Science.gov

Sample records for alcian blue ph

  1. Succinylation-Alcian Blue Staining of Mucins on Polyvinylidene Difluoride Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Akihiko; Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki

    2015-01-01

    Alcian blue staining has been widely used to visualize acidic mucins and mucopolysaccharides in supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME) and on membrane transferred from electrophoresis gels. Mucins with low acidic glycan content, however, cannot be stained with Alcian blue, which is one of the major drawbacks of this staining method. On the other hand, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, regardless of the acidic residue content; however, periodic acid-Schiff staining decomposes glycans. Here, we introduce succinylation-Alcian blue staining as an alternative staining method to visualize mucins, regardless of the acidic residue content, and without glycan decomposition. PMID:26139280

  2. Widening and diversifying the proteome capture by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries via Alcian Blue dye binding.

    PubMed

    Candiano, Giovanni; Santucci, Laura; Petretto, Andrea; Lavarello, Chiara; Inglese, Elvira; Bruschi, Maurizio; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) tend to bind complex molecules such as dyes due to their aromatic, heterocyclic, hydrophobic, and ionic nature that may affect the protein capture specificity. In this experimental work Alcian Blue 8GX, a positively charged phthalocyanine dye well-known to bind to glycoproteins and to glucosaminoglycans, was adsorbed on a chemically modified CPLL solid phase, and the behavior of the resulting conjugate was then investigated. The control and dye-adsorbed beads were used to harvest the human urinary proteome at physiological pH, this resulting in a grand total of 1151 gene products identified after the capture. Although the Alcian Blue-modified CPLL incremented the total protein capture by 115 species, it particularly enriched some families among the harvested proteins, such as glycoproteins and nucleotide-binding proteins. This study teaches that it is possible, via the two combined harvest mechanisms, to drive the CPLL capture toward the enrichment of specific protein categories. PMID:25856057

  3. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  4. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin. PMID:22950532

  5. Temporal Change of Alcian Blue-Stained Primo Vascular System in Lymph Vessels of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the temporal change of a vascular system now known as the primo vascular system (PVS). We used Alcian blue (AB) dye for imaging the distribution of the PVS in lymphatic vessels. The target lymph vessels were chosen as they are easily accessible from the skin, and long-term observation is possible with intact physiological conditions due to a minimal surgical procedure. AB solution was injected into the inguinal lymph node and the target lymph vessels were located along the superficial epigastric vessels. The imaging system allowed processing for extraction of images showing changes in the AB intensity of the visualized PVS components. This newly developed procedure can be used for further study on various dynamic processes of PVS in lymph vessels. PMID:27526158

  6. Finding Blue Tracks in Gephyrocharax melanocheir Fish Similar to the Locations of Acupuncture Meridians after Injecting Alcian Blue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; Zhang, Weibo; Jia, Shuyong; Tian, Yuying; Wang, Guangjun; Li, Hongyan

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether a meridian-like distribution of Alcian blue (AB) existed after it was injected into a fish's body and suggested a new animal model for meridian study. Twenty Gephyrocharax melanocheir fish with translucent bodies were injected with AB at a point near the spinal column or the dorsal fin. Distribution of AB was observed using a digital camera and a stereomicroscope. Three or more obvious blue tracks were found: one along the spinal column, another along the posterior margin of the abdomen extending to the superior margin of the anal fin, and a third along both sides of the dorsal fin. They were similar to the locations of the governor, conceptual vessel, and urinary bladder meridians, respectively, on the human body according to the classic theory of traditional Chinese medicine. A few other blue tracks were also found, which apparently did not correspond to any known meridians. The results show that the tracks of AB share important similarities with the locations of classically described meridians and that they are mainly distributed in the interstitial space around bones and blood vessels and inside muscular interstices. This study may provide a new experimental animal model for exploring acupuncture meridians. PMID:26742915

  7. Detection and initial characterization of novel capsular polysaccharide among diverse Campylobacter jejuni strains using alcian blue dye.

    PubMed

    Karlyshev, A V; Wren, B W

    2001-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that most strains of Campylobacter jejuni produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS), which can be detected by immunoblotting with homologous Penner antisera on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (A. V. Karlyshev, D. Linton, N. A. Gregson, A. J. Lastovica, and B. W. Wren, Mol. Microbiol. 35:529-541, 2000). In this report, we describe a universal and rapid staining procedure using Alcian blue for C. jejuni CPS, which does not rely on the availability of antisera and identifies CPS in untypeable strains. Furthermore, Alcian blue staining identified CPS in its lipid-free form directly on Tricine gels, and we demonstrate that CPS is thermostable and is accumulated in the culture supernatant in a lipid-free form. The identification of a newly described CPS and its lipid-free form in C. jejuni should prove invaluable in studying the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this important pathogen.

