladin

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of extending existing metal-ceramic composites to those with the compositions that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium is examined. A current and pressure-assisted, rapid infiltration is proposed to fabricate composites, consisting of reactive metallic and ceramic phases with controlled microstructure and tunable properties. An aluminum (Al) alloy/Ti2AlC composite is selected as an example of the far-from-equilibrium systems to fabricate, because Ti2AlC exists only in a narrow region of the Ti-Al-C phase diagram and readily reacts with Al. This kind of reactive systems challenges conventional methods for successfully processing corresponding metal-ceramic composites. Al alloy/Ti2AlC composites with controlled microstructures, various volume ratios of constituents (40/60 and 27/73) and metallic phase sizes (42–83 μm, 77–276 μm, and 167–545 μm), are obtained using the Ti2AlC foams with different pore structures as preforms for molten metal (Al alloy) infiltration. The resulting composites are lightweight and display exceptional mechanical properties at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These structures achieve a compressive strength that is 10 times higher than the yield strength of the corresponding peak-aged Al alloy at ambient temperature and 14 times higher at 400 °C. Possible strengthening mechanisms are described, and further strategies for improving properties of those composites are proposed. PMID:27752106

  1. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  2. Catalytic synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from extremely low quality greases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable fuel for compression ignition engines that is composed of the simple alkyl esters, usually methyl-, of fatty acids (FAME). It is typically produced via base-catalyzed transesterification between refined vegetable oil or animal fat (e.g., soybean oil, tallow) and an alc...

  3. Methamphetamine promotes α-tubulin deacetylation in endothelial cells: the protective role of acetyl-l-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, S; Salta, S; Summavielle, T

    2015-04-16

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant drug used worldwide for its reinforcing properties. In addition to the classic long-lasting monoaminergic-disrupting effects extensively described in the literature, METH has been consistently reported to increase blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, both in vivo and in vitro, as a result of tight junction and cytoskeleton disarrangement. Microtubules play a critical role in cell stability, which relies on post-translational modifications such as α-tubulin acetylation. As there is evidence that psychostimulants drugs modulate the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs), we hypothesized that in endothelial cells METH-mediation of cytoplasmatic HDAC6 activity could affect tubulin acetylation and further contribute to BBB dysfunction. To validate our hypothesis, we exposed the bEnd.3 endothelial cells to increasing doses of METH and verified that it leads to an extensive α-tubulin deacetylation mediated by HDACs activation. Furthermore, since we recently reported that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), a natural occurring compound, prevents BBB structural loss in a context of METH exposure, we reasoned that ALC could also preserve the acetylation of microtubules under METH action. The present results confirm that ALC is able to prevent METH-induced deacetylation providing effective protection on microtubule acetylation. Although further investigation is still needed, HDACs regulation may become a new therapeutic target for ALC.

  4. Teaching within the Rhythms of the Semester. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Donna Killian; Jones, Janet Wright

    This book explores various methods and techniques that can improve instruction and learning in the college classroom, based on the Activating Learning in the Classroom (ALC) faculty development program initiated at Middlesex Community College, Massachusetts, in 1989. Chapter 1 presents an overview of various teaching styles, discusses avenues that…

  5. Structure–function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family

    PubMed Central

    Yin, DeLu (Tyler); Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M.; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure–function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  6. High Temperature Mass Spectrometry of Liquid Nickel-Aluminum Alloys at 2000 K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    estimated at < 104 K/s. It is apparent that the maximum carbon segregation to the grain boundaries observed by Briant and Huang corresponds to the...rapidly solidified Ni3Al-C alloys. Scri. Metall., 17, 281-284. 32. Briant, C.L. and Huang, S.C. (1986). Carbon segregation to grain boundaries in

  7. A fatty acyl-CoA reductase highly expressed in the head of honey bee (Apis mellifera) involves biosynthesis of a wide range of aliphatic fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Teerawanichpan, Prapapan; Robertson, Albert J; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-09-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are social insects which have remarkable complexity in communication pheromones. These chemical signals comprise a mixture of hydrocarbons, wax esters, fatty acids, aldehydes and alcohols. In this study, we detected several long chain aliphatic alcohols ranging from C18-C32 in honey bees and the level of these alcohols varied in each body segment. C18:0Alc and C20:0Alc are more pronounced in the head, whereas C22:0Alc to C32Alc are abundant in the abdomen. One of the cDNAs coding for a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (AmFAR1) involved in the synthesis of fatty alcohols was isolated and characterized. AmFAR1 was ubiquitously expressed in all body segments with the predominance in the head of honey bees. Heterologous expression of AmFAR1 in yeast revealed that AmFAR1 could convert a wide range of fatty acids (14:0-22:0) to their corresponding alcohols, with stearic acid 18:0 as the most preferred substrate. The substrate preference and the expression pattern of AmFAR1 were correlated with the level of total fatty alcohols in bees. Reconstitution of the wax biosynthetic pathway by heterologous expression of AmFAR1, together with Euglena wax synthase led to the high level production of medium to long chain wax monoesters in yeast.

  8. Titanium Aluminides Based Composite Coatings with Fine Carbide DispersoidsProduced by Reactive Spraying of Ti/Al Powders Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hideo

    Elemental aluminum powders and elemental titanium powders were ball-milled to fabricate Ti/Al composite powders with different titanium to aluminum ratio using several kinds of organic solvents as a process controlling agent. The organic solvent was decomposed during milling and the carbon was incorporated in the composite powder. The carbon content of the composite powder depended on the kind of the organic solvent. The composite powders were low pressure plasma sprayed onto a steel substrate to produce coatings. The coatings deposited on a water cooled substrate were predominantly composed of a metastable Ti3Al phase that was supersaturated with carbon. Heat treatment of the coatings led to the decomposition of the Ti3Al phase to a TiAl phase and fine Ti2AlC. When the thermal spraying was carried out on a preheated substrate, the main constituent of the coatings was a stable TiAl phase and Ti2AlC was detected by X-ray diffraction. The as-sprayed coating possessed a high hardness. Fine Ti2AlC particles appeared after heat treatment of these coatings. The volume percentage of the Ti2AlC ranged from 4.9% to 15.3% depending on the coating composition.

  9. Industrial Processes to Reduce Generation of Hazardous Waste at DoD facilities. Phase Report. Appendix A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    solid propellants, and explosive devices used , . throughout the Air Force. Ogden ALC performs worldwide system program management for the F-4 Phantom ...aircraft produced at Hill Air Force Base. The DCM at George Air Force Base in California will be advised that 68-0345 is the first prototype

  10. Lungworm (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from Małopolska region of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Nosal, Paweł; Basiaga, Marta; Wajdzik, Marek; Skalska, Marta; Wyrobisz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. The post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (Cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (Dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (Ovis aries) (14) and cattle (Bos taurus) (18). Some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. The faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red deer (36) and moose (Alces alces) (10) were collected from the environment, while from sheep (10) and goat (Capra hircus) (10)--per rectum. Based on the obtained results the following values were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and intensity range. The post mortem examination did not reveal pulmonary nematodes neither in domestic nor in wild ungulates, however, the larvae of aforementioned parasites were often stated in the stool samples taken from the environment. All wild species, except fallow deer were infected. Consequently, six species of lungworms have been identified. The first stage larvae of Varestrongylus capreoli occurred in 11 samples of roe deer and Varestrongylus alces in one moose. The larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi were found in 19 red deer and Varestrongylus sagittatus in 3. Furthermore, Elaphostrongylus alces larvae were noted in 6 moose. Within domestic ruminants only one sheep and two goats were infected by Muellerius capillaris.

  11. Metalworking method for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    Effective fabrication methods for aluminum/boron and aluminum/graphite composites have been investigated. Drawing and rolling were found to be adaptable to Al/B fabrication. Although graphite composites are not amenable to standard metal processing methods, it may be possible to reduce fabrication costs of Al/C through electron-beam heating.

