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Sample records for alcian blue dye

  1. A novel colorimetric assay of β-D-glucans in basidiomycete strains by alcian blue dye in a 96-well microtiter plate.

    PubMed

    C Semedo, Magda; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Basidiomycete strains synthesize several types of β-d-glucans, which play a major role in the medicinal properties of mushrooms. Therefore, the specific quantification of these β-d-glucans in mushroom strains is of great biochemical importance. Because published assay methods for these β-d-glucans present some disadvantages, a novel colorimetric assay method for β-d-glucan with alcian blue dye was developed. The complex formation was detected by following the decrease in absorbance in the range of 620 nm and by hypsochromic shift from 620 to 606 nm (∼14 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Analysis of variance was used for optimization of the slope of the calibration curve by using the assay mixture containing 0.017% (w/v) alcian blue in 2% (v/v) acetic acid at pH 3.0. The high-throughput colorimetric assay method on microtiter plates was used for quantification of β-d-glucans in the range of 0-0.8 μg, with a slope of 44.15 × 10(-2) and a limit of detection of 0.017 μg/well. Recovery experiments were carried out by using a sample of Hericium erinaceus, which exhibited a recovery of 95.8% for β-1,3-d-glucan. The present assay method exhibited a 10-fold higher sensitivity and a 59-fold lower limit of detection compared with the published method with congo red. β-d-glucans of several mushrooms strains were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia, and they were quantified by this assay method. This assay method is fast, specific, simple, and it can be used to quantify β-d-glucans from other biological sources. PMID:26317582

  2. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  3. Lack of correlation between transepithelial transport capacity and paracellular pathway ultrastructure in Alcian blue-treated rabbit gallbladders.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, O; Møllgård, K; Rostgaard, J

    1979-11-01

    The effects of mucosal application of 1 mg% Alcian blue (a trivalent cationic phthalocyanine dye) on functional and ultrastructural parameters of the isolated rabbit gallbladder have been studied. Apart from minor changes in the shape of the group of central microvilli observed in thin-section electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the major ultrastructural change induced by Alcian blue was an almost complete collapse of intercellular spaces in the region above the tight junctions up to the bases of the marginal microvilli as revealed by thin-section electron microscopy. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy demonstrated a complete disappearance of intramembrane particles of neighboring cell membranes corresponding to the region of interspace collapse. Transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) increased from 44.5 to 58.7 ohm . cm2 upon treatment with Alcian blue. This increase could be well accounted for by the observed structural changes in the paracellular pathway if this pathway determines the low resistance of the rabbit gallbladder epithelium. Despite the increase in RT, net mucosa-to-serosa fluid transport and the spontaneous mucosa-positive potential difference of 3 mV were unaltered by Alcian blue treatment, supporting the hypothesis that the transepithelial transport mechanism per se is electroneutral. A calculation of the maximal paracellular mucosa-to-serosa waterflow in response to a lateral intercellular space hypertonicity of 20 mosM demonstrates that in the Alcian blue-treated gallbladder the resulting figure is about three orders of magnitude too low to keep up with the unaltered spontaneous transepithelial net fluid transport. It is therefore concluded that the tight junction pathway in rabbit gallbladders does not serve as a route for net fluid transport. PMID:500786

  4. Temporal Change of Alcian Blue-Stained Primo Vascular System in Lymph Vessels of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the temporal change of a vascular system now known as the primo vascular system (PVS). We used Alcian blue (AB) dye for imaging the distribution of the PVS in lymphatic vessels. The target lymph vessels were chosen as they are easily accessible from the skin, and long-term observation is possible with intact physiological conditions due to a minimal surgical procedure. AB solution was injected into the inguinal lymph node and the target lymph vessels were located along the superficial epigastric vessels. The imaging system allowed processing for extraction of images showing changes in the AB intensity of the visualized PVS components. This newly developed procedure can be used for further study on various dynamic processes of PVS in lymph vessels. PMID:27526158

  5. Application of alcian blue in the electron microscopic study of mouse and human cerebral cortex nerve cells.

    PubMed

    Castejón, H V; Castejón, O J; Viloria, M E

    1976-01-01

    Alcian blue is a cationic dye which has been used in the histochemical field for the demonstration of polyanions especially carboxylated and sulphated. The results obtained in neurons when this dye was applied to human and mouse cerebral cortex and studied with the electron microscope are the object of the present report. The CNS of normal adult mice was fixed by vascular perfusion with 2% glutaraldehyde-0.1 M sodium cacodylate-0.1 M sucrose at pH = 6.8 followed by the same fixative with the addition of 0.5% alcian blue. After perfusion, brain cortex was taken out, sectioned into small blocks and immersed in a fresh similar mixture and subsequently in OSO4. Blocks were dehydrated and embedded in araldite. Ultrathin sections were doubly stained with uranyl and lead salts. Human brain cortex taken from patients with cerebral edema was fixed by immersion with 6.5% glutaraldehyde-0.1 M sodium phosphate, pH = 7.4 followed by embedding in warm agar and sectioning in slices of 30 mum thickness which were impregnated by immersion in a mixture of 1% alcian blue-acetate buffer-3% glutaraldehyde at pH = 3.5 for 9 to 15 h at 4 degrees C and subsequently immersed in 1% buffered OSO4-0.1 M sucrose, pH = 7.4 for 2 h at 4 degrees S. Sections were dehydrated and embedded in araldite. Ultrathin sections were doubly stained by uranyl and lead salts. We have denominated the complete procedure in both instances GABOUL technique. The submicroscopic study of both tissues, at nerve cells, revealed the presence of an electron dense homogeneous substance thoroughly dispersed at the hyaloplasmic matrix of perikarya, processes and even synaptic endings. This substance was more evident around free and attached ribosomes, GOLGI apparatus, complex vesicles, dense bodies, microtubules, subsurface cisternae and synaptic vesicles. Canaliculi of endoplasmic reticulum and even the perinuclear cistern also showed a moderate content. It is suggested that this electron dense substance, being

  6. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin. PMID:22950532

  7. Alcian Blue and Pyronine Y histochemical stains permit assessment of multiple parameters in pulmonary disease models

    PubMed Central

    Meyerholz, D. K.; Rodgers, J.; Castilow, E. M.; Varga, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of a combined Alcian Blue and Pyronine Y histochemical method for the assessment of multiple parameters in the respiratory tract of various species is described. Acidic mucins were deep blue (sialylated mucins), red (sulfated mucins), or variably purple (mixture of sialylated/sulfated mucins), and differential mucus production was readily detected in a murine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine model of pulmonary inflammation. Elastic fibers stained red in the walls of pulmonary arteries, connecting airways, alveolar septa, and subpleural interstitium. Mast cells had red to red-purple granular cytoplasmic staining. Nuclei were ubiquitously counterstained pale blue. Representative staining was detected in tissues from multiple species including inbred mice, rats, ferrets, cats, dogs, sheep, and pigs. The fluorescent property of the stained tissues offers additional modalities with which to analyze tissue sections. This histochemical technique detects multiple critical parameters in routine paraffin sections of lung tissue, reduces the need for repeated serial sectioning and staining, and is cost-effective and simple to perform. PMID:19261646

  8. Finding Blue Tracks in Gephyrocharax melanocheir Fish Similar to the Locations of Acupuncture Meridians after Injecting Alcian Blue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; Zhang, Weibo; Jia, Shuyong; Tian, Yuying; Wang, Guangjun; Li, Hongyan

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether a meridian-like distribution of Alcian blue (AB) existed after it was injected into a fish's body and suggested a new animal model for meridian study. Twenty Gephyrocharax melanocheir fish with translucent bodies were injected with AB at a point near the spinal column or the dorsal fin. Distribution of AB was observed using a digital camera and a stereomicroscope. Three or more obvious blue tracks were found: one along the spinal column, another along the posterior margin of the abdomen extending to the superior margin of the anal fin, and a third along both sides of the dorsal fin. They were similar to the locations of the governor, conceptual vessel, and urinary bladder meridians, respectively, on the human body according to the classic theory of traditional Chinese medicine. A few other blue tracks were also found, which apparently did not correspond to any known meridians. The results show that the tracks of AB share important similarities with the locations of classically described meridians and that they are mainly distributed in the interstitial space around bones and blood vessels and inside muscular interstices. This study may provide a new experimental animal model for exploring acupuncture meridians. PMID:26742915

  9. Comparing two methods of plastination and glycerin preservation to study skeletal system after Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Setayesh M.; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Rabiei, Abbas A.; Hanaei, Mahsa S.; Rashidi, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastination is a new method of preserving tissue samples for a long time. This study aimed to compare the new plastination technique with the conventional preservative method in glycerin for fetus skeleton tissues and young rats dyed by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 groups of 1-day, 3-day, 12-day and mature rats were selected and, after being anesthetized and slaughtered, their skin was completely removed. In Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining method, first the samples were fixed in 95% ethanol and then their cartilages were dyed by 0.225% Alcian blue solution; after that, they were cleared in 1% KOH. Then, the bones were dyed in 0.003% Alizarin red solution and finally the tissue was decolorized in 95% ethanol. In each group, half of the samples were preserved by the conventional method in a glycerin container and the other half were plastinated. Results: In the present study, the samples preserved by plastination technique were dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible. Quality of coloring had an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Transparency of the plastinated samples had also an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Therefore, skeletal tissue of younger rats had higher quality and transparency in both preservation methods (glycerin and plastination). Conclusion: This study showed that plastination technique was an appropriate method in comparison with glycerin preservation, which conserved skeletal tissue of fetus and young rats colored by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. And the final result was that plastination technique can generate dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible samples. PMID:23930264

  10. The quantitative measurement of Alcian Blue–glycosaminoglycan complexes

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Paul

    1973-01-01

    1. A simple new quantitative micro method was developed to study the interaction of the cationic dye Alcian Blue 8GX and acid glycosaminoglycans under different conditions. After washing with ethanol the precipitated Alcian Blue–glycosaminoglycan complex was dissociated in Manoxol IB solution and the amount of bound dye measured spectrophotometrically. 2. Reaction profiles of complex-formation were determined in the presence of different concentrations of MgCl2 at pH5.8, and could be used to study the critical electrolyte concentrations of glycosaminoglycans. At least 50mm-MgCl2 was required to produce maximum precipitation of, and maximum uptake of, Alcian Blue by standard glycosaminoglycans. Maximum uptake of Alcian Blue by glycosaminoglycans in the urine of a patient with Hurler's syndrome required the presence of 25–50mm-MgCl2. 3. Under standard conditions of maximum interaction, calibration curves for the quantitative determination of a series of standard glycosaminoglycans in 20μl volumes were nearly linear over the range 1–10μg. 4. The technique was used to determine the molecular binding ratios of Alcian Blue to glycosaminoglycans under controlled conditions. PMID:4269149

  11. Further studies on metachromasia in cultured human fibroblasts. Staining of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides) by Alcian blue in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Danes, B S; Scott, J E; Bearn, A G

    1970-10-01

    Staining with Alcian blue in various concentrations of magnesium chloride (alcianophilia) has been found to be a useful supplement to metachromatic staining to detect increased cellular concentrations of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). In many instances alcianophilia at 0.3 M MgCl(2) is more specific than metachromasia and does not give "false positives" sometimes found in normal individuals and in those with cystic fibrosis, Gaucher's disease, familial amaurotic idiocy, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum. On the other hand, it gives a "false negative" reaction in the Sanfilippo syndrome (perhaps because the characteristically elevated glycosaminoglycan in this disease, heparan sulfate, is not synthesized by cultured skin fibroblasts), and in the Marfan syndrome. It detects the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, which metachromasia does not. The "false positives" given by metachromasia in all six families studied thus far are genuine, reproducible reactions that can be traced through at least three generations of normal individuals within a family. There is therefore, in these families, a genetic factor that causes such metachromasia, but it is not increased glycosaminoglycan concentration. PMID:4101365

  12. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 3. Trypan blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-11-01

    Trypan blue is colorant from the 19(th) century that has an association with Africa as a chemotherapeutic agent against protozoan (Trypanosomal) infections, which cause sleeping sickness. The dye still is used for staining biopsies, living cells and organisms, and it also has been used as a colorant for textiles. PMID:24867494

  13. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  14. MitoBlue: a nontoxic and photostable blue-emitting dye that selectively labels functional mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mateo I; Martínez-Costas, José; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2014-12-19

    We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N(1),N(3)-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

  15. MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N1,N3-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

  16. FTIR Spectroscopy Applied in Remazol Blue Dye Oxidation by Laccases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Hernández, J.; Zavala-Soto, M. E.; Bibbins-Martínez, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.; Díaz-Godinez, G.; Rojas-López, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have used FTIR with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique to analyze the decolourization process of Remazol Blue dye (RB19) caused by the oxidative activity of laccase enzyme. It is known that laccases catalyze the oxidation of a large range of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines carrying out one-electron oxidations, although also radicals could be formed which undergo subsequent nonenzymatic reactions. The enzyme laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) which has been tested as a potential alternative in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase oxidizes dyes. In this research individual ATR-FTIR spectra have been recorded for several reaction times between 0 to 236 hours, and the temporal dependence of the reaction was analyzed through the relative diminution of the intensity of the infrared band at 1127 cm-1 (associated to C-N vibration), with respect to the intensity of the band at 1104 cm-1 (associated to S = O) from sulphoxide group. Decolourization process of this dye by laccase could be attributed to its accessibility on the secondary amino group, which is a potential point of attack of laccases, abstracting the hydrogen atom. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile operations.

  17. Adsorption studies of methylene blue dye on tunisian activated lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, A.; Hamdi, N.; Srasra, E.

    2011-02-01

    Activated carbon prepared from natural lignin, providing from a geological deposit, was used as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters like pH and contact time for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for MB removal was 11. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye was gradual process. Quasi equilibrium reached in 4 h. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide realistic description of adsorption kinetics. The experimental isotherms data were also modelled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g. Activated lignin was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions.

  18. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. PMID:26894843

  19. Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 μL), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 μL) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 μL), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

  20. Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B.

    PubMed

    Hope-Roberts, M; Horobin, R W

    2012-05-01

    Brief accounts are given of the chemical nature, and past and current biomedical applications of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. PMID:22149360

  1. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information. PMID:21322217

  2. Removal of methylene blue from dye effluent using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder (ACLP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman bin Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Aminu, Nasiru; Salihi, Ibrahim Umar

    2015-07-01

    Methylene blue (MB), a common environmental pollutant discharged from dye effluents were removed from synthetic effluents in this study using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder. Effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial Methylene blue concentration, adsorbent weight and contact time were examined on methylene blue removal whereas stirring speed was constant at 100 rpm. Results show that low pH (3-4) had more Methylene blue removal than high pH. Methylene blue removal decreased when initial concentration was increased but increased when adsorbent weight was increased. Removal of Methylene blue by Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder was rapid and significantly above 80% in all initial concentrations examined. At optimum conditions of pH 3, 20 minutes contact time and adsorbent weight of 60 mg for Methylene blue initial concentration of 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L, Methylene blue removal of 84.7%, 83.9% and 81.2% were obtained respectively. Results suggest that Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder could be potential adsorbents for Methylene blue removal from dye effluents.

  3. New 8-amino-BODIPY derivatives: surpassing laser dyes at blue-edge wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Jorge; Martín, Virginia; Gómez-Durán, C F Azael; Arroyo Córdoba, Ismael J; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Costela, Ángel; Pérez-Ojeda, M Eugenia; Arbeloa, Teresa; López Arbeloa, Iñigo

    2011-06-20

    The development of highly efficient and stable blue-emitting dyes to overcome some of the most important shortcomings of available chromophores is of great technological importance for modern optical, analytical, electronic, and biological applications. Here, we report the design, synthesis and characterization of new tailor-made BODIPY dyes with efficient absorption and emission in the blue spectral region. The major challenge is the effective management of the electron-donor strength of the substitution pattern, in order to modulate the emission of these novel dyes over a wide spectral range (430-500 nm). A direct relationship between the electron-donor character of the substituent and the extension of the spectral hypsochromic shift is seen through the energy increase of the LUMO state. However, when the electron-donor character of the substituent is high enough, an intramolecular charge-transfer process appears to decrease the fluorescence ability of these dyes, especially in polar media. Some of the reported novel BODIPY dyes provide very high fluorescence quantum yields, close to unity, and large Stokes shifts, leading to highly efficient tunable dye lasers in the blue part of the spectrum; this so far remains an unexploited region with BODIPYs. In fact, under demanding transversal pumping conditions, the new dyes lase with unexpectedly high lasing efficiencies of up to 63 %, and also show high photostabilities, outperforming the laser action of other dyes considered as benchmarks in the same spectral region. Considering the easy synthetic protocol and the wide variety of possible substituents, we are confident that this strategy could be successfully extended for the development of efficient blue-edge emitting materials and devices, impelling biophotonic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:21547964

  4. Adsorption of Two Dyes by Mg(OH)2: Procion Blue HB and Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouberka, Zohra; Bentaleb, Kahina; Benabbou, Khalil A.; Maschke, Ulrich

    The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Mg(OH)2 sludge was produced from precipitation of magnesium ions (Mg2+) with NaOH in pH = 10 and investigated as a low-cost adsorbent. This paper deals with the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by Mg(OH)2. Reactive Procion blue HB (PR) and Acid Remazol brilliant blue R (RB) were used as model compounds. The adsorption capacity was found as 43.47 and 26.89 mg/g at initial pH 6.5.

  5. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Wanyonyi, Wycliffe Chisutia; Onyari, John Mmari; Shiundu, Paul Mwanza

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using dried roots, stems, and leaves of Eichhornia crassipes biomass obtained from Lake Victoria was studied. Batch experimental results revealed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, E. crassipes particle size and aqueous solution temperature. The isotherm data fitted Freundlich mathematical models with maximum dye adsorption of 35.37 mg g(-1). Roots adsorbed over 99 % of the MB in <5 min. Sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. Results provide evidence that E. crassipes is an effective and inexpensive biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents. PMID:23839152

  6. Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2006-02-01

    The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20-1280 mgl(-1)), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye concentrations (20-80 mgl(-1)), an increase in the adsorbent dosage resulted in a higher removal percentage of the dye, but a lower amount of dye adsorbed per unit mass (q). The adsorption isotherm followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models within the temperature range employed in this work (18-70 degrees C). The highest maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) was obtained at 50 degrees C. The enthalpy of adsorption was estimated at 14.87 kJmol(-1) suggesting a chemical adsorption mechanism. PMID:16112338

  7. Blue-to-orange color-tunable laser emission from tailored boron-dipyrromethene dyes.

    PubMed

    Esnal, Ixone; Valois-Escamilla, Ismael; Gómez-Durán, César F A; Urías-Benavides, Arlette; Betancourt-Mendiola, María L; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; Bañuelos, Jorge; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Costela, Angel; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo

    2013-12-16

    A series of meso-substituted boron-bipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes are synthesized and their laser and photophysical properties systematically studied. Laser emission covering a wide visible spectral region (from blue to orange) is obtained by just changing the electron donor character of the heteroatom at position 8. The additional presence of methyl groups at positions 3 and 5 results in dyes with a photostability similar to that of the unsubstituted dye but with much improved efficiency. Correlation of the lasing properties of the different dyes to their photophysical properties provides inklings to define synthetic strategies of new BODIPY dyes with enhanced efficiency and modulated wavelength emission over the visible spectral region. PMID:24255000

  8. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment. PMID:26887225

  9. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. PMID:27107333

  10. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  11. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Oral Use of Blue Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Osman; Kose, Ösman; Safali, Mukerrem

    2011-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe pustular cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by a rapid clinical course with typical histological findings. It is accompanied by fever and acute eruption of non-follicular pustules overlying erythrodermic skin. The causative agents are most frequently antibacterial drugs. We present a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by methylene blue and indigotin dyes. PMID:22016599

  12. Biodegradation of direct blue 129 diazo dye by Spirodela polyrrhiza: An artificial neural networks modeling.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Moradi, Z; Vafaei, F

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza was examined for direct blue 129 (DB129) azo dye. The dye removal efficiency was optimized under the variable conditions of the operational parameters including removal time, initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and amount of plant. The study reflected the significantly enhanced dye removal efficiency of S. polyrrhiza by increasing the temperature, initial dye concentration and amount of plant. Intriguingly, artificial neural network (ANN) predicted the removal time as the most dominant parameter on DB129 removal efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of dye treatment on some physiologic indices of S. polyrrhiza including growth rate, photosynthetic pigments content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were studied. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content and in multiplication of fronds after exposure to dye solution. In contrast, malondialdehyde content as well as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities significantly increased that was probably due to the ability of plant to overcome oxidative stress. As a result of DB129 biodegradation, a number of intermediate compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Accordingly, the probable degradation pathway of DB129 in S. polyrrhiza was postulated. PMID:26540563

  13. Adsorption of reactive blue BF-5G dye by soybean hulls: kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Honorio, Jacqueline Ferandin; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Gonçalves, Gilberto da Cunha; de Campos, Élvio Antonio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry is known for the high use of chemicals, such as dyes, and large volumes of effluent that contaminate waters, a fact that has encouraged research and improved treatment techniques. In this study, we used unprocessed soybean hulls for the removal of reactive blue BF-5G dye. The point of zero charge of soybean hulls was 6.76. Regarding the speed of agitation in the adsorption process, the resistance to mass transfer that occurs in the boundary layer was eliminated at 100 rpm. Kinetics showed an experimental amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium of 57.473 mg g(-1) obtained under the following conditions: dye initial concentration = 400 mg L(-1); diameter of particle = 0.725 mm; dosage = 6 g L(-1); pH 2; 100 rpm; temperature = 30 °C; and duration of 24 hours. The pseudo-second order best showed the dye removal kinetics. The adsorption isotherms performed at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) showed little variation in the concentration range assessed, being properly adjusted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of dye adsorption was 72.427 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. Since soybean hull is a low-cost industrial byproduct, it proved to be a potential adsorbent for the removal of the textile dye assessed. PMID:26942540

  14. Ex Vivo Sentinel Node Mapping in Colon Cancer Combining Blue Dye Staining and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Hutteman, Merlijn; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node procedure has been proposed to improve nodal staging in colon cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of near-infrared fluorescence imaging to conventional blue dye staining for ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping. Materials and Methods Twenty-two consecutive patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer were included. After tumor resection, a premixed cocktail of the near-infrared lymphatic tracer HSA800 and blue dye was submucosally injected around the tumor for detection of sentinel lymph nodes. The Mini-FLARE imaging system was used for fluorescence imaging. Results In 95% of the patients, at least one sentinel lymph node was identified. Overall, a total of 77 sentinel lymph nodes were identified, of which 77 were fluorescent (100%) and 70 (91%) were blue. Sentinel lymph nodes that were located deeper in the mesenteric fat could easily be located by NIR fluorescence. In 4 out of 5 patients with lymph node metastases, tumor cells were present in at least 1 of the sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions This study shows the successful use and added value of the near-infrared fluorescence tracer HSA800 to conventional blue dye for the ex vivo sentinel lymph node procedure in colon cancer. PMID:23391167

  15. Concentration-dependent energy transfer studies in ternary dye mixture of Stilbene-420, Coumarin-540 and Nile Blue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Ahlawat, D S; Mohan, D; Singh, R D

    2009-01-01

    The energy transfer studies in the case of ternary dye mixture [Stilbene-420 (donor)+Coumarin-540 (intermediator)+Nile Blue (acceptor)] have been done and discussed through optical gain characteristics at various acceptor concentrations under nitrogen laser excitation. The concentration of the other two dyes were kept constant. It is observed that the concentration of the acceptor dye plays a very critical role in energy transfer dye laser (ETDL) as small change in its concentration varies the intensity of the laser output in the red region by large amount. Also, the highest laser output in the red region is obtained when the concentration of the acceptor dye is slightly higher than that of the intermediator dye. The present studies are helpful in deciding the optimum concentration of the acceptor dye to be used in ternary dye mixture for maximum gain and tuning range. The ternary dye mixture under study provides an ETDL tuning range up to 700 nm. PMID:18930436

  16. Concentration-dependent energy transfer studies in ternary dye mixture of Stilbene-420, Coumarin-540 and Nile Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Ahlawat, D. S.; Mohan, D.; Singh, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy transfer studies in the case of ternary dye mixture [Stilbene-420 (donor) + Coumarin-540 (intermediator) + Nile Blue (acceptor)] have been done and discussed through optical gain characteristics at various acceptor concentrations under nitrogen laser excitation. The concentration of the other two dyes were kept constant. It is observed that the concentration of the acceptor dye plays a very critical role in energy transfer dye laser (ETDL) as small change in its concentration varies the intensity of the laser output in the red region by large amount. Also, the highest laser output in the red region is obtained when the concentration of the acceptor dye is slightly higher than that of the intermediator dye. The present studies are helpful in deciding the optimum concentration of the acceptor dye to be used in ternary dye mixture for maximum gain and tuning range. The ternary dye mixture under study provides an ETDL tuning range up to 700 nm.

  17. Red-green-blue laser emissions from dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) films.

    PubMed

    Yap, Seong-Shan; Siew, Wee-Ong; Tou, Teck-Yong; Ng, Seik-Weng

    2002-03-20

    A microscope slide acting as a passive waveguide was coated by three separate poly(vinyl alcohol) films that were doped with Coumarin 460, Disodium Fluorescein, and Rhodamine 640 perchlorate. On collinear pumping by a nitrogen laser, these dyes furnished primary red-green-blue laser emissions that were collected and waveguided by the microscope slide but exited from both ends. Frosting the waveguide exit introduced light scattering at the glass-air interface and spatially overlaid the red-green-blue laser emissions that emerged as a uniform white-light beam. PMID:11921803

  18. Blue laser dye spectroscopic properties in solgel inorganic-organic hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Saraidarov, Tsiala; Reisfeld, Renata; Kazes, Miri; Banin, Uri

    2006-02-01

    A blue solid-state laser material based on 4,4' dibenzyl carbamido stilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid incorporated into solgel zirconia and inorganic-organic hybrid matrices is presented. The absorption maxima of the dye in various matrices are around 339-361 nm, and the broad fluorescence peaks are at 411-413 nm. Optical gain measurements using the variable stripe method show amplified spontaneous emission peaking at 437 nm. PMID:16480207

  19. Blue laser dye spectroscopic properties in solgel inorganic-organic hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraidarov, Tsiala; Reisfeld, Renata; Kazes, Miri; Banin, Uri

    2006-02-01

    A blue solid-state laser material based on 4,4‧ dibenzyl carbamido stilbene-2,2‧ disulfonic acid incorporated into solgel zirconia and inorganic-organic hybrid matrices is presented. The absorption maxima of the dye in various matrices are around 339-361 nm, and the broad fluorescence peaks are at 411-413 nm. Optical gain measurements using the variable stripe method show amplified spontaneous emission peaking at 437 nm.

  20. Experimental and theoretical spectroscopic studies of dye modification in synthetic Maya Blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Ramirez, Alejandra; Chianelli, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Maya pigments are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with multiple technology applications that possess unprecedented stability with respect to harsh environment conditions. In this investigation, we address the question of how the organic indigo dye modifies as it binds to the inorganic palygorskite clay to form a pigment similar to Maya Blue after a heating treatment is applied. Both infrared and Raman spectroscopic data demonstrate the disappearance of nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonding, as the indigo molecule incorporates into the inorganic palygorskite material. This effect suggests a transformation of the dye from indigo to dehydroindigo. Furthermore, the Raman and infrared absorption results demonstrate partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, which provides further evidence for this conversion. Theoretical spectroscopic studies are also addressed in this investigation to confirm the transformation of the dye into dehydroindigo.

  1. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:27343798

  2. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:25458838

  3. Blue-dye sentinel node mapping in thyroid carcinoma: debatable results of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peparini, N; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Tartaglia, F; Marchesi, M; Campana, E P

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility and influence of the lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy on determination of the nodal status in thyroid carcinoma using blue-dye method. Nine consecutive patients with cytological diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were included in this study. To detect the sentinel lymphnode, intra- or perinodular injection of an average quantity of 0.5 ml (range : 0.1-1.2) of Ble Patenté V was performed intraoperatively in 8 cases only, as in one case a solitary cystic nodule occupied the entire lobe and thus any injection was impossible. After an average time of 16 minutes (range : 5-25) before dissection of the thyroid , no lymphnodes and no lymphatic afferent thereto visibly coloured were evidenced, except for spread of the vital dye into adjacent tissue and disrupted blood and lymphatic vessels at the injection site. Our results evidence that : intranodular injection, does not allow proper diffusion of the dye in the adjacent parenchyma, and in nodules smaller than 1 cm it may be difficult ; and that it is hazardous in cystic nodule because of the rupture risk; perinodular injection, at the four cardinal points, is impossible when the nodule occupies the entire lobe or the isthmus; multinodular goiter complicates the identification by palpation of the neoplastic nodule in which the dye should be injected or, if perinodular injection is given, to detect the parenchyma surrounding the nodule. PMID:17168262

  4. Treatment of aqueous and simulated wastewater of Luganil blue N dye--a new electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Puttappa, Sarala; Venkatarangaiah, Venkatesha Thimmappa

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of aqueous solution containing Luganil blue N (LBN) azo dye was performed by an electrochemical method under galvanostatic conditions using an undivided cell with platinum electrodes as working and auxiliary electrodes and standard calomel as the reference electrode. The aqueous solution of NaCl was used as the supporting electrolyte. Preliminary voltammetric studies were performed to establish the mode of degradation process. The effect of polarity of the electrode on degradation and decolouration rate was studied. The effect of the supporting electrolytes, concentration of NaCl, electrolysis time, solution pH and initial dye concentration on degradation rate were evaluated. The optimized operating conditions were used for the treatment of simulated wastewater containing LBN dye. The electrolysis process was monitored by an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and measuring the chemical oxygen demand of the electrolysed solutions. The degradation products were identified using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry studies, and a suitable mechanism for the LBN dye degradation was proposed. PMID:22439582

  5. Blue-coloured highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by implementing the diketopyrrolopyrrole chromophore.

    PubMed

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Holcombe, Thomas W; Kim, Yongjoo; Rakstys, Kasparas; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joel; Delcamp, Jared H; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K; Grätzel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) - towards donor- π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes - increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3](3+/2+) redox-shuttle afforded superior performance compared to I3(-)/I(-). Aesthetically, careful molecular engineering of the DPP chromophore yielded the first example of a high-performance blue DSC - a challenge unmet since the inception of this photovoltaic technology: DPP17 yields over 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the [Co(bpy)3](3+/2+) electrolyte at full AM 1.5 G simulated sun light. PMID:23945746

  6. Accidental injection of patent blue dye during gynaecological surgery: Lack of knowledge constitutes a system error.

    PubMed

    Laukaityte, Edita; Bruyère, Marie; Bull, Amanda; Benhamou, Dan

    2015-02-01

    The authors report a case in which an intravenous injection of Patent Blue V dye instead of Indigo Carmine was given during routine gynaecological surgery. The patient presented with temporary arterial (spurious) desaturation and skin discoloration over a 48-hour period. Pharmacological differences between these dyes are described. Root cause analysis based on the ALARM (Association of Litigation and Risk Management) model is presented. The authors emphasise that use of this model should not be limited solely to describing and correcting well known systems errors such as working conditions or teamwork and communication. Furthermore, they conclude that insufficient knowledge must also be recognised as a systems error and as such should be sought out and corrected using similar strategies to those used to discover other contributory factors, without allocation of blame to any individual. PMID:25829317

  7. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    PubMed

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. PMID:20452721

  8. Successful Localization of Abnormal Parathyroid Gland Using Ultrasound-Guided Methylene Blue Dye Injection in the Reoperative Neck.

    PubMed

    Haciyanli, Mehmet; Koruyucu, Melike Bedel; Erdoğan, Nezahat Karaca; Dere, Ozcan; Sarı, Erdem; Kumkumoğlu, Yusuf; Tavusbay, Cengiz; Kamer, Erdinc

    2015-12-01

    Persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism is a challenging problem for endocrine surgeons. The aim of this study was to review our experience using ultrasound-guided (US-G) methylene blue dye injection for the localization and removal of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients having primary hyperparathyroidism and previous neck surgery. Between January 2012 and May 2013, six consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and previous neck surgery underwent focused parathyroidectomy with the use of US-G methylene blue dye injections to localize the presumed parathyroid adenoma were included in the study. We analyzed the data of six patients who underwent reoperative parathyroid surgery using US-G methylene blue dye injection retrospectively. The dye injection was performed just prior to surgery. All patients were successfully treated for their hyperparathyroidism which was confirmed by at least 50 % drop in intraoperative parathormone level 10 min after resection. There were no complications related with US-G dye injection or with surgery. US-G methylene blue dye injection is a cheap, safe, and effective method for localization of diseased parathyroid glands and guiding surgery in the reoperative neck. PMID:27011517

  9. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  10. Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on blue, orange, red phosphorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Liying; Duan, Yu; Xie, Wenfa; Zhao, Yi; Hou, Jingying; Liu, Shiyong; Li, Bin

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate efficient white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex bis(2-(2-fluorphenyl)-1,3-benzothiozolato-N, C2')iridium(acetylacetonate) in combination with blue phosphorescent dye bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2)](picolinato) Ir(III) and red phosphorescent dye bis[1-(phenyl)isoquinoline] iridium (III) acetylanetonate. By introducing a thin layer of 4, 7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline between blue and red emission layers, the diffusion of excitons is confined and white light can be obtained. WOLEDs with the interlayer all have a higher colour rendering index (>82) than the device without it (76). One device has the maximum current efficiency of 17.6 cd A-1 and a maximum luminance of 39 050 cd m-2. The power efficiency is 8.7 lm W-1 at 100 cd m-2. Furthermore, the device has good colour stability and the CIE coordinates just change from (0.394, 0.425) to (0.390, 0.426) with the luminance increasing from 630 to 4200 cd m-2.

  11. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties. PMID:25163883

  12. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH = 2.5; [PA]0 = 0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0 = 5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes. PMID:24526885

  13. Removal of reactive blue 19 dye by sono, photo and sonophotocatalytic oxidation using visible light.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Abdul Nasir; Siddique, Maria; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Romana

    2015-09-01

    An efficient sonophotocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 19 (RB 19) dye was successfully carried out using sulfur-doped TiO2 (S-TiO2) nanoparticles. The effect of various treatment processes that is sonolysis, photolysis, catalysis, sonocatalysis, photocatalysis, and sonophotocatalysis were investigated for RB 19 removal. S-TiO2 were synthesized in 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of sulfur by sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results confirm anatase phase of TiO2, porous agglomerate structure, and a red shift in the absorbance spectra of S-TiO2. The dye degradation was studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ max=594 nm. The reaction parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration, ultrasonic power and effect of sulfur doping in different weight percent were studied to find out the optimum degradation conditions. Optimum conditions were found as: S-TiO2=5 wt.%, catalyst (S-TiO2 5 wt.%)=50mg, RB 19 solution concentration=20 mg L(-1), pH=3, ultrasound power=100 and operating temperature=25°C. The response of 5 wt.% S-TiO2 was found better than 1 and 3 wt.% S-TiO2 and other forms TiO2. The sonophotocatalysis process was superior to other methods. During this process the ultrasound cavitation and photocatalysis water splitting takes place which leads to the generation of OH. As reveled by the GCMS results the reactive blue 19 (20 mg L(-1)) was degraded to 90% within 120 min. The S-TiO2 sonophotocatalysis system was studied for the first time for dye degradation and was found practicable, efficient and cost effective for the degradation of complex and resistant dyes such as RB19. PMID:25899438

  14. Triacontanol hormone stimulates population, growth and Brilliant Blue R dye removal by common duckweed from culture media.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Duygu, Ergin; Dönmez, Gönül

    2010-10-15

    This work is focussed on assessing the potentialities of Lemna minor (L.) for the treatment of reactive dyes polluted wastewaters and investigating the possibility of bioremoval performance stimulation by adding triacontanol hormone to the cultures. In the vast literature describing removal of reactive dyes, considering the lack of reports using of common duckweed in wastewater treatment apparently due to the inadequate efficiency. In the present study, the experiments showed that 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol stimulated duckweed growth. The effect of different dye types (Reactive Orange 14, Reactive Red 120, Reactive Black 5, Brilliant Blue R, and Reactive Brilliant Blue R) onto duckweed growth was tested. Plants grew at most in media with Brilliant Blue R. The highest biomass, in terms of frond number (87+/-1.5) were accompanied with 59.6% maximum dye removal were found in samples containing 2.5 mg l(-1) initial Brilliant Blue R and 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol, indicating hormonal stimulation of both activities. The results presented here that L. minor (L.) could be used effectively to treat wastewaters containing dye. PMID:20633998

  15. Extractional spectrophotometric analysis of metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole and secnidazole bases through acid-dye complexation using bromothymol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Khaled M; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An easy, precise and valid extractional-spectrophotometric technique is described for the assessment of metronidazole (MNZ), tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ) and secnidazole (SNZ) in pure state and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The technique includes first the reduction of above cited drugs using HCl and zinc powder, then the formation of intense yellow colored ion-association complex species (1:3 drug/dye) using bromothymol blue (BTB) in a buffered aqueous acidic medium at pH 3-3.50. The colored products are extracted into dichloromethane and quantitatively determined at 416-420 nm. The experimental operating factors influencing the ion-pairs development were studied and optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. The Beer plots are obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.50-22.50, 2.50-30, 7.50-35 and 5-30 μgml-1 for MNZ, TNZ, ONZ and SNZ, respectively, with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9995. The proposed technique is recommended for the routine quality control analysis of the investigated drugs in commercial tablets with no observed interference from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of such analysis were statistically validated and through recovery studies, showing excellent agreement with those achieved by the reported techniques. PMID:22186332

  16. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  17. Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-09-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBCs) as an endogenic contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we use Evans blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. With the help of EB, complete and continuous microvascular networks--especially capillaries--are imaged. The diffusion dynamics of EB leaving the blood stream and the clearance dynamics of the EB-albumin complex are also quantitatively investigated.