  8. Comparing two methods of plastination and glycerin preservation to study skeletal system after Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Setayesh M.; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Rabiei, Abbas A.; Hanaei, Mahsa S.; Rashidi, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastination is a new method of preserving tissue samples for a long time. This study aimed to compare the new plastination technique with the conventional preservative method in glycerin for fetus skeleton tissues and young rats dyed by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 groups of 1-day, 3-day, 12-day and mature rats were selected and, after being anesthetized and slaughtered, their skin was completely removed. In Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining method, first the samples were fixed in 95% ethanol and then their cartilages were dyed by 0.225% Alcian blue solution; after that, they were cleared in 1% KOH. Then, the bones were dyed in 0.003% Alizarin red solution and finally the tissue was decolorized in 95% ethanol. In each group, half of the samples were preserved by the conventional method in a glycerin container and the other half were plastinated. Results: In the present study, the samples preserved by plastination technique were dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible. Quality of coloring had an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Transparency of the plastinated samples had also an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Therefore, skeletal tissue of younger rats had higher quality and transparency in both preservation methods (glycerin and plastination). Conclusion: This study showed that plastination technique was an appropriate method in comparison with glycerin preservation, which conserved skeletal tissue of fetus and young rats colored by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. And the final result was that plastination technique can generate dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible samples. PMID:23930264

  9. Alcian yellow as a fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Stockert, J C; Del Castillo, P; Armas-Portela, R

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence characteristics of the cationic dye Alcian yellow are described. Under ultraviolet excitation, the chromatin and basophilic cytoplasm from cell smears show a blue-white emission, which depends on the presence of nucleic acids. Glycosaminoglycans-containing structures (mast cell granules, cartilage matrix) appear brightly fluorescent. The excitation at 320 less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 340 nm is the most suitable, and the emission wavelength shows dependence on the dye concentration.

  10. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface.

    PubMed

    Szundi, I; Stoeckenius, W

    1989-08-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lower than the bulk pH and it becomes independent of bulk pH in the deionized membrane suspension. Using an experimental acid titration curve for neutral, lipid-depleted membrane, we converted surface pH into absorption values. The calculated bacteriohodopsin color changes for acidification of purple, and titrations of deionized blue membrane with cations or base agree well with experimental results. No chemical binding is required to reproduce the experimental curves. Surface charge and potential changes in acid, base and cation titrations are calculated and their relation to the color change is discussed. Consistent with structural data, 10 primary phosphate and two basic surface groups per bacteriorhodopsin are sufficient to obtain good agreement between all calculated and experimental curves. The results provide a theoretical basis for our earlier conclusion that the purple-to-blue transition must be attributed to surface phenomena and not to cation binding at specific sites in the protein. PMID:2775832

  11. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface.

    PubMed Central

    Szundi, I; Stoeckenius, W

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lower than the bulk pH and it becomes independent of bulk pH in the deionized membrane suspension. Using an experimental acid titration curve for neutral, lipid-depleted membrane, we converted surface pH into absorption values. The calculated bacteriohodopsin color changes for acidification of purple, and titrations of deionized blue membrane with cations or base agree well with experimental results. No chemical binding is required to reproduce the experimental curves. Surface charge and potential changes in acid, base and cation titrations are calculated and their relation to the color change is discussed. Consistent with structural data, 10 primary phosphate and two basic surface groups per bacteriorhodopsin are sufficient to obtain good agreement between all calculated and experimental curves. The results provide a theoretical basis for our earlier conclusion that the purple-to-blue transition must be attributed to surface phenomena and not to cation binding at specific sites in the protein. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:2775832

  12. Rate of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation in acidic persulfate digested sample matrix for total dissolved phosphorus determination: importance of post-digestion pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2008-10-19

    Acidic persulfate oxidation is one of the most common procedures used to digest dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in water samples for total dissolved phosphorus determination. It has been reported that the rates of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation were significantly reduced in the digested sample matrix. This study revealed that the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation, not the slight change in pH, cause the slowdown of color formation. This effect can be remedied by adjusting digested samples pH to a near neural to decompose the intermediate products. No disturbing effects of chlorine on the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation in seawater were observed. It is noted that the modification of mixed reagent recipe cannot provide near neutral pH for the decomposition of the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation. This study provides experimental evidence not only to support the recommendation made in APHA standard methods that the pH of the digested sample must be adjusted to within a narrow range of sample, but also to improve the understanding of role of residue from persulfate decomposition on the subsequent phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation.

  13. The influence of ph and waterborne metals on egg fertilization of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus).