  12. Frequency Analysis of the Words in the Academic Word List (AWL) and Non-AWL Content Words in Applied Linguistics Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Huang, Ju-yu; Chang, Yu-Chia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a corpus-based lexical study that aims to explore the use of words in Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) in journal articles in the field of applied linguistics. A 1.5 million-word corpus called the Applied Linguistics Research Articles Corpus (ALC) was created for this study. The corpus consists of 200 research articles that…

  13. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus.

  14. Social Support and Successful Aging in Assisted Living Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…

  15. Aircraft Modification Management Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Configuration Control Board Deputy for Avionics Control - Department of Defense - Full Scale Engineering Development - Fiscal Year - Major Air...and Analysis AFLC System Manager AFLC Configuratio Control Board Reviews HPA and subaits it to the Air Staff *0 Installation Preparation...management control system used to ensure that the deficiencies are evaluated and resolved by the appropriate function ele- ments. The ALC

  16. Telerobotics for depot modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Petroski, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Development and application of telerobotics technology for the enhancement of the quality of the Air Logistic Centers (ALC) repair and remanufacturing processes is described. Telerobotics provides the means for bridging the gap between manual operation and full automation. The Robotics and Automation Center for Excellence (RACE) initiated the Unified Telerobotics Architecture Project (UTAP) to support the development and application of telerobotics for depot operation.

  17. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  18. Pedagogy and Space: Empirical Research on New Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. D.; Brooks, D. Christopher; Baepler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In a previous "EDUCAUSE Quarterly" article, the authors reported the results of quasi-experimental research on the University of Minnesota's (UMN) new, technology-enhanced learning spaces called Active Learning Classrooms (ALCs). That investigation found--after controlling for potentially confounding factors such as instructor,…

  19. Enriched fluoride sorption using alumina/chitosan composite.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy; Meenakshi, S

    2010-06-15

    Alumina possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) of 1566 mg F(-)/kg. In order to improve its DC, it is aimed to prepare alumina polymeric composites using the chitosan. Alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite was prepared by incorporating alumina particles in the chitosan polymeric matrix, which can be made into any desired form viz., beads, candles and membranes. AlCs composite displayed a maximum DC of 3809 mg F(-)/kg than the alumina and chitosan (52 mg F(-)/kg). The fluoride removal studies were carried out in batch mode to optimize the equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions and temperature. The equilibrium data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption. The surface characterisation of the sorbent was performed by FTIR, AFM and SEM with EDAX analysis. A possible mechanism of fluoride sorption by AlCs composite has been proposed. Suitability of AlCs composite at field conditions was tested with a field sample taken from a nearby fluoride-endemic village. This work provides a potential platform for the development of defluoridation technology.

  20. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  1. Wastewater Characterization Survey, Plattsburgh AFB, New York.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    ROBERT D. BINOVI, Lt Col, USAF, BSC pq Chief, Water Quality Function Reviewed By: ARTURO H. RIOJAS . SWEIGART, Lt ol, USAF, BSC Water Quality Functin...survey was conducted by Lt Col Robert D. Binovi, Mr Arturo Riojas , 2Lt Michael Spakowicz, SSgt Mary Fields, Sgt Tammy W. Johnson and AlCs Robert P

  2. Army Learning Concept 2015: These Are Not the Droids You Are Looking For

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-07

    leaders and institutional faculty must appreciate that all our Soldiers are adults and do not learn like children . Soldiers must see and understand why...games, buying stuff on E-Bay and surfing the net for porn ? “These are not the “an” droids we are looking for…” 24 ALC 2015 should enhance learning

  3. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    Turbine blades and vanes in current engines are subjected to the most hostile environment...payoff potential in turbine vanes / blades . The criteria used included: • Incidence of damage - Scrapped or damaged turbine airfoils at the ALC centers...Corporate Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OHIO AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine

  4. 9 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are not included. Cervid. All members of the family Cervidae and hybrids, including deer, elk, moose... herd, CWD Herd Certification Program, CWD-source herd, CWD-suspect herd, deer, elk, and moose, farmed..., and moose. All animals in the genera Odocoileus, Cervus, and Alces and their hybrids. Farmed...

  5. 9 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... are not included. Cervid. All members of the family Cervidae and hybrids, including deer, elk, moose... herd, CWD Herd Certification Program, CWD-source herd, CWD-suspect herd, deer, elk, and moose, farmed..., and moose. All animals in the genera Odocoileus, Cervus, and Alces and their hybrids. Farmed...

  6. 9 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are not included. Cervid. All members of the family Cervidae and hybrids, including deer, elk, moose... herd, CWD Herd Certification Program, CWD-source herd, CWD-suspect herd, deer, elk, and moose, farmed..., and moose. All animals in the genera Odocoileus, Cervus, and Alces and their hybrids. Farmed...

  7. Mechanism of natural organic matter removal by polyaluminum chloride: effect of coagulant particle size and hydrolysis kinetics.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ni, Jinren; Qu, Jiuhui; Chow, Christopher W K; Liu, Hailong

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of natural organic matter (NOM) removal by AlCl(3) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated through bench-scale tests. The fraction distributions of NOM and residual Al after coagulation in solution, colloid and sediment were analyzed as changes of coagulant dosage and pH. The influence of NOM, coagulant dose and pH on coagulation kinetics of AlCl(3) was investigated using photometric dispersion analyzer compared with PACl. Monomeric Al species (Al(a)) shows high ability to satisfy some unsaturated coordinate bonds of NOM to facilitate particle and NOM removal, while most of the flocs formed by Al(a) are small and difficult to settle. Medium polymerized Al species (Al(b)) can destabilize particle and NOM efficiently, while some flocs formed by Al(b) are not large and not easy to precipitate as compared to those formed by colloidal or solid Al species (Al(c)). Thus, Al(c) could adsorb and remove NOM efficiently. The removal of contaminant by species of Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c) follows mechanisms of complexation, neutralization and adsorption, respectively. Unlike preformed Al(b) in PACl, in-situ-formed Al(b) can remove NOM and particle more efficiently via the mechanism of further hydrolysis and transfer into Al(c) during coagulation. While the presence of NOM would reduce Al(b) formed in-situ due to the complexation of NOM and Al(a).

  8. Individual USH2 proteins make distinct contributions to the ankle link complex during development of the mouse cochlear stereociliary bundle

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Junhuang; Mathur, Pranav D.; Zheng, Tihua; Wang, Yong; Almishaal, Ali; Park, Albert H.; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the leading cause of inherited deaf-blindness, with type 2 (USH2) being the most common clinical form. Studies suggest that proteins encoded by USH2 causative genes assemble into the ankle link complex (ALC) at the hair cell stereociliary bundle; however, little is known about the in vivo assembly and function of this complex. Using various USH2 mutant mice, we showed by immunofluorescence that USH2 proteins play different roles in cochlear ALC assembly, with G protein-coupled receptor 98 being the most important protein. Complex assembly likely occurs at the stereociliary bundle but not along the protein transport route in the cell body. Stereociliary morphological defects in USH2 mutant mice suggest roles for the ALC in regulating inner hair cell stereociliary growth and differentiation as well as outer hair cell stereociliary rigidity and organization during development. These roles are unique from the bundle cohesion role of Usher syndrome type 1 protein complexes. Loss of individual USH2 gene expressions leads to variable morphological and functional consequences, correlating with the severity of ALC disruption. This finding suggests a potential genotype–phenotype correlation in USH2 patients. In summary, this study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism underlying cochlear stereociliary bundle development and hearing loss pathogenesis of various USH2 subtypes. Our thorough phenotypical characterization of USH2 mouse models is essential for future use of these animal models in therapeutic development. PMID:26401052

  9. Clinical Investigations Service.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    AD, Kmiecik JE: Extra Pulmonary Uptake of Gallium-67 Citrate in a Patient with Sarcoidosis . Submitted to Nuc Med Dec 1978. Morrison RE, Brown J...Ateriography. Radiology 131:199, 1979. AlcCartney WH, Lindner LE, Prather JL, Nusynowitz HL. Brain Scan Abnormalities in Intracerebral Sarcoidosis . Clin