  18. Plasma exudation. Correlation between Evans blue dye and radiolabeled albumin in guinea pig airways in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.F.; Boschetto, P.; Barnes, P.J. )

    1989-07-01

    We quantified the tissue exudation and luminal transudation of two plasma markers, Evans blue (EB) dye and ({sup 125}I)-human serum albumin (HSA), into the airways of the anesthetized guinea pig in response to platelet activating factor (PAF). There was a highly significant correlation between the tissue content of EB and ({sup 125}I)-HSA in all airways studied. Significant correlation for transudation of the two markers was limited to high rates of plasma leakage. ({sup 125}I)-HSA was the more sensitive marker for the association between exudation and transudation and the effect of PAF on transudation. EB was the better marker for assessing the relationship between the dose of PAF and plasma exudation.

  19. Laparoscopic lymphatic roadmapping with blue dye and radioisotope in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, P P; Petz, W; Casali, L

    2011-11-01

    Lymphatic mapping (LM) and sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification by blue dye in colon cancer is a procedure feasible during minimally invasive surgery, with good specificity, but still a low sensitivity (78% in our series). These results are in accordance with the literature and have limited more widespread diffusion of the method, both as a tool for upstaging and more controversially, as a potential roadmap to a tailored lymphadenectomy. It is possible to improve the results of LM with careful selection of patients and by the use of an intraoperative gamma camera. The preliminary results of intra-operative lymphoscintigraphy are promising in a well-selected small group of patients, with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. If these results are confirmed in further prospective analyses, it may be possible to undertake selected, tailored lymphadenectomy. PMID:22098523

  20. Direct Blue Dye Degradation Using Titanium Nanostructures Under Energy-Efficient UV-LED Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Tayade, Rajesh J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) morphology on the photocatalytic activity under irradiation of ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Different TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized using hydrothermal (nanotubes and nanospheres) and solvothermal (nanoflowers) methods. The morphology, phase composition, bandgap, and chemical properties of the synthesized different TiO2 nanostructures were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The surface area of the nanotubes was larger than that of the nanospheres and nanoflowers by four- and three-fold, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of direct blue-15 dye under UV-LED irradiation in a slurry-type reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoflowers was higher than that of TiO2 nanotubes or nanospheres, suggesting that nanoflowers can serve as efficient photocatalysts for dye degradation.

  1. Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ann E.; Dowling, James

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an emerging system for the study of neuromuscular disorders. In the study of neuromuscular diseases, the integrity of the muscle membrane is a critical disease determinant. To date, numerous neuromuscular conditions display degenerating muscle fibers with abnormal membrane integrity; this is most commonly observed in muscular dystrophies. Evans Blue Dye (EBD) is a vital, cell permeable dye that is rapidly taken into degenerating, damaged, or apoptotic cells; in contrast, it is not taken up by cells with an intact membrane. EBD injection is commonly employed to ascertain muscle integrity in mouse models of neuromuscular diseases. However, such EBD experiments require muscle dissection and/or sectioning prior to analysis. In contrast, EBD uptake in zebrafish is visualized in live, intact preparations. Here, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward methodology for performing EBD injections and analysis in live zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrate a co-injection strategy to increase efficacy of EBD analysis. Overall, this video article provides an outline to perform EBD injection and characterization in zebrafish models of neuromuscular disease. PMID:26649573

  2. Studies on decolorization of reactive blue 19 textile dye by Coprinus plicatilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 19 (RB 19) by a novel isolate of Coprinus plicatilis (C. plicatilis) fungi. We describe an in vitro optimization process for decolorization and its behavior under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and substrate concentration. Results The optimal conditions for decolorization were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g/L) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 26°C and pH = 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB 19 achieved in this study was around 99%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. Conclusions This effect was associated with laccase enzyme displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. In conclusion, laccase activity in C. plicatilis was firstly described in this study. PMID:24565535

  3. Trypan blue dye is an effective and inexpensive way to determine the viability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis zoospores.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in hundreds of amphibian declines and is the focus of a vast amount of research. Despite this, there is no reported efficient way to assess Bd viability. Discriminating between live and dead Bd would help determine the dose of live Bd zoospores and whether factors have lethal or sublethal effects on Bd. We tested whether trypan blue, a common stain to discriminate live and dead cells, could be used to assess Bd viability. We show that the proportion of live zoospores (zoospores that excluded the trypan blue dye) matched the proportion of known live zoospores added to cultures. In contrast, all of the zoosporangia stages of Bd stained blue. These results demonstrate that trypan blue can be used to determine the viability of Bd zoospores but not zoosporangia. We recommend using trypan blue to report the number of live zoospores to which hosts are exposed. PMID:24519684

  4. Exploring the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. ATM to degrade textile dye Direct Blue GLL, mixture of dyes and textile effluent and production of polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid using waste biomass generated after dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Joshi, Swati M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of textile effluent using microorganisms has been studied extensively, but disposal of generated biomass after dye degradation is a serious problem. Among all tested microorganisms, isolated Sphingobacterium sp. ATM effectively decolorized (100%) the dye Direct Blue GLL (DBGLL) and simultaneously it produced (64%) polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid (PHD). The organism decolorized DBGLL at 300 mg l(-1) concentration within 24 h of dye addition and gave optimum production of PHD. The organism also decolorized three combinations of mixture of dyes. The organism decolorized textile effluent too when it was combined with medium. The organism produced a maximum of 66% and 61% PHD while decolorizing mixture of dyes and textile effluent respectively. Molasses was found to be more significant within all carbon sources used. The activity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase was found to be higher after 24 h of addition of DBGLL. The enzymes responsible for dye degradation, viz. veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol) reductase, riboflavin reductase, and azo reductase were found to be induced during decolorization process of DBGLL and mixture of dyes. There was significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). FTIR analysis of samples before and after decolorization of dye confirmed the biotransformation of DBGLL. PMID:20591565

  5. Novel tannin-based adsorbent in removing cationic dye (Methylene Blue) from aqueous solution. Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, J; González-Velasco, M; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Gragera-Carvajal, J; Salguero-Fernández, J

    2010-02-15

    Natural tannin-based adsorbent has been prepared on the basis of the gelification of Quebracho bark extract. The resulting product, Quebracho Tannin Gel (QTG) was tested as cationic dye adsorbent with Methylene Blue (MB). Kinetics of adsorption process were studied out and a period of 15 days was determined for reaching equilibrium. The influences of pH and temperature were evaluated. As pH or temperature raise q capacity of QTG increases. Theoretical modelization of dye-QTG adsorption was carried out by multiparametric adjustment according to Langmuir's hypothesis. Values of the k(l1), k(l2) and activation energies were calculated. PMID:19782466

  6. Comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of the structurally similar nitrophenylenediamine dyes, HC Blue 1 and HC Blue 2, in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kari, F W; Driscoll, S M; Abu-Shakra, A; Strom, S C; Jenkins, W L; Volosin, J S; Rudo, K M; Langenbach, R

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that HC Blue 1 induced heptocellular carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice whereas the structurally similar nitroaromatic amine HC Blue 2 did not. In an attempt to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for their different carcinogenic potencies, comparative metabolism and genetic toxicity studies were undertaken. Eighteen-hour urinary recovery of administered radioactivity was equivalent for both compounds following oral gavage (100 mg/kg) in female B6C3F1 mice. By HPLC analysis, HC Blue 1 yielded 3 major polar metabolite peaks, one of which was susceptible to glucuronidase. In vivo metabolism of HC Blue 2 yielded a single major metabolite peak which was not hydrolyzed by glucuronidase. Metabolism by B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes yielded metabolite profiles which were qualitatively similar to the profiles observed after in vivo metabolism. HC Blue 1 was metabolized by hepatocytes at approximately twice the rate of HC Blue 2. Cytogenetic evaluations of mouse hepatocytes after in vitro treatment indicated HC Blue 1 was more potent than HC Blue 2 in inducing chromosomal aberrations while both chemicals showed weak activity for inducing sister-chromatid exchanges. Furthermore, in the V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay, HC Blue 1, but not HC Blue 2, inhibited cell-to-cell communication suggesting a non-genotoxic activity may be present for HC Blue 1. It is concluded that qualitative and quantitative differences exist in the metabolism of these compounds and that genotoxic as well as nongenotoxic effects may contribute to their different carcinogenic potencies. PMID:2361189

  7. Novelties of combustion synthesized titania ultrafiltration membrane in efficient removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous effluent.

    PubMed

    Doke, Suresh M; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, titania nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion and used to make ultrafiltration membrane. Characteristics of titania membranes such as textural evaluation, surface morphology, pure water permeability and protein rejection were investigated. Titania membrane sintered at 450 °C showed pure water permeability 11 × 10−2 L h−1 m−2 kPa−1 and 76% protein rejection. The membrane presented good water flux and retention properties with regards to protein and methylene blue dye. Ultrafiltration process was operated at lower pressure (100 kPa) and showed 99% removal of methylene blue using adsorptive micellar flocculation at sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration below its critical micellar concentration. Ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. The method of making titania membrane and its use are new. These studies can be extended to other dyes and pollutants. PMID:25461945

  8. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Rajeev; Kumar, Ashavani

    2015-08-28

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer’s formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain size was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.

  9. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of nile blue dye in aqueous BiOCl suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwan, Bhawna; Pare, B.; Acharya, A. D.

    2014-05-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was synthesized by hydrolysis method. Several analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic, and energy-dispersive spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the sample. The prepared material had average pore diameter of about 7-10 nm and the BET surface area of BiOCl was 40 m2 g-1. The analysis of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) formation was performed by fluorescence technique. The intermediates and the final products of degradation were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-DAD-MS) technology. The degradation of nile blue (NB) dye was mainly attributed to the destruction of the conjugated structure, and after that the intermediates were transformed into small molecules mainly phenol, aniline, etc., which were mineralized to water and carbon dioxide. During three recycles, the catalyst did not exhibit any significant loss of photocatalytic activity, confirming that the photocatalyst is essentially stable. The NB oxidation was evaluated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content. The formation of NO3- and the evolution of CO2 revealed complete mineralization of aqueous NB during the photocatalytic process by this photocatalyst.

  10. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Rajeev; Kumar, Ashavani

    2015-08-01

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer's formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain size was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.

  11. Clinical usefulness of intradermal fluorescein and patent blue violet dyes for sentinel lymph node identification in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wells, S; Bennett, A; Walsh, P; Owens, S; Peauroi, J

    2006-06-01

    The first lymph node receiving drainage from a specific anatomic region is referred to as the sentinel lymph node (SLN). This study sought to evaluate the intradermal use of two dyes, patent blue violet (PBV) and fluorescein (FL), for SLN mapping in the dog. Multiple intradermal injections were performed in five healthy dogs using two dyes, PBV in 0.9% NaCl and FL in solutions of 0.9% NaCl and 6% hetastarch. Skin flaps were raised and followed to the first area of discrete stain uptake. Areas of uptake were identified as lymph nodes grossly and by cytology. Identification of a SLN for each area of intradermal injection was accomplished for 98% of the injection sites. Intradermal injections of both PBV and FL dyes produce readily visible staining of lymphatic vessels and SLNs in healthy dogs and are sufficient to allow ready identification of these structures during postmortem dissection. PMID:19754821

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too. PMID:22119457

  13. Adsorption treatment and recovery of the hazardous dye, Brilliant Blue FCF, over bottom ash and de-oiled soya.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Mittal, Alok; Krishnan, Lisha; Mittal, Jyoti

    2006-01-01

    Two waste materials-bottom ash, a power plant waste, and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste-are meticulously and successfully used as adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous triphenylmethane dye, Brilliant Blue FCF. Both the materials were characterized by chemical analysis, IR, DTA, SEM and XRD studies. Their physical characteristics like surface area, porosity, density and loss on ignition were also determined. The adsorption of the dye over both materials was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature, etc. conditions. For both the systems Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and, based on these models, useful thermodynamic parameters were calculated. For both the adsorbents, the kinetic measurements indicate that the adsorption process follows first order kinetics and film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative at lower and higher concentrations, respectively, in each case. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Brilliant Blue FCF was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of Brilliant Blue FCF was made by eluting dilute NaOH of pH 11 through each column. PMID:16040036

  14. Inappropriate Intra-cervical Injection of Radiotracer for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in a Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient: Importance of Lymphoscintigraphy and Blue Dye Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kadkhodayan, Sima; Farahabadi, Elham Hosseini; Yousefi, Zohreh; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of sentinel lymph node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient, referring to the nuclear medicine department of our institute. Lymphoscintigraphy images showed inappropriate intra-cervical injection of radiotracer. Blue dye technique was applied for sentinel lymph node mapping, using intra-cervical injection of methylene blue. Two blue/cold sentinel lymph nodes, with no pathological involvement, were intra-operatively identified, and the patient was spared pelvic lymph node dissection. The present case underscores the importance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in sentinel lymph node mapping and demonstrates the added value of blue dye injection in selected patients. It is suggested that pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy imaging be considered as an integral part of sentinel lymph node mapping in surgical oncology. Detailed results of lymphoscintigraphy images should be provided for surgeons prior to surgery, and in case the sentinel lymph nodes are not visualized, use of blue dye for sentinel node mapping should be encouraged.

  15. Inappropriate Intra-cervical Injection of Radiotracer for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in a Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient: Importance of Lymphoscintigraphy and Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodayan, Sima; Farahabadi, Elham Hosseini; Yousefi, Zohreh; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of sentinel lymph node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient, referring to the nuclear medicine department of our institute. Lymphoscintigraphy images showed inappropriate intra-cervical injection of radiotracer. Blue dye technique was applied for sentinel lymph node mapping, using intra-cervical injection of methylene blue. Two blue/cold sentinel lymph nodes, with no pathological involvement, were intra-operatively identified, and the patient was spared pelvic lymph node dissection. The present case underscores the importance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in sentinel lymph node mapping and demonstrates the added value of blue dye injection in selected patients. It is suggested that pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy imaging be considered as an integral part of sentinel lymph node mapping in surgical oncology. Detailed results of lymphoscintigraphy images should be provided for surgeons prior to surgery, and in case the sentinel lymph nodes are not visualized, use of blue dye for sentinel node mapping should be encouraged. PMID:27408871

  16. In vitro analysis of the penetration of methylene blue dye in human radicular dentin using different methods of impregnation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ronise; Bombana, Antonio C; Sayeg, Isaac J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verity whether different conditions of contact with a dye solution would result in different levels of the impregnation by the marker agent in human radicular dentin. The root canals of 60 upper human canines were immersed in methylene blue dye (0.5%, pH 7.0) for 24 h under six different conditions: passive immersion; pre-agitation for 10 min using an endodontic ultrasound; pre-agitation for 10 min using a cleaning ultrasound; 25-mmHg vacuum for 10 min followed by passive immersion; 30-mmHg and 650-mmHg vacuum for 24 h. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and dye impregnation was assessed by a trained and calibrated examiner, using the Q 550 IW image analyser (Leica Qwin, Cambridge, England). The measurements were analysed with anova and Tukey test. The results revealed no significant difference among the different methods for dye impregnation. In the cervical third, impregnation with 30 mmHg was significantly more effective than with endodontic ultrasound or 25 mmHg. At the apical third, no differences were observed between any of the dye impregnation methods. The comparison of different thirds revealed a statistically significant difference between the cervical and apical and the middle and apical thirds, but not between the cervical and middle thirds. PMID:19032645

  17. Phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss., an ornamental plant to degrade a disperse, disulfonated triphenylmethane textile dye Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Kamble, Apurva A; Mulla, Asma Y; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-02-01

    Phytoremediation provides an ecofriendly alternative for the treatment of pollutants like textile dyes. The purpose of this study was to explore phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. by using its wild as well as tissue-cultured plantlets to decolorize Brilliant Blue G (BBG) dye, a sample of dye mixture and a real textile effluent. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora were obtained by seed culture method. The decolorization experiments were carried out using wild as well as tissue-cultured plants independently. The enzymatic analysis of the plant roots was performed before and after decolorization of BBG. Metabolites formed after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytotoxicity studies were performed. Characterization of dye mixture and textile effluent was also studied. The wild and tissue-cultured plants of P. grandiflora showed the decolorized BBG up to 86 %. Significant increase in the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase, NADH-2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, and tyrosinase was found in the roots of the plants. Three metabolites of BBG were identified as 3-{[ethyl(phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic acid, 3-{[methyl (phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic amino acid, and sodium-3-[(cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylideneamino)methyl]benzenesulfonate. Textile effluent sample and a synthetic mixture of dyes were also decolorized by P. grandiflora. Phytotoxicity test revealed the nontoxic nature of metabolites. P. grandiflora showed the potential to decolorize and degrade BBG to nontoxic metabolites. The plant has efficiently treated a sample of dye mixture and textile effluent. PMID:22529004

  18. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-04-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  19. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  20. Spectroscopic investigations on the photodegradation of toluidine blue dye using cadmium sulphide nanoparticles prepared by a novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakandeswari, N.; Sangami, G.; Dharmaraj, N.; Taek, Nam Ki; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-01

    A novel method to prepare cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) possessing nearly uniform size was adopted using eggshell membrane (ESM), under different pH conditions. Significant yield of CdS NPs with smallest possible size was obtained by increasing the pH of the reaction medium from acidic to alkaline. The above prepared CdS NPs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption as well as emission spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of the above prepared CdS NPs as a catalyst for the photodegradation of toluidine blue (TB) dye, as a function of pH as well as the ratio between the catalyst and the substrate was studied after irradiation with UV light. The results showed that an efficient interaction took place between the catalyst and the substrate to cause degradation of the selected dye. A maximum degradation of toluidine blue dye (90%) was observed at pH 8 which is higher than that of the efficiencies at pH 4 and pH 6.

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Photophysical Properties of Pyrroloquinoline-Based Compounds Showing Strong Blue Fluorescence as Potential Dyes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Carta, Davide; Balasso, Anna; Caliceti, Paolo; Ferlin, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    A small library of 3-ethylpyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline derivatives was synthesized to identify a novel class of dyes for use in biological studies. According to the spectroscopic analyses performed to evaluate the fluorimetric parameters of quantum yield and brightness, 7-methyl- and 6,7-dimethylpyrroloquinolin(9)one derivatives were found to be the best blue luminescent dyes for biological applications. To enhance the luminescence profiles and to obtain probes that could be conjugated to functional groups of supramolecular drug delivery systems, these compounds were further modified at position 3 to obtain 3-heptanoic acid and 3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolin(9)one methylated derivatives. The most brilliant 6,7-dimethyl-3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolinone hydrochloride was conjugated to pullulan, a biocompatible polysaccharide used to produce colloidal systems for drug delivery. Comparative studies showed that this compound can be properly exploited as a blue fluorescent label in biological investigations, namely cell trafficking and pharmacokinetics/biodistribution studies. These molecules possess higher fluorescence efficiency than commercial dyes in biological media, making them suitable alternatives to commercially available products in current use. PMID:26447862

  2. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye. PMID:22846889

  3. Optical studies of capped CdSe nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, Seyed Mohammad; Nemati-Kande, Ebrhim; Barzegar, Ramin

    2013-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and mercaptoethanol (ME)-capped CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared and systematic investigation on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties is presented. The intrinsic characteristics of resulting nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer. Cubic phase, nearly uniform size (˜10 nm) and spherical morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were established through XRD and TEM analysis. Spectroscopic measurements exhibit that capping agent can effectively tune energy band structure. ME-capped CdSe NPs exhibit higher light emission efficiency as compared to PEG capping. Photocatalytic activity of CdSe nanoparticles on methylene blue (MB) dye, a significant enhancement was observed in the photodegradation efficiency. A maximum degradation of MB dye (73.5%) was obtained.

  4. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  5. Adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Prola, Lizie D T; Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; de Souza, Felipe E; Gally, Caline R; Lima, Eder C; Adebayo, Matthew A; Dias, Silvio L P; Calvete, Tatiana

    2013-11-30

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and powder activated carbon (PAC) were used as adsorbents for adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye (DB-53) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbents were investigated. At pH 2.0, optimum adsorption of the dye was achieved by both adsorbents. Equilibrium contact times of 3 and 4 h were achieved by MWCNT and PAC adsorbents, respectively. The general order kinetic model provided the best fit of the experimental data compared to pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic adsorption models. For DB-53 dye, the equilibrium data (298-323 K) were best fitted to the Sips isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, with the values of 409.4 and 135.2 mg g(-1) for MWCNT and PAC, respectively. Studies of adsorption/desorption were conducted and the results showed that DB-53 loaded MWCNT could be regenerated (97.85%) using a mixture 50% acetone + 50% of 3 mol L(-1) NaOH. Simulated dye house effluents were used to evaluate the application of the adsorbents for effluent treatment (removal of 99.87% and 97.00% for MWCNT and PAC, respectively, were recorded). PMID:24076517

  6. Polyacrylamide films as a tool for investigating qualitative and quanitative aspects of the staining of glycosaminoglycans with basic dyes.

    PubMed

    Tas, J

    1977-05-01

    With the introduction of model films of polyacrylamide gel into which purified glycosaminogly cans (GAGs) have been 'incorporated', the direct recording of metachromatic spectra with virtually no interference of the corresponding orthochromatic peaks has become possible. Because this model system yields situations comparable to those of stained sections under the microscope, it is well suited for investigating qualitative and quantitative aspects of histochemical staining procedures. Previous model experiments have shown that under aqueous conditions only minor differences can be observed between the metachromatic peaks of different GAGs complexed with a suitable dye (e.g. Toluidine Blue O, Thionin, Safranin O, Cresyl Violet, Cystal Violet). In non-aqueous media, such as glycerol and ethylene glycol, the complexes with Toluidine Blue O revealed a special pattern for heparin, having a metachromatic peak (517 nm) about 30 nm lower than that of all other GAGs. This observation has formed the basis of a method for the qualitative microspectrophotometric detection of heparin in situ which was worked out by combining model film experiments with microspectrophotometric data obtained from rat mast cells. Since only a limited number of cells in necessary for obtaining reliable data with this method, the presence of heparin in the cytoplasmic granules of normal human mast cells and basophilic granulocytes could thus be proved directly. Alcian Blue 8GX, another basic dye frequently use in GAG histochemistry, has also been investigated with polyacrylamide films. In contrast to the metachromatic dyes, the rate of staining with Alcian Blue depends to a large extent on the rate of penetration of the dye into the model films. The rate of penetration is also a phenomenon of great importance for dye binding in situ, where complex basic protein molecules may form a barrier for the Alcian Blue molecules. The model film studies performed so far have yielded conditions that provide

  7. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Matthew A; Prola, Lizie D T; Lima, Eder C; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S; Vaghetti, Julio C P; da Silva, Leandro G; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-03-15

    A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al(3+) (CML-Al) and Mn(2+) (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pHPZC. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16mgg(-1) at 298K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone+50% of 0.05molL(-1) NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents. PMID:24462989

  8. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated. PMID:21438473

  9. Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Following Different Obturation Techniques and in-vitro Evalution Using Methylene Blue Dye Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rachit; Sharma, Medhavi; Sharma, Deepak; Raisingani, Deepak; Vishnoi, Suchita; Singhal, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as a research method to compare the sealing ability of different techniques and endodontic materials. Aim To compare the coronal bacterial leakage using methylene blue in four different obturation techniques after protaper hand instrumentation. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to an apical preparation size F3 Protaper hand files. Twenty teeth were randomly obturated with lateral compaction, 20 with vertical compaction, 20 with combination of vertical and lateral compaction and 20 with Thermafil. Ten teeth were used for positive and negative controls (five teeth in each group). Teeth were kept in 100% humidity for 90 days, and then subjected coronally to Proteus vulgaris for 21 days to assess bacterial leakage. After bacterial challenge, methylene blue was placed coronally for another 21 days, and then scoring was done according to depth of dye leakage. Chi-square test was done for statistical analysis. Results Leakage as observed with combination of vertical and lateral compaction was significantly less than vertical compaction, lateral compaction and thermafil carriers during bacterial challenge. However, when dye was used it also showed statistically significant results with thermafil carriers showing the least leakage in comparison to vertical condensation, lateral condensation and combined groups. Conclusion The study concludes that two different methods i.e. bacterial and dye leakage revealed considerable variation on the same substrate Thus, due to the presence of variability among the results obtained by two different analytical methods used in the present study

  10. Excited states and reduced and oxidized forms of a textile diazo dye, naphthol blue black. Spectral characterization using laser flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Chouhaid; Vinodgopal, K.; Hotchandani, Surat; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Kamat, Prashant V.

    1997-01-01

    The excited singlet and triplet states of a diazo textile dye (Naphthol Blue Black) have been investigated by pico and nanosecond flash photolysis. The excited singlet state shows a difference absorption maximum at 500 nm and has a lifetime of 25-30 ps in ethanol. The triplet excited state generated by triplet-triplet energy transfer shows an absorption maxima at 710-730 nm. The oxidized form as well as the reduced form of the diazo dye have been generated pulse radiolytically by reacting with azide and e aq radicals, respectively. Preliminary results of the photoelectrochemical irreversible reduction of Naphthol Blue Black in colloidal TiO 2 are also reported.

  11. Bifunctional core-shell nanocomposite Mn-doped ZnO/Fe3O4 for photodegradation of reactive blue 198 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Cuong

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of manganese doped ZnO have been prepared by co-precipitation method. Photocatalytic activity results show that 9% of Mn in Mn-doped ZnO exhibited the highest photodegradation efficiency of reactive blue 198 dye. Additionally, excellent photocatalytic activity was observed when the molar ratio of Mn-doped ZnO/Fe3O4 was 1:1. The photodegradation of reactive blue 198 (RB198) dye was carried out with different illumination times, initial concentrations of dye, amounts of photocatalyst and pH of medium. The results reveal that the degradation efficiency of reactive blue 198 were 99% at the concentration of 30 ppm for 25 min when the amount of catalyst was 5 g L-1. The photodegradation of dye increased with increasing catalyst load. Furthermore, the prepared magnetic nanoparticles could also serve as convenient recyclable photocatalysts because of their magnetic properties. As a result, the removal of dye was still 90% after three times recycling.

  12. A simple colorimetric method to screen drug cytotoxicity against Leishmania using the dye Alamar Blue.

    PubMed

    Mikus, J; Steverding, D

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative colorimetric assay using the oxidation-reduction indicator Alamar Blue was developed to measure cytotoxicity of compounds against the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Absorbance increased linearly with the plating density of promastigotes of L. major MRHO/IR/76 vaccine strain up to at least 2.5 x 10(6) cells/ml when parasites were incubated for 72 h in the presence of 10% Alamar Blue. The 50% effective dose values of common drugs (amphotericin B, pentostam and paromomycin) obtained by this assay were in the same range as previously determined by other methods. The Alamar Blue assay permits a simple, reproducible and reliable method for screening antileishmanial drugs. PMID:11227767

  13. Environmental photochemistry on semiconductor surfaces. Visible light induced degradation of a textile diazo dye, naphthol blue black, on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr, C.; Hotchandani, S.; Vinodgopal, K.; Fisher, L.; Chattopadhyay, A.K.; Kamat, P.V.

    1996-05-16

    Visible light induced degradation of the textile diazo dye Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) has been carried out on TiO{sub 2} semiconductor nanoparticles. Diffuse reflectance transient absorption and FTIR techniques have been used to elucidate the mechanistic details of the dye degradation. The failure of the dye to degrade on insulator surfaces such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or in the absence of oxygen further highlights the importance of semiconducting properties of support material in controlling the surface photochemical processes. The primary event following visible light excitation is the charge injection from the excited dye molecule into the conduction band of the semiconductor TiO{sub 2}, producing the dye cation radical. This was confirmed by diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis. The surface-adsorbed oxygen plays an important role in scavenging photogenerated electrons, thus preventing the recombination between the dye cation radical and photoinjected electrons. Diffuse reflectance FTIR study facilitated identification of reaction intermediates and end products of dye degradation. By comparison with the degradation products from other azo dyes such as Chromotrope 2B and Chromotrope 2R we conclude that the NBB is degraded to a colorless naphthaquinone-like end product. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  14. X-ray photoelectron and optical absorption spectroscopic studies on the dye chlorodiane blue, used as a carrier generation molecule in organic photoconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pacansky, J.; Waltman, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    The dye chlorodiane blue, used as a carrier generation molecule in organic photoconductors, is characterized via optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the results are interpreted on the basis of ab initio quantum mechanical molecular models. These data indicate that chlorodiane blue exists as azo-enol and hydrazone-quinone chemical structures and it is the hydrazone-quinone form that provides the higher xerographic gain in electrophotographic applications. Optimized geometries, atomic charges, and molecular orbital plots and energies are reported for both the azo-enol and hydrazone-quinone forms of chlorodiane blue. The two structural forms of the dye are experimentally distinguishable via both optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the wavelength and chemical shifts, respectively, are interpreted via the theoretical results. 29 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. PMID:26852943

  16. Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.

    PubMed

    Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination. PMID:25409244

  17. New heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes from indazole: Synthesis, tautomerism, alkylation studies, spectroscopic characterization and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorhaji, Soodabeh; Pordel, Mehdi; Ramezani, Shirin

    2016-09-01

    Tautomerism and alkylation studies on the green intermediate 2-(5-hydroxyimino-1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-4-indazolyliden)-2-phenylacetonitrile led to the synthesis of new heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes in high yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and analytical data. The optical properties of the dyes were spectrally characterized by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer and results show that they exhibited interesting photophysical properties. Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of these dyes have been studied and the absorption band in polar solvents undergoes a red shift. Density functional theory calculations of the dyes were performed to provide the optimized geometries and relevant frontier orbitals. Calculated electronic absorption spectra were also obtained by time-dependent density functional theory method.

  18. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  19. Activation of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel by the triazine dyes cibacron blue F3A-G and reactive red 120

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Jones, R.V.; Meissner, G. )

    1989-11-01

    Vesicle-{sup 45}Ca2+ ion flux and planar lipid bilayer single-channel measurements have shown that the Ca2+ release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is activated by micromolar concentrations of Cibacron Blue F3A-G (Reactive Blue 2) and Reactive Red 120. Cibacron Blue increased the {sup 45}Ca2+ efflux rate from heavy SR vesicles by apparently interacting with both the adenine nucleotide and caffeine activating sites of the channel. Dye-induced {sup 45}Ca2+ release was inhibited by Mg2+ and ruthenium red. In single channel recordings with the purified channel protein complex, Cibacron Blue increased the open time of the Ca2+ release channel without an apparent change in the conductance of the main and subconductance states of the channel.

  20. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  1. Potential biosorbent derived from Calligonum polygonoides for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R (2)) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  2. Efficacy of SnO2 nanoparticles toward photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-02-01

    Maximum pollutants in the industrial and domestic waste water effluents from any sources include pathogens and organic chemicals, which can be removed before discharging into the water bodies. Methylene blue has been considered as one of the major water contaminated pollutants. Such pollutant is dominant in surface water and groundwater. It will cause irreversible hazards to human and aquatic life. Nanotechnology plays a major role in degrading such type of pollutant. In order to fulfill today's requirement, we have decided to handle the green synthesis of nanoparticles and its application by merging important fields like chemistry, environmental science, and biotechnology. Here our work emphasizes on the biological synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using the methanolic extract of Cyphomandra betacea (C.betacea), and it was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, particle size analyzer, zeta potential, and TEM. The obtained results stated that the synthesized SnO2 NPs were in rod shape with an average size of 21nm, which resulted in a product of nanobiotechnology. Further, we have utilized the environmental-friendly synthesized SnO2 NPs photocatalytic degradation of environmental concern methylene blue with first-order kinetics. In this paper, we have attempted to prove that secondary metabolite-entrapped SnO2 NPs are non-toxic to the environment. PMID:26724726

  3. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Glazers of a Ceramic Industry to Cobalt Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    KARGAR, Fatemeh; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; BARKHORDARI, Abolfazl; RAHIMI-FROUSHANI, Abbas; KHADEM, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cobalt is one of the most important constituent present in ceramic industries. Glazers are the relevant workers when they are producing blue colored ceramic, causing occupational exposure to such metal. Through this study, urinary cobalt was determined in glazers in a ceramic industry when they were producing blue-colored ceramic glazes. Methods: In this case-control study, spot urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of work shifts (totally 98 samples) in 2011. Control group were well matched for age, height, and weight. A solid phase extraction system was used for separation and preconcentration of samples followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about duration of exposure, work shift, use of mask, skin dermatitis, kind of job, ventilation system, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed on each control and cobalt exposed subjects. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the obtained results. Results: Urinary levels of cobalt were significantly higher in the glazers compared to the control group. There were significant differences at urinary concentration of cobalt at the start and end of the work shift in glazers. Spirometric parameters were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group. Among the variables used in questionnaire the significant variables were dermatitis skin, mask, ventilation, and overtime work. Conclusion: This study verified existence of cobalt in the urine glazers, showing lower amount than the ACGIH standard. PMID:26056641

  4. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29) by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min). The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8) was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs. PMID:23369540

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of methylene blue dye encapsulated in nanosized hydroxyapatite/silica particles with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Chengfeng; Fan, Chengyu; Feng, Xiaoxing; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-11-01

    Organic dye of methylene blue (MB) was encapsulated in core-shell structured hydroxyapatite/silica particles (HAp/silica-MB) through a modified Stöber method with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules. It was found that MB molecules were released from HAp/silica-MB at a slower rate than those from silica-MB in deionized water. In phosphate buffered saline (pH: 7.2-7.4) and acidic solutions (pH: 1.5-1.6), the penetration of ions in the interface influenced the interaction between HAp and MB molecules, which resulted in the rapid release of MB molecules from HAp/silica-MB. From the UV-Vis absorbance spectra, one could see that MB molecules in HAp/silica-MB were weakly aggregated in comparison with those in silica-MB. For HAp/silica-MB, enhanced luminescence properties were observed in the photoluminescence spectra and dual luminescence with two emission peaks were caused by the presence of monomers and dimers. Contrarily, no photoluminescence emission was detected for samples of free MB and silica-MB under the same excitation condition because of the self-quenching effect. It was the adsorption of MB molecules on HAp that had resulted in the enlargement of intramolecular distance and the reduction of self-quenching effect. These hybrid particles with enhanced luminescent properties might find wide applications in the field of bioanalysis, bioseparation, and biomedical imaging.

  6. Band Gap Tuning of h-MoO3 Nanocrystals for Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity Against Methylene Blue Dye.

    PubMed

    Chithambararaj, A; Winston, B; Sanjini, N S; Velmathi, S; Bose, A Chandra

    2015-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in aqueous solution was investigated using hexagonal molybdenum oxide (h-MoO3) nanocrystals under visible light irradiation. Chemical precipitation method was utilized to synthesize h-MoO3 and control over the crystal size, shape and distribution were characterized by using HNO3 and HCl as precipitating reagents. The photocatalysts were examined through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX) for structural, functional, surface morphology and elemental analysis, respectively. The XRD results revealed that the samples were in single phase hexagonal crystal structure. XRD peak broadening analysis was used for crystallite size and strain estimation. The particles were anisotropic in nature and showed one dimensional (1-D) rod structure with hexagonal cross section. Further, the crystal phase stability, optical absorption and emission properties were studied by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, respectively. The photocatalytic results demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of h-MoO3 synthesized using HCl was improved, in comparison to that of HNO3 utilized h-MoO3 sample. PMID:26373056

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24552049

  8. Electrical and photoelectrical characteristic investigation of a new generation photodiode based on bromothymol blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer Imer, A.; Tombak, A.; Korkut, A.

    2016-04-01

    Bromothymol blue (BTB) with the molecular formula of C27H28Br2O5S was grown onto p-Si substrate to fabricate heterojunction by spin coating technique. The current voltage (I-V) measurements of diode were carried out in dark and under different illumination intensity at room temperature. The photoelectrical properties of heterojunction based on BTB were investigated using the illumination intensity dependent I-V data. The results showed that photo current of diode increases with the increase in light intensity. Also, the electrical parameters of device were determined via I-V, and capacitance- voltage (C-V), conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements at different frequencies. It is observed that the excess capacitance is created at low frequencies due to the contribution of interface states charge which can follow the alternative current signal to capacitance. It is stated that, both the electrical & photoelectrical parameters of diode can be changed, and also the performance of the device could be affected by the organic thin film interlayer.