    PubMed

    Riba, Inmaculada; Gabrielyan, Bardukh; Khosrovyan, Alla; Luque, Angel; Del Valls, T Angel

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of pH and metals on the egg fertilization process of two estuarine species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and a marine species, the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus). The success of egg fertilization was examined after exposure of gametes to sediment extracts of various degrees of contamination at pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0. At the pH levels from 6.5 to 8.0, the egg fertilization of the different species demonstrated different sensitivity to metal and/or acidic exposure. In all species, the results revealed that egg fertilization was almost completely inhibited at pH 6.0. The egg fertilization of the blue mussel M. edulis was the least sensitive to the exposure while that of the sea urchin P. lividus demonstrated a concentration-dependent response to the pH levels from 6.5 to 8.0. The results of this study revealed that acidity increased the concentration of several metal ions (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) but reduced its availability to the organisms, probably related to the reactivity of the ions with most non-metals or to the competition among metals and other waterborne constituents.

  14. The influence of ph and waterborne metals on egg fertilization of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus).

    PubMed

    Riba, Inmaculada; Gabrielyan, Bardukh; Khosrovyan, Alla; Luque, Angel; Del Valls, T Angel

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of pH and metals on the egg fertilization process of two estuarine species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and a marine species, the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus). The success of egg fertilization was examined after exposure of gametes to sediment extracts of various degrees of contamination at pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0. At the pH levels from 6.5 to 8.0, the egg fertilization of the different species demonstrated different sensitivity to metal and/or acidic exposure. In all species, the results revealed that egg fertilization was almost completely inhibited at pH 6.0. The egg fertilization of the blue mussel M. edulis was the least sensitive to the exposure while that of the sea urchin P. lividus demonstrated a concentration-dependent response to the pH levels from 6.5 to 8.0. The results of this study revealed that acidity increased the concentration of several metal ions (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) but reduced its availability to the organisms, probably related to the reactivity of the ions with most non-metals or to the competition among metals and other waterborne constituents. PMID:27068916

  15. Removal of cationic dye methylene blue by zero-valent iron: Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Kurokawa, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Moe; Takagi, Minoru; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on mechanisms for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. Decolorization and TOC removal of MB by ZVI are attributed to the four potential mechanisms, i.e. reduction, degradation, precipitation and adsorption. The contributions of four mechanisms were quantified at pH 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 in the oxic and anoxic systems. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal of MB were found at pH 6.0. The TOC removal efficiencies at pH 3.0 and 10.0 were 11.0 and 17.0%, respectively which were considerably lower as compared with 68.1% at pH 6.0. The adsorption, which was favorable at higher pH but was depressed by the passive layer formed on the ZVI surface at alkaline conditions, characterized the effects of pH on decolorization and TOC removal of MB. The efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal at pH 6.0 under the anoxic condition were 73.0 and 59.0%, respectively, which were comparable to 79.9 and 55.5% obtained under the oxic condition. In the oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the contributions of removal mechanisms were quite different. Although the adsorption dominated the decolorization and TOC removal under the oxic condition, the contribution of precipitation was largely superior to that of adsorption under the anoxic condition.

  16. Nile Blue-based nanosized pH sensors for simultaneous far-red and near-infrared live bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jeppe; Canton, Irene; Warren, Nicholas J; Themistou, Efrosyni; Blanazs, Adam; Ustbas, Burcin; Tian, Xiaohe; Pearson, Russell; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Lewis, Andrew L; Armes, Steven P

    2013-10-01

    Diblock copolymer vesicles are tagged with pH-responsive Nile Blue-based labels and used as a new type of pH-responsive colorimetric/fluorescent biosensor for far-red and near-infrared imaging of live cells. The diblock copolymer vesicles described herein are based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine-block-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) [PMPC-PDPA]: the biomimetic PMPC block is known to facilitate rapid cell uptake for a wide range of cell lines, while the PDPA block constitutes the pH-responsive component that enables facile vesicle self-assembly in aqueous solution. These biocompatible vesicles can be utilized to detect interstitial hypoxic/acidic regions in a tumor model via a pH-dependent colorimetric shift. In addition, they are also useful for selective intracellular staining of lysosomes and early endosomes via subtle changes in fluorescence emission. Such nanoparticles combine efficient cellular uptake with a pH-responsive Nile Blue dye label to produce a highly versatile dual capability probe. This is in marked contrast to small molecule dyes, which are usually poorly uptaken by cells, frequently exhibit cytotoxicity, and are characterized by intracellular distributions invariably dictated by their hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance.

  17. Ruthenium Dihydroxybipyridine Complexes are Tumor Activated Prodrugs Due to Low pH and Blue Light Induced Ligand Release

    PubMed Central

    Hufziger, Kyle T.; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Charboneau, David J.; Nieto, Ismael; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; Dudley, Timothy J.; Merino, Edward J.; Papish, Elizabeth T.; Paul, Jared J.