  10. Morphometric and quantitative evaluation of the NADH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons of the jejunum of streptozotocin-diabetic rats supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    De Miranda Neto, M H; Defani, M A; Fregonesi, C E P T; Natali, M R M; Pereira, A

    2005-06-01

    Summary In this study we investigated the effect of the acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) supplementation on the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of rats made diabetic at the age of 105 days by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight). Four groups were used: non-diabetic (C), non-diabetic supplemented with ALC (CC), diabetic (D), diabetic supplemented with ALC (DC). After 15 weeks of diabetes induction the blood was collected by cardiac puncture to evaluate glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin. Next the animals were killed and the jejunum was collected and subjected to whole-mount preparation to evidence the myenteric neurons through the histochemical technique of the NADH-diaphorase. The neuronal counts were made in 80 microscopic fields, in tissue samples of five animals of each group. The profiles of the cell bodies of 1000 neurons per group were analysed. Diabetes induced a significant increase in the area of the cell body and decrease in the number of NADH-diaphorase positive myoenteric neurons. ALC suplementation to the diabetic group promoted smaller hypertrophic effects and less neuronal loss than in the myoenteric neurons of the diabetic rats, and in addition diminished the body weight decrease and reduced the fasting glycaemia.

  11. Designs for Change: Libraries and Productive Aging. Report on the National Library Leaders Forum (Washington, DC, September 26-27, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeisel, William

    2006-01-01

    As the first of the baby boomers turn 60, public libraries are preparing to offer creative alternatives to retirement to a generation notorious for their idealism and activism. This report from the Americans for Libraries Council (ALC) and the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) offers guidelines, demographics, and examples of model…

  12. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Alcohol-Misuse and Harm-Prevention Course among High- and Low-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Paschall, Mallie J.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the current study, the authors assessed whether a new online alcohol-misuse prevention course (College Alc) is more effective at reducing alcohol use and related consequences among drinkers and nondrinkers. Participants: The authors compared incoming college freshmen who reported any past 30-day alcohol use before the beginning of…

  13. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  14. Cross-species evaluation of molecular target sequence and structural conservation as a line of evidence for identification of susceptible taxa to inform derivation of aquatic life criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC) require acute and chronic toxicity testing with a fixed list of taxa that cover aquatic organisms from vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. In considering Guideline revision...

  15. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This second volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Alc- through Hal-. Reports include: (1) How Do Your Students Think about Proof? A DVD Resource for Mathematicians (Lara Alcock); (2) Teachers' Conceptions of…

  16. Prenatal exposure to alcohol affects the ability to maintain postural balance.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, T M; Simmons, R W; Mattson, S N; Riley, E P

    1998-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is known to affect gross motor functioning. Animal studies have shown that balance is particularly affected, and there is some evidence that similar deficits exist in alcohol-exposed children. In the current study, postural balance, or the ability to maintain equilibrium, was assessed in a group of alcohol-exposed children (ALC group; n = 11) and controls (NC group; n = 11) individually matched for age and sex. Balance was measured across six conditions designed to systematically manipulate or eliminate visual or somatosensory information. Equilibrium and strategy scores for each condition and a derived composite balance score were analyzed. Although the ALC group had a lower mean composite balance score, their performance was similar to that of the NC group on all conditions where somatosensory input was reliable. However, when somatosensory input was manipulated, and when both somatosensory and visual input were inaccurate, the ALC group performed more poorly than controls. Interestingly, there were no differences between the ALC group and NC group in the type of control strategy used to maintain balance. These results suggest that alcohol-exposed children are overly reliant on somatosensory input. When this input is atypical, alcohol-exposed children display significantly greater anterior-posterior body sway and are unable to compensate using available visual or vestibular information. These deficits may be related to cerebellar anomalies previously reported in fetal alcohol syndrome children.

  17. Combined R-alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine exerts efficient preventative effects in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Jia, Haiqun; Liu, Jianghai; Ao, Ni; Yan, Bing; Shen, Weili; Wang, Xuemin; Li, Xin; Luo, Cheng; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage are highly involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Some mitochondrial antioxidants/nutrients that can improve mitochondrial function and/or attenuate oxidative damage have been implicated in PD therapy. However, few studies have evaluated the preventative effects of a combination of mitochondrial antioxidants/nutrients against PD, and even fewer have sought to optimize the doses of the combined agents. The present study examined the preventative effects of two mitochondrial antioxidant/nutrients, R-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), in a chronic rotenone-induced cellular model of PD. We demonstrated that 4-week pretreatment with LA and/or ALC effectively protected SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells against rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and accumulation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin. Most notably, we found that when combined, LA and ALC worked at 100-1000-fold lower concentrations than they did individually. We also found that pretreatment with combined LA and ALC increased mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased production of reactive oxygen species through the up-regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha as a possible underlying mechanism. This study provides important evidence that combining mitochondrial antioxidant/nutrients at optimal doses might be an effective and safe prevention strategy for PD.

  18. Archaeological Testing and Survey: Testing of Three Sites and Survey of a Road Detour within Proposed Project Construction Zones, Burlington Dam Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    suitable habitat for a variety of animals. 7 ................................... Animal influents include a number of smaller mammals . The ground...1926:33, 41, 194). Other mammals may have included bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), moose (Alces americanus) and caribou (Rangiver caribou) (Bailey 1926...Upland Prairie ecozone which overlooks the river valley. Small mammals such as rabbit, badger, and fox generally inhabit this gently sloping or flat

  19. The Clinical Basis for Aeromedical Decision MAking (Les Bases Cliniques Pour la Prise de Decision dans Le Domaine Aeromedical)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    children. Ami J ure, it will be in response to Diu Child 8b:170-183, 1953. alc.ohol and huad injury, infect- 8. Uickiurd RG, Sew-Jacobsen CW, ion and...cial thiey prescribe, in any case they of active flying reached 127 years. are obliged to inform11 the( Flying porn sonnel of all possible side-offects

  20. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  1. A Case Study of Student Assessment Programs in a College of Business Administration at a Southern HBCU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell Haynes, Janel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method sequential explanatory case study was to describe the relationship of a student outcomes assessment program, as measured by the Peregrine Academic Leveling Course, (ALC), to the academic performance, determined by scores on the Peregrine Common Professional Component (CPC) examination, of students enrolled during…

  2. High-Performance Metal/Carbide Composites with Far-From-Equilibrium Compositions and Controlled Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liangfa; O’Neil, Morgan; Erturun, Veysel; Benitez, Rogelio; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Karaman, Ibrahim; Radovic, Miladin

    2016-10-01

    The prospect of extending existing metal-ceramic composites to those with the compositions that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium is examined. A current and pressure-assisted, rapid infiltration is proposed to fabricate composites, consisting of reactive metallic and ceramic phases with controlled microstructure and tunable properties. An aluminum (Al) alloy/Ti2AlC composite is selected as an example of the far-from-equilibrium systems to fabricate, because Ti2AlC exists only in a narrow region of the Ti-Al-C phase diagram and readily reacts with Al. This kind of reactive systems challenges conventional methods for successfully processing corresponding metal-ceramic composites. Al alloy/Ti2AlC composites with controlled microstructures, various volume ratios of constituents (40/60 and 27/73) and metallic phase sizes (42–83 μm, 77–276 μm, and 167–545 μm), are obtained using the Ti2AlC foams with different pore structures as preforms for molten metal (Al alloy) infiltration. The resulting composites are lightweight and display exceptional mechanical properties at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These structures achieve a compressive strength that is 10 times higher than the yield strength of the corresponding peak-aged Al alloy at ambient temperature and 14 times higher at 400 °C. Possible strengthening mechanisms are described, and further strategies for improving properties of those composites are proposed.

  3. Human Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  4. WHAT IS A POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "population" has several meanings, a situation that can lead to confusion in risk assessments. A management goal "to protect wildlife populations," for example, might relate to populations as defined by population biologists, or it might mean simply to protect animals in...