  9. Methylene blue photosensitised strand cleavage of DNA: effects of dye binding and oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    OhUigin, C; McConnell, D J; Kelly, J M; van der Putten, W J

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that methylene blue (MB+) photosensitises DNA in either aerated or deaerated solutions, causing direct cleavage of phosphodiester bonds and rendering additional bonds labile to alkali. Evidence from unwinding and fluorimetric studies indicates that MB+ binds to DNA in at least 2 ways. Intercalation, which optimally induces helical unwinding of 24 degrees +/- 2 degrees per MB+, is markedly reduced upon neutralisation by Mg2+ of the DNA phosphates, while significant non-intercalative binding persists as shown by substantial fluorescence quenching at Mg2+ concentrations where there is little unwinding. MB+ induces photolysis at both low and high Mg2+ concentration - intercalation is apparently not required for photolysis. The quantum yield for strand breakage varies from 1-3 X 10(-7) under different conditions and is oxygen enhanced. The DNA cleavage is guanine specific. The 3' termini of the primary MB+-induced DNA photoproducts, unlike those generated by chemical sequencing retain an alkali labile adduct on the terminal phosphate. Images PMID:2821508

  10. Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Song, Yo-Seung; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2016-02-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was examined using W-doped TiO2 nanofibers prepared by a sol-gel derived electrospinning and subsequent calcination for 4 h at 550 degrees C. Different concentrations of W dopant in the range of 0 to 8 mol% were synthesized to evaluate the effect of W concentration on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. XRD results indicated that the undoped TiO2 is composed of anatase and rutile phases. The rutile phase was transformed to anatase phase completely with the W doping. Among W-TiO2 catalysts, the 2 mol% W-TiO2 catalyst showed the highest MB degradation rate. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 1.04 x 10(-3) min(-1) to 3.54 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of W doping from 0 to 2 mol%, but decreased down to 1.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the W content was 8 mol%. It can be concluded that the degradation of MB under UV radiation was more efficient with W-TiO2 catalysts than with pure TiO2- PMID:27433681

  11. Electron transfer in the quenching of protonated triplet methylene blue by ground-state molecules of the dye

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Lichtin, N.N.

    1981-04-02

    A Q-switched pulsed ruby laser emitting at 694.3 nm was used in an investigation by means of flash photolysis-kinetic spectrophotometry of the mechanism of quenching of the monoprotonated lowest triplet state of methylene blue, /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/, by the ground state of the dye, MB/sup +/. Quenching in 0.01 N acid is accompanied by electron transfer to give the half-oxidized and half-reduced ion radicals, MB/sup 2 +/. and MBH/sup +/.. The absorption spectrum of MB/sup 2 +/. has been characterized in several media from 360 to 600 nm. The rate constant for quenching, k/sub q/, varies with solvent, ionic strength, and nature of anions with values around 1 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ in water, aqueous CH/sub 3/CN, and aqueous EtOH. The efficiency of net electron transfer in quenching, F/sub 1/(= k/sub et//k/sub q/), varies with solvent but is independent of the ionic strength or the nature of the anions. F/sub 1/ varies inversely with polarity of the solvent from 0.055 in water to 0.48 in 90% (vol/vol) aqueous CH/sub 3/CN. On the basis of analogy to the behavior of a number of other quenchers and the observed linear variation of the function ln ((1/F/sub 1/)-1) with Kosower's polarity parameter Z, it is suggested that reversible electron transfer is the only significant mechanism of quenching of /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ by MB/sup +/(S/sub 0/). Both MBH/sup +/. and MB/sup 2 +/. decay by second-order processes in solvents containing 75% (vol/vol) or less of organic component but the specific rates are different for the two species in most media. It is suggested that in the latter media both cross reaction of MBH/sup +/. with MB/sup 2 +/. and biomolecular reaction of two molecules of the same radical occur. This study shows that ground-state quenching can significantly reduce the sunlight engineering efficency of photogalvanic conversion in systems incorporating relatively concentrated dyes.

  12. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for the removal of methylene blue dye from water by nano zero-valent iron (NZVI).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Morteza; Arabi, Simin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, iron zero-valent nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and studied for removal of methylene blue dye in water solution. The reactions were mathematically described as the function of parameters such as nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) dose, pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, and were modeled by the use of response surface methodology. These experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 30 experiments determined by the 2(4) full factorial designs with eight axial points and six center points. The results revealed that the optimal conditions for dye removal were NZVI dose 0.1-0.9 g/L, pH 3-11, contact time 20-100 s, and initial dye concentration 10-50 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 92.87% was observed, which very close to the experimental value (92.21%) in batch experiment. In the optimization, R(2) and R(2)adj correlation coefficients for the model were evaluated as 0.96 and 0.93, respectively. PMID:27438238

  13. Optimization by Response Surface Methodology of the adsorption of Coomassie Blue dye on natural and acid-treated clays.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Priscila F; Magriotis, Zuy M; Rossi, Marco A L S; Resende, Ricardo F; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2013-11-30

    The effect of acid treatment on natural agalmatolite (AN) and natural kaolinite (KN) was investigated, together with the influence of those modifications on the removal of Coomassie Blue (CB) dye. The process was optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) developed by the application of the quadratic model associated with the Central Composite Design. Adsorption was promoted by initial CB concentration of 25 mg L(-1), pH 2 and adsorbent mass of 0.1 g. The adsorption kinetics study carried out in optimized conditions established that the equilibrium times were 1 h for AN and AA (treated agalmatolite), 4 h for KN and 2 h for KA (treated kaolinite). The kinetics data for AN, KN and KA were best fitted to the pseudo second order model, whilst for AA, the result pointed to the pseudo first order model. In the isotherm of adsorption the maximum quantities were obtained with reference to 11.29 mg g(-1), 9.84 mg g(-1), 22.89 mg g(-1) and 30.08 mg g(-1) for the samples AN, AA, KN and KA respectively. The data fitting showed that the Sips model was the most satisfactory for all the adsorbents. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the process was spontaneous in all the adsorbents, endothermic for the KN and KA samples, exothermic for AN and AA, involved the disorganization of the adsorption system for the KN and KA and its organization for the AN and AA samples. The results showed that the KN and KA samples were more appropriate for use as adsorbents. PMID:24141066

  14. Indian ink vs tissue marking dye: a quantitative comparison of two widely used macroscopical staining tool.

    PubMed

    Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Guner, Gunes; Ates, Deniz

    2010-07-01

    The evaluation of the surgical margins is a major concern in surgical pathology, and marking of surgical margins with substances such as alcian blue, Tipp-ex, artist's pigments, colored gelatin, starch, erythrocyte layers, etc. was recommended for this purpose; Indian ink and tissue marking dyes are widely used. As there is no systematic study comparing tissue marking dyes and Indian ink as the most common substances used for the purpose, this study was conducted to compare the two. Penetration into the tissue, brightness under the microscope, the spreading area of one drop of dye on tissue paper, the intensity of colors, and unit price were compared for each of the five colors of Rotring's Indian ink and Thermo-Shandon's tissue marking dyes, applied on reduction mammoplasty specimens. Rotring's Indian ink is proved to be just as effective as Thermo-Shandon's tissue marking dye and bares the majority of the characteristics of a perfect staining substance, which are easily applied, quickly fixed, durable and cheap, contain no potential contaminants, be work safe, would not smudge/stain surrounding tissues, and look bright under the microscope without obscuring the view. PMID:20559655

  15. One-pot green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and its catalytic activity toward methylene blue dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinothkannan, M.; Karthikeyan, C.; Gnana kumar, G.; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin

    2015-02-01

    The reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile one-pot green synthesis by using solanum trilobatum extract as a reducing agent. Spherical shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with the diameter of 18 nm were uniformly anchored over the RGO matrix and the existence of fcc structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles over the RGO matrix was ensured from X-ray diffraction patterns. The amide functional groups exist in the solanum trilobatum extract is directly responsible for the reduction of Fe3+ ions and GO. The thermal stability of GO was increased by the removal of hydrophilic functional groups via solanum trilobatum extract and was further promoted by the ceramic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The ID/IG ratio of RGO/Fe3O4 was increased over GO, indicating the extended number of structural defects and disorders in the RGO/Fe3O4 composite. The catalytic efficiency of prepared nanostructures toward methylene blue (MB) dye degradation mediated through the electron transfer process of BH4- ions was studied in detail. The π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction exerted between the RGO/Fe3O4 composite and methylene blue, increased the adsorption efficiency of dye molecules and the large surface area and extended number of active sites completely degraded the MB dye within 12 min.

  16. One-pot green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and its catalytic activity toward methylene blue dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Vinothkannan, M; Karthikeyan, C; Gnana kumar, G; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin

    2015-02-01

    The reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile one-pot green synthesis by using solanum trilobatum extract as a reducing agent. Spherical shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with the diameter of 18 nm were uniformly anchored over the RGO matrix and the existence of fcc structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles over the RGO matrix was ensured from X-ray diffraction patterns. The amide functional groups exist in the solanum trilobatum extract is directly responsible for the reduction of Fe(3+) ions and GO. The thermal stability of GO was increased by the removal of hydrophilic functional groups via solanum trilobatum extract and was further promoted by the ceramic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The ID/IG ratio of RGO/Fe3O4 was increased over GO, indicating the extended number of structural defects and disorders in the RGO/Fe3O4 composite. The catalytic efficiency of prepared nanostructures toward methylene blue (MB) dye degradation mediated through the electron transfer process of BH4(-) ions was studied in detail. The π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction exerted between the RGO/Fe3O4 composite and methylene blue, increased the adsorption efficiency of dye molecules and the large surface area and extended number of active sites completely degraded the MB dye within 12 min. PMID:25311523

  17. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills. PMID:26744931

  18. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  19. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm.W-1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs.

  20. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes. PMID:27150785

  1. Oligomeric Amyloid-β Toxicity Can Be Inhibited by Blocking Its Cellular Binding in Cortical Neuronal Cultures with Addition of the Triphenylmethane Dye Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Jana, Metta K; Cappai, Roberto; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D

    2016-08-17

    Accumulation of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers in the brain has been suggested to cause neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous findings showed that the binding of Aβ trimer and tetramer to neurons is significantly correlated with Aβ-induced neuronal cell death. We propose blocking of neuronal binding of these neurotoxic Aβ oligomers as a therapeutic strategy for preventing this disease. To test this, a nontoxic triphenylmethane dye, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which has been reported to modulate Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity, was investigated using mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures treated with photoinduced cross-linked toxic Aβ40 oligomers as well as soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides. We found that the BBG-induced decrease in Aβ binding resulted in a significant decrease in its neurotoxicity. These findings support our hypothesis that disruption of cellular Aβ binding is a promising therapeutic strategy for combating AD. PMID:27258855

  2. Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Polat, Tülin Gürkan; Bozoğlan, Bahar Kancı

    2016-08-20

    In this study, magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (OMWCNT)-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized and used as adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by using of specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements. The results of characterization analyses exhibited that OMWCNT was successfully modified with κ-carrageenan. Furthermore, OMWCNT-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were of a super-paramagnetic property. Adsorption studies revealed that the data of adsorption kinetics and isotherm were well fitted by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption amounts of magnetic adsorbents increased with contact time and initial dye concentration. Compared with magnetic OMWCNT-Fe3O4 nanocomposite, magnetic OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed a better adsorption performance for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. Therefore, OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite may be used as a magnetic adsorbent to remove the cationic dyes from wastewaters. PMID:27178911

  3. Application of central composite design and artificial neural network in modeling of reactive blue 21 dye removal by photo-ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Mehrizad, Ali; Gharbani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with use of central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN) in modeling and optimization of reactive blue 21 (RB21) removal from aqueous media under photo-ozonation process. Four effective operational parameters (including: initial concentration of RB21, O(3) concentration, UV light intensity and reaction time) were chosen and the experiments were designed by CCD based on response surface methodology (RSM). The obtained results from the CCD model were used in modeling the process by ANN. Under optimum condition (O(3) concentration of 3.95 mg L(-1), UV intensity of 20.5 W m(-2), reaction time of 7.77 min and initial dye concentration of 40.21 mg L(-1)), RB21 removal efficiency reached to up 98.88%. A topology of ANN with a three-layer consisting of four input neurons, 14 hidden neurons and one output neuron was designed. The relative significance of each major factor was calculated based on the connection weights of the ANN model. Dye and ozone concentrations were the most important variables in the photo-ozonation of RB21, followed by reaction time and UV light intensity. The comparison of predicted values by CCD and ANN with experimental results showed that both methods were highly efficient in the modeling of the process. PMID:27386996

  4. Efficient and rapid adsorption characteristics of templating modified guar gum and silica nanocomposite toward removal of toxic reactive blue and Congo red dyes.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sagar; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Mahato, Vivekananda; Sarkar, Supriyo; Singh, R P

    2015-09-01

    The present study highlights the potentiality of sol-gel synthesized guar gum-graft-poly (acrylamide)/silica (g-GG/SiO2) hybrid nanocomposite toward the rapid removal of toxic reactive blue 4 (RB) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution. Various physicochemical characterizations support the feasibility of the functionalized guar gum matrix as efficient template for the formation of homogeneous nanoscale silica particles. The composite demonstrates rapid and superior adsorption efficiency of RB (Qmax: 579.01 mg g(-1) within 40 min) and CR (Qmax: 233.24 mg g(-1) within 30 min) dyes from aqueous environment. Here, the pH driven adsorption process depends strongly on the ionic strength of the salt solution. The adsorption kinetics data predicts that pseudo second-order (surface adsorption) and intraparticle diffusion take place simultaneously. The adsorption equilibrium is in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm, while the thermodynamics study confirms spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Desorption study predicts the excellent regenerative efficacy of nanocomposite. PMID:26002148

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of dye naphthol blue black in the presence of zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chunjie; Guo Yihang; Hu Changwen; Wang Chungang; Li Danfeng

    2004-02-02

    Zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates, Li{sub 5}PW{sub 11}TiO{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 11}Ti/ZrO{sub 2}) and K{sub 7}PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}), were prepared by incorporating PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster into a zirconia matrix via a sol-gel technique. These insoluble and readily separable composites were characterized by DR-UV (DR: diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectra, {sup 31}P MAS NMR, ICP-AES, and nitrogen adsorption determination, indicating that the clusters were chemically attached to the zirconia supports, and the primary Keggin structure remained intact. The photocatalytic activity of the supported PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} was tested via degradation of an aqueous dye naphthol blue black (NBB). It indicated that the dye NBB can be degraded totally and mineralized into the inorganic products such as CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions by irradiating the composite slurry in the near-UV area. Dropped of PW{sub 11}Ti or PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster from the zirconia matrix into the reaction system was hardly observed during the photocatalytic tests, attributed to the strong chemical interactions between the Keggin units and the zirconia support.

  6. A simplified post preparation technique after Thermafil obturation: evaluation of apical microleakage and presence of voids using methylene blue dye penetration

    PubMed Central

    Pusinanti, Luca; Rubini, Riccardo; Pellati, Agnese; Zerman, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To evaluate the apical microleakage of Thermafil obturations after three different post space preparation techniques. Materials and methods 33 root canals of mono-radiculated extracted teeth were prepared with M two and then obturated with Thermafil. Teeth so treated were then divided into three groups and the post space to middle root was prepared using three different techniques. In samples in group A the housing for the post was created using a Torpan bur, and the carrier was partially removed only in the coronal portion. In samples in group B the carrier was completely removed and gutta-percha was hand compacted, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. In samples in group C the carrier was completely removed, without guttapercha compaction, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. The roots were immersed for 72 hours in methylene blue dye solution and sectioned transversely at 1-3-5 mm from the apex for evaluation of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The data collected were processed using Win CAD software and subjected to statistical analysis using the Student t test for p<0.05. Results There were no significant differences between the three groups, except for the presence of voids in the intermediate section of teeth in groups B and C. Conclusions Post space preparation did not influence the apical seal, and gutta-percha without voids was always found in the last millimetre of the canal obturation. This study proposes a post preparation technique which provides for complete carrier removal using pliers, hand compaction of residual gutta-percha with a manual plugger and enlargement of the root canal, using appropriate post space burs, free of any interference from the carrier. Operating time is reduced, as is the risk of creating ledges or iatrogenic perforations. PMID:23991269

  7. Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubikova, P.; Solc, J.; Novotny, J., Jr.; Pilarova, K.; Pipek, J.; Koncekova, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS.

  8. The Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 Dye onto Cucurbit[8]uril and Cucurbit[6]uril: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaolei; Luo, Hanhan; Lu, Huijuan; Chen, Feifei; Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption behavior and mechanism of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) on cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) were investigated. The adsorption isotherm data obtained at different temperatures were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, CB[8] and CB[6] exhibited maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 714.29 and 100.5 mg/g, respectively, at 298.15 K. The adsorption thermodynamic functions ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS were evaluated and revealed that RB19 adsorption onto CB[8] and CB[6] is a spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process. The adsorption process was determined to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that chemisorption dominates the adsorption process. Fourier tranform IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the formation of an inclusion complex is the main driving force of adsorption. The phenyl and sulfone moieties of RB19 reside inside the cavity of CB[8], but because of the small cavity, only the sulfone of RB19 resides inside the cavity of CB[6]. Time-dependent DFT calculations revealed that all of the absorption bands of RB19 derive from π → π* transitions, while for the adsorption product of CB[8], the bands located at 590 and 287 nm derive from π → π* transitions and the bands located at 254 and 202 nm mainly derive from intermolecular charge transfer (ICT). PMID:27064317

  9. Crystal Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Al-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deuk Yong; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn

    2016-05-01

    Al-TiO2 nanofibers were prepared using a sol-gel derived electrospinning by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the crystal structure and the photocatalytic activity of Al-TiO2 for methylene blue (MB) degradation. XRD results indicated that as the Al/Ti molar ratio rose, crystal structure of Al-TiO2 was changed from anatase/rutile (undoped), anatase (0.07-0.18), to amorphous phase (0.38-0.73), which was confirmed by XPS and Raman analysis. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 7.3 x 10(-4) min(-1) to 4.5 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of Al/Ti molar ratios from 0 to 0.38, but decreased to 3.4 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the Al/Ti molar ratio reached 0.73. The Al-TiO2 catalyst doped with 0.38 Al/Ti molar ratio demonstrated the best MB degradation. Experimental results indicated that the Al doping in Al-TiO2 was mainly attributed to the crystal structure of TiO2 and the photocatalytic degradation of MB. PMID:27483928

  10. Efficient Blue-Colored Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Enhanced Charge Collection by Using an in Situ Photoelectrochemically Generated Conducting Polymer Hole Conductor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Holcombe, Thomas W; Boschloo, Gerrit; Johansson, Erik M J; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-05-18

    A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5 % was achieved by efficiently incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dye with a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenediothiophene) (PEDOT) hole-transporting material (HTM) that was formed in situ, compared with a PCE of 2.9 % for small molecular spiro-OMeTAD-based solid-state dye solar cells (sDSCs). The high PCE for PEDOT-based sDSCs is mainly attributed to the significantly enhanced charge-collection efficiency, as a result of the three-order-of-magnitude higher hole conductivity (0.53 S cm(-1) ) compared with that of the widely used low molecular weight HTM spiro-OMeTAD (3.5×10(-4)  S cm(-1) ). PMID:26919196

  11. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  12. Influence of the layer charge and clay particle size on the interactions between the cationic dye methylene blue and clays in an aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Miguel G; Gessner, Fergus; Schmitt, Carla C; Sartori, Rogerio

    2002-11-15

    The spectroscopic behavior of the dye MB in suspensions of different clays have been used for evaluating layer charge density influence on the adsorption properties of the particles. The clays with higher charge density, like SAz-1 and SCa-3, promote a higher aggregation and do not show deaggregation at longer times, so that practically only the aggregate peak at approximately 570 nm is observed, without any change with time. This is due to, on one side, the larger particle size that decreases the surface area available for adsorption. Additionally, the clay layers will be held together more tightly, avoiding the migration of the dye to the interlamellar region. On the other hand, SWy-1, having a lower charge density, shows a completely different behavior. The dye molecules, initially adsorbed as aggregates on the outer surface of the clay, deaggregate to form monomers that migrate to the interlamellar spaces, giving rise to absorption bands at 670 and 760 nm. Experiments using Ca-exchanged SWy-1, variation of the ionic strength by addition of salt, and the use of different size fractions of the clays confirm the finding that the main factor ruling the adsorption behavior of the probe is the size of the clay particles. PMID:12505071

  13. Cadmium oxide nanoparticles grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K; Walkenfort, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO-CdO nanocomposites have been synthesized using one step hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of CdO NPs, rGO, and rGO-CdO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis.) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques. The rGO has a sharp 2D peak compared to GO. The sharp nature of 2D band may be due to the larger contribution from single layer sheet. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples has been investigated under UV irradiation. The results of photocatalytic measurements revealed that ~80% of MB dye is degraded by adding the rGO-CdO nanocomposites as photocatalysts into the dye solution. The decrease in the intensity of emission peaks indicates that the photogenerated charge carriers have been transferred from CdO NPs to rGO sheets, which causes to increase the density of O2(-) and OH radicals in the dye solution. The CdO nanoparticles gown on the rGO sheets showed enhanced ferromagnetism (FM) at room temperature, which may be attributed to the short range magnetic interaction of magnetic moments of CdO NPs and spin units present on the rGO sheets. PMID:27045279

  14. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  15. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility. PMID:26177415

  16. Efficacy of calcein and Coomassie Blue dyeing of shell growing-edges and micro growth-bands: ageing juvenile of Pinctada mazatlanica (Pterioida: Pteriidae).

    PubMed

    Loria, Patricia L McCoy; Huato-Soberanis, Leonardo

    2014-09-01

    Age validation is the first step to determine shellfish species age determination. This information is vital for different inferential models used in marine ecosystem management activities. In spite that various validation techniques are used for marking carbon calcium structures, the calcein marking technique for oysters had never been used for age validation in Pinctada mazatlanica. Thus the objectives of this study included: the evaluation of calcein to mark a shell growing-edge, and the efficacy of Coomassie Blue staining on posterior shell growth, to produce visible micro growth-bands that would enable age validation of juvenile mother-of-pearl oysters. Oysters were collected and cultivated at The Perlas del Cortez S. de R. L. MI. pearl-farming operation, in Pichilingue, La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico; a total of 36 oysters (shell height 11.5-36.4 mm) were injected with calcein (0.125 g/L), and another 50 oysters (shell height 14.8-42.7 mm) were submersed in calcein (0.4 and 0.7 g/L). Shell slices of calcein-marked oysters were posteriourly stained with Coomassie Blue R-25 for micro growth-band recognition. Our results showed that Calcein marking only worked by submersion and produced a concise bright lime-green florescent band along the growing-edge with clear boundaries for both concentrations. However, marks resulted better at the lower calcein concentration (0.4 g/L) with more "perfect" and "good" marks on the growing-edge (p = 0.0012). Commassie Blue staining technique was successful, and allowed to conclude that one micro growth-band was laid down per day, similar to other oyster species. Mean 15-d increment of shell growth height was slightly greater at the lower calcein concentration (= 0.735 mm) than at the higher one (= 0.577 mm) (not significant difference, p = 0.198). Calcein marking of shell growing-edges and Commassie Blue staining of posterior shell growth, as a method for age validation is recommended for shellfish shell growth

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of the diazo dye naphthol blue black in water using MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 nanocomposites under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Mamba, Gcina; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou; Mishra, Ajay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A simple sol-gel method was employed to prepare gadolinium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania decorated on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2), using titanium (IV) butoxide and thiourea as titanium and nitrogen and sulphur source, respectively. Samples of varying gadolinium loadings (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.0% and 3.0% Gd3+) relative to titania were prepared to investigate the effect of gadolinium loading and the amounts of carbon nanotubes, nitrogen and sulphur were kept constant for all the samples. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water under simulated solar light irradiation. Higher degradation efficiency (95.7%) was recorded for the MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) nanocomposites. The higher photocatalytic activity is attributed to the combined effect of improved visible light absorption and charge separation due to the synergistic effect of Gd, MWCNTs, N, S and TiO2. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis revealed a higher degree of complete mineralisation of naphthol blue black (78.0% TOC removal) which minimises the possible formation of toxic degradation by-products such as the aromatic amines. The MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) was fairly stable and could be re-used for five times, reaching a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.8% after the five cycles. PMID:26141896

  18. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  19. The Use of Vital Dyes during Vitreoretinal Surgery - Chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Maurício; Penha, Fernando M; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. It is well known that indocyanine green is toxic to the retina and consequently not the ideal dye for chromovitrectomy. Different vital dyes has been tested for chromovitrectomy including trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein and brilliant blue. Brilliant blue seems to be the ideal dye for internal limiting membrane due to its afinity, lower toxic profile and to reduce the appearance of apoptosis. Besides the dye itself, the injection technique is crucial to avoid additional toxicity, slow injection, far from the retina and protection of the macular hole are some tips. More recently the use of dyes has been applied to stain perfluorcarbon liquids that may enhance its visualization during vitrectomy. PMID:26502062

  20. Rapid preparation of rodent testicular cell suspensions and spermatogenic stages purification by flow cytometry using a novel blue-laser-excitable vital dye

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Santiñaque, Federico F.; Folle, Gustavo A.; Souza, Elisa; López-Carro, Beatriz; Geisinger, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Availability of purified or highly enriched fractions representing the various spermatogenic stages is a usual requirement to study mammalian spermatogenesis at the molecular level. Fast preparation of high quality testicular cell suspensions is crucial when flow cytometry (FCM) is chosen to accomplish the stage/s purification. Formerly, we reported a method to rapidly obtain good quality rodent testicular cell suspensions for FCM analysis and sorting. Using that method we could distinguish and purify early meiocytes (leptotene/zygotene stages, L/Z) from more advanced ones (pachytene, P) in guinea pig, which presents an unusually high content of early stages. Here we present an upgrade of that method with improvements that enabled the obtainment of high-purity meiotic substages also from mouse testis, namely:•Shortening of the mechanical disaggregation time to optimize the integrity of the suspension.•Elimination of the 25 μm-filtration step to ensure the presence of large P cells.•Inclusion of a non-cytotoxic, DNA-specific, 488 nm-excitable vital fluorochrome (Vybrant DyeCycle Green [VDG], Invitrogen) instead of Hoechst 33342 (requires UV laser, which can damage nucleic acids) or propidium iodide (usually related to dead/damaged cells). As far as we know, this is the first report on the use of this fluorochrome for the discrimination and purification of meiotic prophase I substages. PMID:26150958

  1. Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) nano-photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmapriya, G.; Manikandan, A.; Krishnasamy, V.; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Antony, S. Arul

    2016-09-01

    Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0 to 1.0) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using metal nitrates as raw materials and glycine as the fuel. The structural, morphological and opto-magnetic properties of the spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 ferrites were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Powder XRD, and EDX analysis was confirmed the formation of pure phase of spinel ferrites. HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis was confirmed the formation of sphere like-particle morphology of the samples with smaller agglomeration. VSM analysis clearly showed the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nature of the samples. The Ms value is 3.851 emu/g for undoped ZnFe2O4 sample and it increased with increase in Ni content. Photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue (MB) dye using the samples were carried out and observed good PCD results.

  2. Fluorescence properties of organic dyes: quantum chemical studies on the green/blue neutral and protonated DMA-DPH emitters in polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Kerkines, Ioannis S K; Petsalakis, Ioannis D; Argitis, Panagiotis; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula

    2011-12-28

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the green emitter DMA-DPH {1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene} and its protonated blue-emitter form have been studied theoretically through time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and resolution-of-identity 2nd order perturbative coupled cluster (RI-CC2) calculations with basis sets up to augmented triple-ζ quality, in the gas phase and in solvents of different polarity. These systems dispersed in a polymer matrix are of interest for applications in organic light emitting diode devices (OLEDs). Calculations show that the observed absorption and emission spectra correspond to transitions between the S(0) and S(1) states, in both systems. The nature and characteristics of these transitions are discussed. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained, both for absorption and emission, provided that the state-specific polarized continuum model (SS-PCM) method is employed for the inclusion of the solvent. PMID:22025129

  3. Hydrotalcite-TiO2 magnetic iron oxide intercalated with the anionic surfactant dodecylsulfate in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Liany D L; Bellato, Carlos R; Milagres, Jaderson L; Moura, Luciano G; Mounteer, Ann H; de Almeida, Marciano F

    2015-06-01

    The new magnetic photocatalysts HT/TiO2/Fe and HT-DS/TiO2/Fe, modified with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (DS) were successfully synthesized in this work. Titanium dioxide (anatase) followed by iron oxide were deposited on the hydrotalcite support. Several catalyst samples were prepared with different amounts of titanium and iron. The photocatalysts were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. Photocatalytic performance was analyzed by UV-visible radiation (filter cutoff, λ > 300 nm) of an aqueous solution (24 mg/L) of methylene blue (MB). The most efficient catalyst was obtained at an iron oxide:TiO2 molar ratio of 2:3. This catalyst showed high photocatalytic activity, removing 96% of the color and 61% of total organic carbon from the MB solution after 120 min. It was easily removed from solution after use because of its magnetic properties. The reuse of the HT-DS/TiO2/Fe23 catalyst was viable and the catalyst was structurally stable for at least four consecutive photocatalytic cycles. PMID:25846003

  4. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  5. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  6. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye and magneto-optical studies of magnetically recyclable spinel NixMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathubala, G.; Manikandan, A.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramar, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel doped spinel manganese ferrite (NixMn1-xFe2O4: x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles were prepared successfully by a superficial microwave irradiation technique using urea as the fuel. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was recognized the configuration of single phase spinel structure of NixMn1-xFe2O4. Debye Sherrer's formula was used to calculate the average crystallite size of the samples, which were found in the range of 15-20 nm. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the samples, which showed the particle like-morphology with smaller agglomeration, and it was also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental composition, which also evidence for the formation of single pure phase. Microwave heating method produced well crystalline nature of the products, which was confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to calculate the energy band gap and the observed values are increased slightly from 2.05 eV to 2.44 eV with increasing the Ni-dapant. Magnetic characterization of the samples were analyzed by room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique and the observed magnetization (Ms) values are decreased with increasing Ni content, due to the different magnetic moments of Mn2+ and Ni2+ cations. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue dye was carried out by self designed photo-catalytic reactor. It was observed that PCD efficiency is increased with increase in concentration of Ni and the sample Ni0.6Mn0.4Fe2O4 shows better photocatalytic activity (96.73%) than other samples.

  8. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. PMID:25017677

  9. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  10. Reverse micelles for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Majhi, S; Sharma, Y C; Upadhyay, S N

    2009-08-01

    The ability of reverse micelles to solvate organic dyes in the aqueous core was investigated with methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) surfactants in a polar amyl alcohol medium. The removal trend of the dyes from water was studied with different concentrations of the dyes. The effects of NaCl and CaCl2 salts on removal efficiency of the surfactants were investigated and results were compared. It was observed that the separation of dyes from the aqueous phase to the organic phase depends on the electrostatic interaction between the dye molecule and surfactant head groups. In the case of NaCl, with increasing salt concentration, the removal (%) of dye decreases. For CaCl2, removal of methyl orange shows a gradual increase with increasing dye concentration, whereas, for methylene blue, its removal decreases with increasing dye concentration. PMID:19803326

  11. Photo-Induced Inactivation of Viruses: Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Thionine, and Thiopyronine on Qβ Bacteriophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jockusch, Steffen; Lee, Denis; Turro, Nicholas J.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1996-07-01

    The adsorption of cationic organic dyes (methylene blue, thionine, and thiopyronine) on Qβ bacteriophage was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The dyes have shown a strong affinity to the virus and some have been used as sensitizers for photo-induced inactivation of virus. In the methylene blue concentration range of 0.1-5 μ M and at high ratios of dye to virus (greater than 1000 dye molecules per virion), the dyes bind as aggregates on the virus. Aggregation lowers the efficiency of photoinactivation because of self-quenching of the dye. At lower ratios of dye to virus (lower than 500 dye molecules per virion), the dye binds to the virus as a monomer. Fluorescence polarization and time-resolved studies of the fluorescence support the conclusions based on fluorescence quenching. Increasing the ionic strength (adding NaCl) dissociates bound dye aggregates on the virus and releases monomeric dye into the bulk solution.

  12. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  13. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  14. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  15. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  16. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  17. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  18. Antimalarial dyes revisited: xanthenes, azines, oxazines, and thiazines.

    PubMed Central

    Vennerstrom, J L; Makler, M T; Angerhofer, C K; Williams, J A

    1995-01-01

    In 1891 Guttmann and Ehrlich (P. Guttmann and P. Ehrlich, Berlin Klin. Wochenschr. 28:953-956, 1891) were the first to report the antimalarial properties of a synthetic, rather than a natural, material when they described the clinical cure of two patients after oral administration of a thiazine dye, methylene blue. Since that time, sporadic reports of the antimalarial properties of several xanthene and azine dyes related to methylene blue have been noted. We report here the results from a reexamination of the antimalarial properties of methylene blue. Janus green B, and three rhodamine dyes and disclose new antimalarial data for 16 commercially available structural analogs of these dyes. The 50% inhibitory concentrations for the chloroquine-susceptible D6 clone and SN isolate and the chloroquine-resistant W2 clone of Plasmodium falciparum were determined by the recently described parasite lactate dehydrogenase enzyme assay. No cross-resistance to chloroquine was observed for any of the dyes. For the 21 dyes tested, no correlation was observed between antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity against KB cells. No correlation between log P (where P is the octanol/water partition coefficient) or relative catalyst efficiency for glucose oxidation and antimalarial activity or cytotoxicity was observed for the dyes as a whole or for the thiazine dyes. The thiazine dyes were the most uniformly potent structural class tested, and among the dyes in this class, methylene blue was notable for both its high antimalarial potency and selectivity. PMID:8593000

  19. High-throughput quantitation of metabolically labeled anionic glycoconjugates by scintillation proximity assay utilizing binding to cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rees-Milton, Karen J; Anastassiades, Tassos P

    2006-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative methods suited to a large number of samples are required for studies into the determination of disease etiology and in the evaluation of drugs and biological agents. This chapter describes an assay for anionic glycoconjugates (GCs), including glycosaminoglycans, which are major gene products of chondrocytes appearing in the extracellular matrix. The assay utilizes the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged sulfate and carboxyl groups of anionic GCs synthesized and secreted by chondrocytes with the cationic dye Alcian blue, immobilized to scintillant-coated 96-well plates. Metabolic labeling with D-[1, 6-3H (N)]-glucosamine allows all anionic GCs, including cartilage-specific and hyperglycosylated variants of fibronectin, to be quantitated. If Na235SO4 is used for the metabolic labeling instead, only glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans will be quantitated. The samples are counted using a multi-detector instrument for scintillation proximity assays, such as the Wallac 1450 Microbeta Trilux, designed for detection of samples in 96-well plates and, as such, can be a high-throughput system. The bound anionic GCs can be visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after quantitation by elution with denaturing buffers. The method can be modified to include predigestion of the sample with a specific lyase, e.g., chondroitinase ABC or testicular hyaluronidase. To separate polyanions from other digested material after ethanol precipitation, the sample can be assayed as described in this chapter for a particular subtype of anionic GC. This assay addresses the need for high-throughput applications in arthritis and other medical and biological problems. PMID:17072016

  20. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  1. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  2. Dye adsorption behavior of Luffa cylindrica fibers.

    PubMed

    Demir, H; Top, A; Balköse, D; Ulkü, S

    2008-05-01

    Using natural Luffa cylindrica fibers as adsorbent removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions at different temperatures and dye concentrations was investigated in this study. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also investigated. The adsorption isotherms could be well defined with Langmuir model instead of Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters of methylene blue (MB) adsorption indicated that the adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. The average MB adsorption capacity was found out as 49 mg/g and average BET surface area of fibers was calculated as 123 m(2)/g. PMID:17919814

  3. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  4. [Sorption of sulfophthaleinic dyes by the brain synaptosomes of rats deprived of parodoxical sleep].