    2013-01-01

    Ruthenium drugs are potent anti-cancer agents, but inducing drug selectivity and enhancing their modest activity remain challenging. Slow Ru ligand loss limits the formation of free sites and subsequent binding to DNA base pairs. Herein, we designed a ligand that rapidly dissociates upon irradiation at low pH. Activation at low pH can lead to cancer selectivity, since many cancer cells have higher metabolism (and thus lower pH) than non-cancerous cells. We have used the pH sensitive ligand, 6,6′-dihydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine (66′bpy(OH)2), to generate [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, which contains two acidic hydroxyl groups with pKa1 = 5.26 and pKa2 = 7.27. Irradiation when protonated leads to photo-dissociation of the 66′bpy(OH)2 ligand. An in-depth study of the structural and electronic properties of the complex was carried out using X-Ray crystallography, electrochemistry, UV/visible spectroscopy, and computational techniques. Notably, Ru-N bond lengths in the 66′bpy(OH)2 complex are longer (by ~0.3 Å) than in polypyridyl complexes that lack 6 and 6′ substitution. Thus, the longer bond length predisposes the complex for photo-dissociation and leads to the anti-cancer activity. When the complex is deprotonated, the 66′bpy(O−)2 ligand molecular orbitals mix heavily with the ruthenium orbitals, making new mixed metal-ligand orbitals that lead to a higher bond order. We investigated the anti-cancer activities of [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, [Ru(bpy)2(44′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (44′(bpy(OH)2 = 4,4′-dihydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine) in HeLa cells, which have a relatively low pH. It is found that [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+ is more cytotoxic than the other ruthenium complexes studied. Thus, we have identified a pH sensitive ruthenium scaffold that can be exploited for photo-induced anti-cancer activity. PMID:24184694

  18. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the degradation of methylene blue using the supramolecular coordination polymer [(Ph3Sn)4Fe(CN)6] as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Amany M. A.; Al-Ashqar, Sawsan M. A.

    The structure of the supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP), [(Ph3Sn)4Fe(CN)6], 1, consists of octahedral [Fe(CN)6]4- building blocks which are connected by the TBPY-5 configured Ph3Sn(CN…)2 fragments creating 3D-network structure that contains terminal cyanide groups. The catalytic behavior of the SCP 1 was utilized for Fenton and photo-Fenton degradation of methylene blue dye (MB). The plot of kinetic degradation indicates pseudo first-order rate with respect to the MB dye concentration, Kobs. = 0.071 min-1. On the other hand, the observed rate constant of the photo catalytic degradation of MB equals to 1.45 min-1 indicating that irradiation enhances, significantly, the rate of degradation of MB dye. Discoloration of the dye was obtained in less than 3 h. Meanwhile, the conjugated structure and the phenyl rings of the MB molecule were destroyed or even broken down into small organic acids and inorganic ions, as indicated by FT-IR spectra. Disodium salt of terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technology and radical scavenging measurements were carried out to identify the reactive oxygen species. The different parameters that affect MB degradation rate were evaluated. Moreover, the efficiency of recycled the SCP 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye was investigated.

  19. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the degradation of methylene blue using the supramolecular coordination polymer [(Ph3Sn)4FeCN(6)] as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amany M A; Al-Ashqar, Sawsan M A

    2012-06-15

    The structure of the supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP), [(Ph(3)Sn)(4)Fe(CN)(6)], 1, consists of octahedral [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) building blocks which are connected by the TBPY-5 configured Ph(3)Sn(CN…)(2) fragments creating 3D-network structure that contains terminal cyanide groups. The catalytic behavior of the SCP 1 was utilized for Fenton and photo-Fenton degradation of methylene blue dye (MB). The plot of kinetic degradation indicates pseudo first-order rate with respect to the MB dye concentration, K(obs.)=0.071 min(-1). On the other hand, the observed rate constant of the photo catalytic degradation of MB equals to 1.45 min(-1) indicating that irradiation enhances, significantly, the rate of degradation of MB dye. Discoloration of the dye was obtained in less than 3h. Meanwhile, the conjugated structure and the phenyl rings of the MB molecule were destroyed or even broken down into small organic acids and inorganic ions, as indicated by FT-IR spectra. Disodium salt of terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technology and radical scavenging measurements were carried out to identify the reactive oxygen species. The different parameters that affect MB degradation rate were evaluated. Moreover, the efficiency of recycled the SCP 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye was investigated.

  20. Modulation of the Physicochemical Properties of Donor-Spiro-Acceptor Derivatives through Donor Unit Planarisation: Phenylacridine versus Indoloacridine-New Hosts for Green and Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs).