  5. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  6. Tank 241-AZ-101 and Tank 241-AZ-102 Airlift Circulator Operation Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-12-07

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs) and during the initial operation (''bump'') of the tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pumps. The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-142-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No. 2E98-082 and No. 2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). In addition the last two vapor samples will be collected from the headspace of tank 241-AZ-101 during the operation of the mixer pumps. Each mixer pump will be operated for approximately 5 minutes. Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval

  7. Effects of Chronic Alcohol and Repeated Deprivations on Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Levels in the Extended Amygdala of Inbred Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Zhou, Feng C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic (DA) activity in the extended amygdala (EA) has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating drug and alcohol addiction. Alterations of DA activity within the EA after chronic exposure to alcohol or substances of abuse are considered a major mechanism for the development of alcoholism and addiction. To date, it is not clear how different patterns of chronic alcohol drinking affect DA receptor levels. Therefore, the current studies investigated the effects of chronic ethanol consumption, with or without deprivations, on D1 and D2 receptor densities within the EA. Methods Inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats were divided into 3 groups with the following treatments: (1) water for 14 weeks; (2) continuous alcohol (C-Alc) for 14 weeks [24-hour concurrent access to 15 and 30% (v/v) ethanol]; or (3) repeatedly deprived of alcohol (RD-Alc) (24-hour concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol for 6 weeks, followed by 2 cycles of 2 weeks of deprivation of and 2 weeks of reexposure to ethanol access). At the end of 14 weeks, the rats were killed for autoradiographic labeling of D1 and D2 receptors. Results Compared with the water control group, both the C-Alc and the RD-Alc groups displayed increases in D1 receptor binding density in the anterior region of the Acb core, whereas the RD-Alc group displayed additional increases in D1 receptor binding density in anterior regions of the lateral and intercalated nuclei of the amygdala. Additionally, both C-Alc and RD-Alc rats displayed increases in D2 receptor binding density in anterior regions of the Acb shell and core, whereas RDAlc rats displayed additional increases in D2 receptor binding density in the dorsal striatum. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that 14-week extended alcohol drinking with continuous chronic or repeated deprivations increase binding sites of D1 and D2 receptors in specific regions of the EA with greater sensitivity in the anterior regions. The repeated deprivation has

  8. The Population Reference Bureau's Population Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Arthur; Kane, Thomas T.

    This handbook offers information on population dynamics. The population data resource is intended for use by journalists, policymakers, teachers, high school and college students, libraries, advertising agencies, and family planning groups. The document is presented in 12 sections. Section I introduces demography, explains the purpose and scope of…

  9. Response of Moose Hunters to Predation following Wolf Return in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wikenros, Camilla; Sand, Håkan; Bergström, Roger; Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Background Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus) of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces), the main prey of wolves. Methodology/Principal findings We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25), and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43). There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827) during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2) compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2) wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas) and to hunters (actual harvest). In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females. Conclusions/Significance We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator—humans—that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves’ main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds’ habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey. PMID:25853570

  10. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; Wolcott, M J; Rimler, R B; Berlowski, B M

    2000-04-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  11. Brain atrophy in long-term abstinent alcoholics who demonstrate impairment on a simulated gambling task.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Landman, Bennett; Tran, Hoang; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter; Barakos, Jerome; Moon, Kirk

    2006-09-01

    We recently demonstrated impairment on the Simulated Gambling Task (SGT) in long-term abstinent alcoholics (AbsAlc). Brain regions that have been shown to be necessary for intact SGT performance are the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the amygdala; patients with VMPFC or amygdalar damage demonstrate SGT impairments similar to those of substance abusing populations. We examined these brain regions, using T1-weighted MRIs, in the 101 participants from our previous study using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM was performed using a modification we developed [Fein, G., Landman, B., Tran, H., Barakos, J., Moon, K., Di Sclafani, V., Shumway, R., 2006. Statistical parametric mapping of brain morphology: sensitivity is dramatically increased by using brain-extracted images as inputs. Neuroimage] of Baron's procedure, [], in which we use skull-stripped images as input. We also restricted the analysis to a ROI consisting of the amygdala and VMPFC as defined by the Talairach Daemon resource. Compared to the controls, the AbsAlc participants had significant foci of reduced gray matter density within the amygdala. Thus, SGT decision-making deficits are associated with reduced gray matter in the amygdala, a brain region previously implicated in similar decision-making impairments in neurological samples. This structurally based abnormality may be the result of long-term alcohol abuse or dependence, or it may reflect a pre-existing factor that predisposes one to severe alcoholism. From an image analysis perspective, this work demonstrates the increased sensitivity that results from using skull-stripped inputs and from restricting the analysis to a ROI. Without both of these methodological advances, no statistically significant finding would have been forthcoming from this work.

  12. Brain Atrophy in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics Who Demonstrate Impairment on a Simulated Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Landman, Bennett; Tran, Hoang; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter; Barakos, Jerome; Moon, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    We recently demonstrated impairment on the Simulated Gambling Task (SGT) in long-term abstinent alcoholics (AbsAlc). Brain regions that have been shown to be necessary for intact SGT performance are the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the amygdala; patients with VMPFC or amygdalar damage demonstrate SGT impairments similar to those of substance abusing populations. We examined these brain regions, using T1-weighted MRIs, in the 101 participants from our previous study using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM was performed using a modification we developed (Fein et al., 2006) of Baron’s procedure, (Baron et al., 2001), in which we use skull-stripped images as input. We also restricted the analysis to a ROI consisting of the amygdala and VMPFC as defined by the Talairach Daemon resource. Compared to the controls, the AbsAlc participants had significant foci of reduced gray matter density within the amygdala. Thus, SGT decision-making deficits are associated with reduced gray matter in the amygdala, a brain region previously implicated in similar decision-making impairments in neurological samples. This structurally based abnormality may be the result of long-term alcohol abuse or dependence, or it may reflect a pre-existing factor that predisposes one to severe alcoholism. From an image analysis perspective, this work demonstrates the increased sensitivity that results from using skull-stripped inputs and from restricting the analysis to a ROI. Without both of these methodological advances, no statistically significant finding would have been forthcoming from this work. PMID:16872844

  13. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunbar, Michael R.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Rimler, R.B.; Berlowski, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  14. Seasonal Foraging Ecology of Non-Migratory Cougars in a System with Migrating Prey

    PubMed Central

    Elbroch, L. Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E.; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek

    2013-01-01

    We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection. PMID:24349498

  15. Carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel

    2007-08-01

    The continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. I used variation in the distribution of four Holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. By simulating the presence of wolves (Canis lupus), tigers (Panthera tigris), and brown bears (Ursus arctos) at 19 transcontinental sites, I assayed three metrics of prey performance in areas with no large terrestrial carnivores (the polar islands of Greenland and Svalbard), extant native carnivores (Eastern Siberian Shield, boreal Canada, and Alaska); and repatriated carnivores (the Yellowstone region and Rocky Mountains). The loss and reestablishment of large carnivores changed the ecological effectiveness of systems by (1) dampening immediate group benefits, diminishing awareness, and diminishing flight reaction in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) where predation was eliminated and (2) reinstituting sensitivity to carnivores by elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) in the Yellowstone region to levels observed in Asian elk when sympatric with Siberian tigers and wolves or in Alaskan moose sympatric with wolves. Behavioral compensation to reintroduced carnivores occurred within a single generation, but only the vigilance reaction of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone exceeded that of their wolf-exposed conspecifics from boreal Canada. Beyond these overt responses by prey, snow depth and distance to suitably vegetated habitat was related to heightened vigilance in moose and elk, respectively, but only at sites with carnivores. These findings are insufficient to determine whether similar patterns might apply to other species or in areas with alien predators, and they suggest that the presumed excessive vulnerability of naïve prey to repatriated carnivores may be ill-founded. Although

  16. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size.