    PubMed

    Nilova, N S

    1984-12-01

    The influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation on sorption of bromphenol blue, bromcresol green and bromthymol blue by rat's brain synaptosomes was studied. Effect of sleep disturbance (increase in the number of dye bindings) was shown to augment with the increase in hydrophobicity of the sulfophtaleinic dye. PMID:6528362

  5. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon. PMID:16765044

  6. Study of the release of a microencapsulated acid dye in polyamide dyeing using mixed cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Isabel S C; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Rocha Gomes, Jaime I N; Real Oliveira, M Elisabete C D

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to increase the retarding effect of the acid dye Telon(®) Blue RR (C.I. Acid Blue 62; DyStar, Frankfurt, Germany) release on polyamide fibres dyeing by encapsulation of the dye in liposomes as an alternative to synthetic auxiliaries, in order to reduce effluent pollution. The retarding effect achieved with the use of mixed cationic liposomes of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB)/soybean lecithin (containing a 10% molar fraction of DODAB) was better in comparison with either pure soybean lecithin liposomes or synthetic auxiliaries. The retarding effect of liposomes on the dye release was analysed through changes in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the acid dye at different conditions. The effect of temperature (in the range of 25 °C - 70 °C) on the spectroscopic behaviour of the dye in the absence and in presence of polyamide was also studied, in order to simulate the dyeing conditions. Exhaustion curves obtained in dyeing experiments showed that, below 45 °C, the retarding effect of the mixed liposomes (lecithin/DODAB (9:1)) was similar to that of the auxiliaries, but better than the one of pure lecithin liposomes. At higher temperatures (above 45 °C), the system lecithin/DODAB presents a better performance, achieving a higher final exhaustion level when compared with the commercial leveling agent without losing the smoothing effect of lecithin. PMID:20550462

  7. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. PMID:20163502

  9. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  10. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

  11. Interactions between C.I. Basic Blue 41 and aluminosilicate sorbents.

    PubMed

    Roulia, Maria; Vassiliadis, Alexandros A

    2005-11-01

    Four aluminosilicate sorbents (montmorillonite, bentonite, raw perlite, and expanded perlite) were employed for retention of the cationic dye C.I. Basic Blue 41. Interactions between the clay and the dyestuff were investigated at several temperatures and clay:dye ratios. The mechanism behind the adsorption involves the formation of H-aggregates of the dye on both clays, followed by dye migration into the interlayer in the case of montmorillonite. Time-dependent absorbance spectra revealed the presence of various dye species in montmorillonite. Introduction of the dye molecules into the interlamellar space occurs more rapidly in bentonite than in montmorillonite. The dye molecules inserted between the clay leaves adopt different orientations and, eventually, stack in layers at increased dye loadings for both montmorillonite and bentonite. Higher dye aggregates are then present as suggested by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Dye sorption on both raw and expanded perlite proceeds via H-aggregate formation as well. PMID:15990108

  12. Solid-phase extraction and simultaneous determination of trace amounts of sulphonated and azo sulphonated dyes using microemulsion-modified-zeolite and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; El-Sheikh, Amjad H; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Walker, Gavin M

    2008-05-30

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of trace levels of five sulphonated and azo sulphonated reactive dyes: Cibacron Reactive Blue 2 (C-Blue, trisulphonated dye), Cibacron Reactive Red 4 (C-Red, tetrasulphonated azo dye), Cibacron Reactive Yellow 2 (C-Yellow, trisulphonated azo dye), Levafix Brilliant Red E-4BA (L-Red, trisulphonated dye), and Levafix Brilliant Blue E-4BA (L-Blue, disulphonated dye) in water is presented. Initially, the dyes were preconcentrated from 250 ml of water samples with solid-phase extraction using natural zeolite sample previously modified with a microemulsion. The modified zeolite exhibited an excellent extraction for the dyes from solution. The parameters that influence quantitative recovery of reactive dyes like amount of extractant, volume of dye solution, pH, ionic strength, and extraction-elution flow rate were varied and optimized. After elution of the adsorbed dyes, the concentration of dyes was determined spectrophotometrically with the aid of principle component regression (PCR) method without separation of dyes. The results obtained from PCR method were comparable to those obtained from HPLC method confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method. With the aid of SPE by M-zeolite, the concentration of dyes could be reproducibly detected over the range 25-200 ppb for C-Yellow and L-Blue and from 50 to 250 ppb for C-Blue, C-Red, and L-Red. The multivariate detection limits of dyes were found to be 15 ppb for C-Yellow and L-Blue and 25 ppb for C-Blue, C-Red, and L-Red dyes. The proposed chemometric method gave recoveries from 85.4 to 115.3% and R.S.D. from 1.0 to 14.5% for determination of the five dyes without any prior separation for solutes. PMID:18585163

  13. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  14. Polyphosphazenes with Immobilized Dyes as Potential Color Filter Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjing; Allcock, Harry R

    2015-06-24

    Red, green, and blue dye molecules were linked covalently to polyphosphazenes to generate soluble, film-forming materials appropriate for the formation of patterned tricolor filters for possible use in liquid crystalline and other display devices or in camera sensors. The monofunctional dyes (a red 1-[(E)-(4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl]-2-naphthol, a green tetraphenylporphyrin [5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin], and a toluidine blue dye) were employed as representative chromophores. The cosubstituents employed included 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy with and without aryloxy groups or cyclopentanoxy groups. The optical densities were varied by adopting several dye-to-cosubstituent side group ratios. These dyes are models for a wide range of different chromophores that can be linked to polyphosphazene chains. PMID:26018938

  15. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  16. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  17. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    PubMed Central

    Dollendorf, Christian; Kreth, Susanne Katharina; Choi, Soo Whan

    2013-01-01

    Summary A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino)-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2), blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyl)oxy)phenylamino)anthraquinone (6) and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)anthraquinone (12), as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)amino)anthraquinone (15) were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants. PMID:23503994

  18. Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Lee, Li; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wang, Zheng

    2007-11-19

    Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective material for removal of acid blue 80 in a pre or main process, particularly at high dye concentration (>300 mgL(-1)), reaching maximum removal efficiency of 95%. At low dye concentration, surface adsorption is mainly responsible for the dye removal, while chemical precipitation of the dye anions with soluble Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may play a dominant role for the dye removal at high concentration, producing much less sludge than conventional adsorption method. Solution pH has only a limited effect on the dye removal due to high alkalinity and large pH buffer capacity of AWM suspension and thereby pH is not a limiting factor in pursuing high dye removal. The presence of SO(4)(2-) could reduce the dye removal by AWM only when SO(4)(2-) concentration is beyond 0.7 mmolL(-1). The dye removal may be significantly suppressed by the presence of phosphate with increasing concentration, and the reduction in the dye removal is much larger at high dye concentrations than at low ones. PMID:17532132

  19. Time resolved spectroscopic studies of methylene blue and phenothiazine derivatives used for bacteria inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C.; Rentzepis, Peter M.

    2010-09-01

    Phenothiazine dyes are known to inactivate bacteria in whole blood and plasma caused by the singlet oxygen photo generated by these dyes. Methylene blue (MB), 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue (DMB) and toluidine blue (TB) transient singlet and triplet states spectra and their formation and decay kinetics have been measured by time resolved spectroscopy. The triplet state formation and singlet oxygen quantum yields in water are found to be approximately the same in MB and DMB. Therefore, based on our data we propose that although singlet oxygen is highly important as previously stated, the rate of inactivation is determined by the binding of the dye to the bacteria.

  20. Metachromasy as an indicator of photostabilization of methylene blue adsorbed to clays and minerals.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Maya; Mor, Omer; Rytwo, Giora

    2013-04-01

    The influence of methylene blue adsorption to different clays on its photodegradation was studied. Methylene blue in solution was decomposed by sunlight in a zero-order process. Adsorption to some clay minerals (sepiolite and vermiculite) and a zeolite (clinoptilolite) accelerated the degradation process, and converted it to a first-order reaction. On the other hand, adsorption to other clay minerals (palygorskite and montmorillonite) stabilized the dye and prevented its degradation. Interestingly, in the clay-dye complexes that exhibited stability, clear metachromasy of the adsorbed methylene blue occurred, whereas the effect was not observed in the clay-dye complexes that underwent photodegradation. PMID:23474529

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  2. Mallard blue: a high-affinity selective heparin sensor that operates in highly competitive media.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, Stephen M; Barnard, Anna; Posocco, Paola; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina; Smith, David K

    2013-02-27

    We report the simple synthesis and full investigation of a novel heparin binding dye, mallard blue, an arginine-functionalized thionine. This dye binds heparin in highly competitive media, including water with high levels of competitive electrolyte, buffered aqueous solution and human serum. The dye reports on heparin levels by a significant change in its UV-vis spectroscopic profile. Molecular dynamics modeling provides detailed insight into the binding mode. Heparin binding is shown to be selective over other glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Importantly, we demonstrate that, in the most competitive conditions, mallard blue outperforms standard dyes used for heparin sensing such as azure A. PMID:23406254

  3. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  4. Investigation of dye functional group on the photocatalytic degradation of dyes by nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vinu, R; Akki, Spurti U; Madras, Giridhar

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of five anionic, eight cationic and three solvent dyes using combustion-synthesized nano-TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO(2) (DP-25) were evaluated to determine the effect of the functional group in the dye. The degradation of the dyes was quantified using the initial rate of decolorization and mineralization. The decolorization of the anionic dyes with CS TiO(2) followed the order: indigo carmine > eosin Y > amido black 10B > alizarin cyanine green > orange G. The decolorization of the cationic dyes with DP-25 followed the order: malachite green > pyronin Y > rhodamine 6G > azure B > nile blue sulfate > auramine O approximately = acriflavine approximately = safranin O. CS TiO(2) showed higher rates of decolorization and mineralization for all the anionic dyes compared to DP-25, while DP-25 was better in terms of decolorization for most of the cationic dyes. The solvent dyes exhibited adsorption dependent decolorization. The order of decolorization and mineralization of the anionic and cationic dyes (a) with CS TiO(2) and DP-25 was different and correlated with the surface properties of these catalysts (b) were rationalized with the molecular structure of the dye and the degradation pathway of the dye. PMID:20018445

  5. Triphenylmethane dye-doped gelatin films for low-power optical phase-conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethakrishnan, T.; Sakthivel, P.; Palanisamy, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) based optical phase-conjugation (OPC) in few triphenylmethane (Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green) dye-doped gelatin films using a 633 nm He-Ne laser radiation of total power 35 mW. Phase-conjugate (PC) reflectivity from the dye films was measured by varying the experimental parameters such as incident angle between the pump-probe beams in the DFWM geometry, dopant concentrations of the gelatin film, probe beam intensity and read-out beam intensity. The maximum PC reflectivity was observed in the Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green sensitized gelatin films were 0.22%, 0.24%, 0.07% and 0.13%, respectively. The origin of the mechanism of the PC wave generation from these dye films is also reported.

  6. Polymer composites containing photochromic dye solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Sakiyama, Kohei; Mochizuki, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    Photochromic polymer composites were fabricated by encapsulating dye solution in a polycarbonate membrane. The membrane contained through holes of 50 nm diameter. These nanoholes provided a sufficient free volume for the dye molecules to change their structure in the photochromic isomerization process. A polymer composite containing a toluene solution of diarylethene exhibited red color when it was irradiated with violet laser, and returned to the transparent state by green laser irradiation. Another polymer composite containing spiropyran turned to blue by ultraviolet lamp irradiation and returned to the transparent state by green laser irradiation. A nonlinear input-output characteristic and a rewritable-grating function were demonstrated by using these photochromic polymers.

  7. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  8. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  9. Blue upconversion thulium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.; Weber, M.E.; Dulick, M.

    1990-01-01

    Upconversion has been an active area of research for at least two decades, mainly because of its wide ranging applications from infrared quantum counters, visible-emitting phosphors, to upconversion lasers. The upconversion lasers have recently become attractive with the advent of semiconductor laser diodes as the pump source. In an upconversion laser, the laser active ion is excited by internal upconversion of near-ir or red light via multiphoton excitation or cooperative processes and emits anti-Stokes visible light. Since the laser diode output wavelength can be composition turned to match the upconversion laser ion absorption lines, a substantial fraction of the ions can be driven into higher energy levels, thus enhancing the upconversion process. These upconversion solid-state lasers offer a potentially simple and compact source of visible coherent light with semiconductor laser diode excitation. We recently reported a novel upconversion thulium laser that emits blue light at 77 K. In this paper additional data on this 77 K upconversion laser as well as preliminary results on the room temperature upconversion laser are presented. In these demonstrations, dye lasers were used instead of diode lasers because they were more readily available than high power semiconductor laser diodes and their wavelengths could be adjusted easily. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  11. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  12. Inactivation of yeast hexokinase by Cibacron Blue 3G-A: spectral, kinetic and structural investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Puri, R N; Roskoski, R

    1994-01-01

    Yeast hexokinase, a homodimer (100 kDa), is an important enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. Although Cibacron Blue 3G-A (Reactive Blue 2) has been previously shown to inactivate yeast hexokinase, no comprehensive study exists concerning the nature of interaction(s) between hexokinase and the blue dye. A comparison of the computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) representations showed considerable overlap of the purine ring of ATP, a nucleotide substrate of hexokinase, with the hydrophobic anthraquinone moiety of the blue dye. The visible spectrum of the blue dye showed a characteristic absorption band centred at 628 nm. The visible difference spectrum of increasing concentration of the dye and the same concentrations of the dye plus a fixed concentration of hexokinase exhibited a maximum, a minimum and an isobestic point at 683, 585, and 655 nm respectively. The visible difference spectrum of the blue dye and the dye in 50% ethylene glycol showed a maximum and a minimum at 660 and 570 nm respectively. The visible difference spectrum of the blue dye in the presence of the dye and hexokinase modified at the active site by pyridoxal phosphate, iodoacetamide and o-phthalaldehyde was devoid of bands characteristic of the hexokinase-blue dye complex. Size-exclusion-chromatographic studies in the absence or presence of guanidinium chloride showed that the enzyme inactivated by the blue dye was co-eluted with the unmodified enzyme. The dialysis residue obtained after extensive dialysis of the gel-filtered complex, against a buffer of high ionic strength, showed an absorption maximum at 655 nm characteristic of the dye-enzyme complex. Inactivation data when analysed by 'Kitz-Wilson'-type kinetics for an irreversible inhibitor, yielded values of 0.05 min-1 and 92 microM for maximum rate of inactivation (k3) and dissociation constant (Kd) for the enzyme-dye complex respectively. Sugar and nucleotide substrates protected hexokinase against inactivation by the blue dye. About 2

  13. The Blue Bottle Experiment--Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamcikova, L'ubica; Sevcik, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explains a way of observing pattern formation in the Blue Bottle chemistry demonstration by pouring a solution containing sodium hydroxide, glucose, and dye into a Petri dish and placing the dish on an overhead projector. (WRM)

  14. Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h. PMID:12396133

  15. Spectral shifting by dyes to enhance algae growth.

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Quinn, M F; Fekri, M; Murad, M; Ahmed, S A

    1984-11-01

    The photosynthetic growth action spectrum of a green alga at three bands of visible light (blue, orange, and red) at fixed quanta input and under light-limiting conditions was measured in a batch cultivation system. Quantum efficiencies (biomass dry weight increment per quanta absorbed) were better in the yellow-red region than in the blue region. Results served as a basis for the design and optimization of a dye system that would shift the energy of solar radiation to the required wavelength range by absorbing ultraviolet to blue radiation and emitting in the yellow-red, thus enhancing algae growth. Direct incorporation of dyes into the growth medium, although theoretically expected to enhance growth, in fact resulted in dye decomposition, toxicity to algae and consequently in growth inhibition. Indirect application of dyes in a double tubular reactor (algae inside and dye solution outside) demonstrated growth enhancement for certain dyes with high quantum yields and stability, which had suitable absorption/emission spectra for artificial light sources used. The maximum indirect growth enhancement was obtained using rhodamine 6G at a concentration of 3x10(-5)M with tungsten filament lamp sources. PMID:18551655

  16. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students. PMID:19810348

  17. Evaluation of laser dye mutagenicity using the Ames/Salmonella microsome test

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, B.J.Y.; Felton, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five laser dyes and four analogs were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames/Salmonella test. Seven dyes and two analogs gave positive mutagenic responses with bacterial strains TA-1538 and TA98. Of two widely used families of laser dyes (coumarins and rhodamines), four coumarin samples, but none of the rhodamine samples, were mutagenic. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was determined that five mutagenic dye samples had multiple components. The dyes themselves may not be the mutagenic agents in all cases (as with Nile Blue) but may contain impurities that are mutagenic. This study indicates the need for further toxicological testing of these types of compounds. The mutagenic components of these dye mixtures, whether it is the dye or a contaminant, presents a possible hazard to those handling them. Therefore, practices and procedures for the safe handling of specific dyes should be reviewed in light of these findings.

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of disperse Blue 7.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Disperse Blue 7 is an anthraquinone dye used in cosmetics as a hair colorant in five hair dye and color products reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hair dyes containing Disperse Blue 7, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Disperse Blue 7 is also used as a textile dye. The components of Disperse Blue 7 reportedly include Disperse Turquoise ALF Granules, Disperse Turquoise LF2G, Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil. No data were available that addressed the acute, short-term, or chronic toxicity of Disperse Blue 7. A mouse lymph node assay used to predict the sensitization potential of Disperse Blue 7 was negative. Although most bacterial assays for genotoxicity were negative in the absence of metabolic activation, consistently positive results were found with metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98, which were interpreted as indicative of point mutations. Studies using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells appeared to confirm this mutagenic activity. Mammalian assays for chromosome damage, however, were negative and animal tests found no evidence of dominant lethal mutations. Cases reports describe patients patch tested with Disperse Blue 7 to determine the source of apparent adverse reactions to textiles. In most patients, patch tests were negative, but there are examples in which the patch test for Disperse Blue 7 was positive. In general, anthraquinone dyes are considered frequent causes of clothing dermatitis. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that there was a paucity of data regarding the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as used in cosmetics. The following data are needed in order to arrive at a conclusion on the safety of

  19. Biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles for removal of reactive dyes from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Helan; Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Qiuran; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-08-15

    In this study, biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles with diameters less than 100 nm were developed to remove reactive dyes from simulated post-dyeing wastewater with remarkably high efficiency. Reactive dyes are widely used to color cellulosic materials, such as cotton and rayon. Wastewater from reactive dyeing process contains up to 50% dye and electrolytes with concentrations up to 100 g L(-1). Current methods to remove reactive dyes from wastewater are suffering from low adsorption capacities or low biodegradability of the sorbents. In this research, biodegradable zein nanoparticles showed high adsorption capacities for dyes. Hollow zein nanoparticles showed higher adsorption for Reactive Blue 19 than solid structures, and the adsorption amount increased as temperature decreased, pH decreased or initial dye concentration increased. At pH 6.5 and pH 9.0, increasing electrolyte concentration could improve dye adsorption significantly. Under simulated post-dyeing condition with 50.0 g L(-1) salt and pH 9.0, maximum adsorption of 1016.0 mg dye per gram zein nanoparticles could be obtained. The adsorption capacity was much higher than that of various biodegradable adsorbents developed to remove reactive dye. It is suggested that the hollow zein nanoparticles are good candidates to remove reactive dye immediately after dyeing process. PMID:23643969

  20. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions. PMID:23852534

  1. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  2. Potentiation of photoinactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria mediated by six phenothiazinium dyes by addition of azide ion

    PubMed Central

    Kasimova, Kamola R; Sadasivam, Magesh; Landi, Giacomo; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) using phenothiazinium dyes is mediated by reactive oxygen species consisting of a combination of singlet oxygen (quenched by azide), hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. We recently showed that addition of sodium azide paradoxically potentiated APDI of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using methylene blue as the photosensitizer, and this was due to electron transfer to the dye triplet state from azide anion, producing azidyl radical. Here we compare this effect using six different homologous phenothiazinium dyes: methylene blue, toluidine blue O, new methylene blue, dimethylmethylene blue, azure A, and azure B. We found both significant potentiation (up to 2 logs) and also significant inhibition (>3 logs) of killing by adding 10 mM azide depending on Gram classification, washing the dye from the cells, and dye structure. Killing of E. coli was potentiated with all 6 dyes after a wash, while S. aureus killing was only potentiated by MB and TBO with a wash and DMMB with no wash. More lipophilic dyes (higher log P value, such as DMMB) were more likely to show potentiation. We conclude that the Type I photochemical mechanism (potentiation with azide) likely depends on the microenvironment, i.e. higher binding of dye to bacteria. Bacterial dye-binding is thought to be higher with Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria, when unbound dye has been washed away, and with more lipophilic dyes. PMID:25177833

  3. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent). PMID:15811411

  4. MUTAGENIC SCREENING OF THREE DYES FOR MARKER GRENADES IN THE SALMONELLA REVERSION ASSAY AND THE L5178Y/TK+/-MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dyes are used by the military in M18 marker signaling grenades. The U.S. Army is concerned with evaluating any potential health hazards that might result from personal contact with the dyes in the industrial setting. Three dyes (Solvent Red 1, Disperse Blue 3, and Disperse Red 11...

  5. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    PubMed

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes. PMID:27224079

  6. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  7. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mohammad Fadhil; Zablouk, Mumtaz Abdulahad; Abid-Alameer, Abeer Muhssen

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  8. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  9. Decoloration and mineralization of reactive dyes using electron beam irradiation, Part I: Effect of the dye structure, concentration and absorbed dose (single, binary and ternary systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahdat, Ali; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Arami, M.; Bahjat, A.; Tabakh, F.; Khairkhah, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, three different reactive dyes (C.I. Reactive Red 4, C.I. Reactive Blue 2 and C.I. Reactive Yellow 4) and their blend solutions were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam. Effect of absorbed dose, dye structure and primary solution concentrations on the pH value changes, degree of decoloration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of solutions were investigated. Results show that this method is effective in decomposition and decoloration of the dyes solutions. This method can be applied in mineralization of wastewater containing different dyes.

  10. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  11. Mechanistic study of a diazo dye degradation by Soybean Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enzyme based remediation of wastewater is emerging as a novel, efficient and environmentally-friendlier approach. However, studies showing detailed mechanisms of enzyme mediated degradation of organic pollutants are not widely published. Results The present report describes a detailed study on the use of Soybean Peroxidase to efficiently degrade Trypan Blue, a diazo dye. In addition to examining various parameters that can affect the dye degradation ability of the enzyme, such as enzyme and H2O2 concentration, reaction pH and temperature, we carried out a detailed mechanistic study of Trypan Blue degradation. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS studies were carried out to confirm dye degradation and analyze the intermediate metabolites and develop a detailed mechanistic dye degradation pathway. Conclusion We report that Soybean peroxidase causes Trypan Blue degradation via symmetrical azo bond cleavage and subsequent radical-initiated ring opening of the metabolites. Interestingly, our results also show that no high molecular weight polymers were produced during the peroxidase-H2O2 mediated degradation of the phenolic Trypan Blue. PMID:23711110

  12. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  13. Maya blue: a clay-organic pigment?

    PubMed

    Van Olphen, H

    1966-11-01

    Maya Blue, a pigment used by the Mayas in Yucatan, is remarkably stable: the color is not destroyed by hot concentrated mineral acids or by heating to about 250 degrees C. The principal constituent is the colorless mineral attapulgite. It is proposed that the pigment is an adsorption complex of attapulgite and natural indigo; a synthetic equivalent may be prepared from attapulgite and either indoxylester or indigo, or by applying the vat-dyeing technique, with reduced indigo.The low dye content of the pigment (less than 0.5 percent) indicates that the dye is absorbed only on the external surfaces of the attapulgite particles and not throughout the channels in their structures. The complex as such is not stable to acids, but the stability displayed by Maya Blue is achieved simply by heating the complex to from 75 degrees to 150 degrees C for several days. An analogous stable pigment can be prepared from sepiolite and indigo. No stable pigments could be prepared from clays with platelike structures or from zeolites. PMID:17778806

  14. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  15. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  16. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  17. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... is found in the blue nightshade ( Solanum dulcamara ) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  18. Gospel and Blues Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The similarities and differences between blues and gospel music are identified and the author suggests that both blues and gospel music have inherent improvisational qualities. Methods of capitalizing on these qualities are presented. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  19. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you ...

  20. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  2. Selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes from aqueous solution on polydopamine microspheres.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianwei; Xin, Qianqian; Wu, Xuechen; Chen, Zhonghui; Yan, Ya; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Minghuan; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) microspheres, synthesized by a facile oxidation polymerization route, were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes. The adsorption processes towards nine water-soluble dyes (anionic dyes: methyl orange (MO), eosin-Y (EY), eosin-B (EB), acid chrome blue K (ACBK), neutral dye: neutral red (NR), and cationic dyes: rhodamine B (RhB), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), safranine T (ST)) were thoroughly investigated. The adsorption selectivity of organic dyes onto PDA microspheres was successfully applied for the separation of dyes mixtures. Various influential factors such as solution pH, temperature, and contact time were employed to ascertain the optimal condition for adsorption of representative organic dyes including MB, MG and NR. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics process. Five isothermal adsorption models (Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura) were used to investigate the adsorption thermodynamics properties. The results showed that the PDA microspheres owned good selective adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics process conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model was more appropriate for tracing the adsorption behavior than other isotherm models. Thus, we can conclude PDA microspheres may be a high-efficiency selective adsorbent towards some cationic dyes. PMID:26407057

  3. Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

  4. Methylene blue sensitized gelatin as a photosensitive medium for conventional and polarizing holography.

    PubMed

    Solano, C; Lessard, R A; Roberge, P C

    1987-05-15

    The properties of thin gelatin films sensitized with a dye (methylene blue) when used as a holographic material are discussed. On illumination the excited dye molecule changes its structure giving a colorless molecule. The higher rate of bleaching and therefore the higher diffraction efficiency of the developed phase gratings are obtained in an oxygen-free atmosphere. Furthermore, the light absorption probability of the dye molecules depends on its position with respect to the electric vector of the light, with the result that the exposed part of the dye becomes dichroic when illuminated with linearly polarized light. This result allows the use of this material for polarizing holography. PMID:20454433

  5. Photodynamic Inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii Using Phenothiazinium Dyes: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ragàs, Xavier; Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Phenothiazinium dyes have been reported to be effective photosensitizers inactivating a wide range of microorganisms in vitro after illumination with red light. However, their application in vivo has not extensively been explored. This study evaluates the bactericidal activity of phenothiazinium dyes against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii both in vitro and in vivo. Study Design/Materials and Methods We report the investigation of toluidine blue O, methylene blue, 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, and new methylene blue for photodynamic inactivation of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vitro. The most effective dye was selected to carry out in vivo studies using third-degree mouse burns infected with a bioluminescent A. baumannii strain, upon irradiation with a 652 nm noncoherent light source. The mice were imaged daily for 2 weeks to observe differences in the bioluminescence–time curve between the photodynamic therapy (PDT)-treated mice in comparison with untreated burns. Results All the dyes were effective in vitro against A. baumannii after 30 J/cm2 irradiation of 635 or 652 nm red light had been delivered, with more effective killing when the dye remained in solution. New methylene blue was the most effective of the four dyes, achieving a 3.2-log reduction of the bacterial luminescence during PDT in vivo after 360 J/cm2 and an 800 μM dye dose. Moreover, a statistically significant reduction of the area under the bioluminescence–time curve of PDT-treated mice was observed showing that the infection did not recur after PDT. Conclusions Phenothiazinium dyes, and especially new methylene blue, are potential photosensitizers for PDT to treat burns infected with multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vivo. PMID:20583252

  6. Biochemical response to exposure to six textile dyes in early developmental stages of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Güngördü, Abbas; Birhanli, Ayse; Ozmen, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the toxic effect of a lethal concentration of six different commercially used textile dyes on the 46th stage of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The tadpoles were exposed to Astrazon Red FBL, Astrazon Blue FGRL, Remazol Red RR, Remazol Turquoise Blue G-A, Cibacron Red FN-3G, and Cibacron Blue FN-R for 168 h in static test conditions, and thus, 168-h median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) of each dye were determined to be 0.35, 0.13, 112, 7, 359, and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, to evaluate the sublethal effects of each dye, tadpoles were exposed to different concentrations of dyes (with respect to 168-h LC(50)s) for 24 h. The alteration of selected enzyme activities was tested. For this aim, glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed. After dye exposure, the GST induction or inhibition and LDH induction indicated some possible mechanisms of oxidative stress and deterioration in aerobic respiration processes induced by the tested dyes. Findings of the study suggest that selected biomarker enzymes are useful in understanding the toxic mechanisms of these dyes in X. laevis tadpoles as early warning indicators. Therefore, these selected biomarkers may evaluate the effect of environmental factors, such as textile dye effluents and other industrial pollutants, on amphibians in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22802115

  7. Color removal from acid and reactive dye solutions by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Bellebia, S; Kacha, S; Bouberka, Z; Bouyakoub, A Z; Derriche, Z

    2009-04-01

    In this study, electrocoagulation of Marine Blue Erionyl MR (acid dye) and electrocoagulation followed by adsorption of Brilliant Blue Levafix E-BRA (reactive dye) from aqueous solutions were investigated, using aluminum electrodes and granular activated carbon (GAC). In the electrocoagulation and adsorption of dyestuff solutions, the effects of current density, loading charge, pH, conductivity, stirring velocity, contact time, and GAC concentration were examined. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as loading charges 7.46 and 1.49 F/m3, for a maximum abatement of 200 mg/L reactive and acid dye, respectively. The residual reactive dye concentration was completely removed with 700 mg/L GAC. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of a combined process to remove significant concentrations of recalcitrant dyes from water, using moderate activated carbon energy and aluminum consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment. PMID:19445327

  8. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  9. Oxidative degradation of azo dyes using tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Yanwei; Yu, Li; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the catalyzed degradation ability of tourmaline on the dyes methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB), and congo red (CR) at different pH values. Interestingly, tourmaline strongly adsorbed anionic dyes, but it did not adsorb cationic dyes. When H₂O₂ was introduced into the tourmaline-dye systems, the degradation percentage for CR catalysis by tourmaline was lower than the percentage of adsorption, whereas the opposite was true for MB and RhB systems. Notably, the catalyzed degradation decreased from 100% to 45% for MB, 100% to 15% for RhB and 100% to 25% for CR as the pH increased from 3.0 to 10.0, respectively, which was much greater than the degradation obtained for previously reported materials at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 10.0. Tourmaline catalytically degraded the dyes over a broad range of pH values, which was attributed to tourmaline automatically adjusting the pH of the dye solutions to approximately 5.5 from an initial range of 4.2-10.0. An electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping technique observed peroxyl (ROO·) and alkoxy (RO·) or alkyl (R·) radicals originated from the attack of ·OH radicals and O₂(·-) radicals, indicating that these radicals were involved in the catalyzed degradation of MB. Importantly, four intermediate products of MB at m/z 383, 316, 203 and 181 were observed by LC/MS. PMID:23876254

  10. Lignin-derived compounds as efficient laccase mediators for decolorization of different types of recalcitrant dyes.

    PubMed

    Camarero, Susana; Ibarra, David; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Angel T

    2005-04-01

    Ten phenols were selected as natural laccase mediators after screening 44 different compounds with a recalcitrant dye (Reactive Black 5) as a substrate. Their performances were evaluated at different mediator/dye ratios and incubation times (up to 6 h) by the use of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Trametes villosa laccases and were compared with those of eight known synthetic mediators (including -NOH- compounds). Among the six types of dyes assayed, only Reactive Blue 38 (phthalocyanine) was resistant to laccase-mediator treatment under the conditions used. Acid Blue 74 (indigoid dye), Reactive Blue 19 (anthraquinoid dye), and Aniline Blue (triarylmethane-type dye) were partially decolorized by the laccases alone, although decolorization was much more efficient and rapid with mediators, whereas Reactive Black 5 (diazo dye) and Azure B (heterocyclic dye) could be decolorized only in the presence of mediators. The efficiency of each natural mediator depended on the type of dye to be treated but, with the only exception being Azure B (< 50% decolorization), nearly complete decolorization (80 to 100%) was attained in all cases. Similar rates were attained with the best synthetic mediators, but the reactions were significantly slower. Phenolic aldehydes, ketones, acids, and esters related to the three lignin units were among the best mediators, including p-coumaric acid, vanillin, acetovanillone, methyl vanillate, and above all, syringaldehyde and acetosyringone. The last two compounds are especially promising as ecofriendly (and potentially cheap) mediators for industrial applications since they provided the highest decolorization rates in only 5 to 30 min, depending on the type of dye to be treated. PMID:15812000

  11. A quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) analysis of triarylmethane dye tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, Jarai; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.

    2006-01-01

    Dyes are important hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as optimal tracers, but none of these dyes can be considered an ideal water tracer. Some dyes are toxic and most sorb to subsurface materials. The objective of this study was to find the molecular structure of an optimal water tracer. We used QSAR to screen a large number of hypothetical molecules, belonging to the class of triarylmethane dyes, in regard to their sorption characteristics to a sandy soil. The QSAR model was based on experimental sorption data obtained from four triarylmethane dyes: C.I. Food Blue 2 (C.I. 42090; Brilliant Blue FCF), C.I. Food Green 3 (C.I. 42053; FD&C Green No. 3), C.I. Acid Blue 7 (C.I. 42080; ORCOacid Blue A 150%), and C.I. Acid Green 9 (C.I. 42100; ORCOacid Fast Green B). Sorption characteristics of the dyes to the sandy soil were expressed with the Langmuir isotherm. Our premise was that dye sorption can be reduced by attachment of sulfonic acid (SO 3) groups to the triarylmethane template. About 70 hypothetical dyes were created and QSAR were used to estimate sorption characteristics. The results indicated that both the position and the number of SO 3 groups affected dye sorption. Sorption decreased with increasing number of SO 3 groups attached to the molecule. Increasing the number of sulfonic acid groups also decreases the toxicity of the compounds. An optimal triarylmethane water tracer contains 4 to 6 SO 3 groups.

  12. EPR and LC-MS studies on the mechanism of industrial dye decolorization by versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Baratto, Maria Camilla; Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Pogni, Rebecca; Basosi, Riccardo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms of industrial dye transformation by versatile peroxidase were elucidated. Purified versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera adusta was able to decolorize different classes of dyes including azo and phthalocyanines, but unable to transform any of the anthraquinones tested. Kinetic constants for selected dyes were determined and the transformation products were analyzed by EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The EPR and MS analyses of the enzymatic decolorization products showed the cleavage of the azo bond in azo dyes and the total disruption of the phthalocyaninic ring in phthalocyanine dyes. The EPR analysis on two copper-containing dyes, reactive violet 5 (azo) and reactive blue 72 (phthalocyanine), showed that the transformation can or not break the metal-ion coordination bond according the dye nature. The role of the catalytic Trp172 in the dye transformation by a long-range electron transfer pathway was confirmed and the oxidation mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:25567062

  13. MUTAGENICITY EVALUATION OF THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCT CI DISPERSE BLUE 291 USING DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS OF THE SALMONELLA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Textile dyes can enter the water ecosystem through wastewater discharges potentially exposing humans through the consumption of water and food. The commercial disperse dye product C.I. Disperse Blue 291 containing the aminoazobenzene 2-[(2-bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5(diethylam...

  14. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment. PMID:23369295

  15. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuhua; Lai, Hong; Shi, Zhongliang

    2012-01-01

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment. PMID:23369295

  16. Decoloration and degradation of some textile dyes by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    2002-11-01

    The textile industry has long been one of the largest water users and polluters. Wastewater released by textile industries contains toxic refractory dye stuff at high concentration. Most of the dyes in the textile industry are non-degradable, therefore, effective treatment of dye waste effluent has not been achieved by ordinary processes. Ionizing radiation has been considered a promising process for the treatment of textile dye waste effluents. In this study, the possibility of using gamma rays to degrade or decolorize reactive dyes in water was investigated. Two different reactive dyes (Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Black 5) in aqueous solutions were irradiated at doses of 0.1-15 kGy, at 2.87 and 0.14 kGy/h dose rates. The change of absorption spectra, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the degree of decoloration (percent reduction in optical density) were examined in the presence of air and H 2O 2. The absorption bands at 664, 640, 340, 260 nm and 596, 392, 312 nm for RB15 and RB5 decreased rapidly with increasing irradiation dose. The degree of decoloration of each dye solution with irradiation dose appeared to be 100 percent for the lower concentration (50 ppm) dye solutions. The complete decoloration was observed after 1 and 15 kGy doses for RB5 and RB15, respectively. pH of RB5 and RB15 solutions was decreased from 6.15 and 6.98 to 3.40 and 3.68 with the irradiation dose. The COD reduction for all the dye solutions was approximately 76-80% at 1 and 15 kGy for RB5 and RB15. The COD reduction and the change of pH for all the dye solutions were examined similar to each other.

  17. Enhanced performance of dye co-sensitized solar cells by panchromatic light harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Rock; Yang, Hyun Sik; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong; Han, Yoon Soo

    2014-03-01

    The Photovoltaic properties of dye co-sensitized solar cells fabricated by using a one-bath mixed dye solution were compared with those of mono-sensitized devices. Co-sensitized TiO2 photo-electrodes were prepared from a mixed dye solution of M-Red [2-cyano-3(10-hexthyl-phenothiazin)acrylic acid] or D-Red [3,3'-hexyl-bis(phenothiazine-2-cyanoacrylic acid)] and S-Blue [(5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-nonyl-indolium)methylene-2-(E)-(5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-octylindolin-2-ylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-enolate)] to improve the short-circuit current (J sc ) of dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When the photo-electrode was co-sensitized from the mixed solution of M-Red (75%) and S-Blue (25%), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulting DSSCs exhibited an 11.2% increase, compared to that of M-Red dye (100%). Use of the mixed dye solution of M-red and S-Blue is thought to have ability to reduce the aggregation of S-Blue dye adsorbed on TiO2 surface, leading to an enhancement in J sc of the co-sensitized solar cells. In the case of D-Red dye, the co-sensitized device prepared from the mixed solution of D-Red (50%) and S-Blue (50%) dye showed a 31.7% enhancement in the PCE, compared to that of the solar cell with a mono (D-Red)-sensitized photo-electrode. Unlike the co-sensitization system using the mixed solution of M-Red and S-Blue, the optimum photovoltaic performance was found from the mixed solution with a 1:1 ratio (D-Red:S-Blue). This could be attributed to the adsorption rate of D-Red (dimeric red) being faster than that of M-Red (monomeric red) dye, there inducing similar adsorption rates for the D-Red and the S-blue dye in the one-bath adsorption process for co-sensitization.