    PubMed

    Thiery, Sébastien; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Poriel, Cyril

    2016-07-11

    This work reports a detailed structure-property relationship study of a series of efficient host materials based on the donor-spiro-acceptor (D-spiro-A) design for green and sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The electronic and physical effects of the indoloacridine (IA) fragment connected through a spiro bridge to different acceptor units, namely, fluorene, dioxothioxanthene or diazafluorene moiety, have been investigated in depth. The resulting host materials have been easily synthesised through short, efficient, low-cost, and highly adaptable synthetic routes by using common intermediates. The dyes possess a very high triplet energy (ET ) and tuneable HOMO/LUMO levels, depending on the strength of the donor/acceptor combination. The peculiar electrochemical and optical properties of the IA moiety have been investigated though a fine comparison with their phenylacridine counterparts to study the influence of planarisation. Finally, these molecules have been incorporated as hosts in green and sky-blue PhOLEDs. For the derivative SIA-TXO2 as a host, external quantum efficiencies as high as 23 and 14 % have been obtained for green and sky-blue PhOLEDs, respectively. PMID:27294680

  1. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G-Fe-Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G-Fe-Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G-Fe-Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G-Fe-Mt under neutral pH. G-Fe-Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  2. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  3. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  4. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  5. Color vision: retinal blues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  6. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  7. Adverse reaction; patent blue turning patient blue.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Meera; Hart, Matthew; Ahmed, Farid; McPherson, Sandy

    2012-11-30

    The authors report a severe anaphylactic reaction to Patent Blue V dye used in sentinel node biopsy for lymphatic mapping during breast cancer surgery to stage the axilla. Patent Blue dye is the most widely used in the UK; however, adverse reactions have been reported with the blue dye previously. This case highlights that reactions may not always be immediately evident and to be vigilant in all patients that have undergone procedures using blue dye. If the patients are not responding appropriately particularly during an anaesthetic, one must always think of a possible adverse reaction to the dye. All surgical patients should give consent for adverse reactions to patent blue dye preoperatively. Alternative agents such as methylene blue are considered.

  8. Histochemical study of cutaneous mucins in hypothyroid dogs.

    PubMed

    Doliger, S; Delverdier, M; Moré, J; Longeart, L; Régnier, A; Magnol, J P

    1995-11-01

    A dermal mucinosis, visualized as dermal alcianophilic material, is occasionally present in canine hypothyroidism (myxedema). Various histochemical reactions (alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff [PAS], alcian blue at pH 2.6, alcian blue at pH 1.0, critical electrolytical concentrations with and without dimethylsulfoxide, differential hydrolysis by hyaluronidases) were performed on skin biopsies from six dogs (four females and two males ranging from 8 to 13 years) affected by hypothyroidism, all of them presenting dermal mucinosis in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. In these dogs, the only polysaccharidic compound involved in the dermal mucinosis was hyaluronic acid. In this study, hyaluronic acid dermal deposits of hypothyroid dogs were significantly different from those of controls in subepidermal connective tissue and loose reticular connective tissue but not in periadnexal zones. We recommend the combined alcian blue/PAS reaction as a routine technique to assess dermal mucinosis in hypothyroid dogs. PMID:8592797

  9. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.; Kapoor, Seema; Jain, Vivek; Saxena, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1–2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels. PMID:22219589

  10. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  11. Gospel and Blues Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The similarities and differences between blues and gospel music are identified and the author suggests that both blues and gospel music have inherent improvisational qualities. Methods of capitalizing on these qualities are presented. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  12. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  13. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  14. Characterization of a novel Na+/H+ antiporter gene InNHX2 and comparison of InNHX2 with InNHX1, which is responsible for blue flower coloration by increasing the vacuolar pH in the Japanese morning glory.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Makoto; Fukada-Tanaka, Sachiko; Hoshino, Atsushi; Takada, Jitsuya; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Iida, Shigeru

    2005-02-01

    The reddish-purple buds of the wild-type Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) change into blue open flowers, and the shift in the flower coloration correlates with an increase in the vacuolar pH of the flower epidermal cell. In the mutant deficient in the InNHX1 gene for the vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, the vacuolar alkalization occurs only partially, and reddish-purple buds become purple open flowers. While most of the plant NHX genes characterized are generally expressed in leaves, stems and roots and induced by NaCl treatment, the InNHX1 gene is expressed predominantly in the flower limbs at around 12 h before flower opening. It is expressed very sparsly in leaves, stems and roots, and no induction occurs in response to NaCl treatment. Here, we identified a novel vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene InNHX2, which is expressed in leaves, stems and roots and is induced in response to NaCl treatment. In addition, relatively higher expression of InNHX2 was observed in the flower limbs shortly before flower opening. We also discovered that both the InNHX1 and InNHX2 proteins can catalyze both Na(+) and K(+) transport into vacuoles. These results suggest that InNHX2 performs dual functions: to confer salt tolerance on the plant and to promote partial vacuolar alkalization in the petals. The implication is that the InNHX2 protein is probably one of the components responsible for converting reddish-purple buds into purple open flowers by partially increasing the vacuolar pH in the absence of major InNHX1 activity.

  15. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  16. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  17. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian spots; Congenital dermal melanocytosis; Dermal melanocytosis ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. The color ...