  17. Habitat-based adaptive management at Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Fager, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 22,743-hectare Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area was purchased in 1976, in part for moose (Alces alces) winter range. Observed moose populations climbed from a low of 7 in 1976 to a high of 56 in 2000. A 4-step management program was initiated in 2000 consisting of definition of management objective, monitoring to determine if the objective was attained, developing a management strategy, and implementing the strategy. The management objective for browse was defined to be: browsing will not preventyoung plants from attaining their potential stature, their growth being primarily limited by local environmental conditions. Asurvey of Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana) in critical moose habitat indicated that browse plants were 100% intensely browsed, suggesting that browsing could prevent willowheightgrowth. Beginning in 2000, willow trend was monitored annually at 4 sites using an index based on the height of the tallest live stem and the height of the tallest, dead intensely browsed stem (LD Index). Low LD Index values indicated that browsing did prevent height growth. In 2000 moose harvest quotas were increased by 40%; in 2002 harvest quotas were increased an additional 7%. From 2000 to 2002, willow growth increased at all 4 locations. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators changed relatively little at Sullivan Creek, Deep Creek, and French Creek; at these sites willow condition in 2004 had improved compared to willow condition in 2000. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators declined markedly at American Creek; in 2004, growth indicators at American Creek were lower compared to measurements made in 2000. The improvement of willow condition at 3 sites was likely due to a combination of reduced moose numbers (due to an increase in harvest) and increased dispersal (due to low snow-cover conditions). Over the study period, the sporting public complained of reduced moose sightability; harvest quotas were lowered substantially in 2003.

  18. A comparative study of hepatic trace element levels in wild moose, roe deer, and reindeer from Norway.

    PubMed

    Vikoren, Turid; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Lierhagen, Syverin; Handeland, Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 μg Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 μg Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 μg Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 μg Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 μg Cu/g) and reindeer (105 μg Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.

  19. Summer dietary nitrogen availability as a potential bottom-up constraint on moose in south-central Alaska.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Spalinger, Donald E; Collins, William B; Schoen, Erik R; Stevenson, Timothy; Bucho, Michele

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that the growth and fecundity of northern ungulates may be coupled to their summer nutrition. Here, we compare summer dietary nitrogen availability of the five major browse plants (comprising approximately 79% of the diet) of moose (Alces alces) in Denali National Park and Nelchina Basin, Alaska, USA. In recent years the productivity of Denali moose has been significantly higher than that of Nelchina moose, prompting this comparison. We examined the phenological progression of leaf nitrogen concentration, tannin-protein precipitation capacity, and digestible protein over three summers in both regions. We then modeled the potential nutritional consequences for a cow moose consuming representative diets on each range, predicting both net protein intake (NPI) and lean body mass accumulation each year. We found that leaf nitrogen and digestible protein decreased, while tannin-protein precipitation capacity increased throughout the summer for all forages. There was 23% more digestible protein in Denali leaves than Nelchina leaves on average, and this difference was significant in all three years. Tannins accounted for a large (mean = 46%) reduction in protein availability, suggesting a key role of these secondary compounds in the nitrogen balance of moose in these regions. Finally, our NPI model predicted that Denali cows were in positive protein balance 17 days longer than Nelchina cows and accumulated 18 kg more lean body mass over the summer, on average. We conclude that summer dietary nitrogen availability may act as a nutritional constraint on moose and suggest that more emphasis be placed on elucidating its role in population dynamics and conservation of northern ungulates.

  20. Novel hepatitis E like virus found in Swedish moose.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jay; Norder, Heléne; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Belák, Sándor; Widén, Frederik

    2014-03-01

    A novel virus was detected in a sample collected from a Swedish moose (Alces alces). The virus was suggested as a member of the Hepeviridae family, although it was found to be highly divergent from the known four genotypes (gt1-4) of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Moose are regularly hunted for consumption in the whole of Scandinavia. Thus, the finding of this virus may be important from several aspects: (a) as a new diverged HEV in a new animal species, and (b) potential unexplored HEV transmission pathways for human infections. Considering these aspects, we have started the molecular characterization of this virus. A 5.1 kb amplicon was sequenced, and corresponded to the partial ORF1, followed by complete ORF2, ORF3 and poly(A) sequence. In comparison with existing HEVs, the moose HEV genome showed a general nucleotide sequence similarity of 37-63% and an extensively divergent putative ORF3 sequence. The junction region between the ORFs was also highly divergent; however, two putative secondary stem-loop structures were retained when compared to gt1-4, but with altered structural appearance. In the phylogenetic analysis, the moose HEV deviated and formed its own branch between the gt1-4 and other divergent animal HEVs. The characterization of this highly divergent genome provides important information regarding the diversity of HEV infecting various mammalian species. However, further studies are needed to investigate its prevalence in the moose populations and possibly in other host species, including the risk for human infection.

  1. Use of ungulates by Yellowstone grizzly bears Ursus arctos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Previous results of fecal analysis from the Yellowstone area and the known abilities of grizzly bears Ursus arctos to acquire and digest tissue from vertebrates suggested that grizzlies in this ecosystem obtained substantial energy from ungulates. This issue was addressed using observations from radio-marked grizzly bears, 1977a??1992. Ungulates potentially contributed the majority of energy required for activity during the non-denning season for both adult female and male grizzlies. Most of this energy (95%) was estimated to come from the largest-bodied ungulate species (elk Cervus elaphus, bison Bison bison, and moose Alces alces), with greatest proportional contributions by scavenged adult male bison (16%), scavenged calf and yearling elk (10%) and adult female elk that were killed (8%) or scavenged (8%). Grizzlies acquired 30% of total edibles from ungulates by predation, of which 13% (or 4% of the total) came from predation on elk calves. Most scavenging occurred during the spring and was associated with the abundance and relative availability of different types of carrion. Predation and scavenging did not appear to be compensatory. Rather, total consumption of ungulates varied inversely with consumption of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. The relative frequency of predation to scavenging increased with ungulate density. Contrary to previous suppositions, neither total ungulate use nor frequency of predation increased during the study, despite large increases in some ungulate populations. As expected by the identified trade-offs, Yellowstone grizzlies seemed to prey selectively upon moose, probably because of their solitary habits and forested surroundings, but otherwise favored vulnerable smaller-bodied ungulates such as elk calves. No predation on adult bison was observed.

  2. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    PubMed

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions.

  3. Reproductive success and failure: the role of winter body mass in reproductive allocation in Norwegian moose.

    PubMed

    Milner, Jos M; van Beest, Floris M; Solberg, Erling J; Storaas, Torstein

    2013-08-01

    A life history strategy that favours somatic growth over reproduction is well known for long-lived iteroparous species, especially in unpredictable environments. Risk-sensitive female reproductive allocation can be achieved by a reduced reproductive effort at conception, or the subsequent adjustment of investment during gestation or lactation in response to unexpected environmental conditions or resource availability. We investigated the relative importance of reduced investment at conception compared with later in the reproductive cycle (i.e. prenatal, perinatal or neonatal mortality) in explaining reproductive failure in two high-density moose (Alces alces) populations in southern Norway. We followed 65 multiparous, global positioning system (GPS)-collared females throughout the reproductive cycle and focused on the role of maternal nutrition during gestation in determining reproductive success using a quasi-experimental approach to manipulate winter forage availability. Pregnancy rates in early winter were normal (≥0.8) in all years while spring calving rates ranged from 0.4 to 0.83, with prenatal mortality accounting for most of the difference. Further losses over summer reduced autumn recruitment rates to 0.23-0.69, despite negligible predation. Over-winter mass loss explained variation in both spring calving and autumn recruitment success better than absolute body mass in early or late winter. Although pregnancy was related to body mass in early winter, overall reproductive success was unrelated to pre-winter body condition. We therefore concluded that reproductive success was limited by winter nutritional conditions. However, we could not determine whether the observed reproductive allocation adjustment was a bet-hedging strategy to maximise reproduction without compromising survival or whether females were simply unable to invest more resources in their offspring.