  18. Harvesting of microalgae cell using oxidized dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Park, Doyoung; Oh, You-Kwan; Yoon, Sukhwan; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, oxidized dye wastewaters were tested for their potential to be used as a cheap coagulant for microalgae harvesting. Two dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO)) were selected as model dyes, and the Fenton-like reaction under high temperature (90 °C, 1 min) employed as an oxidative treatment option. A maximum harvesting efficiency over 90% was obtained with both MB and MO at a dilution ratio of 5:1 (dye wastewater: cell culture), when the optimal oxidation condition was 20 mg/L of dye, 1 mM of FeCl3, and 0.5% of H2O2 concentration. This phenomenon could be explained by the possibility that amine groups are formed and exposed in oxidized dyes, which act as a kind of amine-based coagulant just like chitosan. This study clearly showed that dye wastewater, when properly oxidized, could serve as a potent coagulant for microalgae harvesting, potentially rendering the harvesting cost reduced to a substantial degree. PMID:26077359

  19. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment. PMID:26267709

  20. Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Takashi, Tarao; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Nanto, Hidehito

    1997-10-01

    New organic-inorganic fluorescent thin gel films included with laser dyes or fluorescent organic pigments have been prepared for display application. The florescent dyes (benzoxazolium, pyrromethene, and rhodamine dyes) and super-fine particles of fluorescent pigments (coumarin and perylene) were successfully incorporated into thin silicate gel films prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), and methoxysilane oligomer (MTSO) under acid catalyzed hydrolysis. The blue, green, and red luminescence were observed from these thin films (thickness: 100 - 400 nm), respectively. Fluorescence spectra, fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of thin gel films are examined. Fluorescent peaks for most of dyes and pigments used in gel films were similar to those in solution, and fluorescent lifetime for dyes and pigments used in gel films were 2.9 - 4.5 ns. Photostability of fluorescent gel films is dependent on fluorescent organic dyes and pigments used and/or silicate gel matrixes. Coumarin and perylene pigments have higher fluorescent quantum yield in gel film prepared from MTSO. The large Stokes shift was observed in fluorescent gel film using coumarin and benzoxazolium dyes. The coumarin and perylene pigments are significantly photo- stable in gel film prepared from MTSO, and photodegradation of perylene red after irradiation of 500 W Xi-lamp for 30 min is below 20%.

  1. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

  2. Diverse voltage-sensitive dyes modulate GABAA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Mennerick, Steven; Chisari, Mariangela; Shu, Hong-Jin; Taylor, Amanda; Vasek, Michael; Eisenman, Lawrence N.; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) are important tools for assessing network and single-cell excitability, but an untested premise in most cases is that the dyes do not interfere with the parameters (membrane potential, excitability) that they are designed to measure. We found that popular members of several different families of voltage-sensitive dyes modulate GABAA receptor with maximum efficacy and potency similar to clinically used GABAA receptor modulators. Di-4-ANEPPS and DiBAC4(3) potentiated GABA function with micromolar and high nanomolar potency respectively and yielded strong maximum effects similar to barbiturates and neurosteroids. Newer blue oxonols had biphasic effects on GABAA receptor function at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations, with maximum potentiation comparable to that of saturating benzodiazepine effects. ANNINE 6 and ANNINE 6plus had no detectable effect on GABAA receptor function. Even dyes with no activity on GABAA receptors at baseline induced photodynamic enhancement of GABAA receptors. The basal effects of dyes were sufficient to prolong IPSCs and to dampen network activity in multielectrode array recordings. Therefore, the dual effects of voltage-sensitive dyes on GABAergic inhibition require caution in dye use for studies of excitability and network activity. PMID:20181584

  3. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  4. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  5. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two hair dyes used in the formulation of black color.

    PubMed

    Tafurt-Cardona, Yaliana; Suares-Rocha, Paula; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-12-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), some hair dyes are considered mutagenic and carcinogenic in in vitro assays and exposed human populations. Epidemiological studies indicate that hairdressers occupationally exposed to hair dyes have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer. In Brazil, 26% of the adults use hair dye. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of two hair dyes, Basic Red 51 (BR51) and Basic Brown 17 (BB17), which are temporary dyes of the azo group (R-N=N-R'), used in the composition of the black hair dye. To this end, MTT and trypan blue assays (cytotoxicity), comet and micronucleus assay (genotoxicity) were applied, with HepG2 cells. For cytotoxic assessment, dyes were tested in serial dilutions, being the highest concentrations those used in the commercial formula for hair dyes. For genotoxic assessment concentrations were selected according to cell viability. Results showed that both dyes induced significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the cells, in concentrations much lower than those used in the commercial formula. Genotoxic effects could be related to the azo structure present in the composition of the dyes, which is known as mutagenic and carcinogenic. These results point to the hazard of the hair dye exposure to human health. PMID:26404083

  6. Dye adsorption of cotton fabric grafted with PPI dendrimers: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Salimpour Abkenar, Samera; Malek, Reza Mohammad Ali; Mazaheri, Firouzmehr

    2015-11-01

    In this research, the cotton fabrics grafted with two generations of the poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were applied to adsorb textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Direct Red 80 (anionic dye), Disperse Yellow 42 (nonionic dye) and Basic Blue 9 (cationic dye) were selected as model dyes. The effect of various experimental parameters such as initial concentration of dyes, charge of dyes molecule, salt and pH was investigated on the adsorption process. Furthermore, kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption process on the grafted samples were studied. It was found that maximum adsorption of anionic and disperse dyes took place at around pH 3, while cationic dye could be adsorbed at around pH 11. The Langmuir equation was able to describe the mechanism of dyes adsorption. In addition, the second-order equation was found to be fit with the kinetics data. Interestingly, it seems that the dye adsorption of the grafted fabrics is strongly pH dependent. PMID:26292774

  7. Decolourization of azo, heterocyclic and reactive dyes using spent mycelium substrate of Hypsizygus ulmarius.

    PubMed

    Ranjini, R; Padmavathi, T

    2015-09-01

    Cultivation of Hypsizygus ulmarius to generate spent mycelium substrate (SMS) for dye decolourization gave better yield, biological efficiency, fruitwidth and moisture content (145 gm, 33%, 4 cm, 91%) on paddy straw as compared to coconut husk (59 gm, 21%, 3 cm, 90%). Solid-phase decolourization of Congo red (Azo dye) and Methylene blue (Heterocyclic dye) showed that maximum decolourization (3.31), measured as Decolourization Index, occurred at dye concentration of 25 mg l(-1), while in Solochrome black (Reactive dye), it was at 100 mg l(-1) (1.7). Time taken for maximum decolourization was 10 days in Congo red and Solochrome black; 20 days in Methylene blue. Decolourization Index was maximum in Methylene blue (3.1), followed by Congo red (1.9) and Solochrome black (1.2). Liquid-phase decolourization of Methylene blue and Solochrome black showed that maximum decolourization (62.5%) measured as percent decolourization occurred at 25 mg l(-1), while it was at 50 mg l(-1) (36%) for Congo red. Time taken for maximum decolourization for all three dyes was 10 days. During this period, the percent decolourization was maximum in Methylene blue (91.3%), followed by Solochrome black (82.2%) and Congo red (79.7%). Decolourization potential in solid-phase was observed till 100 mg l(-1) and day 25 for all the three dyes, however, in liquid-phase it was observed till 50 mg I(-1) and day 20 for Congo red, 75 mg l(-1) and day 10 for Solochrome black, 100 mg I(-1) and day 20 for Methylene blue. Maximum laccase was produced on day 25 during decolourization of 25 mg I(-1) Congo red, while maximum Manganese peroxidase was noted on day 20 at 50 mg l(-1) Congo red. PMID:26521548

  8. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  9. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  10. Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character. The initial dyeing rate in the first 60 s indicates an increase of 58.3% in the dyeing rate due to the effect of corona plasma on the acrylic fiber surface. At the end of the dyeing process, the plasma-treated fabrics absorb 24.7% more dye, and the K/S value of the acrylic fabric increases by 8.8%. With selected dyestuff molecules, new techniques can be designed to amplify the knowledge about plasma-treated surface modifications of macromolecules.

  11. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  12. Dye affinity cryogels for plasmid DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Çimen, Duygu; Yılmaz, Fatma; Perçin, Işık; Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare megaporous dye-affinity cryogel discs for the purification of plasmid DNA (pDNA) from bacterial lysate. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] cryogel discs were produced by free radical polymerization initiated by N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) redox pair in an ice bath. Cibacron Blue F3GA was used as an affinity ligand (loading amount: 68.9μmol/g polymer). The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs first increased and then reached a plateau value (i.e., 32.5mg/g cryogel) at 3.0mg/mL pDNA concentration. Compared with the PHEMA cryogel (0.11mg/g cryogel), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel (32.4mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the Cibacron Blue 3GA immobilization onto the polymeric matrix. pDNA adsorption amount decreased from 11.7mg/g to 1.1mg/g with the increasing of NaCl concentration. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 4°C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 90%. The PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs could be used five times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results show that the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs promise high selectivity for pDNA. PMID:26249596

  13. Combinative sonolysis and photocatalysis for textile dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, N.L.; Peller, J.; Vinodgopal, K.; Kamat, P.V.

    2000-05-01

    The merits of combining two advanced oxidation processes, viz., sonolysis and photocatalysis, have been evaluated by investigating the degradation of an azo dye, naphthol blue black (NBB), using a high-frequency ultrasonic generator and UV-photolysis. An additive effect on the degradation rate of the parent compound is observed when the sonolysis and photocatalysis experiments were carried out in a simultaneous or sequential manner. Sonolysis is effective for inducing faster degradation of the parent dye, while TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis is effective for promoting mineralization.

  14. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  15. Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.

    PubMed

    Travis, A S

    2012-05-01

    Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914. PMID:22148999

  16. Templated blue phases.

    PubMed

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  17. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  18. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  19. Comparative studies of Remazol Brillant Blue removal by immobilized organisms; investigation of metabolites by GC/MS and FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Topuz, Merve Canpolat

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from textile industries. Treatment of effluents from dye-based industries poses a major problem, and biotreatment with white rot fungi seems to be a viable option. The biological treatment of synthetic dyes at a low cost and in the shortest possible time is used especially in dye and textile industries and leads to pollution in the wastewater dumped into the environment by these industries. For this study, decolorization of the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by immobilized Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus plicatilis was investigated. This dye was removed 100% (dye concentration: 10.0 mg/L) by both immobilized organisms. Extracellular ligninolytic enzyme activities were also measured during the decolorization. There was an attempt to identify metabolites with FTIR spectrometry and GC/MS at the end of the decolorization. These results indicated that the samples did not include any detectable metabolite. PMID:25905752

  20. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    PubMed

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated. PMID:27367659

  1. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Tad H.

    1987-05-01

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

  2. Photophysical properties, photodegradation characteristics, and lasing action for coumarin dye C540A in polymeric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Guilford, II; Huang, Zhennian; Pacheco, Dennis P., Jr.; Russell, Jeffrey A.

    2004-07-01

    Tunable solid-state dye lasers operating in the blue-green spectral region are attractive for a variety of applications. An important consideration in assessing the viability of this technology is the service life of the gain medium, which is presently limited by dye photodegradation. In this study, solid polymeric samples consisting of the coumarin dye C540A in modified PMMA were subjected to controlled photodegradation tests. The excitation laser was a flashlamp-pumped dye laser operating at 440 nm with a pulse duration of 1 μs. A complementary set of data was obtained for dye in solution phase for comparison purposes. Photophysical properties of C540A in water solution of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) have been investigated with a view to assess the suitability of the sequestering polymer (PMAA) as an effective additive to facilitate use of a water medium for highly efficient blue-green dye lasers. Lasing action of C540A in aqueous PMAA has been realized using flashlamp-pumped laser system, yielding excellent laser efficiencies superior to that achieved in ethanolic solutions with the same dye. Laser characterization of dye in media included measurement of laser threshold, slope efficiency, pulse duration and output wavelength.

  3. Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (φ) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

  4. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:19631461

  5. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:27486044

  6. Adsorption studies of cationic, anionic and azo-dyes via monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Saharan, Priya; Kumar, Arun; Mehta, S K; Mor, Suman; Umar, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    The present paper reports the applicability of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as an adsorbent for the removal of three dyes viz. Acridine orange (cationic dye), Comassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (anionic dye) and Congo red (azo dye) from their aqueous solution. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via simple chemical precipitation method using CTAB, as surfactant. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties by using transmission electron microscopy X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements. The dye removal efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs have been determined by investigating several factors such as effect of pH, amount of adsorbent dose and effect of contact time on different dye concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms have also been studied to explain the interaction of dyes. The experimental data indicate that the adsorption rate follows pseudo- second-order kinetics for the removal of all the three dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles and the adsorbed dyes were desorbed. The identities of recovered nanoparticles as well as the three dyes have been found, as same and were reused. PMID:23858837

  7. Holographic gratings in dichromated gelatin with edible dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Jauregui-Sanchez, Yessenia; Toxqui-Lopez, Santa; Juárez-Néstor, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    We present preliminary results on diffraction gratings made with holographic techniques using dichromated gelatin (DCG) matrix with edible dyes, the purple red, Layar® and blue Sabofrut®. The gratings were recorded with a laser diode, λ = 530nm. Curves show diffracted intensity vs exposure time. The recorded gratings show different diffraction efficiencies of gratings prepared with DCG, purple red + DCG, and blue+ DCG. We observed high diffraction efficiency with purple red. All exposure conditions and reconstruction were therefor for all gratings with the same concentration of dichromate for each one of the photosensitive emulsions prepared.

  8. Chicago sky blue and a helium neon laser abolish endothelium dependent relaxation in vivo in the microcirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H.; Nelson, G.H.; Rosenblum, W.I. )

    1989-12-01

    Chicago sky blue, also known as Niagara sky blue, is a vital dye that can successfully be used as an intravascular energy absorbing target for the light from a helium-neon (HeNe) laser. The result of this light/dye interaction is endothelium damage which can be controlled by adjusting the duration of the laser exposure and the amount of dye injected intravenously. The endothelial damage probably is the result of the heat generated by the dyes absorption of energy at the interface between plasma and endothelium. The most minimal damage resulted in selective loss of the dilation normally produced by acetylcholine and bradykinin, two endothelium dependent dilators. The dilation produced by sodium nitroprusside, a dilator acting directly on vascular smooth muscle, was preserved. More severe injury (i.e. more prolonged exposure to light and/or more dye), resulted in local platelet aggregation at the site of laser impact.

  9. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation. PMID:27486930

  10. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  11. Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zidan, Naglaa M

    2010-03-15

    The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated azo-dyes with time of electro-Fenton's reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance measurements, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the electro-Fenton's oxidation system is efficient for treatment of such types of reactive dyes. Oxidation of each of the investigated azo-dyes by electro-generated Fenton's reagent up to complete decolorization and approximately 90-95% mineralization was achieved. Moreover, the optimized electro-Fenton's oxidation was successfully applied for complete decolorization and approximately 85-90% mineralization of both azo-dyes in real industrial wastewater samples collected from textile dyeing house at El-Mahalla El-Kobra, Egypt. PMID:19926217

  12. Anthrax surrogate spores are destroyed by PDT mediated by phenothiazinium dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Some Gram-positive bacteria (including the causative agent of anthrax - Bacillus anthracis) survive conditions of stress and starvation by producing dormant stage spores. The spore"s multilayered capsule consists of inner and outer membranes, cortex, proteinaceous spore coat, and in some species an exosporium. These outer layers enclose dehydrated and condensed DNA, saturated with small, acid-soluble proteins. These protective structures make spores highly resistant to damage by heat, radiation, and commonly employed anti-bacterial agents. Previously Bacillus spores have been shown to be resistant to photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using dyes and light that easily destroy the corresponding vegetative bacteria, but recently we have discovered that they are susceptible to PDI. Photoinactivation, however, is only possible if phenothiazinium dyes are used. Dimethylmethylene blue, methylene blue, new methylene blue and toluidine blue O are all effective photosensitizers. Alternative photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal, polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugate, a tricationic porphyrin and benzoporphyrin derivative are ineffective against spores even though they can easily kill vegetative cells. Spores of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are most susceptible, B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus are also killed, while B. megaterium is resistant. Photoinactivation is most effective when excess dye is washed from the spores showing that the dye binds to the spores and that excess dye in solution can quench light delivery. The relatively mild conditions needed for spore killing could have applications for treating wounds contaminated by anthrax spores and for which conventional sporicides would have unacceptable tissue toxicity.

  13. Breathing Monitor Using Dye-Doped Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shinzo; Fukasawa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Takayuki; Morisawa, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    1990-08-01

    A new monitoring system of human breathing using umbelliferon dye-doped plastic fiber has been studied. Under UV light pumping, the fiber which was used as a sensor head generates blue fluorescence depending on human expiration. By converting the light signal to electronic pulses, the counting of breathing and real-time monitoring of abnormal breathing such as a heavy cough or a cloggy sputum have easily been obtained.

  14. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises. This can raise a question about possible child abuse. It is important to recognize that Mongolian blue ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 11. Read More Benign Child abuse - physical Rashes Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  15. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  16. Association constants and enthalpies of formation of heteroassociates of anions of cresol red and thymol blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency of anions of sulfophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, cresol red, thymol blue, and non-substituted phenol red. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single (HAn-) and doubly charged anions (An2-) of sulfophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of the composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated semi-empirically and compared with experimentally determined values of the equilibrium association constants.

  17. Cationic Triarylmethane Photosensitizers For Selective Photochemotherapy: Victoria Blue-Bo, Victoria Blue-R And Malachite Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadwa, K.; Smith, S.; Oseroff, A. R.

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the malignant cell selective phototoxicity of some triarylmethane dyes including Victoria Blue BO (VB-BO), Victoria Blue R (VB-R), and Malachite Green (MG). Phototoxicity was studied in human squamous (FaDu) and colon (CX-1) carcinoma, and in human and murine melanoma (NEL, B-16) cell lines, as well as in non-malignant monkey kidney cells (CV-1). Cultured cells were exposed to varying concentrations of the dyes for 60 min, washed with PBS, irradiated after an efflux time of 90 min in culture media, and placed in a colony forming assay. VB-BO was the most effective photosensitizer, giving 90% killing of malignant cells such as B-16 when treated with 5x10-8 M dye and 13 J/cm2 light. CV-1 cells were unaffected under these conditions. VB-R was about 10 fold less effective, while MG had minimal phototoxicity in this assay. VB-BO was studied in vivo, using subcutaneous FaDu tumors in nude mice. At a dose of 3 mg/kg followed 4 hrs later by dye laser irradiation under conditions which did not produce hyperthermia, there was an 80% complete remission rate without significant phototoxicity to overlying or adjacent normal skin. The triarylmethanes are a novel class of photosensitizers which may have promise in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Thiazine dyes: Evaluation of monomeric and aggregate forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara, Jimena; Ortiz, Cristina S.

    2016-09-01

    The aggregation phenomenon of Azure B, monobrominated Azure B, Thionine and Methylene Blue was studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometry in different media as a function of dye concentration and temperature variations. The tests carried out in organic solvents allowed the identification of monomeric species of these compounds, which have not been reported in literature and have been wrongly assigned for years. The results obtained in water allowed demonstrating that different kinds of aggregates are present in this medium. In addition, the aggregation tendency of these dyes in organic solvent and aqueous media was established. Several parameters such as lipophilicity, effect of bulky substituents and interactions with media were considered to interpret the aggregation behavior of thiazine dyes.

  19. Thiazine dyes: Evaluation of monomeric and aggregate forms.

    PubMed

    Vara, Jimena; Ortiz, Cristina S

    2016-09-01

    The aggregation phenomenon of Azure B, monobrominated Azure B, Thionine and Methylene Blue was studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometry in different media as a function of dye concentration and temperature variations. The tests carried out in organic solvents allowed the identification of monomeric species of these compounds, which have not been reported in literature and have been wrongly assigned for years. The results obtained in water allowed demonstrating that different kinds of aggregates are present in this medium. In addition, the aggregation tendency of these dyes in organic solvent and aqueous media was established. Several parameters such as lipophilicity, effect of bulky substituents and interactions with media were considered to interpret the aggregation behavior of thiazine dyes. PMID:27219075

  20. Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

    2014-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion. PMID:24872659

  1. Removal of ionic dyes from water by solvent extraction using reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Pandit, P; Basu, S

    2004-04-15

    Several methods (e.g., UV/H2O2 oxidation, adsorption, flocculation-precipitation) are normally employed to remove dye from water. A new technique based on liquid/liquid extraction using reverse micelles is proposed whereby recovery of solvent and reuse of dye is possible. Experiments were conducted by mixing a known quantity of dye in aqueous phase and solvent-containing surfactants in a simple mixer. The separation of solvent phase, containing encapsulated dye in reverse micelles, from aqueous phase due to gravity results in separation of dye from water. The removal of different ionic dyes (e.g., eosin yellow, methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange, orange G) from aqueous phase in the presence of different cationic and anionic surfactants [e.g., sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and cetyl pyridinium chloride] in different solvents (e.g., amyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, methyl benzoate, and isooctane) were studied by conducting experiments. The percentage removal of dye from aqueous phase increases with the decrease in dye concentration or with the increase in surfactants concentration. Furthermore, the percentage COD removal of dye is increased with the increase in surfactant concentration. The nature of solvent has minimal effect on percentage removal of dye. The ratio of solventto aqueous phase volume required for the removal of dye decreases with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is possible to back-extract dye into aqueous phase and recover solvent by using counterionic surfactants. The separation of aqueous phase from the aqueous-phase solvent dispersion is faster for amyl alcohol as compared to benzyl alcohol and methyl benzoate. A theoretical model based on ion-exchange reaction between surfactants and dye is used to analyze the experimental data. PMID:15116851

  2. Spectral Fine Tuning of Cyanine Dyes: Electron Donor-Acceptor Substituted Analogues of Thiazole Orange†

    PubMed Central

    Rastede, Elizabeth E.; Tanha, Matteus; Yaron, David; Watkins, Simon C.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Armitage, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of electron donor and acceptor groups at strategic locations on a fluorogenic cyanine dye allows fine-tuning of the absorption and emission spectra while preserving the ability of the dye to bind to biomolecular hosts such as double-stranded DNA and a single-chain antibody fragment originally selected for binding to the parent unsubstituted dye, thiazole orange (TO). The observed spectral shifts are consistent with calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and reflect electron density localization on the quinoline half of TO in the LUMO. A dye bearing donating methoxy and withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups on the benzothiazole and quinoline rings, respectively, shifts the absorption spectrum to sufficiently longer wavelengths to allow excitation at green wavelengths as opposed to the parent dye, which is optimally excited in the blue. PMID:26171668

  3. Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Carvallho, Marilda N; da Silva, Karolyne S; Sales, Deivson C S; Freire, Eleonora M P L; Sobrinho, Maurício A M; Ghislandi, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface. PMID:27148721

  4. Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from rice husk residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Ruiguang; Li, Guiying; Hu, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of dye wastewater by activated carbon (AC) prepared from rice husk residue wastes was studied. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (50-450 mg/L), pH (3-11) and temperature (30-70 °C) on the removal of methylene blue (MB), neutral red, and methyl orange. Kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of dyes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggested that AC was effective to remove dyes, especially MB, from aqueous solutions. Desorption studies found that chemisorption by the adsorbent might be the major mode of dye removal. Fourier transform infrared results suggested that dye molecules were likely to combine with the O-H and P=OOH groups of AC. PMID:26942535

  5. Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Hydrogels as Efficient Dye Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haiying; Jiao, Tifeng; Zhang, Qingrui; Guo, Wenfeng; Peng, Qiuming; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets exhibit superior adsorption capacity for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. In this paper, the facile preparation of GO/polyethylenimine (PEI) hydrogels as efficient dye adsorbents has been reported. The GO/PEI hydrogels were achieved through both hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between amine-rich PEI and GO sheets. For both methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), the as-prepared hydrogels exhibit removal rates within about 4 h in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. The dye adsorption capacity of the hydrogel is mainly attributed to the GO sheets, whereas the PEI was incorporated to facilitate the gelation process of GO sheets. More importantly, the dye-adsorbed hydrogels can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment, suggesting potential large-scale applications of the GO-based hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment.

  6. Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Hydrogels as Efficient Dye Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiying; Jiao, Tifeng; Zhang, Qingrui; Guo, Wenfeng; Peng, Qiuming; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets exhibit superior adsorption capacity for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. In this paper, the facile preparation of GO/polyethylenimine (PEI) hydrogels as efficient dye adsorbents has been reported. The GO/PEI hydrogels were achieved through both hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between amine-rich PEI and GO sheets. For both methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), the as-prepared hydrogels exhibit removal rates within about 4 h in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. The dye adsorption capacity of the hydrogel is mainly attributed to the GO sheets, whereas the PEI was incorporated to facilitate the gelation process of GO sheets. More importantly, the dye-adsorbed hydrogels can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment, suggesting potential large-scale applications of the GO-based hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment. PMID:26123269

  7. Comprehensive review and compilation of treatment for azo dyes using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Hamidin, Nasrul

    2013-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent an emerging technology that focuses on power generation and effluent treatment. This review compiles articles related to MFCs using azo dye as the substrate. The significance of the general components in MFCs and systems of MFCs treating azo dye is depicted in this review. In addition, degradation of azo dyes such as Congo red, methyl orange, active brilliant red X-3B, amaranth, reactive blue 221, and acid orange 7 in MFCs are summarized. Further exploration and operational modification are suggested to address the challenges of complete removal of azo dye with maximum power generation in an MFC. In addition, a sequential treatment system with MFCs is suggested for complete mineralization of azo dye. PMID:23581242

  8. Spectral fine tuning of cyanine dyes: electron donor-acceptor substituted analogues of thiazole orange.

    PubMed

    Rastede, Elizabeth E; Tanha, Matteus; Yaron, David; Watkins, Simon C; Waggoner, Alan S; Armitage, Bruce A

    2015-09-26

    The introduction of electron donor and acceptor groups at strategic locations on a fluorogenic cyanine dye allows fine-tuning of the absorption and emission spectra while preserving the ability of the dye to bind to biomolecular hosts such as double-stranded DNA and a single-chain antibody fragment originally selected for binding to the parent unsubstituted dye, thiazole orange (TO). The observed spectral shifts are consistent with calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and reflect electron density localization on the quinoline half of TO in the LUMO. A dye bearing donating methoxy and withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups on the benzothiazole and quinoline rings, respectively, shifts the absorption spectrum to sufficiently longer wavelengths to allow excitation at green wavelengths as opposed to the parent dye, which is optimally excited in the blue. PMID:26171668

  9. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten-Torralba, L.R.; Nishikawa, M.M.; Baptista, D.F.; Magalhães, D.P.; da Silva, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Blue 214 (RB214), Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD) by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50). P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments. PMID:24031428

  10. Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment to Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Angela; Nunes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an adsorption experiment is proposed using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent and a textile azo dye, Mordant Blue-9, as adsorbate. The surface chemistry of the activated carbon is changed through a simple oxidation treatment and the ionic strength of the dye solution is also modified, simulating distinct conditions of water…

  11. Sorption of basic and acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto oxihumolite.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Sedivý, Pavel; Rýznarová, Milena; Grötschelová, Sylvie

    2005-05-01

    Naturally occurring kind of weathered and oxidised young brown coal called oxihumolite was used for an adsorptive removal of basic (Methylene Blue, Malachite Green) as well as acid (Egacid Orange, Midlon Black) dyes from waters. It was shown that both kinds of dyes can be sorbed onto oxihumolite. The maximum sorption capacities determined from the parameters of Langmuir isotherms ranged from 0.070 mmol g-1 (for Midlon Black) to 0.278 mmol g-1 (for Malachite Green) and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption (except of Midlon Black) increased in the presence of inorganic salt. Non-ionic surfactants, and surfactants bearing the same charge as the dye exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption, whereas oppositely charged surfactants enhanced the dye sorption to a certain extent. The pH value of the aqueous phase exhibited rather pronounced effect on the sorption of acid dyes causing a suppression of the sorption with increasing pH. The sorption of basic dyes, on the other hand, remained almost unchanged in the examined pH range. Oxihumolite is recommended for the treatment of acid wastewaters because of its limited stability in alkaline aqueous solutions. PMID:15811417

  12. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  13. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  14. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  15. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  16. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  18. Enhancing the light utilization efficiency of microalgae using organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Yonghee; Jeon, Duk Young; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation is composed of wide light spectrum including the range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. To enhance the light utilization efficiency, organic dye solutions of rhodamine101 and 9,10-diphenylanthracene were used as wavelength converters. Each dye affected cell growth and lipid accumulation differently, based on the response of each to different light spectrum. Under a light intensity of 50 W/m(2), maximum cell growth (1.5 g/L) was obtained with the red organic dye rhodamine101, whereas best lipid content (30%) with the blue type 9,10-diphenylanthracene. These two separate and complementary traits could be combined by simple mixing, and in so doing optimal growth (1.5 g/L) as well as lipid accumulation (30%) was achieved: lipid productivity was 2.3 times greater than without the organic dye. This study proved that certain organic dye solutions could convert useless wavelengths to be useful for algae cultivation, thereby increasing the productivity of biomass and lipids. PMID:25681096

  19. Identification of human megakaryocytes with rhodanile blue.

    PubMed

    Kass, L

    1985-04-01

    Using the oxazine dye rhodanile blue, large typical megakaryocytes and small megakaryocytes (micromegakaryocytes) from the bone marrows of normal persons, and from patients with a variety of preleukemic disorders, acute lymphoblastic and nonlymphoblastic leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura as an example of nonmalignant but abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis, showed intense pink staining of the cytoplasm. This pink metachromasia was not obliterated by prior digestion with either diastase or ribonuclease, but was markedly diminished or obliterated by preincubation with hyaluronidase, suggesting that the stain may detect a high content of acid mucopolysaccharides in megakaryocytes. Since the stain is simple, direct, and reproducible, it may represent a useful addition to the cytochemistry of megakaryocytes and complement the more complex immunologic techniques available currently. PMID:2580502

  20. [Adsorption of methylene blue from water by the biochars generated from crop residues].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Kou; Zhao, An-Zhen; Xiao, Shuang-Cheng; Yuan, Jin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Biochars were prepared from straws of rice, peanut and soybean and rice hull using a low temperature pyrolysis method and adsorption of methylene blue by these biochars were investigated with batch and leaching experiments. Results indicated that biochars have high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and followed the order: rice straw char > soybean straw char > peanut straw char > rice hull char. This order is generally consistent with the amount of negative charge and specific surface area of these biochars. While methylene blue was mainly adsorbed specifically by the biochars, because the adsorption of methylene blue increased with the increase of ionic strength and the adsorption led to the shift of zeta potential of biochar particles to positive value direction. Langmuir equation fitted the adsorption isotherms well and can be used to describe the adsorption behaviors of methylene blue by the biochars. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue predicted by langmuir equation was 196.1, 169.5, 129.9 and 89.3 mmol x kg(-1) for rice straw char, soybean straw char, peanut straw char and rice hull char, respectively. Leaching experiments show that rice hull char of 156 g can remove methylene blue from 30 L water containing 0.3 mmol x L(-1) of methylene blue completely and the cumulative amount of methylene blue absorbed by the biochar reaches 57.7 mmol x kg(-1). The biochars can be used as efficient adsorbents to remove methylene blue from waste water of dye. PMID:22452202

  1. Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.

    2010-09-01

    Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

  2. Interaction of pigeon-liver nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide kinase with cibacron blue F3GA.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Gleed, C D

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of pigeon liver NAD kinase with Cibacron Blue F3GA was investigated. By using steady-state rate measurements, spectrophotometric titration and chromatography of the enzyme on immobilized dye, it was shown that binding occurs at two nucleotide sites with different affinities, and also at a site distinct from the substrate-binding region. PMID:187176

  3. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  4. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME II, APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  5. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  6. Vegetable Dyeing of Wool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Pearl

    1976-01-01

    In keeping with the Bicentennial celebration, many art teachers will find themselves "looking back" to crafts of the American past. Dyeing is certainly one that was used extensively and here a professor in a Fine Arts Department details how the process takes place. (Author/RK)

  7. Blue honeysuckle list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

  8. Extended emission wavelength of random dye lasers by exploiting radiative and non-radiative energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Ismail, Wan Zakiah; Goldys, Ewa M.; Dawes, Judith M.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate long-wavelength operation (>700 nm) of random dye lasers (using a methylene blue dye) with the addition of rhodamine 6G and titania, enabled by radiative and non-radiative energy transfer. The pump energy is efficiently absorbed and transferred to the acceptors, to support lasing in random dye lasers in the near infrared. The optimum random laser performance with the highest emission intensity and the lowest lasing threshold was achieved for a concentration of methylene blue as the acceptor equal to 6× the concentration of rhodamine 6G (donor). Excessive levels of methylene blue increased the lasing threshold and broadened the methylene blue emission linewidth due to dye quenching from re-absorption. This is due to competition between the donor emission and energy transfer and between absorption loss and fluorescence quenching. The radiative and non-radiative energy transfer is analyzed as a function of the acceptor concentration and pump energy density, with consideration of the spectral overlap. The dependence of the radiative and non-radiative transfer efficiency on the acceptor concentration is obtained, and the energy transfer parameters, including the radiative and non-radiative energy transfer rate constants ( K R and K NR), are investigated using Stern-Volmer analysis. The analysis indicates that radiative energy transfer is the dominant energy transfer mechanism in this system.

  9. Kinetics of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in an immobilized TiO2 photocatalytic reactor.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Limaee, Nargess Yousefi; Tabrizi, Nooshin Salman

    2006-03-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of two reactive dyes has been investigated by UV/TiO2/H2O2 using an immobilized TiO2 photocatalytic reactor. Reactive Blue 8 (RB 8) and Reactive Blue 220 (RB 220) textile dyes were used as model compounds. Photocatalytic degradation processes were performed using a 5-L solution containing dyes. The initial concentrations of dyes were 50 mg/L. The radiation source was two 15 W UV-C lamps. A batch mode immersion photocatalytic reactor was utilized. UV-vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to obtain the details of the photodegradation of the selected dyes. Colored synthetic waters were completely decolorized in relatively short time after UV irradiation in the presence of various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Formate, acetate, oxalate, and glyoxylate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates where they were further oxidized slowly to CO2. The UV/TiO2/H2O2 process was able to oxidize the dyes with partial mineralization of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NO3-, and SO4(2-), respectively. Kinetics analysis indicates that the photocatalytic decolorization rates of the dye can be approximated by a pseudo-first-order model. The UV/TiO2/H2O2 process proved to be capable of decolorization and mineralization of the reactive dyes (RB 8 and RB 220). PMID:16181631

  10. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process. PMID:27208759

  11. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S.; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S. Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process.