  18. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  19. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  20. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  1. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  2. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  3. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  4. Pulmonary blue bodies.

    PubMed

    Koss, M N; Johnson, F B; Hochholzer, L

    1981-03-01

    Pulmonary blue bodies are intra-alveolar laminated basophilic concretions of uncertain etiology. Blue bodies were studied in lung biopsy specimens from 10 patients. The patients ranged in age from 47 to 69 years and were predominantly men. Three had a history of overt exposure to environmental dusts such as sawdust and asbestos, and two showed occasional ferruginous bodies in the lung, raising the possibility of pneumoconiosis. In eight cases there was interstitial pneumonitis, which resembled desquamative interstitial pneumonia by light microscopy but which was often seen to be patchy and asymmetrically distributed in the lung by chest x-ray examination. Of two other patients, one had xanthogranulomatous inflammation and the other, necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Light and electron microscopic, histochemical, microchemical, and x-ray diffraction studies of blue bodies were also performed. Calcium carbonate is a major component of blue bodies and is responsible for their birefringence in unstained sections and ready solubility in acid solutions. Blue bodies also contain a mucopolysaccharide matrix and iron. We offer the hypothesis that blue bodies (calcium carbonate) are a product of histiocytic catabolism.

  5. Removal of methylene blue from dye effluent using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder (ACLP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman bin Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Aminu, Nasiru; Salihi, Ibrahim Umar

    2015-07-01

    Methylene blue (MB), a common environmental pollutant discharged from dye effluents were removed from synthetic effluents in this study using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder. Effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial Methylene blue concentration, adsorbent weight and contact time were examined on methylene blue removal whereas stirring speed was constant at 100 rpm. Results show that low pH (3-4) had more Methylene blue removal than high pH. Methylene blue removal decreased when initial concentration was increased but increased when adsorbent weight was increased. Removal of Methylene blue by Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder was rapid and significantly above 80% in all initial concentrations examined. At optimum conditions of pH 3, 20 minutes contact time and adsorbent weight of 60 mg for Methylene blue initial concentration of 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L, Methylene blue removal of 84.7%, 83.9% and 81.2% were obtained respectively. Results suggest that Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder could be potential adsorbents for Methylene blue removal from dye effluents.

  6. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body.

  7. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body. PMID:26814481

  8. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  9. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy and a…

  10. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  11. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  12. ON THE NATURE OF THE DYE PENETRATING THE VACUOLE OF VALONIA FROM SOLUTIONS OF METHYLENE BLUE.

    PubMed

    Irwin, M

    1927-07-20

    When uninjured cells of Valonia are placed in methylene blue dissolved in sea water it is found, after 1 to 3 hours, that at pH 5.5 practically no dye penetrates, while at pH 9.5 more enters the vacuole. As the cells become injured more dye enters at pH 5.5, as well as at pH 9.5. No dye in reduced form is found in the sap of uninjured cells exposed from 1 to 3 hours to methylene blue in sea water at both pH values. When uninjured cells are placed in azure B solution, the rate of penetration of dye into the vacuole is found to increase with the rise in the pH value of the external dye solution. The partition coefficient of the dye between chloroform and sea water is higher at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5 with both methylene blue and azure B. The color of the dye in chloroform absorbed from methylene blue or from azure B in sea water at pH 5.5 is blue, while it is reddish purple when absorbed from methylene blue and azure B at pH 9.5. Dry salt of methylene blue and azure B dissolved in chloroform appears blue. It is shown that chiefly azure B in form of free base is absorbed by chloroform from methylene blue or azure B dissolved in sea water at pH 9.5, but possibly a mixture of methylene blue and azure B in form of salt is absorbed from methylene blue at pH 5.5, and azure B in form of salt is absorbed from azure B in sea water at pH 5.5. Spectrophotometric analysis of the dye shows the following facts. 1. The dye which is absorbed by the cell wall from methylene blue solution is found to be chiefly methylene blue. 2. The dye which has penetrated from methylene blue solution into the vacuole of uninjured cells is found to be azure B or trimethyl thionine, a small amount of which may be present in a solution of methylene blue especially at a high pH value. 3. The dye which has penetrated from methylene blue solution into the vacuole of injured cells is either methylene blue or a mixture of methylene blue and azure B. 4. The dye which is absorbed by chloroform from methylene

  13. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  14. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  15. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  16. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  17. Laser Induced Blue Luminescence Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Yaoju; Yang, Fugui

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced strange blue luminescence in several Raman crystals has been investigated. The blue luminescence at about 473 nm has the characteristic of no orientation and only produced in the crystal where the fundament laser oscillated. The experimental results show that the blue luminescence must result from the fundamental laser around 1.0 µm rather than Stokes-shifting. The spectrum detected is similar for different crystals. This blue luminescence is obviously strange and inconsistent with traditional luminescence theories, which maybe a brand-new luminescence theory.