  4. Understanding scales of movement: animals ride waves and ripples of environmental change.

    PubMed

    van Moorter, Bram; Bunnefeld, Nils; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Animal movements are the primary behavioural adaptation to spatiotemporal heterogeneity in resource availability. Depending on their spatiotemporal scale, movements have been categorized into distinct functional groups (e.g. foraging movements, dispersal, migration), and have been studied using different methodologies. We suggest striving towards the development of a coherent framework based on the ultimate function of all movement types, which is to increase individual fitness through an optimal exploitation of resources varying in space and time. We developed a novel approach to simultaneously study movements at different spatiotemporal scales based on the following proposed theory: the length and frequency of animal movements are determined by the interaction between temporal autocorrelation in resource availability and spatial autocorrelation in changes in resource availability. We hypothesized that for each time interval the spatiotemporal scales of moose Alces alces movements correspond to the spatiotemporal scales of variation in the gains derived from resource exploitation when taking into account the costs of movements (represented by their proxies, forage availability NDVI and snow depth respectively). The scales of change in NDVI and snow were quantified using wave theory, and were related to the scale of moose movement using linear mixed models. In support of the proposed theory we found that frequent, smaller scale movements were triggered by fast, small-scale ripples of changes, whereas infrequent, larger scale movements matched slow, large-scale waves of change in resource availability. Similarly, moose inhabiting ranges characterized by larger scale waves of change in the onset of spring migrated longer distances. We showed that the scales of movements are driven by the scales of changes in the net profitability of trophic resources. Our approach can be extended to include drivers of movements other than trophic resources (e.g. population density

  5. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

    PubMed

    Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek

    2013-01-01

    We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.

  6. The scale-dependent impact of wolf predation risk on resource selection by three sympatric ungulates.

    PubMed

    Kittle, Andrew M; Fryxell, John M; Desy, Glenn E; Hamr, Joe

    2008-08-01

    Resource selection is a fundamental ecological process impacting population dynamics and ecosystem structure. Understanding which factors drive selection is vital for effective species- and landscape-level management. We used resource selection probability functions (RSPFs) to study the influence of two forms of wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk, snow conditions and habitat variables on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) resource selection in central Ontario's mixed forest French River-Burwash ecosystem. Direct predation risk was defined as the frequency of a predator's occurrence across the landscape and indirect predation risk as landscape features associated with a higher risk of predation. Models were developed for two winters, each at two spatial scales, using a combination of GIS-derived and ground-measured data. Ungulate presence was determined from snow track transects in 64 16- and 128 1-km(2) resource units, and direct predation risk from GPS radio collar locations of four adjacent wolf packs. Ungulates did not select resources based on the avoidance of areas of direct predation risk at any scale, and instead exhibited selection patterns that tradeoff predation risk minimization with forage and/or mobility requirements. Elk did not avoid indirect predation risk, while both deer and moose exhibited inconsistent responses to this risk. Direct predation risk was more important to models than indirect predation risk but overall, abiotic topographical factors were most influential. These results indicate that wolf predation risk does not limit ungulate habitat use at the scales investigated and that responses to spatial sources of predation risk are complex, incorporating a variety of anti-predator behaviours. Moose resource selection was influenced less by snow conditions than cover type, particularly selection for dense forest, whereas deer showed the opposite pattern. Temporal and spatial scale

  7. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ru-Band; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, is suggested to be related to alcoholism. Because alcoholism is often co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), previous association studies on antisocial alcoholism cannot differentiate whether those genes relate to ASPD with alcoholism or ASPD only. This study examined the influence of the interaction effect of the ALDH2*1*1, *1*2 or *2*2 polymorphisms with the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) Taq I polymorphism on ASPD. Our 541 Han Chinese male participants were classified into three groups: antisocial alcoholism (ASPD co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial ALC; n = 133), ASPD without alcoholism (ASPD not co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial non-ALC; n = 164) and community controls (healthy volunteers from the community; n = 244). Compared with healthy controls, individuals with the DRD2 A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotypes were at a 5.39 times greater risk for antisocial non-ALC than were those with other genotypes. Our results suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 and ALDH2 genes interacted in the antisocial non-ALC group; a connection neglected in previous studies caused by not separating antisocial ALC from ASPD. Our study made this distinction and showed that these two genes may be associated ASPD without co-morbid alcoholism.

  8. Enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), Charlson Comorbidity Index and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors for survival of elderly patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated by immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jelicic, J; Todorovic Balint, M; Sretenovic, D Antic A; Balint, B; Perunicic Jovanovic, M; Andjelic, B; Vukovic, V; Djurasinovic, V; Bila, J; Pavlovic, M; Smiljanic, M; Mihaljevic, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) affects more commonly patients over 60 years. These patients have vast number of comorbidities which can modify survival as well as other clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic significance of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and comorbidities expressed with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A total of 182 DLBCL patients 60 years old and older were included, focusing on whole group and patients older than 70. All patients were treated with immunochemotherapy.Overall treatment response was achieved in 84.6% of patients. The NCCN-IPI was of highly prognostic value in the analyzed group (p<0.0001). Survival analysis showed that ALC>1.1x109/L, AMC≤0.59x109/L, and LMR>2.8 were associated with more favorable outcome (p=0.029, p=0.019, p=0.028, respectively). The patients with CCI≥2 had poorer outcome (p=0.008) compared to the patients with CCI 0-1. Multivariate analysis showed that among ALC, AMC, LMR, NCCN-IPI and CCI, the NCCN-IPI was the critical parameter that significantly affected survival (p<0.0001). Furthermore, comorbidities were also valuable independent factors which influenced survival (p=0.031) as well as the ALC (p=0.024). In elderly DLBCL patients, NCCN-IPI and ALC proved their prognostic validity, while poorer outcome could be expected in older patients with high CCI (≥2). Furthermore, mentioned prognostic parameters retained their prognostic value in the group of patients older than 70.

  9. Stereoselectivity of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase toward secondary alcohols: a quantitative model.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, T.; Pleiss, J.; Schmid, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    The lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia represents a widely applied catalyst for highly enantioselective resolution of chiral secondary alcohols. While its stereopreference is determined predominantly by the substrate structure, stereoselectivity depends on atomic details of interactions between substrate and lipase. Thirty secondary alcohols with published E values using P. cepacia lipase in hydrolysis or esterification reactions were selected, and models of their octanoic acid esters were docked to the open conformation of P. cepacia lipase. The two enantiomers of 27 substrates bound preferentially in either of two binding modes: the fast-reacting enantiomer in a productive mode and the slow-reacting enantiomer in a nonproductive mode. Nonproductive mode of fast-reacting enantiomers was prohibited by repulsive interactions. For the slow-reacting enantiomers in the productive binding mode, the substrate pushes the active site histidine away from its proper orientation, and the distance d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) between the histidine side chain and the alcohol oxygen increases, d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) was correlated to experimentally observed enantioselectivity: in substrates for which P. cepacia lipase has high enantioselectivity (E > 100), d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is >2.2 A for slow-reacting enantiomers, thus preventing efficient catalysis of this enantiomer. In substrates of low enantioselectivity (E < 20), the distance d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is less than 2.0 A, and slow- and fast-reacting enantiomers are catalyzed at similar rates. For substrates of medium enantioselectivity (20 < E < 100), d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is around 2.1 A. This simple model can be applied to predict enantioselectivity of P. cepacia lipase toward a broad range of secondary alcohols. PMID:10892799

  10. Neuroprotective effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Karalija, Amar; Novikova, Liudmila N; Kingham, Paul J; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikov, Lev N