  12. Kinetics of sonophotocatalytic degradation of anionic dyes with Nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vinu, R; Madras, Giridhar

    2009-01-15

    The current research work focuses on the combination of photocatalytic and sonocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) degradation of anionic dyes, viz., Orange G, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Alizarin Red S, Methyl Blue, and Indigo Carmine, with solution combustion synthesized TiO2 (CS TiO2) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO2 (DP-25). The rate of sonophotocatalytic degradation of all the dyes and the reduction of total organic carbon was higher compared to the individual photo- and sonocatalytic processes. The effect of dissolved gases and ultrasonic intensity on the sonophotocatalytic degradation of the dyes was evaluated. A dual-pathway network mechanism of sonophotocatalytic degradation was proposed for the first time, and the rate equations were modeled using the network reduction technique. The kinetic rate coefficients of the individual steps were evaluated for all the systems by fitting the model with experimental data. PMID:19238982

  13. Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Hui; Yien Ting, Adeline Su

    2015-03-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes (TPM) are recalcitrant colorants brought into the environment. In this study, a lesser-known white rot fungus Coriolopsis sp. (1c3), isolated from compost of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm, was explored for its decolorization potential of TPM dyes. The isolate 1c3 demonstrated good decolorization efficiencies in the treatment of Crystal Violet (CV; 100 mg l(-1)), Methyl Violet (MV; 100 mg l(-1)) and Cotton Blue (CB; 50 mg(-1)), with 94%, 97% and 91%, within 7, 7 and 1 day(s), respectively. Malachite Green (MG; 100 mg l(-1)) was the most recalcitrant dye, with 52% decolorization after 9 days. Dye removal by 1c3 was presumably via biosorption, whereby the process was determined to be influenced by fungal biomass, initial dye concentrations and oxygen requirements. Biodegradation was also a likely mechanism responsible for dye removal by 1c3, occurred as indicated by the reduction of dye spectra peaks. Detection of laccase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities further substantiate the possible occurrence of biodegradation of TPM dyes by 1c3. PMID:25527986

  14. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery. PMID:18718709

  15. Density functional investigation and some optical experiments on dye-sensitized quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kalpna; Kaniyankandy, Sreejith; Kishor, Shyam; Josefsson, Ida; Ghosh, Hirendra N; Singh, Khundrakpam S; Mookerjee, Sumit; Odelius, Michael; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2015-11-21

    Dye-sensitized quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we report steady state (absorption and photoluminescence) optical measurements on several sizes of CdS QDs ligated with Coumarin 343 dye (C-343) and two different solvents, viz., chloroform and toluene. We further report detailed first principles density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory studies of the geometric, electronic and optical (absorption and emission) properties of three different sized capped QDs, ligated with C-343 dye. The absorption spectrum shows a QD-size-independent peak, and another peak which shifts to blue with decrease in QD size. The first peak is found to arise from the dye molecule and the second one from the QD. Charge transfer using natural transition orbitals (NTOs) is found to occur from dye-to-QDs and is solvent-dependent. In the emission spectra, the luminescence intensity of the dye is quenched by the addition of the QD indicating a strong interaction between the QD and the dye. PMID:26445895

  16. Decolourisation of Synthetic Dyes by Endophytic Fungal Flora Isolated from Senduduk Plant (Melastoma malabathricum)

    PubMed Central

    Ngieng, Ngui Sing

    2013-01-01

    A total of twenty endophytic fungi successfully isolated from Melastoma malabathricum (Senduduk) were examined for their ability to decolourise azo dyes: Congo red, Orange G, and Methyl red and an anthraquinone dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R. Initial screening on the glucose minimal media agar plates amended with 200 mg L−1 of each respective dye showed that only isolate MS8 was able to decolourise all of the four dyes. The isolate decolourised completely both the RBBR and Orange G in the agar medium within 8 days. Further quantitative analysis of the dye decolourisation by isolate MS8 in aqueous minimal medium showed that isolate MS8 was able to decolourise all the tested dyes at varying levels. Dye decolourisation by the isolate MS8 was determined to be 97% for RBBR, 33% for Orange G, 48% for Congo red, and 56% for Methyl red, respectively, within a period of 16 days. Molecular identification of the fungal isolate MS8 using primer ITS1 and ITS4 showed that isolate MS8 shared 99% sequence similarity with Marasmius cladophyllus, a Basidiomycete. The ability to decolourise different types of dyes by isolate MS8 thus suggested a possible application of this fungus in the decolourisation of dyestuff effluents. PMID:25937973

  17. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard. PMID:23811265

  18. Using SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS Analysis to Assess Disperse Dyes in Environmental Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Pilon dos Santos, Glauco; Vendemiatti, Josiane; Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin

    2015-09-01

    We have optimized an SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method and used it to monitor disperse azo dyes in environmental aquatic samples. Calibration curves constructed for nine disperse dyes-Red 1, Violet 93, Blue 373, Orange 1, Orange 3, Orange 25, Yellow 3, Yellow 7 and Red 13-in aqueous solution presented good linearity between 2.0 and 100.0 ng mL(-1). The method provided limits of detection and quantification around 2.0 and 8.0 ng L(-1), respectively. For dyes at concentrations of 25.0 ng mL(-1), the intra- and interday analyses afforded relative standard deviation lower than 6 and 13%, respectively. The recovery values obtained for each target analyte in Milli-Q water, receiving waters and treated water samples spiked with the nine studied dyes at concentrations of 8.0, 25.0 and 50.0 ng L(-1) (n = 3) gave average recoveries greater than 70%, with RSD <20%. Statistical evaluation aided method validation. The validated method proved to be useful for analysis of organic extracts from effluents and receiving water samples after an SPE extraction step. More specifically, the method enabled detection of the dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 at concentrations ranging from 84 to 3452 ng L(-1) in the treated effluent (TE), affluent and points collected upstream and downstream of the drinking water treatment plant of a textile dye industry in Brazil. PMID:25637135

  19. In Vitro Characterization of a Targeted, Dye-Loaded Nanodevice for Intraoperative Tumor Delineation

    PubMed Central

    Orringer, Daniel A.; Koo, Yong-Eun L.; Chen, Thomas; Kim, Gwangseong; Hah, Hoe Jin; Xu, Hao; Wang, Shouyan; Keep, Richard; Philbert, Martin A.; Kopelman, Raoul; Sagher, Oren

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To synthesize and complete in vitro characterization of a novel, tumor-targeted nanodevice for visible intraoperative delineation of brain tumors. METHODS The ability of dye-loaded polyacrylamide nanoparticles (NPs) containing methylene blue, Coomassie blue, or indocyanine green, to cause color change in the 9L glioma cell lines was evaluated. Cells were incubated with dye-loaded NPs, photographed, and analyzed colorimetrically. Confocal microscopy was used to determine subcellular localization of NPs in treated cells. RESULTS Incubation of glioma cell lines with dye-loaded NPs resulted in clearly visible, quantifiable cell tagging in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Dye-loaded NPs were observed to bind to the surface and become internalized by glioma cells. Coating the NP surface with F3, a peptide that binds to the tumor cell surface receptor nucleolin, significantly increased NP affinity for glioma cells. F3-targeting also significantly increased the rate of cell tagging by dye-loaded NPs. Finally, F3-targeted NPs demonstrated specificity for targeting various cancer cell lines based on their surface expression of cell surface nucleolin. CONCLUSIONS F3-targeted dye-loaded NPs efficiently cause definitive color change in glioma cells. This report represents the first use of targeted NPs to cause a visible color change in tumor cell lines. Similar nanodevices may be used in the future to enable visible intraoperative tumor delineation during tumor resection. PMID:19404156

  20. Investigation of the chemical origin and evidential value of differences in the SERS spectra of blue gel inks.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yen Cheng; Lee, Wendy W Y; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-15

    Highly swellable polymer films doped with Ag nanoparticle aggregates (poly-SERS films) have been used to record very high signal : noise ratio, reproducible surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman (SER(R)S) spectra of in situ dried ink lines and their constituent dyes using both 633 and 785 nm excitation. These allowed the chemical origins of differences in the SERRS spectra of different inks to be determined. Initial investigation of pure samples of the 10 most common blue dyes showed that the dyes which had very similar chemical structures such as Patent Blue V and Patent Blue VF (which differ only by a single OH group) gave SERRS spectra in which the only indications that the dye structure had been changed were small differences in peak positions or relative intensities of the bands. SERRS studies of 13 gel pen inks were consistent with this observation. In some cases inks from different types of pens could be distinguished even though they were dominated by a single dye such as Victoria Blue B (Zebra Surari) or Victoria Blue BO (Pilot Acroball) because their predominant dye did not appear in other inks. Conversely, identical spectra were also recorded from different types of pens (Pilot G7, Zebra Z-grip) because they all had the same dominant Brilliant Blue G dye. Finally, some of the inks contained mixtures of dyes which could be separated by TLC and removed from the plate before being analysed with the same poly-SERS films. For example, the Pentel EnerGel ink pen was found to give TLC spots corresponding to Erioglaucine and Brilliant Blue G. Overall, this study has shown that the spectral differences between different inks which are based on chemically similar, but nonetheless distinct dyes, are extremely small, so very close matches between SERRS spectra are required for confident identification. Poly-SERS substrates can routinely provide the very stringent reproducibility and sensitivity levels required. This, coupled with the awareness of the reasons

  1. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling. PMID:11487111

  2. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 μm inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 μm inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  3. Blue/white organic light-emitting diodes and passive matrix display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The blue organic light emitting diodes (OLED) based on anthracene derivatives (ADN) doped with distryrylarylene derivatives (BCzVB and DSA-ph) were presented. The device of ADN doped with BCzVb shows high color purity (x=0.146, y=0.162) with maximum luminance 11600 cd/m2 (15V), current efficiency 2.8 cd/A, while the device of ADN doped with DSA-ph exhibits a sky blue with as high as efficiency 8.29 cd/A, both have a flat efficiency vs current density responses. A typical blue device of ADN doped with TBPe is used for comparison, which gives greenish blue and a stronger current-induced flyorescence quenching. Three kinds of White organic light emitting devices (WOLED) with different dopants and doping sites were constructed. The cell with a single-doped red dye in the light emitting layer (EML)(single-doped) and the cell with both red and blue dyes doped in a single EML (double-doped as well as the cell with red and blue dyes doped in EML and a green dye in another layer (triple-doped). The triple-doped cell shows much higher performance than other two cells: maximum luminance 21200cd/m2, 1026 cd/m2 at driving current 20mA/cm2, efficiency 6cd/A and a half lifetime over 22245h were reached. A passive display features 102x64 pixels with pixel size of 0.25x0.25mm2 pixel pitch 0.08mm, luminance 100 cd/m2 at driving duty 1/64, and power consumption of 0.6W was constructed.

  4. Two-photon excited photoconversion of cyanine-based dyes

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Bhayana, Brijesh; Zhang, Xueli; Ran, Chongzhao; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The advent of phototransformable fluorescent proteins has led to significant advances in optical imaging, including the unambiguous tracking of cells over large spatiotemporal scales. However, these proteins typically require activating light in the UV-blue spectrum, which limits their in vivo applicability due to poor light penetration and associated phototoxicity on cells and tissue. We report that cyanine-based, organic dyes can be efficiently photoconverted by nonlinear excitation at the near infrared (NIR) window. Photoconversion likely involves singlet-oxygen mediated photochemical cleavage, yielding blue-shifted fluorescent products. Using SYTO62, a biocompatible and cell-permeable dye, we demonstrate photoconversion in a variety of cell lines, including depth-resolved labeling of cells in 3D culture. Two-photon photoconversion of cyanine-based dyes offer several advantages over existing photoconvertible proteins, including use of minimally toxic NIR light, labeling without need for genetic intervention, rapid kinetics, remote subsurface targeting, and long persistence of photoconverted signal. These findings are expected to be useful for applications involving rapid labeling of cells deep in tissue. PMID:27029524

  5. Two-photon excited photoconversion of cyanine-based dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Bhayana, Brijesh; Zhang, Xueli; Ran, Chongzhao; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The advent of phototransformable fluorescent proteins has led to significant advances in optical imaging, including the unambiguous tracking of cells over large spatiotemporal scales. However, these proteins typically require activating light in the UV-blue spectrum, which limits their in vivo applicability due to poor light penetration and associated phototoxicity on cells and tissue. We report that cyanine-based, organic dyes can be efficiently photoconverted by nonlinear excitation at the near infrared (NIR) window. Photoconversion likely involves singlet-oxygen mediated photochemical cleavage, yielding blue-shifted fluorescent products. Using SYTO62, a biocompatible and cell-permeable dye, we demonstrate photoconversion in a variety of cell lines, including depth-resolved labeling of cells in 3D culture. Two-photon photoconversion of cyanine-based dyes offer several advantages over existing photoconvertible proteins, including use of minimally toxic NIR light, labeling without need for genetic intervention, rapid kinetics, remote subsurface targeting, and long persistence of photoconverted signal. These findings are expected to be useful for applications involving rapid labeling of cells deep in tissue.

  6. Spectrophotometric investigation of the hetero-association of Caffeine and thiazine dye in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, P. A.; Baranovsky, S. F.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2006-06-01

    The self-association of thiazine dye, Methylene Blue (MB), and its hetero-association with Caffeine (CAF), were studied in aqueous solution by means of spectrophotometry in the visible range of spectrum. Concentration and temperature dependences of molar absorption of the interacting molecules were used to analyse dynamic equilibrium in solution in terms of two-component model of molecular hetero-association. The magnitudes of equilibrium dimerization and hetero-association constants as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy, were determined. The calculation of the fraction of different types of associates in the mixed solution, containing Methylene Blue and Caffeine, was done. It was concluded that the hetero-association of Methylene Blue and Caffeine molecules results in lower effective concentration of the dye in solution, which may account for the alteration of its biological activity.

  7. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  8. Prostatic blue nevus.

    PubMed

    Anderco, Denisa; Lazăr, Elena; Tăban, Sorina; Miclea, Fl; Dema, Alis

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with no significant personal urological history. The clinical and ultrasound examination revealed a prostatic gland with increased volume and homogenous appearance. After transurethral resection, multiples gray-brown-blackish prostatic chips were obtained, which could be confused with a malignant melanoma. The histological routine examination in conjunction with the histochemical (Fontana-Masson) and immunohistochemical (S100, HMB45) reactions established the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus. The presence of melanin in prostatic tissue is an unusual aspect, being encountered three distinct lesions: blue nevus, melanosis and malignant melanoma. Recognition and correct classification of each of these three entities is fundamental, concerning the clinical and prognosis implications. PMID:20809037

  9. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  10. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  11. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  12. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  13. Raman and infrared studies of synthetic Maya Blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Ramirez, Alejandra; Chianelli, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A fascinating aspect of Maya pigments is that despite the environmentally harsh humidity and high temperatures they resist fading and they have unprecedented stability. In this investigation, we address the question of how organic dye binds to inorganic palygorskite to form a pigment similar to Maya Blue. We also address how such binding might be affected by varying the proportion of dye relative to that of the mineral, and by varying the length of heating time used in preparation of the pigment. Our analysis by Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopies proves the partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, and shows the disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, as the organic molecules incorporate into palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Evidence of bonding between palygorskite and indigo through oxygen is revealed by both spectroscopic measurements.

  14. Merocyanine dyes with improved photostability.

    PubMed

    Toutchkine, Alexei; Nguyen, Dan-Vinh; Hahn, Klaus M

    2007-07-19

    Merocyanine dyes have proven valuable for live cell fluorescence imaging applications, but many structures have been limited by rapid photobleaching. We show that photostability is substantially enhanced for merocyanines having a cyano group at a specific position in the central polymethine chain. Evidence is presented that this is due to reduction in reactivity of the dyes with singlet oxygen. These results point toward cyano-substitution as a general strategy for improving dye performance in imaging applications. PMID:17583344

  15. New physicochemical interpretations for the adsorption of food dyes on chitosan films using statistical physics treatment.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A; Hachicha, M A; Knani, S

    2015-03-15

    In this work, statistical physics treatment was employed to study the adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan films, in order to obtain new physicochemical interpretations at molecular level. Experimental equilibrium curves were obtained for the adsorption of four dyes (FD&C red 2, FD&C yellow 5, FD&C blue 2, Acid Red 51) at different temperatures (298, 313 and 328 K). A statistical physics formula was used to interpret these curves, and the parameters such as, number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (n), anchorage number (n'), receptor sites density (NM), adsorbed quantity at saturation (N asat), steric hindrance (τ), concentration at half saturation (c1/2) and molar adsorption energy (ΔE(a)) were estimated. The relation of the above mentioned parameters with the chemical structure of the dyes and temperature was evaluated and interpreted. PMID:25308634

  16. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies. PMID:26158569

  17. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal. PMID:24292474

  18. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  19. Calculation of confocal microscope images of cholesteric blue phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Okumura, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu

    2016-03-01

    Real-space images of bulk cholesteric blue phases (BPs) have been successfully obtained by confocal microscopy observations using structural color without doping fluorescent dye. However, theoretical interpretation of these images (for example, the understanding of the relation between intensity distribution and the ordering of BPs) remains challenging because typical lattice spacing of BPs is of the order of the wavelength of visible light, and therefore geometrical optics is entirely useless. In this work, we present a numerical approach to calculate the confocal images of BPs by solving the Maxwell equations. Calculated confocal images are consistent with experimental observations in terms of in-plane symmetry.

  20. Influence of ZnO nanorod on the luminescent and electrical properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Xu, Z.; Qian, L.; Tao, D. L.; Teng, F.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-11-01

    The luminescent properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer dispersed with ZnO nanorods were investigated. Embedding ZnO nanorods in blend film results in a blue-shifted emission of fluorescent dye. It is accounted for in terms of the difference in permittivity between inorganic oxide nano-material and dye-doped polymer. Moreover, polymer light-emitting diodes with the addition of ZnO nanorods showed the lower threshold voltage and the higher charge current and electroluminescence efficiency.

  1. Atypical Anaphylactic Reaction to Patent Blue During Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Filippakis, George; Sidhu, Virinder; Mufti, Ragheed AL; Lee, Tak H; Hadjiminas, Dimitri J

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present an unusual case of severe anaphylaxis to Patent Blue dye with atypical clinical features during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The medical personnel involved with sentinel node biopsies should be alert, and familiar with this unusual entity. We also present current data from the literature. CASE REPORT During a wide local excision for primary breast cancer and SLNB, and early during the operation, the patient became severely tachycardic and hypotensive without any signs of urticaria, rash, oedema, or bronchospasm. Resuscitation required the addition of noradrenaline infusion followed by an overnight admission to the intensive care unit. Raised serum tryptase levels supported the diagnosis of anaphylactic shock while skin tests showed a severe reaction to Patent Blue dye. CONCLUSIONS Severe, life-threatening anaphylaxis to Patent Blue dye may present without obvious previous exposure to the dye and without the cardinal signs of oedema, urticaria and bronchospasm making the diagnosis and management of such cases challenging. Correct diagnosis and identification of the causative factor is important and requires a specific set of laboratory tests that are not commonly requested in every-day medical practice. It is not clear from the literature whether the condition is common enough to justify pre-operative prophylactic or diagnostic measures. PMID:18492403

  2. Decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes from textile effluent using horseradish peroxidase: optimization and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Stefanović, Andrea B; Žuža, Milena G; Čičkarić, Dragana Z; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  3. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  4. Preparation and dyeing of super hydrophilic polyethylene terephthalate fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, D. D.; Zhou, J. F.; Xu, F.; Zhang, F. X.; Zhang, G. X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the dyeing properties of PET fabrics modified with sulfuric acid was investigated using disperse red E-4B and disperse blue 2BLNG-L at high temperature and high pressure. The results revealed that the sulfuric acid modification improved the K/S value of dyeing PET fabrics, and the modified PET fabric could be dyed uniformly. The a, b, C, L and H of modified PET fabric were almost the same as that of original PET fabric. The water contact angles were still 0o after 10s, indicating that the hydrophilic property of modified PET fabrics still kept excellent. The wash fastness of dyed PET fabrics after modification was generally good.

  5. Adsorption of basic dyes onto activated carbon using microcolumns

    SciTech Connect

    El Qada, E.N.; Allen, S.J.; Walker, G.M.

    2006-08-16

    Column studies for the adsorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, basic red, and basic yellow) onto PAC2 (activated carbon produced from bituminous coal using steam activation) and F400 were undertaken in fixed-bed microcolumns. Experimental data were correlated using the bed depth service time (BDST) model. The effect of bisolute interactions on the performance of microcolumn fixed beds was studied. The BDST model was successful in describing the breakthrough curves for the adsorption of MB onto PAC2 and predicts the experimental data with a good degree of accuracy. The results emphasized that the interactions and competition for the available binding sites have considerable influence on the efficiency of adsorbents to remove dyes from the solution.

  6. In silico and in vitro physicochemical screening of Rigidoporus sp. crude laccase-assisted decolorization of synthetic dyes--approaches for a cost-effective enzyme-based remediation methodology.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, S; Chinnathambi, V; Arumugam, P; Suresh, P K

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare in silico data with wet lab physicochemical properties of crude laccase enzyme isolated from Rigidoporus sp. using wheat bran as solid substrate support towards dye decolorization. Molecular docking analysis of selected nine textile and non-textile dyes were performed using laccase from Rigidoporus lignosus as reference protein. Enzyme-based remediation methodology using crude enzyme enriched from solid state fermentation was applied to screen the effect of four influencing variables such as pH, temperature, dye concentration, and incubation time toward dye decolorization. The extracellular crude enzyme decolorized 69.8 % Acid Blue 113, 45.07 % Reactive Blue 19, 36.61 % Reactive Orange 122, 30.55 % Acid Red 88, 24.59 % Direct Blue 14, 18.48 % Reactive Black B, 16.49 % Reactive Blue RGB, and 11.66 % Acid Blue 9 at 100 mg/l dye concentration at their optimal pH at room temperature under static and dark conditions after 1 h of incubation without addition of any externally added mediators. Our wet lab studies approach, barring other factors, validate in silico for screening and ranking textile dyes based on their proximity to the T1 site. We are reporting for the first time a combinatorial approach involving in silico methods and wet lab-based crude laccase-mediated dye decolorization without any external mediators. PMID:23292904

  7. Unusual H-type aggregation of coumarin-481 dye in polar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Pal, Haridas

    2013-11-27

    Coumarin-481 (C481) dye shows intriguing time-resolved (TR) fluorescence behavior in polar organic solvents of both protic and aprotic nature, namely, ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (ACN), demonstrating the presence of multiple emitting species in the solution. Following concentration-dependent and wavelength-dependent TR fluorescence measurements and the time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) and time-resolved area-normalized emission spectra (TRANES) subsequently constructed using wavelength dependent decay parameters, we convincingly conclude that in the studied solvents a part of the dissolved dye undergoes H-type of aggregation, even at a very low dye concentration. This is quite an unusual finding because the dye C481 apparently shows reasonably good solubility in these organic solvents. As the TR measurements indicate, major contribution in the fluorescence decays is due to monomeric dye, having reasonably short lifetime (∼0.64-0.68 ns), which is in accordance with the conversion of fluorescent intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state to nonfluorescent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state suggested for the dye in high polarity solvents, causing an efficient nonradiative deexcitation. The minor contributions arising from the aggregated dyes show its clear presence in the decays at the blue edge of the emission spectra and have relatively longer lifetimes (∼1.2-5.2 ns) because the steric hindrance caused by the stacked dyes resists the ICT to TICT conversion. Aggregation of C481 dye as observed in the present study in polar organic solvents is an intriguing finding, as the dye is a widely used fluorescent probe for various photochemical studies, where overlooking such aggregation can mislead the observed results. PMID:24168239

  8. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Dizge, N; Aydiner, C; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M; Kara, S

    2008-02-11

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 microm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6g/100ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 microm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. PMID:17574338

  9. Evaluation of an azo and two anthraquinone dyes for allergic potential.

    PubMed

    Sailstad, D M; Tepper, J S; Doerfler, D L; Qasim, M; Selgrade, M K

    1994-11-01

    Two dye mixtures and the individual component dyes were evaluated for the potential to induce contact or pulmonary hypersensitivity. These dye mixtures were suspect because of anecdotal reports of both pulmonary and contact hypersensitivity in assembly workers, and because the component dyes were structurally related to dyes known to be contact sensitizers. One mixture consisted of disperse blue 3 (DB3) and disperse red 11 (DR11), which are anthraquinones, and the other mixture contained DR11 and solvent red 1 (SR1), an azo dye. Contact hypersensitivity was examined using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and a modified mouse ear swelling test (MEST). Both the MEST and the LLNA indicated that SR1 has weak contact-sensitizing potential. None of the other individual dye compounds or the two mixtures were identified as contact sensitizers by either method. To evaluate the mixtures as potential pulmonary allergens, guinea pigs were repeatedly exposed by inhalation (300 mg/m3, 6 hr/day) 5 days/week, for 1 week. Weekly exposures were repeated three times with 2 weeks of nonexposure time in between. Guinea pigs were then challenged through the jugular vein using a dye-dimethylsulfoxide mixture. During the challenge, breathing mechanics (dynamic compliance and resistance) were measured in mechanically ventilated animals. Changes in these measurements, indicative of bronchoconstriction, were not observed in animals exposed to either dye mixture, nor were antibodies detected in the sera of exposed animals using individual dye-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In conclusion, two methods indicate that SR1 may have contact-sensitizing potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7867908

  10. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  11. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  12. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  13. Evaluation of adsorption potential of adsorbents: a case of uptake of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Nityanand Singh; Mittal, Atul Kumar; Cornel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption potential of a commercial activated carbon (FS300) has been evaluated for the uptake of cationic dyes namely methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB). Though, there are numerous studies in literature which report the sorption of MB (more than 40 studies) and RB (more than 10), however none of these use a common parameter to report the capacity of the sorbent. A protocol, based on the equilibrium dye concentration has been proposed to measure the sorption potential of a sorbent. The Langmuir model can very well describe the experimental equilibrium data for both dyes (coefficient of correlation > 0.999). MB (Qm = 312.5 mg g(-1)) is more adsorbable than the RB (Qm = 144.9 mg g(-1)). Molecular weight and chemical structure of dye molecules seem to affect the dye uptake. The effect of pH on dye uptake has also been evaluated by varyingpH from 3 to 11. Uptake of MB increases with pH, wherein RB removal decreases with pH. Dyes could not be desorbed either by distilled water (0.06 and 0.11% for MB and RB respectively), or by 0.1 NHCl (0.136 and 3.0% for MB and RB respectively) indicating, chemical adsorption type of adsorbent-adsorbate interactions. PMID:18831328

  14. Probing horseradish peroxidase catalyzed degradation of azo dye from tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Sadhanandam; Anumary, Ayyappan; Ashokkumar, Meiyazhagan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis based effluent treatment has outclassed the presently favored physico-chemical treatments due to nil sludge production and monetary savings. Azo dyes are commonly employed in the leather industry and pose a great threat to the environment. Here, we show the degradation of C. I. Acid blue 113 using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) assisted with H2O2 as a co-substrate. It was observed that 0.08 U HRP can degrade 3 mL of 30 mg/L dye up to 80% within 45 min with the assistance of 14 μL of H2O2 at pH 6.6 and 30°C. The feasibility of using the immobilized HRP for dye degradation was also examined and the results show up to 76% dye degradation under similar conditions to that of free HRP with the exception of longer contact time of 240 min. Recycling studies reveal that the immobilized HRP can be recycled up to 3 times for dye degradation. Kinetics drawn for the free HRP catalyzed reaction marked a lower K m and higher V max values, which denotes a proper and faster affinity of the enzyme towards the dye, when compared to the immobilized HRP. The applicability of HRP for treating the actual tannery dye-house wastewater was also demonstrated. PMID:23961406

  15. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Dojčinović, Biljana P; Roglić, Goran M; Obradović, Bratislav M; Kuraica, Milorad M; Kostić, Mirjana M; Nešić, Jelena; Manojlović, Dragan D

    2011-08-30

    Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10mM H(2)O(2) in a system of 80.0mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45kJ/L, after residence time of 24h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism. PMID:21703757

  16. Spectroscopic properties and amplified spontaneous emission of fluorescein laser dye in ionic liquids as green media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Aqmar, Dalal M.; Abdelkader, H. I.; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.

    2015-09-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as milieu materials for laser dyes is a promising field and quite competitive with volatile organic solvents and solid state-dye laser systems. This paper investigates some photo-physical parameters of fluorescein dye incorporated into ionic liquids; 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate (BMIM AlCl4) and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM BF4) as promising host matrix in addition to ethanol as reference. These parameters are: absorption and emission cross-sections, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield, in addition to the transition dipole moment, the attenuation length and oscillator strength were also investigated. Lasing characteristics such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), the gain, and the photostability of fluorescein laser dye dissolved in different host materials were assessed. The composition and properties of the matrix of ILs were found that it has great interest in optimizing the laser performance and photostability of the investigated laser dye. Under transverse pumping of fluorescein dye by blue laser diode (450 nm) of (400 mW), the initial ASE for dye dissolved in BMIM AlCl4 and ethanol were decreased to 39% and 36% respectively as time progressed 132 min. Relatively high efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yield (11.8% and 0.82% respectively) were obtained with good photostability in case of fluorescein in BMIM BF4 that was decreased to ∼56% of the initial ASE after continuously pumping with 400 mW for 132 min.

  17. Electron transfer in the quenching of protonated triplet thionine and methylene blue by ground state thionine

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Lichtin, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Use of thiazine dyes, e.g., thionine and methylene blue, in the conversion of light energy into electrical energy has been studied extensively in recent years. Despite continuing efforts to improve the performance of photogalvanic cells, the highest reported engineering efficiency for photogalvanic conversion of sunlight into electricity is still less than 0.1%. One of the proposed steps to increase efficiency is to employ high concentrations of light-absorbing dye, e.g., 0.1 M. However, use of such high concentrations of dye may lead to wastage of absorbed quantum energy via a variety of processes, one of which is quenching of triplet dye by ground-state dye. A study of such ground-state quenching of protonated triplet methylene blue, /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/, with efficiency of net electron transfer in quenching, F/sub 1/, less than 0.5 was reported previously. Quenching without net electron-transfer inevitably reduces the conversion efficiency of photogalvanic cells. The results of a laser flash-photolytic, kinetic spectrometric study of kinetics and mechanism of quenching of protonated triplet thionine, /sup 3/TH/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ by ground-state thionine, TH/sup +/, in water, aqueous CH/sub 3/CN and aqueous ethanol are presented.

  18. High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

    2013-06-01

    Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

  19. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.

    1983-01-01

    A flash lamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as an amplifier stage was developed. The desired output laser pulses are of nanosecond duration, tunable in center frequency, and of good optical quality. Its usefulness as a laser oscillator is emphasized, because it constitutes a compact, relatively efficient source of tunable dye laser light.

  20. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    DOEpatents

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  1. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  2. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  3. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  4. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  5. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  6. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Methods Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011–2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Results Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. Conclusions The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of cellulose modified nano zero-valent iron for dye discoloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Pei; Ma, Jun; Liu, Huiling; Ning, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) was innovatively and successfully modified by using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as dispersants. The systematic characterization observations (including XRD, SEM and TEM) illustrate that, compared with bare nano zero-valent iron particles (BNZVI), the particle sizes of hydroxyethyl cellulose modified (ENZVI) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose modified (PNZVI) were decreased, while the dispersity and antioxidizability of ENZVI and PNZVI particles were increased. The discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI, PNZVI, and BNZVI were compared by using dyes (including orange II, methyl orange, methyl blue, and methylene blue) as target pollutant. The results show that both the discoloration efficiency and reaction rate of ENZVI and PNZVI are higher than that of BNZVI. In addition, effects of dispersant content, dye type, pH value, initial dye concentration, iron dosage, and reaction temperature on discoloration efficiencies were studied. The results show that discoloration efficiency was decreased by increasing initial pH value and dye concentration, and it was increased with the increase the iron dosage and reaction temperature. Under optimized NZVI addition of 0.7 g L-1, the discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI and PNZVI were increased to 96.33% and 98.62%, respectively. And the possible discoloration pathway and dispersant modification mechanism of NZVI were discussed. This study suggests hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose dispersed NZVI can be utilized as a promising modified nano-material for degradation of dye wastewater.

  8. Sensitizing and irritant properties of 3 environmental classes of diesel oil and their indicator dyes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Bjarnason, B

    1996-05-01

    3 dyes, Solvent Yellow 124 and Solvent Blue 79 or Solvent Blue 98, were added to diesel oils in Sweden for identification of their particular use and taxation bracket in late 1993. Health concern regarding the toxicity of the dyes resulted in several reports to the Worker Inspection Bureau. 36 men reporting skin disease supposedly caused by dyes were diagnosed to have irritant reactions, irritant contact dermatitis or exacerbation of other skin disease. Tests on 15 individuals from this group, and 20 healthy volunteers, failed to demonstrate contact allergy or contact urticaria to the dyes or dyed diesel oil. Patch tests with dyes (10% v/v) in pet. did not cause irritation. Tests of irritant properties of the diesel oils showed that the old type of oil, with high viscosity, high content or aromatic compounds and moderately high sulfur content, caused little irritation, whereas newer, lighter qualities of diesel oil, with low concentrations of aromatic compounds and low sulfur content, which cause less pollution to the environment when burnt, were significantly more irritant to the skin and probably a cause of the skin problems. PMID:8807221

  9. THE CATALYTIC EFFECT OF DYES ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF LIVING CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Barron, E. S. Guzman; Hoffman, L. A.

    1930-01-01

    From the experiments described in this paper and in those previously published it can be concluded that dyes which can be reversibly oxidized and reduced, act as catalysts for some oxidative processes taking place in the living cells, as is manifested by an increase in their oxygen consumption. It has been found that the catalytic power of the dyes on the oxygen consumption of starfish eggs (mature, unfertilized) is conditioned by two factors: the reduction potential of the dye and the permeability of the cell surface. Dyes whose E'o is towards the positive side of the aerobic reduction potential of the starfish eggs have a maximum catalytic effect. This catalytic power decreases as the E'o becomes more negative than the reduction potential of the cell and becomes nil beyond certain limits. When a dye cannot penetrate into the cell, its effect is greatly diminished as in this case only those oxidative processes taking place at the outer surface of the cell can be activated. Whether a dye can act as a catalyst or not is dependent on whether the normal consumption of oxygen by the cell is slower or quicker than the oxidation activated by the dye. The speed of this activation is correlated to (1) the speed at which the dye is reduced by the cell, and (2) the speed at which the leuco-dye is oxidized by the atmospheric oxygen. If one of these two processes is slower than the normal respiration, the dye cannot increase the rate of oxygen consumption (phenol indophenol at low concentrations which is kept reduced by the cell is very slowly reoxidized by atmospheric oxygen, on the other hand safranin and neutral red which are not reduced by the cell or at least too slowly reduced, though rapidly reoxidized by air). It will depend on these two reactions velocities whether a dye will act as catalyst (methylene blue and dyes with similar E'o which are quickly reduced by the cell and the leuco-dyes of which are relatively quickly reoxidized). Though this relationship between

  10. Induction of a M/sub r/ 21,000 polypeptide in an Arthrobacter Sp. by dye-sensitized photooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Franzi, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of aerobic cultures of an Arthrobacter species with near-UV light and oxygen induced synthesis of a cell surface protein, M/sub r/ 21,000 polypeptide. Visible light, oxygen and a sensitizing dye were also effective in induction. Far-UV light, bleomycin and nalidixic acid, all inducers of the recA protein in Escherichia coli, were ineffective inducers of this protein. Furthermore, X-irradiation and radical-generating oxidants failed to induce synthesis of the M/sub r/ 21,000 polypeptide. DNA binding dyes proved to be capable of inducing synthesis of this protein or inhibiting dye-mediated stimulation of synthesis of this protein. For example, dGdC-specific dyes (e.g. methylene blue, neutral red, acridine orange or ethidium bromide) were efficient inducers of the M/sub r/ 21,000 polypeptide. Also methylene blue and neutral red were more efficient inducers than were acridine orange or ethidium bromide, which could be explained by the greater dGdC specificity and, possibly by the greater photoreactivity of methylene blue and neutral red. dAdT-specific dyes such as methyl green or daunomycin effectively inhibited dye-mediated induction. Rose bengal is an anionic dye which does not bind to DNA but does mediate the photooxidation of deoxyguanosine residues in DNA. It is an efficient inducer of the M/sub r/ 21,000 polypeptide. Induction with this dye is nearly eliminated when novobiocin, an inhibitor of DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) which mediates relaxation, is added in conjunction with rose bengal.

  11. Stress Reaction in Outer Segments of Photoreceptors after Blue Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ader, Marius; Brunssen, Coy; Bramke, Silvia; Morawietz, Henning; Funk, Richard H. W.

    2013-01-01

    The retina is prone to oxidative stress from many factors which are also involved in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases. In this study, we used the application of blue light as a physiological stress factor. The aim of this study was to identify the major source of intracellular ROS that mediates blue light-induced detrimental effects on cells which may lead to cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that outer segments are the major source of blue light induced ROS generation. In photoreceptors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes and the recently found respiratory chain complexes may represent a major source for reactive oxygen species (ROS), beside mitochondria and chromophores. Therefore, we investigated this hypothesis and analysed the exact localization of the ROS source in photoreceptors in an organotypic culture system for mouse retinas. Whole eyeball cultures were irradiated with visible blue light (405 nm) with an output power of 1 mW/cm2. Blue light impingement lead to an increase of ROS production (detected by H2DCFDA in live retinal explants), which was particularly strong in the photoreceptor outer segments. Nox-2 and Nox-4 proteins are sources of ROS in blue light irradiated photoreceptors; the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased ROS stimulated by blue light. Concomitantly, enzyme SOD-1, a member of the antioxidant defense system, indicator molecules of protein oxidation (CML) and lipid oxidation (MDA and 4-HNE) were also increased in the outer segments. Interestingly, outer segments showed a mitochondrial-like membrane potential which was demonstrated using two dyes (JC-1 and TMRE) normally exclusively associated with mitochondria. As in mitochondria, these dyes indicated a decrease of the membrane potential in hypoxic states or cell stress situations. The present study demonstrates that ROS generation and oxidative stress occurs directly in the outer segments of photoreceptors after blue light irradiation. PMID

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  14. Anaphylaxis to Patent Blue V: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Ania L.; Juneja, Rohit; Self, Robert; Farquhar-Smith, Paul; MacNeill, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Blue dyes such as Patent Blue V (PBV) have been used in medical procedures for decades, and in the United Kingdom they are routinely utilised in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for staging the axilla in early breast cancer. However, it has long been recognised that such dyes are associated with anaphylaxis. It has recently been estimated in a prospective study that allergy to PBV occurs with a frequency of 0.9%. Since repeated SLNB (and therefore further exposure to PBV) is increasingly being advocated for the small proportion of patients who develop a local (in-breast) recurrence, and because anaphylaxis can be life-threatening, it is important that those individuals that are allergic to PBV are recognised on their first medical exposure. The measurement of serum mast-cell tryptase (MCT) and skin prick test (SPT) are used in the investigation of suspected anaphylaxis because positive results are supportive of type-1 mediated hypersensitivity. Here we report the clinical features, MCT results and SPT results that pertain to a series of four patients referred to our drug allergy clinic with suspected anaphylaxis following SLNB. We recommend that all patients that show clinical evidence of allergy following exposure to PBV are referred to a specialist drug allergy service for further evaluation to investigate the cause. PMID:22348211

  15. Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonisation and physical activation of high ash raw bagasse for acid dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Cheung, W H; McKay, G

    2004-08-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse through a low temperature (160 degrees C) chemical carbonisation treatment and gasification with carbon dioxide at 900 degrees C. The merit of low temperature chemical carbonisation in preparing chars for activation was assessed by comparing the physical and chemical properties of activated carbons developed by this technique to conventional methods involving the use of thermal and vacuum pyrolysis of bagasse. In addition, the adsorption properties (acid blue dye) of these bagasse activated carbons were also compared with a commercial activated carbon. The results suggest that despite the high ash content of the precursor, high surface areas (614-1433 m2 g(-1)) and microporous (median pore size from 0.45 to 1.2 nm) activated carbons can be generated through chemical carbonisation and gasification. The micropore area of the activated carbon developed from chars prepared by the low temperature chemical carbonisation provides favourable adsorption sites to acid blue dye (391 mg g(-1) of carbon). The alkalinity of the carbon surface and total surface area were shown to have complementary effects in promoting the adsorption of acid blue dye. Adsorption of the anionic coloured component of the acid dye was shown to be promoted in carbon exhibiting alkaline or positively charged surfaces. This study demonstrates that activated carbons with high acid dye adsorption capacities can be prepared from high ash bagasse based on low temperature chemical carbonisation and gasification. PMID:15212915

  16. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  17. Hematoxylin shortages: their causes and duration, and other dyes that can replace hemalum in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R; Horobin, R W; Kiernan, J

    2010-02-01

    The origins of repeated hematoxylin shortages are outlined. Lack of integration in the hematoxylin trade exacerbates the problems inherent in using a natural product. Separate corporations are engaged in tree growth and harvesting, dye extraction, processing of extracts to yield hematoxylin, and formulation and sale of hematoxylin staining solutions to the end users in biomedical laboratories. Hematoxylin has many uses in biological staining and no single dye can replace it for all applications. Probably, the most satisfactory substitutes for aluminum-hematoxylin (hemalum) are the ferric complexes of celestine blue (CI 51050; mordant blue 14) and eriochrome cyanine R (CI 43820; mordant blue 3, also known as chromoxane cyanine R and solochrome cyanine R). The iron-celestine blue complex is a cationic dye that binds to nucleic acids and other polyanions, such as those of cartilage matrix and mast cell granules. Complexes of iron with eriochrome cyanine R are anionic and give selective nuclear staining similar to that obtained with acidic hemalum solutions. Iron complexes of gallein (CI 45445; mordant violet 25), a hydroxyxanthene dye, can replace iron-hematoxylin in formulations for staining nuclei, myelin, and protozoa. PMID:19562570

  18. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes.