  18. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  19. Ferric ions involved in the flower color development of the Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Kitahara, Sayoko; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao

    2006-05-01

    The Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis, has sky blue-colored petals, although the anthocyanidin nucleus of the petal pigment is cyanidin. The blue color development in this blue poppy involving ferric ions was therefore studied. We analyzed the vacuolar pH, and the organic and inorganic components of the colored cells. A direct measurement by a proton-selective microelectrode revealed that the vacuolar pH value was 4.8. The concentrations of the total anthocyanins in the colored cells were around 5mM, and ca. three times more concentrated flavonols were detected. Fe was detected by atomic analysis of the colored cells, and the ratio of Fe to anthocyanins was ca. 0.8 eq. By mixing the anthocyanin, flavonol and metal ion components in a buffered aq. solution at pH 5.0, we were able to reproduce the same blue color; the visible absorption spectrum and CD were identical to those in the petals, with Fe(3+), Mg(2+) and flavonol being essential for the blue color. The blue pigment in Meconopsis should be a new type of metal complex pigment that is different from a stoichiometric supramolecular pigment such as commelinin or protocyanin.

  20. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tonghao; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene was prepared using a modified Hummers' method. The physico-chemical properties of graphene were characterized by TEM, BET specific surface area, FTIR, Raman and XRD measurements. The effect factors including pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto graphene were investigated. The experimental data of isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation at 293 K was 153.85 mg/g, indicating graphene is a good adsorbent for the adsorption of MB. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene was an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  1. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment. PMID:23369295

  2. Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip cv. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi

    2007-02-01

    The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.

  3. Blue shift of laser mode in photonic crystal microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pengchao; Feng, Z. G.; Qi, Fan; Qi, Aiyi; Wang, Yufei; Zheng, W. H.

    2014-11-01

    We report the first demonstration of blue shift of optical pumping photonic crystal (PhC) laser. A femtosecond laser was used to pump the InGaAsP based two dimensional photonic crystal laser at room temperature. Linear dependence of the resonance wavelength with respect to the pump power is observed: dλ/dP=-1.5×10-2 nm/μW . Blue shift of overall 1.1nm was obtained with the increase power of pump laser. These results are in agreement with theoretical expectation while the carrier-induced index change is introduced into the PhC semiconductor laser. It shows a possibility that by proper wafer design and careful optimization, we may obtain wavelength stable photonic crystal laser, which is important in photonic integration.

  4. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  5. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  6. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  7. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  8. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  9. Metal Complex Pigment Involved in the Blue Sepal Color Development of Hydrangea.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kin-ichi; Yamada, Tomomi; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao; Yoshida, Kumi

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins exhibit various vivid colors from red through purple to blue and are potential sources of food colorants. However, their usage is restricted because of their instability, especially as a blue colorant. The blue sepal color of Hydrangea macrophylla is due to a metal complex named "hydrangea-blue complex" composed of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, 1, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 2, and/or 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, 3, as copigments, and Al(3+) in aqueous solution at approximately pH 4.0. However, the ratio of each component ins not stoichiometric, but is fluctuates within a certain range. The hydrangea-blue complex exists only in aqueous solution, exhibiting a stable blue color, but attempts at crystallization have failed; therefore, the structure remains obscure. To clarify the basis of the character of the hydrangea-blue pigment and to obtain its structural information, we studied the mixing conditions to reconstruct the same blue color as observed in the sepals. In highly concentrated sodium acetate buffer (6 M, pH 4.0) we could measure (1)H NMR of both the hydrangea-blue complex composed of 1 (5 mM), 2 (10 mM), and Al(3+) (10 mM) and a simple 1-Al(3+) complex. We also recorded the spectra of complexes composed with structurally different anthocyanins and copigments. Comparison of those signals indicated that in the hydrangea-blue complex 1 might be under equilibrium between chelating and nonchelating structures having an interaction with 2. PMID:26006163

  10. Metal Complex Pigment Involved in the Blue Sepal Color Development of Hydrangea.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kin-ichi; Yamada, Tomomi; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao; Yoshida, Kumi

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins exhibit various vivid colors from red through purple to blue and are potential sources of food colorants. However, their usage is restricted because of their instability, especially as a blue colorant. The blue sepal color of Hydrangea macrophylla is due to a metal complex named "hydrangea-blue complex" composed of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, 1, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 2, and/or 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, 3, as copigments, and Al(3+) in aqueous solution at approximately pH 4.0. However, the ratio of each component ins not stoichiometric, but is fluctuates within a certain range. The hydrangea-blue complex exists only in aqueous solution, exhibiting a stable blue color, but attempts at crystallization have failed; therefore, the structure remains obscure. To clarify the basis of the character of the hydrangea-blue pigment and to obtain its structural information, we studied the mixing conditions to reconstruct the same blue color as observed in the sepals. In highly concentrated sodium acetate buffer (6 M, pH 4.0) we could measure (1)H NMR of both the hydrangea-blue complex composed of 1 (5 mM), 2 (10 mM), and Al(3+) (10 mM) and a simple 1-Al(3+) complex. We also recorded the spectra of complexes composed with structurally different anthocyanins and copigments. Comparison of those signals indicated that in the hydrangea-blue complex 1 might be under equilibrium between chelating and nonchelating structures having an interaction with 2.