    2012-01-01

    Following the initial acute stage of spinal cord injury, a cascade of cellular and inflammatory responses will lead to progressive secondary damage of the nerve tissue surrounding the primary injury site. The degeneration is manifested by loss of neurons and glial cells, demyelination and cyst formation. Injury to the mammalian spinal cord results in nearly complete failure of the severed axons to regenerate. We have previously demonstrated that the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) can attenuate retrograde neuronal degeneration after peripheral nerve and ventral root injury. The present study evaluates the effects of NAC and ALC on neuronal survival, axonal sprouting and glial cell reactions after spinal cord injury in adult rats. Tibial motoneurons in the spinal cord were pre-labeled with fluorescent tracer Fast Blue one week before lumbar L5 hemisection. Continuous intrathecal infusion of NAC (2.4 mg/day) or ALC (0.9 mg/day) was initiated immediately after spinal injury using Alzet 2002 osmotic minipumps. Neuroprotective effects of treatment were assessed by counting surviving motoneurons and by using quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting for neuronal and glial cell markers 4 weeks after hemisection. Spinal cord injury induced significant loss of tibial motoneurons in L4-L6 segments. Neuronal degeneration was associated with decreased immunostaining for microtubular-associated protein-2 (MAP2) in dendritic branches, synaptophysin in presynaptic boutons and neurofilaments in nerve fibers. Immunostaining for the astroglial marker GFAP and microglial marker OX42 was increased. Treatment with NAC and ALC rescued approximately half of the motoneurons destined to die. In addition, antioxidants restored MAP2 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity. However, the perineuronal synaptophysin labeling was not recovered. Although both treatments promoted axonal sprouting, there was no effect on reactive astrocytes. In contrast, the

  11. Unusual Oxidative Limitations for Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alumina-forming MAX phases are well-known for their excellent oxidation resistance, rivaling many metallic NiAl, NiCrAl, and FeCrAl counterparts and with upper temperature capability possible to approximately1400C. However a number of limitations have been emerging that need to be acknowledged to permit robust performance in demanding applications. Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 possess excellent scale adhesion, cyclic oxidation/moisture/volatility resistance, and TBC compatibility. However they are very sensitive to Al content and flux in order to maintain an exclusive Al2O3 scale without runaway oxidation of ubiquitous TiO2 transient scales. Accelerated oxidation has been shown to occur for Al-depleted, damaged, or roughened surfaces at temperatures less than 1200C. Conversely, Cr2AlC is less sensitive to transients, but exhibits volatile losses at 1200C or above if common Cr7C3 impurity phases are present. Poor scale adhesion is exhibited after oxidation at 1150C or above, where spallation occurs at the Cr7C3 (depletion zone) interface. Delayed spallation is significant and suggests a moisture-induced phenomenon similar to non-adherent metallic systems. Re-oxidation of this surface does not reproduce the initial pure Al2O3 behavior, but initiates a less-protective scale. Cr2AlC has also been shown to have good long term bonding with superalloys at 800C, but exhibits significant Beta-NiAl + Cr7C3 diffusion zones at 1100C and above. This may set limits on Cr2AlC as a high temperature TBC bond coat on Ni-based superalloys, while improving corrosion resistance in lower temperature applications.

  12. Minimum absolute lymphocyte counts during radiation are associated with a worse prognosis in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianqian; Xu, Xiaoqing; Yue, Jinbo; Zhu, Kunli; Feng, Rui; Jiang, Shumei; Qi, Zhonghua; Wang, Renben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral blood lymphocytes play an important role in antitumour immunity. We examined the relationship between the minimum absolute lymphocyte counts (Min ALCs) during radiotherapy (RT) and clinical outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Data from a total of 69 HCC patients who had received RT were retrospectively analysed. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured before RT, weekly during RT and after RT. Regression and mixed-effect models were used to assess the relationships with and potential predictors of overall survival (OS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to define optimal cut-off points of continuous variables for outcomes. Results: The median follow up was 30 months (range, 4–68 months). The median survival time (MST), 1-year OS rate and 2-year OS rate of the whole group were 25 months, 51% and 39%, respectively. The average circulating lymphocyte counts declined during RT (1493.19 versus 503.48 cells/µl, p < 0.001). A lower Min ALC was associated with worse OS (p = 0.001), with a cut-off value of 450 cells/µl (sensitivity and specificity, 50% and 70.6%, respectively). The MSTs, 1-year OS rates and 2-year OS rates were 15 months versus 47 months, 27% versus 78% and 4% versus 71% for patients with relatively lower (⩽450 cells/µl) and higher Min ALCs (>450 cells/µl), respectively (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that Min ALC independently predicted patients’ OS (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15–0.69). Conclusions: Lower Min ALCs during RT may act as a worse prognostic factor for HCC after RT. PMID:28203281

  13. Extracellular Matrix Assembly in Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Wustman, Brandon A.; Lind, Jan; Wetherbee, Richard; Gretz, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Achnanthes longipes is a marine, biofouling diatom that adheres to surfaces via adhesive polymers extruded during motility or organized into structures called stalks that contain three distinct regions: the pad, shaft, and collar. Four monoclonal antibodies (AL.C1–AL.C4) and antibodies from two uncloned hybridomas (AL.E1 and AL.E2) were raised against the extracellular adhesives of A. longipes. Antibodies were screened against a hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble-fraction. The hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble fraction was fractionated to yield polymers in three size ranges: F1, ≥ 20,000,000 Mr; F2, ≅100,000 Mr; and F3, <10,000 Mr relative to dextran standards. The ≅100,000-Mr fraction consisted of highly sulfated (approximately 11%) fucoglucuronogalactans (FGGs) and low-sulfate (approximately 2%) FGGs, whereas F1 was composed of O-linked FGG (F2)-polypeptide (F3) complexes. AL.C1, AL.C2, AL.C4, AL.E1, and AL.E2 recognized carbohydrate complementary regions on FGGs, with antigenicity dependent on fucosyl-containing side chains. AL.C3 was unique in that it had a lower affinity for FGGs and did not label any portion of the shaft. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry indicated that low-sulfate FGGs are expelled from pores surrounding the raphe terminus, creating the cylindrical outer layers of the shaft, and that highly sulfated FGGs are extruded from the raphe, forming the central core. Antibody-labeling patterns and other evidence indicated that the shaft central-core region is related to material exuded from the raphe during cell motility. PMID:9536061

  14. Cognitive Performance Profiles by Latent Classes of Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Mancha, B; Martins, SS; Mauro, PM; Kuo, JH; Scherer, M; Bolla, KI; Latimer, WW

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The relationship between substance use and cognitive deficits is complex and requires innovative methods to enhance understanding. The present study is the first to use LCA to examine associations of drug use patterns with cognitive performance. Methods Cocaine/heroin users (N=552) completed questionnaires, and cognitive measures. LCA identified classes based on past-month drug use and adjusted for probabilities of group membership when examining cognitive performance. Latent indicators were: alcohol (ALC), cigarettes (CIG), marijuana (MJ), crack smoking (CS), nasal heroin (NH), injection cocaine (IC), injection heroin (IH), and injection speedball (IS). Age and education were included as covariates in model creation. Results Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT) supported a 5-class model. Prevalent indicators (estimated probability of over 50%) for each class are as follows: “Older Nasal Heroin/Crack Smokers” (ONH/CS, n=166.9): ALC, CIG, NH, CS; “Older, Less Educated Polysubstance” (OLEP, n=54.8): ALC, CIG, CS, IH, IC, and IS; “Younger Multi-Injectors” (MI, n=128.7): ALC, CIG, MJ, IH, IC, and IS; “Less Educated Heroin Injectors” (LEHI, n=87.4): CIG, IH; and “More Educated Nasal Heroin” users (MENH, n = ALC, CIG, NH). In general, all classes performed worse than established norms and older, less educated classes performed worse, with the exception that MENH demonstrated worse cognitive flexibility than YMI. Discussion and Conclusions This study demonstrated novel applications of a methodology for examining complicated relationships between polysubstance use and cognitive performance. Scientific Significance Education and/or nasal heroin use are associated with reduced cognitive flexibility in this sample of inner city drug users. PMID:24628774

  15. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  16. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  17. Teaching Population Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; Schwartzberg, Julie

    Written under the sponsorship of the Population Council, with the financial support of the Population Instructional Materials Project, this work is intended to provide the thoughtful teacher of the social sciences with some suggestions and techniques for introducing population study to students in terms of concrete case studies which explore the…

  18. Population: A Lively Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, Joseph A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The study of demography must begin with an understanding of the three sources of population changes: fertility, mortality, and migration. This paper leads prospective demographers--or anyone interested in population--through the dynamics of these three variables, introducing them to the forces that cause populations to grow or decline, and that…

  19. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  20. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  1. Populations, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, David; Lawson, Chester A.