    PubMed

    Przystas, Wioletta; Zablocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabinska-Sota, Elzbieta

    2015-06-01

    Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), RWP17 (Polyporus picipes) and Fusarium oxysporum (G1) was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus) were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH), which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the elimination of dye

  19. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes

    PubMed Central

    Przystas, Wioletta; Zablocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabinska-Sota, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), RWP17 (Polyporus picipes) and Fusarium oxysporum (G1) was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus) were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH), which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the elimination of dye

  20. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  1. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  2. Dye laser in ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, K S; Wei, Y H; Zhang, M H; Shi, X H; Shi, H Y

    1982-01-01

    From September 1978 to May 1980, dye lasers have been used in the treatment of 56 cases of eye disease (60 eyes), including among others peripheral retinal breaks, macular breaks, prebreak stage degeneration, congenital iris residual membrane, incomplete surgical iridectomy, secondary glaucoma iris bombé, closed-angle glaucoma, vireous hemorrhage, periphlebitis retinae, Coats disease, thrombosis of central and branch retinal vein. Most of the results are satisfactory. Dye laser irradiation has the advantage in iridotomy. Only one pulse can perforate the iris and no serious complication has been encountered. There is a definite therapeutic effect in treatment of vitreous hemorrhage by dye laser. PMID:7109813

  3. Super vasomol hair dye poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen A S; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T K

    2012-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management. PMID:22736909

  4. Mechanisms of Alizarin Red S and Methylene blue biosorption onto olive stone by-product: Isotherm study in single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Albadarin, Ahmad B; Mangwandi, Chirangano

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption process of anionic dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB) as a function of contact time, initial concentration and solution pH onto olive stone (OS) biomass has been investigated. Equilibrium biosorption isotherms in single and binary systems and kinetics in batch mode were also examined. The kinetic data of the two dyes were better described by the pseudo second-order model. At low concentration, ARS dye appeared to follow a two-step diffusion process, while MB dye followed a three-step diffusion process. The biosorption experimental data for ARS and MB dyes were well suited to the Redlich-Peterson isotherm. The maximum biosorption of ARS dye, qmax = 16.10 mg/g, was obtained at pH 3.28 and the maximum biosorption of MB dye, qmax = 13.20 mg/g, was observed at basic pH values. In the binary system, it was indicated that the MB dye diffuses firstly inside the biosorbent particle and occupies the biosorption sites forming a monodentate complex and then the ARS dye enters and can only bind to untaken sites; forms a tridentate complex with OS active sites. PMID:26355260

  5. Catalyst Transport in Corn Stover Internodes: Elucidating Transport Mechanisms Using Direct Blue-I

    SciTech Connect

    Viamajala, S.; Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Tucker, M. P.; Himmel, M. E.; McMillan, J. D.; Decker, S. R.

    2006-04-01

    The transport of catalysts (chemicals and enzymes) within plant biomass is believed to be a major bottleneck during thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose. Subjecting biomass to size reduction and mechanical homogenization can reduce catalyst transport limitations; however, such processing adds complexity and cost to the over-all process. Using high-resolution light microscopy, we have monitored the transport of an aqueous solution of Direct Blue-I (DB-I) dye through intact corn internodes under a variety of impregnation conditions. DB-I is a hydrophilic anionic dye with affinity for cellulose. This model system has enabled us to visualize likely barriers and mechanisms of catalyst transport in corn stems. Microscopic images were compared with calculated degrees of saturation (i.e., volume fraction of internode void space occupied by dye solution) to correlate impregnation strategies with dye distribution and transport mechanisms. Results show the waxy rind exterior and air trapped within individual cells to be the major barriers to dye transport, whereas the vascular bundles, apoplastic continuum (i.e., the intercellular void space at cell junctions), and fissures formed during the drying process provided the most utilized pathways for transport. Although representing only 20-30% of the internode volume, complete saturation of the apoplast and vascular bundles by fluid allowed dye contact with a majority of the cells in the internode interior.

  6. Near-infrared unsymmetrical blue and green squaraine sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Hanumantha; Venkateswararao, A; Giribabu, L; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Two novel panchromatic asymmetrical squaraine sensitizers (SPSQ1 and SPSQ2) have been synthesized, characterized and effectively used for TiO2-based dye sensitized solar cells. In a solution, both dyes display a highly intense near-IR absorption (SPSQ1; 651 nm and SPSQ2; 692 nm), the red shifted absorption of SPSQ2 was attributed to the incorporation of the auxiliary acceptor dicyanovinyl unit on the squaraine moiety. Interestingly, the dicyanovinyl unit lowered the LUMO level of SPSQ2, which decreased the band gap and red shifted the absorption when compared to SPSQ1. These dyes possess suitable HOMO and LUMO levels to work as efficient sensitizers in DSSCs. The experimental trends in their optical and electrochemical properties are well matched with the theoretical calculations modeled by TDDFT. The blue and green color of the devices showed their complementary absorption and harvest a greater number of photons from solar flux. Under standard global AM 1.5 G solar conditions, the DSSC based on SPSQ2 exhibited a high power conversion efficiency of 3.1% with a high short circuit current density (JSC) attributed to the broadening of the IPCE spectra in the UV-vis and near-IR regions when compared to SPSQ1 (2.5%). PMID:26815591

  7. Development of an image processing support system based on fluorescent dye to prevent elderly people with dementia from wandering.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kim, Juhyon; Nakajima, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    The wandering of elderly people with dementia is a significant behavioral problem and is a heavy burden on caregivers in residential and nursing homes. Thus, warning systems have been developed to prevent elderly people with dementia from leaving the premises. Some of these systems use radio waves. However, systems based on radio waves present several practical problems. For instance, the transmitter must be carried and may become lost; in addition, the battery of the transmitter must be changed. To solve these problems, we developed a support system that prevents elderly people with dementia from wandering. The system employs image processing technology based on fluorescent dye. The composition of the support system can be described as follows: fluorescent dye is painted in a simple shape on the clothes of an elderly person. The fluorescent color becomes visible by irradiation with a long wavelength of ultraviolet light. In the present paper, the relationship between the color of the dye and the cloth was investigated. A 3D video camera was used to acquire a 3D image and detect the simple shape. As a preliminary experiment, 3 colors (red, green and blue) of fluorescent dye were applied to cloths of 9 different colors. All fluorescent colors were detected on 6 of the cloths, but red and blue dye could not be detected on the other 3 cloths. In contrast, green dye was detectable on all 9 of the cloths. Additionally, we determined whether green dye could be detected in an actual environment. A rectangular shaped patch of green fluorescent dye was painted on the shoulder area of a subject, from the scapula to the clavicle. As a result, the green dye was detected on all 9 different colored cloths. PMID:24111431

  8. A microdestructive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; González-Herráez, Miguel; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-26

    This manuscript describes the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the detection of acid and basic dyes and its application to real samples, blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper. First, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation of basic and acid dyes, by studying the separation medium (buffer nature, pH and relative amount of additive) and instrumental parameters (temperature, voltage and capillary dimensions). The method performance was evaluated in terms of selectivity, resolution (above 5 and 2 for acid dyes and basic dyes, respectively, except for two basic dye standards), LOD (lower than 0.4 mg/L) and precision as intraday and interday RSD values of peak migration times (lower than 0.6%). The developed method was then applied to 34 blue pens from different technologies (rollerball, ballpoint, markers) and with different ink composition (gel, water-based, oil-based). A microdestructive sample treatment using a scalpel to scratch 0.3mg of ink stroke was performed. The entire electropherogram profile allowed the visual discrimination between different types of ink and brands, being not necessary a statistical treatment. A 100% of discrimination was achieved between pen technologies, brands, and models, although non-reproducible zones in the electropherograms were found for blue gel pen samples. The two different batches of blue oil-based pens were also differentiated. Thus, this method provides a simple, microdestructive, and rapid analysis of different blue pen technologies which may complement the current analysis of questioned documents performed by forensic laboratories. PMID:26003620

  9. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions. PMID:23058993

  10. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  11. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  12. High performance biosorbent (Caulerpa lentillifera) for basic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2007-05-01

    The sorptions of three basic dyes, Astrazon((R)) Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon((R)) Red GTLN (AR), and methylene blue (MB) onto green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera were investigated. The results were compared to the sorption performance of a commercial activated carbon (CARBON). The results revealed that the alga exhibited greater sorption capacities than activated carbon for the three basic dyes investigated in this work. The sorption process for all mixture systems (ALGA/AB, ALGA/AR, ALGA/MB, CARBON/AB, CARBON/AR, and CARBON/MB) obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. C. lentillifera could more rapidly sequester AR when compared with activated carbon, but was more slowly in the sorption of AB. For the sorption of MB, both ALGA and CARBON seemed to have the same sorption rate. The sorption processes were initially controlled by both film and pore-diffusion, and only were limited by pore diffusion in the later stage. The isotherms followed Langmuir model which suggested that the sorption was monolayer coverage. PMID:16920355

  13. Inhibition of an oligomycin-sensitive ATPase by cationic dyes, some of which are atypical uncouplers of intact mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mai, M S; Allison, W S

    1983-03-01

    The inhibition of an oligomycin sensitive ATPase prepared from bovine heart submitochondrial particles (J.A. Berden and M.M. Voorn-Brouwer, 1978, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 501, 424-439) by a number of cationic dyes has been compared in order to develop a structure-function relationship. Two generalizations emerge from this comparison. First, the most effective dyes have net positive charge at neutral pH; and second, those dyes containing alkyl substituted secondary and tertiary amino groups are more effective than analogs with primary aromatic amino groups. Some of the cationic dyes exhibit uncoupling activity when added to intact rat liver mitochondria, stimulating both State 4 respiration and the latent ATPase activity. The order of effectiveness and concentrations for maximal stimulation of respiration are: coriphosphine (0.3 microM), Nile blue A (0.5 microM), pyronin Y (0.8 microM), and acridine orange (10 microM). Atypically, oligomycin inhibits the stimulation of respiration by these cationic acid uncouplers. The order of effectiveness and concentrations for maximal stimulation of the latent ATPase are: Nile blue A (2 microM), pyronin Y (8 microM), acridine orange (25 microM), and coriphosphine (75 microM). At concentrations greater than those shown for maximal stimulation, the uncoupling dyes inhibited respiration and the latent ATPase. The cationic dyes tested that were not uncouplers are inhibitors of respiration and the latent ATPase of intact mitochondria at all concentrations tested. PMID:6188413

  14. Biogenic sulphide plays a major role on the riboflavin-mediated decolourisation of azo dyes under sulphate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Francisco J; Enríquez, Javier E; Galindo-Petatán, Eden; Arvayo, Héctor; Razo-Flores, Elías; Field, Jim A

    2007-06-01

    The effect of high concentrations of sulphate on the reductive decolourisation of different azo dyes by anaerobic sludge was studied in batch cultures. Sludge cultures were pre-incubated under sulphate-reducing conditions prior addition of dyes. Little or no effects of sulphate (5-10 g sulphate l(-1)) on the rate of decolourisation of Reactive Orange 14 (RO14), Direct Blue 53 (DB53) and Direct Blue 71 (DB71) were observed when no external redox mediator was provided. However, an increase in sulphate concentration, in the presence of riboflavin (20 microM), enhanced the decolourisation of all dyes. The first-rate constant of decolourisation (k) was increased up to 2-, 3.6- and 2-fold for RO14, DB53 and DB71, respectively, by supplying high sulphate concentrations, compared to the controls lacking sulphate, in the presence of the redox mediator. Sulphate reduction did not take place during the course of azo reductions, but was only evident before dye addition and after complete decolourisation, suggesting azo dyes reduction out-competed sulphate reduction for the available reducing equivalents. The experimental data suggest that reduction of azo dyes by riboflavin, which had been reduced by biogenic sulphide, was the major mechanism implicated during decolourisations, which was corroborated by abiotic incubations. Riboflavin greatly accelerated the abiotic reduction of RO14, so that the k value was increased up to 44-fold compared to the control lacking riboflavin. PMID:17350080

  15. Study of azo dye decolorization and determination of cathode microorganism profile in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Mert; Eren, Hilal; Catal, Tunc; Bermek, Hakan; Akarsubaşi, Alper Tunga

    2012-09-01

    Five textile azo dyes, as part of an artificial mixture, were treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells while simultaneously utilizing acetate for electricity production. Remazol Black, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Remazol Turquoise Blue, Reactive Yellow and Reactive Red at concentrations of 40 or 80 mg L(-1) were decolorized to a similar extent, at averages of 78, 95, 53, 93 and 74%, respectively, in 24 hours. During the process of decolorization, electricity generation from acetate oxidation continued. Power densities obtained in the presence of textile dyes ranged from 347 to 521 mW m(-2) at the current density range of 0.071 - 0.086 mA cm(-2). Microbial community analyses of cathode biofilm exhibited dynamic changes in abundant species following dye decolorization. Upon the addition of the first dye, a major change (63%) in microbial diversity was observed; however, subsequent addition of other dyes did not affect the community profile significantly. Actinobacteria, Aquamicrobium, Mesorhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Thauera, Paracoccus, Achromobacter and Chelatacoccus affiliated phylotypes were the major phylotypes detected. Our results demonstrate that microbial fuel cells could be a promising alternative for treatment of textile wastewaters and an active bacterial community can rapidly be established for simultaneous azo dye decolorization and sustainable electricity generation. PMID:23240212

  16. Integrated oxygen-doping and dye sensitization of graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, H M; Tade, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-08-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) is a promising metal-free photocatalyst while suffering from low charge mobility induced inefficient photocatalysis. In this work, oxygen doping was employed to enhance the photodegradation of organic pollutants in water on graphitic carbon nitride (GCNO) under visible light. For further absorption extension, four organic dyes (Eosin-Y, Perylene, Nile-red and Coumarin) were adopted to dye-sensitize the GCNO photocatalyst. It was found that O-doping can promote dye sensitization, which was dependent on the type of dyes and influenced the photodegradation efficiencies of methylene blue (MB) and phenol. Nile-red sensitized GCNO presented the best activity in MB degradation under λ>480nm irradiations while Eosin-Y showed the best sensitization performance for phenol degradation under λ>420nm light source. However, dye sensitization was not effective for enhanced pollutant degradation on GCN without O-doping. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and photocurrent analyses were applied to investigate the mechanism of carriers' transfer, which indicated that dye molecules could inject extra electrons into GCNO energy band and the energy dislocation could suppress electron/hole recombination, enhancing photocatalytic performances. PMID:27218807

  17. Removal of direct dyes by coagulation: the performance of preformed polymeric aluminum species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Li, Guohong; Wang, Dongsheng; Feng, Chenghong; Tang, Hongxiao

    2007-05-01

    Removal of three direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Red 28, and Direct Blue 86) by coagulation with three different Al based coagulants was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the coagulation features of polymeric aluminum coagulants in treatment of dye-polluted waters and the emphasis was placed on the roles of preformed Al species, particularly Al(13). The performance of Al(13) in coagulation of dyes was observed through jar tests by comparing traditional Al salt, polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and purified Al(13). The results showed that under most cases Al(13) had significantly higher efficiency in removal of direct dyes than traditional Al salt and commercial PACl with the exception of Direct Red 28 removal under high pH range. The coagulation of direct dyes could be greatly affected by pH. Reducing pH was favorable for preformed Al species in a broad pH range. For traditional Al coagulant, efficient dye removal only occurred in a relatively narrow pH range of near 6.0. The outstanding coagulation behavior of Al(13) could be ascribed to its high charge neutralization ability, relative stability and potential self-assembly tendency. PMID:17070993

  18. Adsorption properties of crosslinking carboxymethyl cellulose grafting dimethyldiallylammonium chloride for cationic and anionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingwen; Gao, Mengfan; Chang, Jiali; Ma, Hongzhu

    2016-10-20

    Novel and efficient microspheres adsorbent (MCA-E0.7/CMC-g- PDMDAAC), based on monochloroacetic acid (MCA) modified epichlorohydrin (ECH) cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), then grafting by dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC), was synthesized and its adsorption properties on cationic and anionic dyes were investigated. The results demonstrated that such MCA-E0.7/CMC-g-PDMDAAC microspheres showed pH-sensitive and could effectively adsorb cationic dye methylene blue (MB) or anionic dye orange II (OR II), at near neutral (pH>4) or acidic (pH<3) condition, respectively. Moreover, it could selectively adsorb the cationic dye MB from the cationic/anionic dye mixture at neutral pH condition. The desorption experiments were mainly performed under acidic (pH 3) or basic (pH 11) condition, over 98.54% of MB and 83.07% of OR II can be desorbed within 20min, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm provide better correlation with the experimental data for the adsorption of dyes onto MCA-E0.7/CMC-g-PDMDAAC microspheres. PMID:27474569

  19. Simultaneous determination of five aluminum lake dyes in chewing gum by HPLC with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Yin, Jie; Shao, Bing

    2011-09-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed and validated for the determination of five food aluminum lake dyes (Tartrazine Al lake, Sunset Yellow Al lake, Ponceau 4R Al lake, Allura Red Al lake and Brilliant Blue Al lake) in chewing gum. The dye portions of the target aluminum lakes were simultaneous extracted with 0.25 M NaOH and cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane, followed by further purification using Oasis WAX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Analytes were separated by HPLC using an Inertsil ® ODS-3 column coupled to a photodiode array detector. The amounts of the aluminum lake dyes were finally quantified and indicated as their dye portions using corresponding calibration curves over ranges of 0.5 to 50 µg ml(-1), with correlation coefficients >0.9999. Recoveries of the dye parts in aluminum lake dyes (spiked at levels of 1, 5, 25 µg g(-1)) ranged from 72.5 to 116.4%, with relative standard deviations between 0.9 and 6.5%. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for all analytes were 0.15 and 0.50 µg g(-1), respectively. This method was successfully applied in real samples of chewing gum. PMID:21707267

  20. Effect of solution temperature, pH and ionic strength on dye adsorption onto Magellanic peat.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Luisa Antonia; Santana, Cesar Costapinto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of the solution temperature, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of the Basic Blue 3 (BB3) and Acid Black 1 (AB1) dyes in Magellanic peat. The peat used was physically characterized as fibrous, of low decomposition level, without the presence of crystalline material and with a highly porous morphology. The functional groups with major concentration in the surface adsorbent were the carboxylics and phenolics, with values of 0.91 and 0.47 mmol/g, respectively. The results of the batch assays showed that the adsorption of the AB1 dye was strongly dependent of electrical charge density on the surface, contrary to what occurred to the BB3 dye, because the interactions between the dyes and carboxylic groups of the peat could be either electrostatic or non-electrostatic. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models were fitted to the experimental data; among them, the Sips model presented the best adjustment quality. The maximum adsorption capacities for BB3 and AB1 dyes were 33.1 and 33.7 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of BB3 dye onto Magellan peat has an exothermic behaviour, obtaining an adsorption enthalpy of -3.44 kJ/mol. Contrarily the adsorption of AB1 has an adsorption enthalpy of 56.76 kJ/mol. PMID:23837348

  1. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations. PMID:21605540

  2. Isotherm study of reactive Blue 19 adsorption by an alum sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, Ong Keat; Nor, Mohd Asri Md; Mohamad, Syuriya; Nasaruddin, Nas Aulia Ahmad; Jamari, Nor Laili-Azua; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 using dewatered alum sludge. The dewatered alum sludge was a sludge produced from drinking water treatment plant. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of the dye adsorption. The adsorption was rapid at its initial stage but the rate decreased as it approached equilibrium. The adsorption data were evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models but was best described by the Langmuir isotherm model as it gave the highest correlation.

  3. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  4. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  5. Effect of a magnetic field on the adsorptive removal of methylene blue onto wheat straw biochar.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoting; Zhu, Weiyong; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weigao

    2016-04-01

    Biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straw was innovatively used for the adsorptive removal of cationic dye methylene blue through exposure to a magnetic field. The adsorption capability of the biochar pyrolyzed at 200 °C exceeded that of samples pyrolyzed at higher temperatures. The surface acidic functional groups of wheat straw biochar were deduced to be more sensitive to the effects of the external magnetic field. The enhancement of the magnetic field achieved by increases in the initial dye concentration, and a decrease in the biochar dosage and solution pH, were more significant compared with those caused by other conditions. Kinetic experiments indicated that chemisorption occurred during adsorption. The qmax values for dye adsorption without, and with, an external magnetic field were found to be 46.6 and 62.5mg/g, respectively. These demonstrated that wheat straw biochar could be used for the efficient adsorption of pollutants when assisted by an external magnetic field. PMID:26845216

  6. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  7. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Kamari; Wan Saime, Wan Ngah; Lai Ken, Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan for both acid dyes were comparatively higher than those of chitosan-EGDE. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed the best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment. PMID:19634439

  8. Effects of pathology dyes on Raman bone spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2013-05-01

    We report an overlooked source of artifacts for clinical specimens, where unexpected and normally negligible contaminants can skew the interpretation of results. During an ongoing study of bone fragments from diabetic osteomyelitis, strong Raman signatures were found, which did not correspond with normal bone mineral or matrix. In a bone biopsy from the calcaneus of a patient affected by diabetic osteomyelitis, Raman microspectroscopic analysis revealed regions with both abnormal mineral and degraded collagen in addition to normal bone. Additional bands indicated a pathological material. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified in the wound culture by independent microbiologic examination. We initially assigned the unusual bands to xanthomonadin, a bacterial pigment from S. maltophilia. However, the same bands were also found more than a year later on a second specimen that had been noticeably contaminated with pathology marking dye. Drop deposition/Raman spectroscopy of commonly used pathology dyes revealed that a blue tissue-marking dye was responsible for the unusual bands in both specimens, even in the first specimen where there was no visible evidence of contamination.

  9. Wet oxidative regeneration of activated carbon loaded with reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Shende, R V; Mahajani, V V

    2002-01-01

    Wet Oxidative Regeneration (WOR) of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with the reactive dyes, namely chemictive brilliant blue R and cibacron turquoise blue G, was studied. Attempts were made to regenerate the loaded carbons designated now as spent carbon. A slurry (10% w/v) of spent carbon in distilled water was oxidized by wet oxidation in the temperature range of 150-250 degrees C using oxygen partial pressures between 0.69-1.38 MPa in an 1 1 SS 316 autoclave. The percent regeneration was determined from a ratio, X(RC)/X(VC), corresponding to an equilibrium adsorption capacity of regenerated carbon/equilibrium adsorption capacity of virgin carbon from an initial adsorption period of 3 h. It was observed that the regeneration mainly occurred due to the oxidation of the adsorbates taking place on the surface of carbon. It was possible to regenerate the spent GAC and PAC to the extent of more than 98% (approximately X(RC)/X(VC) > 0.98) by wet oxidation. After four consecutive cycles of adsorption and regeneration using the same stocks of GAC, carbon weight loss observed at 200 degrees C was about 40%. SEM studies of the regenerated carbon showed widening of the pores and loss of structure between the adjacent pores as compared with the virgin carbon. PAC was found to be more suitable as compared with GAC for the adsorption and wet oxidative regeneration processes to treat the aqueous solution containing lower concentration of unhydrolyzed reactive dye. The suitability of wet oxidative regeneration is demonstrated at a bench scale to treat the synthetic reactive dye solution. PMID:11942707

  10. Comparison of Remazol Brillant Blue Removal from Wastewater by Two Different Organisms and Analysis of Metabolites by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Canpolat, Merve

    2014-01-01

    White rot fungus participates in biological degradation of many organic environmental pollutants. Also, white rot fungus contains a variety of extracellular enzymes, and these enzymes are used for biological degradation of organic matter. We investigated the biological treatment of synthetic dyes, at a low cost and in the shortest possible time, that are used especially in the dye and textile industries and are important polluting agents in the wastewater discharged into the environment by these industries. For this purpose, removal of Remazol Brillant Blue by Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus plicatilis was studied. This dye was removed 100% (dye concentration, 10.0 mg/L) by both organisms. Laccase and manganese peroxidase enzyme activities were also monitored. There was an attempt to identify metabolites via GC/MS at the end of the decolorization. No detectable metabolite was found. PMID:25902993

  11. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  12. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  13. [Adsorption and desorption of dyes by waste-polymer-derived activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Lian, Fei; Liu, Chang; Li, Guo-Guang; Liu, Yi-Fu; Li, Yong; Zhu, Ling-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons with high surface area were prepared from three waste polymers, i. e., tire rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) on the carbons were studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength and surface surfactants in the solution on the dye adsorption were also investigated. The results indicated that the carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited high surface area of 2 666 and 2 831 m2 x g(-1). Their mesopore volume were as high as 1.06 and 1.30 cm3 g(-1), respectively. 98.5% and 97.0% of methylene blue and methyl orange were removed in 15 min by PVC carbon, and that of 99.5% and 95.0% for PET carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity to these dyes was more than 2 mmol x g(-1), much higher than that of commercial activated carbon F400. Compared with Freundlich model, the adsorption data was fitted better by Langmiur model, indicating monolayer coverage on the carbons. The adsorption was highly dependent on solution pH, ionic strength and concentration of surface surfactants. The activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption to methylene blue than that of methyl orange, and it was very hard for both of the dyes to be desorbed. The observation in this study demonstrated that activated carbons derived from polymer waste could be effective adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater with dyes. PMID:22452203

  14. Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, D; Namasivayam, C

    2007-01-01

    Varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature carried out the potential feasibility of thermally activated coir pith carbon prepared from coconut husk for removal of methylene blue. Greater percentage of dye was removed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent used. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye on coir pith carbon was a gradual process. Lagergren first-order, second-order, intra particle diffusion model and Bangham were used to fit the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich, and Tempkin isotherm. The adsorption capacity was found to be 5.87 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm for the particle size 250-500 microm. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 and 60 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30, 40 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. A maximum removal of 97% was obtained at natural pH 6.9 for an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/50 mL and 100% removal was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 600 mg/50 mL of 10 mg/L dye concentration. The pH effect and desorption studies suggest that chemisorption might be the major mode of the adsorption process. The change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of coir pith carbon was estimated as 117.20 J/mol/K and 30.88 kJ/mol, respectively. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of methylene blue on coir pith carbon. PMID:16427273

  15. Effect of dye concentrations in blended-layer white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, C.; Cadd, D. H.; Petty, M. C.; Hua, Y. L.

    2009-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic behavior of white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on blue (FIrpic) and red [Ir(piq)2(acac)] phosphorescent dyes doped into the same layer of a polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) host are reported. The conductivity of all the OLEDs studied appeared to be dominated by space-charge injection effects, exhibiting a current I versus voltage V dependence of the form I ∝Vn, with n ≈7 at applied voltages at which electroluminescence was observed. Systematic studies of the current versus voltage and light-emitting behavior of the OLEDs have identified different excitation processes for the two dyes. It is suggested that electroluminescence from the FIrpic molecules originates by direct transfer of the exciton energy from the PVK to the dye molecules, while the process of light emission from the Ir(piq)2(acac) molecules involves carrier trapping. The efficiency of the devices can be tuned, to some extent, by varying the thickness of the organic film. Luminous efficiencies and luminous power efficiencies of 8 cd A-1 and 3 lm W-1 were measured for these blended-layer OLEDs, with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.35, 0.35.

  16. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  17. Ultrashort Dephasing Time Measurements in Nile Blue Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendiman, Julie J.; Grossman, Carl

    1998-03-01

    Ultrafast optical dephasing measurements were performed on thin films of the oxazine dye Nile Blue in poly-[vinyl alcohol] (PVOH). The experimental technique used two beam, time delayed degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) with incoherent light.(T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori and K. Kurokawa, Appl. Phys. B 47, 107 (1988).) Under the conditions that the sample was at relatively high temperatures (between 200=B0K and room temperature) and the measurements were made on the blue side of the Nile Blue inhomogeneous distribution, small time delay oscillations in the were observed. A time delay period was measured at 1.96 +/- .07 fs, which corresponds to the central period of the incoherent light source (centered at 575 nm with a period of 1.92 fs). A comparison between the measured oscillation depth and a numerical simulation of the DFWM scattered intensity yields an estimate of a phase relaxation time between 2 and 3 femtoseconds. This technique offers a new method of measuring femtosecond dephasing times with applications to samples of broad homogeneous linewidths, at high temperatures or in highly interacting environments. The depth of the oscillation decreased with lower temperature and completely disappeared below T=3D100=B0K. The temperature dependence of this effect is currently under investigation.

  18. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  19. FRET-assisted laser emission in colloidal suspensions of dye-doped latex nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdán, Luis; Enciso, Eduardo; Martín, Virginia; Bañuelos, Jorge; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada

    2012-09-01

    The use of commercial long-wavelength (>650 nm) laser dyes in many biophotonic applications has several important limitations, including low absorption at the standard pump wavelength (532 nm) and poor photostability. Here, we demonstrate that the use of Förster type (FRET) energy transfer can overcome these problems to enable efficient, stable near-infrared lasing in a colloidal suspension of latex nanoparticles containing a mixture of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Blue dyes. Experimental and theoretical analyses of the photophysics suggest that the dominant energy transfer mechanism is Förster type via dipole-dipole coupling, and also reveal an unexpected core/shell morphology in the dye-doped nanoparticles. FRET-assisted incoherent random lasing is also demonstrated in solid samples obtained by evaporation of colloidal suspensions.

  20. The role of host environment on the aggregative properties of some ionic dye materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadzadeh, A.; Zanjanchi, M. A.; Tirbandpay, R.

    2002-10-01

    The aggregation of methylene blue (MB), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and rhodamine B (RB) in liquid crystalline solution (anisotropic host) was studied using polarised spectroscopy and in a guest-host system. The self-association of the ionic dyes was investigated in molecular sieves of type zeolite-β and SAPO-11 (microporous solid hosts) using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The aggregation of the dyes in the aqueous solution (isotropic host) was studied using absorption spectroscopy in the visible region for comparison. Therefore, the influence of host nature in the different phases on the molecular interaction of the guest molecules was investigated and compared. The nature of the interacting pairs in these dyes was discussed using the exciton theory.

  1. Organo/Zn-Al LDH Nanocomposites for Cationic Dye Removal from Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starukh, G.; Rozovik, O.; Oranska, O.

    2016-04-01

    Cationic dye sorption by Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with anionic surfactants was examined using methylene blue (MB) dye as a compound model in aqueous solutions. The modification of Zn-Al LDHs was performed by reconstruction method using dodecyl sulfate anion (DS) solutions. DS contained Zn-Al LDHs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric, and SEM analysis. The reconstructed organo/Zn-Al LDHs comprise the crystalline phases (DS-intercalated LDHs, hydrotalcite), and the amorphous phase. The intercalation of DS ions into the interlayer galleries and DS adsorption on the surface of the LDHs occurred causing the MB adsorption on the external and its sorption in the internal surfaces of modified LDHs. The presence of DS greatly increased the affinity of organo/Zn-Al LDHs for MB due to hydrophobic interactions between the surfactants and the dye molecules. The optical properties of sorbed MB were studied.

  2. Organo/Zn-Al LDH Nanocomposites for Cationic Dye Removal from Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Starukh, G; Rozovik, O; Oranska, O

    2016-12-01

    Cationic dye sorption by Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with anionic surfactants was examined using methylene blue (MB) dye as a compound model in aqueous solutions. The modification of Zn-Al LDHs was performed by reconstruction method using dodecyl sulfate anion (DS) solutions. DS contained Zn-Al LDHs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric, and SEM analysis. The reconstructed organo/Zn-Al LDHs comprise the crystalline phases (DS-intercalated LDHs, hydrotalcite), and the amorphous phase. The intercalation of DS ions into the interlayer galleries and DS adsorption on the surface of the LDHs occurred causing the MB adsorption on the external and its sorption in the internal surfaces of modified LDHs. The presence of DS greatly increased the affinity of organo/Zn-Al LDHs for MB due to hydrophobic interactions between the surfactants and the dye molecules. The optical properties of sorbed MB were studied. PMID:27119156

  3. Kinetic modelling and simulation of laccase catalyzed degradation of reactive textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Cristóvão, Raquel O; Tavares, Ana P M; Ribeiro, Adriano S; Loureiro, José M; Boaventura, Rui A R; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2008-07-01

    A kinetic model based on Michaelis-Menten equation was developed to simulate the dye decolourisation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Reactive Blue 114 (RB114), Reactive Yellow 15 (RY15), Reactive Red 239 (RR239) and Reactive Red 180 (RR180) dyes by commercial laccase. The unusual kinetic behavior of some of these reactions suggests that the kinetic model must consider the activation of the laccase-mediator system. Several reactions at different concentrations of each dye were performed in batch reactors and time courses were obtained. A LSODE code to solve the differential equation obtained from the batch reactor was combined with an optimization Fortran program to obtain the theoretical time courses. The time courses obtained from the developed program were compared with the experimentally obtained ones to estimate the kinetic constants that minimized the difference between them. The close correlation between the predicted and the experimental results seems to support the reliability of the established models. PMID:17986393

  4. Contributions of functional groups and extracellular polymeric substances on the biosorption of dyes by aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jin-Hui; Wu, Xue-Lei; Wang, Shu-Ying; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), residual sludge (the sludge left after EPS extraction) and functional groups such as amine, carboxyl, phosphate and lipid on aerobic granules on biosorption of four different dyes (Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R (KN-R), Congo Red (CR), Reactive Brilliant Red K-2G (RBR) and Malachite Green (MG)) were investigated. EPS may be responsible for biosorption of cationic dyes. However, residual sludge always made greater contribution than that of EPS. The biosorption mechanisms were dependent on the functional groups on aerobic granules and dyes' chemical structures. The lipid and phosphate groups might be the main binding sites for KN-R biosorption. Amine, carboxyl, phosphate and lipid were all responsible for the binding of CR. The lipid fractions played an important role for RBR biosorption. For MG, the phosphate groups gave the largest contribution. PMID:20869236

  5. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  6. Removal of reactive blue 19 from aqueous solution by pomegranate residual-based activated carbon: optimization by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize Reactive Blue 19 removal by activated carbon from pomegranate residual. A 24 full factorial central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time on the dye removal efficiency. Methodology The activated carbon prepared by 50 wt.% phosphoric acid activation under air condition at 500°C. The range of pH and initial dye concentration were selected in a way that considered a wide range of those variables. Furthermore, the range of contact time and adsorbent dose were determined based on initial tests. Levels of selected variables and 31 experiments were determined. MiniTab (version 16.1) was used for the regression and graphical analyses of the data obtained. Results It was found that the decrease of initial dye concentration and the increase of initial pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time are beneficial for improving the dye removal efficiency. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results presented high R2 value of 99.17% for Reactive Blue 19 dye removal, which indicates the accuracy of the polynomial model is acceptable. Conclusions Initial pH of 11, adsorbent dose of 1.025 g/L, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, and contact time of 6.8 minutes found to be the optimum conditions. Dye removal efficiency of 98.7% was observed experimentally at optimum point which confirmed close to model predicted (98.1%) result. PMID:24678702

  7. Quince seed mucilage magnetic nanocomposites as novel bioadsorbents for efficient removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sina

    2015-12-10

    This study investigated the potential use of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as alternative bioadsorbents for methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. This novel magnetic nanocomposite adsorbent (MNCA) based on QSM was synthesized by in situ formation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into QSM solution. The MNCAs were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, and VSM. Removal of MB was investigated by batch adsorption technique. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that the dye adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Moreover, the adsorbents showed high selectivity for the adsorption of cationic dyes with regenerated properties. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models also provide the best correlation of the experimental data for MB adsorption. The results indicate that the MNCAs can be employed as efficient low cost adsorbents with excellent dye adsorption performance in wastewater treatment process. PMID:26428118

  8. Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters. PMID:20167478

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons. PMID:27372249

  11. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Lymphangiography in Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vikalp; Phillips, Brett T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a vital component of staging and management of multiple cancers. The current gold standard utilizes technetium 99 (tech99) and a blue dye to detect regional nodes. While the success rate is typically over 90%, these two methods can be inconclusive or inconvenient for both patient and surgeon. We evaluated a new technique using laser-assisted ICG dye lymphangiography to identify SLN. Methods. In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with melanoma who were candidates for SLN biopsy. In addition to tech99 and methylene blue, patients received a dermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG). The infrared signal was detected with the SPY machine (Novadaq), and nodes positive by any method were excised. Results. A total of 15 patients were evaluated, with 40 SLNs removed. Four patients were found to have nodal metastases on final pathology. 100% of these 4 nodes were identified by ICG, while only 75% (3/4) were positive for tech99 and/or methylene blue. Furthermore, none of the nodes missed by ICG (4/40) had malignant cells. Conclusion. ICG dye lymphangiography is a reasonable alternative for locating SLNs in patients with melanoma. Prospective studies are needed to better ascertain the full functionality of this technique. PMID:24382997

  12. Oxygen indicator composed of an organic/inorganic hybrid compound of methylene blue, reductant, surfactant and saponite.

    PubMed

    Sumitani, Makoto; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tanamura, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Haruo

    2004-08-01

    An organic/inorganic hybrid compound consisting of methylene blue, a cationic surfactant and a reductant intercalated into saponite was found to serve as an oxygen indicator that changes color in the presence of oxygen. A mixture of a blue colored dye, methylene blue, a reductant in the form of ascorbic acid or reducing sugar, and cetyltrimethylammonium ion intercalated into synthetic saponite became colorless in an atmosphere having an oxygen concentration of less than 0.1 vol%, and then returned to its blue color as a result of subsequent exposure to air. An oxygen indicator, in the form of a thin film coated on paper prepared by adding a pigment, phloxine B, to the above organic/inorganic hybrid compound, exhibited a pink color at oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 vol%, and a blue color at oxygen concentrations of higher than 0.5 vol%. In addition, this oxygen indicator exhibited superior photo-fading resistance and storage stability compared with indicators using only methylene blue as the functional dye. PMID:15352503

  13. Simulation of dye adsorption by beech sawdust as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Batzias, F A; Sidiras, D K

    2007-03-22

    The effect of pH on the batch kinetics of methylene blue adsorption on beech sawdust was simulated, in order to evaluate sawdust potential use as low cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The zero point of charge pH(pzc) of the sawdust, in order to explain the effect of pH in terms of pH(pzc), was measured by the mass titration and the automatic titration methods. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, indicate that increase of the pH enhances the adsorption behaviour of the examined material. The lower adsorption of methylene blue at acidic pH is due to the presence of excess H(+) ions that compete with the dye cation for adsorption sites. As the pH of the system increases, the number of positively charged sites decreases while the number of the negatively charged sites increases. The negatively charged sites favour the adsorption of dye cation due to electrostatic attraction. The increase in initial pH from 8.0 to 11.5 increases the amount of dye adsorbed. PMID:16934396

  14. Cellulose based cationic adsorbent fabricated via radiation grafting process for treatment of dyes waste water.

    PubMed

    Goel, Narender Kumar; Kumar, Virendra; Misra, Nilanjal; Varshney, Lalit

    2015-11-01

    A cationized adsorbent was prepared from cellulosic cotton fabric waste via a single step-green-radiation grafting process using gamma radiation source, wherein poly[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (PMAETC) was covalently attached to cotton cellulose substrate. Radiation grafted (PMAETC-g-cellulose) adsorbent was investigated for removal of acid dyes from aqueous solutions using two model dyes: Acid Blue 25 (AB25) and Acid Blue 74 (AB74). The equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, whereas kinetic data was analyzed by pseudo first order, pseudo second order, intra particle diffusion and Boyd's models. The PMAETC-g-cellulose adsorbent with 25% grafting yield exhibited equilibrium adsorption capacities of ∼ 540.0mg/g and ∼ 340.0mg/g for AB25 and AB74, respectively. Linear and nonlinear fitting of adsorption data suggested that the equilibrium adsorption process followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, whereas, the kinetic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order model. The multi-linearities observed in the intra-particle kinetic plots suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling process in the adsorption of acid dyes on the adsorbent, which was further supported by Boyd's model. The adsorbent could be regenerated by eluting the adsorbed dye from the adsorbent and could be repeatedly used. PMID:26256369

  15. Radiation chemistry of anionic disazo dyes in Cellophane films applications for high-dose dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William L.

    2003-06-01

    Thin transparent Cellophane films containing anionic disazo "Direct" dyes, e.g. blue Cellophanes, have long been used as monitors of large absorbed doses of ionizing radiation (10-300 kGy) and especially for mapping electron-beam dose profiles. Examples of dyes for such purposes are variations on forms of the disazo dyes, Direct Orange, Direct Violet or Direct Blue. The films have a thickness of 25.6 μm (+0.1 μm) and are available in rolls of either 30 m×0.51 m or 60 m×0.76 m. Such dyed Cellophanes are typically lightfast but can readily be bleached irreversibly by ionizing radiation, as a means of dosimetry using spectrophotometry as the analytical tool. The radiation response is markedly dependent on temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The reaction is initiated mainly by dehydrogenation and nitrosation upon electrophilic reductive attack on the dye molecule by the thermal electrons, at initial reaction rate constants in the range 10 5-10 6 s -1.

  16. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment. PMID:22529003

  17. Performance of an array of plasma pinches as a new optical pumping source for dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rieger, H.; Kim, K.

    1983-11-01

    A new optical pumping source consisting of an array of plasma pinches in the hypocycloidal-pinch geometry is employed to pump a variety of dye lasers. A dye cuvette is inserted along the symmetry axis of the plasma device such that it may be surrounded by the plasma pinch. The light from the plasma pinch is very intense and rich in ultraviolet, which makes it an attractive optical pumping source for dye lasers, particularly in the blue-green spectral region. Control of the plasma fluorescence is achieved by the choice of gas, its fill pressure, and the capacitor bank voltage and its stored energy. The rise time of this ''plasma flashlamp'' depends mainly on the gas species and the fill pressure. Output energy of approx.2 mJ per cm/sup 3/ of lasing medium, or 2 kW/cm/sup 3/ for a 1-..mu..s laser pulse, is obtained from rhodamine 6G, coumarin 480, LD 490, and coumarin 504 dyes. That both the coumarin 480 and rhodamine 6G lasers have the comparable output power is a direct proof that the present optical pumping source is more efficient than the commercial xenon flashlamps in pumping lasers in the blue-green spectral region.

  18. Rapid degradation of dyes in water by magnetic Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene composites.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shan; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang; Zhao, He

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene has been successfully synthesized by a one-step reduction method and investigated in rapid degradation of dyes in this work. The material was characterized by N2 sorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene had a layered structure with Fe crystals highly dispersed in the interlayers of graphene, which could enhance the mass transfer process between Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene and pollutants. Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene exhibited ferromagnetism and could be easily separated and re-dispersed for reuse in water. Typical dyes, such as Methyl Orange, Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet, could be decolorized by Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene rapidly. After 20min, the decolorization efficiencies of methyl orange, methylene blue and crystal violet were 94.78%, 91.60% and 89.07%, respectively. The reaction mechanism of Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene with dyes mainly included adsorption and enhanced reduction by the composite. Thus, Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene prepared by the one-step reduction method has excellent performance in removal of dyes in water. PMID:27266311

  19. Toxicity of textile dyes and their degradation by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).

    PubMed

    Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli; Forgiarini, Eliane; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto

    2007-08-25

    The enzyme peroxidase is known for its capacity to remove phenolic compounds and aromatic amines from aqueous solutions and also to decolorize textile effluents. This study evaluates the potential of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the decolorization of textile dyes and effluents. Some factors such as pH and the amount of H(2)O(2) and the enzyme were evaluated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme performance. For the dyes tested, the results indicated that the decolorization of the dye Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133% was approximately 59%, and 94% for the Lanaset Blue 2R; for the textile effluent, the decolorization was 52%. The tests for toxicity towards Daphnia magna showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. However, the toxicity of the textile effluent showed no change towards Artemia salina after the enzyme treatment. This study verifies the viability of the use of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in the biodegradation of textile dyes. PMID:17628340

  20. Role of the surface chemistry of activated carbons in dye removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua-lei; Zhen, Wen-juan; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Xiao-bin; Chang, Zhi-dong; Li, Wen-jun

    2015-07-01

    Commercial activated carbons were modified by a series of chemical or physical treatments using H2O2, NH3, and heating under N2 flow without notably changing their pore structures. The resultant carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and Bohem titration and then used to remove Ponceau 4R, methyl orange and brilliant blue from aqueous solutions. Surface chemistry was found to play a significantly different role in removing these three compounds. The removal of anionic Ponceau 4R increases with increasing carbon surface basicity due to the predominant dispersive interaction mechanism. In contrast, surface chemistry has little effect on the removal of anionic methyl orange, which can be explained by two parallel mechanisms involving electrostatic and dispersive interactions due to the basic amine group in a dye molecule. The influence of surface chemistry on the removal of amphoteric brilliant blue dye can also be ignored due to a weak interaction between the carbons and dye molecules, which is resulted from strong cohesive energy from electrostatic forces inside amphoteric dye molecules.

  1. Intriguing H-aggregate and H-dimer formation of coumarin-481 dye in aqueous solution as evidenced from photophysical studies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Pal, Haridas

    2012-05-10

    Photophysical properties of coumarin-481 (C481) dye in aqueous solution show intriguing presence of multiple emitting species. Concentration and wavelength dependent fluorescence decays and time-resolved emission spectra and area-normalized emission spectra suggest the coexistence of dye monomers, dimers, and higher aggregates (mostly trimers) in the solution. Because of the efficient intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state to twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state conversion, the dye monomers show very short fluorescence lifetime of ~0.2 ns. Fluorescence lifetimes of dimers (~4.1 ns) and higher aggregates (~1.4 ns) are relatively longer due to steric constrain toward ICT to TICT conversion. Observed results indicate that the emission spectra of the aggregates are substantially blue-shifted compared to monomers, suggesting H-aggregation of the dye in the solution. Temperature-dependent fluorescence decays in water and time-resolved fluorescence results in water-acetonitrile solvent mixtures are also in support of the dye aggregation in the solution. Though dynamic light scattering studies could not recognize the dye aggregates in the solution due to their small size and low concentration, fluorescence up-conversion measurements show a relatively higher decay tail in water than in water-acetonitrile solvent mixture, in agreement with higher dye aggregation in aqueous solution. Time-resolved fluorescence results with structurally related non-TICT dyes, especially those of coumarin-153 dye, are also in accordance with the aggregation behavior of these dyes in aqueous solution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the aggregation of coumarin dyes in aqueous solution. Present results are important because coumarin dyes are widely used as fluorescent probes in various microheterogeneous systems where water is always a solvent component, and the dye aggregation in these systems, if overlooked, can easily lead to a misinterpretation of

  2. Kinetics of Solvent Blue and Reactive Yellow removal using microwave radiation in combination with nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanpeng; Xi, Zhenqian; Wang, Wenlong; Ma, Chunyuan; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the efficiency and kinetics of the degradation of soluble dyes over the pH range 5.0-9.0 using a method employing microwave radiation in combination with nanoscale zero-valent iron (MW-nZVI). The nZVI particles (40-70 nm in diameter) were prepared by a liquid-phase chemical reduction method employing starch as a dispersant. Compared to the removal of Solvent Blue 36 and Reactive Yellow K-RN using only nZVI, more rapid and efficient dye removal and total organic carbon removal were achieved using MW-nZVI. The dye removal efficiency increased significantly with decreasing pH, but was negligibly affected by variation in the microwave power. The kinetics of dye removal by MW-nZVI followed both an empirical equation and the pseudo first-order model, while the kinetics of dye removal using nZVI could only be described by an empirical equation. It was also concluded that microwave heating of the dye solutions as well as acceleration of corrosion of nZVI and consumption of Fe(II) were possible reasons behind the enhanced dye degradation. PMID:25872723

  3. Intraoperative contrast-enhanced sonographic portography combined with indigo carmine dye injection for anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2014-07-01

    We present a method of intraoperative contrast-enhanced sonographic portography combined with indigo carmine dye injection for anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma. During surgery, before dye infusion into the feeding portal vein, the targeted portal vein branch was directly punctured, and a microbubble contrast agent was administered under sonographic guidance. Simultaneous enhancement of the resected hepatic parenchyma with a microbubble contrast agent and blue dye improved estimation of the segmental border in the cutting plane and the tumor resection margin during liver surgery. PMID:24958416

  4. Microcolumn studies of dye adsorption onto manganese oxides modified diatomite.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, M A; Khraisheh, M A M; Ahmad, M N; Allen, S J

    2007-07-19

    The method described here cannot fully replace the analysis of large columns by small test columns (microcolumns). The procedure, however, is suitable for speeding up the determination of adsorption parameters of dye onto the adsorbent and for speeding up the initial screening of a large adsorbent collection that can be tedious if a several adsorbents and adsorption conditions must be tested. The performance of methylene blue (MB), a basic dye, Cibacron reactive black (RB) and Cibacron reactive yellow (RY) was predicted in this way and the influence of initial dye concentration and other adsorption conditions on the adsorption behaviour were demonstrated. On the basis of the experimental results, it can be concluded that the adsorption of RY onto manganese oxides modified diatomite (MOMD) exhibited a characteristic "S" shape and can be simulated effectively by the Thomas model. It is shown that the adsorption capacity increased as the initial dye concentration increased. The increase in the dye uptake capacity with the increase of the adsorbent mass in the column was due to the increase in the surface area of adsorbent, which provided more binding sites for the adsorption. It is shown that the use of high flow rates reduced the time that RY in the solution is in contact with the MOMD, thus allowing less time for adsorption to occur, leading to an early breakthrough of RY. A rapid decrease in the column adsorption capacity with an increase in particle size with an average 56% reduction in capacity resulting from an increase in the particle size from 106-250 microm to 250-500 microm. The experimental data correlated well with calculated data using the Thomas equation and the bed depth-service time (BDST) equation. Therefore, it might be concluded that the Thomas equation and the BDST equations can produce accurate predication for variation of dye concentration, mass of the adsorbent, flow rate and particle size. In general, the values of adsorption isotherm capacity

  5. Influence of blue light on photoreceptors in a live retinal explant system

    PubMed Central

    Roehlecke, Cora; Schumann, Ulrike; Ader, Marius; Knels, Lilla

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The present study was performed to investigate the early effects of blue light irradiation of photoreceptors in retinal explant cultures. Methods Murine retinal explant cultures were irradiated with visible blue light (405 nm) with an output power of 1 mW/cm2. Dihydroethidium was used to determine the production of reactive oxygen species. Morphological alterations of photoreceptor outer segments were determined by live imaging microscopy with mitochondrial dye JC-1. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used for ultrastructural evaluations. Cell death in the retina was assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay method. Results Live retinal explants displayed an increase in reactive oxygen species production, as revealed by fluorescent dihydroethidium products in photoreceptor cells after 30 min of blue light exposure. After 3 h of exposure, blue light caused disorganization of the normally neatly stacked outer segments of living photoreceptors. Ultrastructural analysis revealed breaks in the cell membrane surrounding the outer segments, especially in the middle section. The outer segments appeared tortuous, and the lamellar structures had been disrupted. TUNEL-staining revealed that long-term blue light exposure induced photoreceptor cell death. Conclusions In vitro blue light irradiation of retinal explants is a suitable model system for investigating early ultrastructural changes, as well as damage that leads to cell death in photoreceptor cells. PMID:21527999

  6. Kinetic and calorimetric study of the adsorption of dyes on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from coconut coir dust.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Jeremias de Souza; da Costa Júnior, Nivan Bezerra; Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Vieira, Eunice Fragoso da Silva; Cestari, Antonio Reinaldo; Gimenez, Iara de Fátima; Villarreal Carreño, Neftali Lênin; Barreto, Ledjane Silva

    2006-06-15

    Mesoporous activated carbon has been prepared from coconut coir dust as support for adsorption of some model dye molecules from aqueous solutions. The methylene blue (MB) and remazol yellow (RY) molecules were chosen for study of the adsorption capacity of cationic and anionic dyes onto prepared activated carbon. The adsorption kinetics was studied with the Lagergren first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models as well as the intraparticle diffusion model. The results for both dyes suggested a multimechanism sorption process. The adsorption mechanisms in the systems dyes/AC follow pseudo-second-order kinetics with a significant contribution of intraparticle diffusion. The samples simultaneously present acidic and basic sites able to act as anchoring sites for basic and acidic dyes, respectively. Calorimetric studies reveal that dyes/AC interaction forces are correlated with the pH of the solution, which can be related to the charge distribution on the AC surface. These AC samples also exhibited very short equilibrium times for the adsorption of both dyes, which is an economically favorable requisite for the activated carbon described in this work, in addition to the local abundance of the raw material. PMID:16497318

  7. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  8. Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

  9. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  10. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  11. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  12. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies for removal of acid blue 129 from aqueous solution by almond shell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency and performance of Almond shell (AS) adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Acid Blue 129 (AB129) from wastewater is presented in this report. The influence of variables including pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal have been investigated in batch method by one at a time optimization method. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D–R). It was found that adsorption of AB129 on AS well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 98% removal efficiency was obtained within 14 min at adsorbent dose of 0.4 g for initial dye concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 2. Kinetics of the adsorption process was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order model. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of AB129 adsorption on all adsorbents. This work can be used in design of adsorption columns for dyes removal. PMID:24620822

  13. In situ fabrication of blue ceramic coatings on wrought Al Alloy 2024 by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhijiang; Nie Xueyuan; Hu, Henry; Hussein, Riyad O.

    2012-03-15

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on 2024 Al alloy with a blue color was successfully achieved using a plasma electrolytic oxidation process working at atmospheric pressure. This novel blue ceramic coating overcomes the shortcomings of surface treatments resulting from conventional dyeing processes by depositing organic dyes into the porous structure of anodic film, which has poor resistance to abrasion and rapid fading when exposed to sunlight. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of the blue ceramic coating. The fabricated ceramic coating was composed of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3.} By controlling the working parameters, the distribution of the CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase on the surface can be adjusted, and plays a key role in the appearance of the coating. Electrochemical testing, thermal cycling method, and pin-on-disk sliding wear testing were employed to evaluate corrosion, thermal cycling, and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings. The results indicate that the blue ceramic coating has a similar polarization resistance to that of conventional anodic film and can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy. There are no destructive horizontal cracks observed within the blue ceramic coating when subjected to 120 times of thermal cycling, which heats the samples up to 573 K and followed by submersion in water at room temperature for 10 min. Compared with the aluminum substrate as well as a conventional anodic film coated aluminum sample, the wear resistance of the blue ceramic coating coated sample was significantly increased while the coefficient of friction was decreased from 0.34 to 0.14.

  14. Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wuzhou; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-02-01

    We presented a tunable optofluidic dye laser with integrated elastomeric air-gap etalon controlled by air pressure. The chip was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via replica molding. It comprises a liquid waveguide and microscale air-gap mirrors providing the feedback. The lasing wavelength is chosen by the interference between two parallel PDMS-air interfaces inside the internal tunable air-gap etalon, of which pneumatic tuning can be realized by inflating the air-gap etalon with compressed air. This dye laser exhibits a pumping threshold of 1.6 μJ/pulse, a lasing linewidth of 3 nm, and a tuning range of 14 nm.

  15. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  16. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  17. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  18. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  19. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  20. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  1. Decolorization of two synthetic dyes using the purified laccase of Paraconiothyrium variabile immobilized on porous silica beads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decolorization of hazardous synthetic dyes using laccases in both free and immobilized form has gained attention during the last decades. The present study was designed to prepare immobilized laccase (purified from Paraconiothyrium variabile) on porous silica beads followed by evaluation of both free and immobilized laccases for decolorization of two synthetic dyes of Acid Blue 25 and Acid Orange 7. Effects of laccase concentration, pH and temperature alteration, and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) as laccase mediator on decolorization pattern were also studied. In addition, the kinetic parameters (K m and V max ) of the free and immobilized laccases for each synthetic dye were calculated. Results Immobilized laccase represented higher temperature and pH stability compare to free one. 39% and 35% of Acid Blue 25 and Acid Orange 7 was decolorized, respectively after 65 min incubation in presence of the free laccase. In the case of immobilized laccase decolorization percent was found to be 76% and 64% for Acid Blue 25 and Acid Orange 7, respectively at the same time. Increasing of laccase activity enhanced decolorization percent using free and immobilized laccases. Relative decolorization of both applied dyes was increased after treatment by laccase-HBT system. After nine cycles of decolorization by immobilized laccase, 26% and 31% of relative activity were lost in the case of Acid Blue 25 and Acid Orange 7, respectively. Conclusions To sum up, the present investigation introduced the immobilized laccase of P. variabile on porous beads as an efficient biocatalyst for decolorization of synthetic dyes. PMID:24393474

  2. Hair dye toxicity--a review.

    PubMed

    Marzulli, F N; Green, S; Maibach, H I

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews local and systemic effects which relate to hair dye formulation and hair dye ingredient tests and experiences in man and animals. Mutagenic and carcinogenic aspects are discussed. In a very limited way, safety and hazards of using hair dyes are interpreted for consumers. PMID:363966

  3. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  4. PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

  5. From non-covalent binding to irreversible DNA lesions: nile blue and nile red as photosensitizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Gattuso, Hugo; Besancenot, Vanessa; Grandemange, Stéphanie; Marazzi, Marco; Monari, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study, coupled with spectroscopy experiments, on the behavior of two well known organic dyes, nile blue and nile red, when interacting with B-DNA. In particular, we evidence the presence of two competitive binding modes, for both drugs. However their subsequent photophysical behavior is different and only nile blue is able to induce DNA photosensitization via an electron transfer mechanism. Most notably, even in the case of nile blue, its sensitization capabilities strongly depend on the environment resulting in a single active binding mode: the minor groove. Fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the presence of competitive interaction modes for both sensitizers, while the sensitization via electron transfer, is possible only in the case of nile blue. PMID:27329409

  6. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption. PMID:26213948

  7. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption. PMID:26213948

  8. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC. PMID:16084372

  9. Effects of doping dyes on the electroluminescent characteristics of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Satoshi

    1996-06-01

    We report the effects of dyes doped in the emitting layer on the electroluminescent characteristics of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using a polysilane polymer, poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS), as the hole transporting material. We formed the emitting layer by dispersing in poly(styrene) (PS), one of four dyes whose fluorescence ranged from blue to orange. Two- or three-layer LEDs were prepared by combining PMPS and dye doped PS layers with the indium tin oxide and aluminum used for the hole and electron injecting electrodes, respectively. The three-layer LEDs had an additional vacuum-deposited tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer. The electroluminescent (EL) characteristics of these multilayer organic LEDs, such as the current-voltage-EL intensity curve, the relative EL efficiency, and the EL emitting species, exhibit a marked dependence on the emitting dye. The observed dependence can be described consistently in terms of the dependence of the charge carrier trapping efficiency on the emitting dyes.

  10. Reactive dye house wastewater treatment. Use of hybrid technology: Membrane, sonication followed by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    1999-05-01

    To address problems associated with treatment of an aqueous waste stream from a reactive dye house, a model dye, turquoise blue CI25, was studied. A hybrid technology, membrane separation followed by sonication and wet oxidation, has been demonstrated to treat the wastewater for reuse and discharge. Experiments were first performed with the reactive dye solution in water. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) was found to be suitable to concentrate the dye. The concentrate was then treated with a wet oxidation process. Kinetics studies were performed with and without catalyst, in the temperature range of 170--215 C. The color destruction achieved was > 99%. After process parameters were fixed, studies were conducted with the actual dye waste stream. The actual waste stream was found to be refractory for wet oxidation under the above conditions. Sonication of the concentrate obtained after membrane filtration, in the presence of CuSO{sub 4}, made the waste stream amenable to wet oxidation. Sonication followed by wet oxidation was found to be more effective at near neutral conditions as compared to basic conditions.

  11. Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

  12. Methylene blue related sterile endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, A K E; Ulagantheran V, V; Siow, Y C; Lim, K S

    2008-08-01

    To report a case of methylene blue related endophthalmitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical record, photographs. A 60 year old man developed endophthalmitis after methylene blue was accidentally used to stain the anterior capsule during phacoemulsification of cataract. His left visual acuity deteriorated from 6/12 to 6/36 two weeks after the operation. Despite intensive treatment with topical and intravitreal antibiotics, his condition deteriorated. A vitrectomy and silicone oil injection eventually managed to control the progression of the disease and salvage the eye. However the visual outcome remained poor due to corneal decompensation and retinal ischemia. Both vitreous tap and vitreous biopsy were negative for any organism. Methylene blue is extremely toxic to ocular structures and should not be used intraocularly. PMID:19248701

  13. Two approaches for assessing human safety of disperse blue 1.

    PubMed

    Haws, L C; Jackson, B A; Turnbull, D; Dressler, W E

    1994-02-01

    Disperse Blue 1 is an anthraquinone dye used at low levels in semipermanent hair color formulations. Dietary administration of Disperse Blue 1 in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenesis bioassay produced transitional- and squamous-cell tumors, leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas of the urinary bladders of male and female F344/N rats. The occurrence of tumors in the urinary bladder of rats was associated with urothelial hyperplasia and the presence of urinary calculi. Despite the occurrence of urinary bladder calculi and other nonneoplastic changes, there was no evidence of urinary bladder carcinogenesis in B6C3F1 mice fed Disperse Blue in the diet for up to 2 years. A study conducted in rats of the same strain by Burnett and Squire confirmed the occurrence of calculi and transitional-cell neoplasms in the rat bladder. However, no mesenchymal-cell tumors were detected at a comparable dietary level. Further, Burnett and Squire found evidence of reversibility of the proliferative changes in the rat urinary bladder following cessation of treatment at 6 months. Disperse Blue 1 has been tested in a variety of in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity assays and was negative in vivo but produced a weak and mixed pattern of genotoxic responses in vitro which may be attributable to a constituent of the commercial preparations. Evaluation of the available data for Disperse Blue 1 and comparison with the responses observed in the urinary bladders of rats administered other rodent bladder carcinogens considered to act through a secondary mechanism indicate that a threshold approach is appropriate for assessing risk. With this approach, an uncertainty factor of 1000 applied to the no-observed-adverse-effect level in the NTP bioassay yielded a safe exposure level of 45-56 micrograms/kg/day. In contrast, with a conventional quantitative risk assessment approach, the exposure level corresponding to an upper limit on lifetime risk of 10(-6) to 10(-5) was 0.39 to 3.9 micrograms

  14. Highly Fluorescent dye-nanoclay Hybrid Materials Made from Different Dye Classes.

    PubMed

    Grabolle, Markus; Starke, Marian; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2016-04-12

    Nanoclays like laponites, which are commercially avaible in large quantities for a very moderate price, provide a facile solubilization strategy for hydrophobic dyes without the need for chemical functionalization and can act as a carrier for a high number of dye molecules. This does not require reactive dyes, amplifies fluorescence signals from individual emitters due to the high number of dyes molecules per laponite disk, and renders hydrophobic emitters applicable in aqueous environments. Aiming at the rational design of bright dye-loaded nanoclays as a new class of fluorescent reporters for bioanalysis and material sciences and the identification of dye structure-property relationships, we screened a series of commercial fluorescent dyes, differing in dye class, charge, and character of the optical transitions involved, and studied the changes of their optical properties caused by clay adsorption at different dye loading concentrations. Upon the basis of our dye loading density-dependent absorption and fluorescence measurements with S2105 and Lumogen F Yellow 083, we could identify two promising dye-nanoclay hybrid materials that reveal high fluorescence quantum yields of the nanoclay-adsorbed dyes of at least 0.20 and low dye self-quenching even at high dye-loading densities of up to 50 dye molecules per laponite platelet. PMID:27007448

  15. Photothermal Therapy of Cancer Cells mediated by Blue Hydrogel Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Taeyjuana; Epstein, Tamir; Kopelman, Raoul

    2012-10-01

    Coomassie Blue dye has been covalently linked into a polyacrylamide nanoparticle matrix, so as to form nontoxic, biologically compatible, biodegradable and cell-specific targetable nanoparticles for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer. The nanoparticles were found to be approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with an absorbance value of 0.52. Using an inexpensive, low intensity LED array light source (590nm, 25mW/cm^2), with 20 minute excitation times, at 37 , PTT induced hyperthermia/thermolysis in HeLa cells, in vitro, resulting in virtually complete cell death when observed 3 hours after exposure. These multifunctional particles have been previously used in cancer delineation, for surgery, and in photoacoustic imaging studies; the addition of the PTT function now enables a multi-pronged medical approach to cancer.

  16. Methylene blue mediated laser therapy of maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Chikina, E. E.; Knyazev, A. B.; Mareev, O. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is a clinical study of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) have been used for treatment of maxillary sinus mucous of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. The differences between the results of the treatment with dye and light versus treatment with a drug for every group of patients were statistically analyzed by Student’s t test. The efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the disease.

  17. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  18. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  19. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  20. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  1. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  2. Specific staining of nuclei with aqueous solutions of celestin blue B and gallocyanine.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1982-09-01

    This paper presents methods for specific staining of nuclei with aqueous solutions of celestin blue B and gallocyanine in tissue sections from which RNA has been extracted selectively with concentrated phosphoric acid at 5 degrees C for 20 min or by hydrolysis in 6 N HCl at 28 degrees C for 15 min. It has been found that pH of the freshly prepared celestin blue B dye solution is 3.0 and that of an aqueous solution of gallocyanine is 2.8. These pHs can be lowered to 1.5 with concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid and at this pH staining of the nuclei is possible. But with concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid and at this pH staining of the nuclei is possible. But if the pHs are lowered with concentrated hydrochloric or phosphoric acid, effective use of these dyes is not possible. It has been suggested that some dispersion of the two dyes takes place with concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid which are used to lower the pH. Staining of the nuclei is also possible with an aqueous solution of celestin blue B at pH 3.0 but the same is not possible with gallocyanine at pH 2.8. The absorption spectra of nuclei stained with an aqueous solution of celestin blue B at pH 1.5 and 3.0 are fairly identical, the peak of maximum absorption being at 620 nm. Those of nuclei stained with an aqueous solution of gallocyanine reveal irregular peaks. Possible implications of these findings have been discussed. PMID:6183561

  3. Fluorescence-line-narrowing spectroscopy of nile blue in glass and polymer at 5 K: Determination of a single-site line shape function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiping; Hartmann, S. R.; Moshary, F.

    1996-03-01

    Fluorescence-line-narrowing (FLN) spectra of the oxazine dye nile blue are obtained at 5 K in both ethanol glass and PVOH polymer. Multiple spectra, each associated with a different excitation wavelength setting, are presented. We analyze these spectra assuming a site-independent molecular response. Excellent agreement obtains in the ethanol glass host.

  4. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g-1. The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity.

  5. Microflora involved in textile dye waste removal.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahim, Wafaa M; Moawad, Hassan; Khalafallah, M

    2003-01-01

    Textile dyes are heavily used in factories for coloring different cloth materials. This work was designed to identify microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes, either by biodegradation or by biosorption. We expected to isolate microorganisms adapted to high dye concentrations from sites near textile industry complex. An experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of the isolates in removing textile dyes. The tested dyes were used as carbon and nitrogen sources for isolation of soil and/or water microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes wastes from factories effluent. The results indicated the low efficiency of both bacteria and actinomycetes in clean-up the effluent from the waste dyes in 10-21 days. On the other hand six fungal isolates were obtained by plating factory effluent on Martin's medium and media containing dyes as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth. These isolates fell in two genera, Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Results of these studies revealed the potential capacity of these fungi to decolorize the tested dyes in comparatively short time (2-24 hours) indicating strong efficiency of dye bioremediation by the fungal isolates. Since the process involved is mostly fast interaction between the fungal mycelium and the dye in the media, the possible mechanism could be based on a biosorption of such chemicals on the intact fungal biomass, rather than direct biodegradation of the compounds. PMID:12761767

  6. pH-Insensitive FRET voltage dyes.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael P; Wu, Nyan-Tsz; Ao, Hong

    2007-08-01

    Many high-throughput ion channel assays require the use of voltage-sensitive dyes to detect channel activity in the presence of test compounds. Dye systems employing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 2 membrane-bound dyes are advantageous in combining high sensitivity, relatively fast response, and ratiometric output. The most widely used FRET voltage dye system employs a coumarin fluorescence donor whose excitation spectrum is pH dependent. The authors have validated a new class of voltage-sensitive FRET donors based on a pyrene moiety. These dyes are significantly brighter than CC2-DMPE and are not pH sensitive in the physiological range. With the new dye system, the authors demonstrate a new high-throughput assay for the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family. They also introduce a novel method for absolute calibration of voltage-sensitive dyes, simultaneously determining the resting membrane potential of a cell. PMID:17517905

  7. Studies on the kinetic sequence of in vitro ribosome assembly using cibacron blue F3GA as a general assembly inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, D; Changchien, L M; Craven, G R

    1986-01-01

    We have found that all E. coli ribosomal proteins strongly bind to an agarose affinity column derivatized with the dye Cibacron Blue F3GA. We have also shown that the capacity to bind the dye is lost when the proteins are organized within the structure of the ribosome or are members of pre-formed protein-RNA complexes. We conclude that the binding of ribosomal proteins to this dye involves specific protein-RNA recognition sites. These observations led us to discover that Cibacron Blue can be used to inhibit in vitro ribosome assembly at any stage of the assembly process. This has allowed us to determine a kinetic order of ribosome assembly. Images PMID:3520481

  8. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals. PMID:25785560

  9. Synthesis for Magnetic Mesoporous Fe3O4-SiO2 Composites and Heterogeneous Fenton Degradation of Methyl Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huanling; Zhang, Tengyun

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we presented a facile, one-step preparation for magnetic mesoporous Fe3O4-SiO2 composites under closely neutral conditions by an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) and adding 1,3,5-TMB as co-solvent approach. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption measurement, FT-IR and SEM. Magnetic mesoporous composites and H2O2 form heterogeneous Fenton in order to removal methylene blue as the dye wastewater model object. The catalysts showed high catalytic activity and stability in the decolorization of methlye blue.

  10. Blue light hazard and aniridia.

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images PMID:3978071

  11. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  12. Flying the Blue Ribbon Flag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lynda

    2000-01-01

    Guntersville Elementary School, a preK-2 school in Alabama, earned the U.S. Department of Education's Blue Ribbon Schools award through creative programs addressing school readiness, parent education, and the need for extended-day and summer activities; a progressive curriculum; and various community partnerships. (SV)

  13. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  14. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  15. Achiral Dye/Surfactant Heteroaggregates for Chiral Sensing of Phosphocholines.

    PubMed

    Ceccacci, Francesca; Scipioni, Anita; Altieri, Barbara; Giansanti, Luisa; Mancini, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    An investigation, based on absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy, was carried out on assemblies formed in water upon the interaction of heteroaggregates, composed of dyes (Congo Red or Evans Blue) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), with four enantiopure phopshocholines (DMPC, DPPC, DOPC, and POPC) characterized by the same polar head and different hydrophobic tails. The results show that the nature of the lipid as well as the concentration ratios influence sensitively the absorption and chiroptical properties of the supramolecular structure. Intriguingly, the transfer of chirality from the lipid to the assembly may be triggered or not, depending on the nature of the lipid hydrophobic chain. These findings confirm the fundamental role of hydrophobic interactions in the transcription of chirality from molecules to complex architectures. PMID:26480828

  16. Anomalous but massive removal of two organic dye pollutants simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Zhilei; Zhang, Qian; Chu, Paul K; Komarneni, Sridhar; Lv, Fengzhu

    2016-11-15

    A one-pot method to remove two organic dye contaminants and alkali simultaneously from alkaline wastewater was developed by forming Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH). Using this process, not only alkali but also methyl orange (MO), an anionic contaminant was totally removed from wastewater. In addition, cationic contaminant, methylene blue (MB) was also removed effectively while maintaining the high removal efficiency of MO. The removal efficiency of MO was almost 100% and the pH of the treated wastewater decreased from 12 to 7.38. The charge-limited removal process, molecular arrangement of the contaminants in LDHs, and the anomalous removal mechanism were analyzed experimentally and through simulation. After MO accumulated in the interlayers of LDH by electrostatic interaction, MB entered and trapped by hydrophobic interaction. PMID:27399147

  17. Application of selected cationic dyes for the semiquantitative estimation of glycosaminoglycans in histological sections of articular cartilage by microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Király, K; Lapveteläinen, T; Arokoski, J; Törrönen, K; Módis, L; Kiviranta, I; Helminen, H J

    1996-08-01

    Selected commonly used cationic dyes, viz. Thionin, Safranin O, Toluidine Blue O, Dimethylmethylene Blue, Cuprolinic Blue, Cupromeronic Blue, N,N'-Diethylpseudoisocyanine, and a modified PAS-method, and staining methods with a variety of alternative procedures, e.g., variation of pH, use of the critical electrolyte concentration method, and blocking reactions (methylation-saponification, carboxymethylation), were tested to select optimal staining procedures for the semiquantitative histochemical estimation of glycosaminoglycans by microspectrophotometry in sections of articular cartilage. The methods were carried out on 3 microns-thick paraffin and 1 microns-thick glycolmethacrylate sections of bovine articular cartilage. The staining intensity of the sections was measured from spots 25 microns apart using a Leitz MPV 3 microspectrophotometer, starting at the surface of the cartilage and ending up at the tidemark. The result was compared with the fixed-charge density graph determined from the adjacent articular cartilage. Of the dyes tested, Thionin and Safranin O proved to be excellent cationic dyes for the histochemical quantification of cartilage matrix proteoglycans, since the staining intensity curves showed a linear correlation (r = 0.900-0.995) with the fixed charge density curves from the adjacent cartilage. Also, the stain distribution was consistently uniform across the sections. In 1 microns-thick glycolmethacrylate sections, the Safranin O staining gradient showed almost perfect identity with the fixed-charge density curve. Cuprolinic Blue and Cupromeronic Blue combined with the critical electrolyte concentration technique were also useful for the microspectrophotometric assays of glycosaminoglycans, but the presence of metachromasia should be checked prior to the measurements. The reliability of blocking procedures for quantitative histochemical work was not convincing. PMID:8894661

  18. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  19. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  20. Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.