    This Teacher's Guide is designed for use with the Science Curriculum Improvement Study's (SCIS) unit Population. Populations is the third of a six-unit sequence of SCIS's Life Science Program for grades K-6. The Populations guide consists of activity outlines along with suggestions for guiding children's observation and manipulations of living…

  2. Teaching about Population Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

    This teaching guide on population issues contains 19 activities for students in grades 7-12. The objective is to analyze population issues that have resulted from human population dynamics. In this guide, four categories of activities are included: some are discussion starters, some provide factual data, some focus on thinking skills, and some are…

  3. Impact of Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Holdren, John P.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the interrelated crises in population growth, natural resources, and environmental quality. Major problems include population control, redirection of technology, closed resource cycles, equitable opportunity distribution and prosperity. Population growth is regarded as causing a disportionate world-wide negative environmental impact.…

  4. Population and Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Carr, David; Cassels, Susan; Jiang, Leiwen

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics (e.g., population size, growth, density, age and sex composition, migration, urbanization, vital rates) and environmental changes. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems. PMID:20011237

  5. Population 101. A primer.

    PubMed

    Gelbard, A

    1997-09-01

    This article summarizes basic statistics on population growth, concepts about population momentum, and evidence of fertility declines in the world. World population was about 5.84 billion in mid-1997. 86 million people are added yearly. Almost 1 billion people are added every 11 years. The first billion was reached in the early 1800s, and each billion took fewer and fewer years to attain. World population is expected to expand until about 2050 and level off after 2150. Dramatic declines in death rates and health improvements contributed to smaller numbers of children per woman. Absolute increases are due to population momentum, which is the continued large concentration of women in the childbearing years. World population will continue to grow, even after replacement-level fertility of 2 children/woman is reached, due to population momentum. Developing countries continue to have a young age structure and high birth rates, which result in higher population growth. 35% of population in developing countries is aged under 15 years, and almost 50% of population in sub-Saharan African countries is aged under 15 years. Fertility has declined in most regions, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa. All developing regions have above replacement-level fertility. Declines to below replacement-level fertility in developed countries is attributed to improvements in health for women and children, greater use of family planning, and more education for women and girls. Fertility is high where infant mortality is high. Family planning allows mothers to have healthier children.

  6. Molecular Population Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. PMID:28270526

  7. Molecular Population Genetics.

    PubMed

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data.

  8. Population information resources.

    PubMed

    Pasquariella, S K

    1984-12-01

    This article describes print and computerized services that are dedicated to bibliographic coverage of 1 or more areas of population studies. Major printed bibliographic information resources for population material include: ADOPT, DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina, PIDSA Abstracts, Population Index and Review of Population Reviews. ADOPT is an annotated computer-aided current-awareness bibliographic journal which has been published monthly since January 1975 by the Regional Population Information Center of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). DOCPAL Resumenes is a computer-produced biannual collection of abstracts containing indexes and between 600 and 700 summaries of both published and unpublished population documents. PIDSA is intended to make available documentary information about population matters in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 1 of the oldest and most definitive bibliographies in the demography field, is international in scope and is arranged as a classified and annotated bibliography of monographs, journal articles and 2ndary source material relevant to all aspects of demography. Review of Population Reviews, published 4 times a year, are annotated bibliographies containing summaries of articles that have been published in 83 periodicals in 37 countries. Cited articles are assigned subject-heading descriptors from the Population Multilingual Thesaurus. Major computerized information resources are: DOCPAL, DOCPOP, EBIS/POPFILE, MANPINS, POPLINE and POPULATION BIBLIOGRAPHY. DOCPAL was established to assist Latin Ameran countries in the collection, storage, processing and retrieval of population documents about Latin America. DOCPAL contains over 19,000 bibliographic citations. DOCPOP was established as the 1st Latin American national computerized population documentation system for Brazilian material. POPLINE is a computerized retrieval service cooperatively produced in the US which covers the

  9. [Population and development].

    PubMed

    Castanon Romo, R; Sandoval Navarrete, J

    1996-01-01

    This broad survey of the debate concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development discusses the history and current status of world population growth, summarizes several influential theoretical positions on the topic, and proposes that redefinition of women's social role is indispensable if worldwide control of population growth is to be achieved. The introductory section discusses the acceleration of population growth in the second half of the 20th century and the increasing concentration of growth in the poor and developing countries. The positions of those who see in population control a means of promoting economic development and political stability are contrasted to the positions of those who believe that a large and growing population is the key to achieving economic and political progress. The international community, facing great uncertainty about the size, distribution, and well-being of the future world population, is increasingly concerned about the effect of growing numbers on the environment and natural resources. The second section summarizes the works of Malthus, Julian Simon, and the Club of Rome, and analyzes the propositions of demographic transition theory. The conclusion notes that despite uncertainty about the future of world population, development, and health, most of the poorest countries have become aware of the desirability of slowing population growth. A broad redefinition of the social role of women will inevitably accompany the worldwide demographic transition.

  10. Hypertension in special populations.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Shawna D

    2005-07-01

    Hypertension is a multifaceted disease that may present somewhat differently in various populations. It is clear that hypertensive treatment reduces cardiovascular, renal, and cerebrovascular outcomes for all patients, yet recent clinical trial data suggest that some groups may benefit more than others from specific drug intervention. Furthermore, these data justify specific approaches for some special populations. This article reviews important features of the presentation, rationale for treatment, and treatment recommendations for the treatment of hypertension in special populations. The special populations addressed include diabetic patients, the elderly, and women.

  11. Population. Headline Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Valerie K.

    Useful as background reading or secondary classroom material, this pamphlet reviews several dimensions of world population growth and control. The first of seven chapters, World Population Growth: Past, Present and Future, discusses some of the reasons for the greatly accelerated growth since 1950, and points out that even significantly rapid…

  12. Population Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, W. Parker

    1980-01-01

    Future trends in population are described as they relate to developed and developing nations. It is suggested that for the next 20 years there will be a decrease in population growth rates for all areas of the world except Africa. (Author/SA)

  13. Populations, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Populations," the third part of a six-unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems; and they make use of…

  14. Why Teach Population Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Fuller, Charlotte; And Others

    Population education can help students develop coping skills and make responsible decisions as members of a family, a community, a nation, and a world. For example, by studying and understanding the impact of changes in population growth rates, compositional characteristics, and migration shifts, students, as future citizens, will be better able…

  15. Understanding Population Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haub, Carl

    1987-01-01

    Population projections are "what if" computational exercises. Given selected assumptions about future trends in fertility, mortality, and migration, population trends can be projected. Government and business planners need this information, and they also require enough time to put facilities in place to meet future needs. Everyone benefits from a…

  16. Ecology and Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Amos H.

    1973-01-01

    Author suggests that study of population growth is not a field of study only for ecologists. Population growth is related with social sciences in the nature of its process and future consequences. Broader, comprehensive approaches to this problem will be useful. (PS)

  17. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  18. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  19. Why Population Matters, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Action International, Washington, DC.

    Population growth around the world affects Americans through its impact on economy, environment, safety, and health, and the condition of the world children will inherit. The cumulative evidence is strong that current rates of population growth pose significant and interacting risks to human well-being and are a legitimate concern for Americans.…

  20. The World Population Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This book is the third in a series published by the Population Reference Bureau aimed at illuminating the facts and consequences of human population dynamics for secondary and college-age students. Many illustrations, charts and graphs are included in this volume to help the reader grasp a number of the current ideas and concepts that are used in…