  11. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  12. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Langry, Kevin C.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  13. Cyanobacterial Blue Color Formation during Lysis under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kiyomi; Tomita, Koji; Hasegawa, Masateru; Bober, Beata; Harada, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as β-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, which show lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Among these compounds, only β-cyclocitral causes a characteristic color change from green to blue (blue color formation) in the culture broth during the lysis process. In August 2008 and September 2010, the lysis of cyanobacteria involving blue color formation was observed at Lake Tsukui in northern Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We collected lake water containing the cyanobacteria and investigated the VOCs, such as β-cyclocitral, β-ionone, 1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol, as well as the number of cyanobacterial cells and their damage and pH changes. As a result, the following results were confirmed: the detection of several VOCs, including β-cyclocitral and its oxidation product, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid; the identification of phycocyanin based on its visible spectrum; the lower pH (6.7 and 5.4) of the lysed samples; and characteristic morphological change in the damaged cyanobacterial cells. We also encountered the same phenomenon on 6 September 2013 in Lake Sagami in northern Kanagawa Prefecture and obtained almost the same results, such as blue color formation, decreasing pH, damaged cells, and detection of VOCs, including the oxidation products of β-cyclocitral. β-Cyclocitral derived from Microcystis has lytic activity against Microcystis itself but has stronger inhibitory activity against other cyanobacteria and algae, suggesting that the VOCs play an important role in the ecology of aquatic environments. PMID:25662969

  14. Cyanobacterial blue color formation during lysis under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Arii, Suzue; Tsuji, Kiyomi; Tomita, Koji; Hasegawa, Masateru; Bober, Beata; Harada, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Cyanobacteria produce numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as β-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, which show lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Among these compounds, only β-cyclocitral causes a characteristic color change from green to blue (blue color formation) in the culture broth during the lysis process. In August 2008 and September 2010, the lysis of cyanobacteria involving blue color formation was observed at Lake Tsukui in northern Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We collected lake water containing the cyanobacteria and investigated the VOCs, such as β-cyclocitral, β-ionone, 1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol, as well as the number of cyanobacterial cells and their damage and pH changes. As a result, the following results were confirmed: the detection of several VOCs, including β-cyclocitral and its oxidation product, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid; the identification of phycocyanin based on its visible spectrum; the lower pH (6.7 and 5.4) of the lysed samples; and characteristic morphological change in the damaged cyanobacterial cells. We also encountered the same phenomenon on 6 September 2013 in Lake Sagami in northern Kanagawa Prefecture and obtained almost the same results, such as blue color formation, decreasing pH, damaged cells, and detection of VOCs, including the oxidation products of β-cyclocitral. β-Cyclocitral derived from Microcystis has lytic activity against Microcystis itself but has stronger inhibitory activity against other cyanobacteria and algae, suggesting that the VOCs play an important role in the ecology of aquatic environments.

  15. Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe.

    PubMed

    Vostiar, Igor; Tkac, Jan; Sturdik, Ernest; Gemeiner, Peter

    2002-05-15

    The electropolymerized toluidine blue film deposited on the glassy carbon electrode show amperometrically detectable pH sensitivity. This feature of polytoluidine blue (PTOB) film was used for a construction of an amperometric urea biosensor. We have observed a linear shift of the formal redox potential with increasing pH value between 4 and 8 giving the slope of 81 mV(Delta) pH(-1). Polytoluidine blue film has had a significantly increased stability and higher electrochemical activity compared to the adsorbed monomeric dye. The polytoluidine blue urea biosensor has been operating at a working potential of -200 mV vs. SCE. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 980 nA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor showed linearity in concentration range up to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N=3).

  16. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  17. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  18. Effect of genetic modification of tyrosine-185 on the proton pump and the blue-to-purple transition in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Dujeon; El-Sayed, M.A.; Mogi, Tatsushi; Khorana, H.G. ); Stern, L.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The retinylidene chromophore mutant (Y185F) of bacteriorhodopsin, in which Tyr-185 is substituted by phenylalanine, is examined and compared with wild-type bacteriorhodopsin expressed in Escherichia coli; both were reinstituted similarly in vesicles. The Y185F mutant shows (at least) two distinct spectra at neutral pH. Upon light absorption, the blue species (which absorbs in the red) behaves as if dead--i.e., neither its tyrosine nor its protonated Schiff base undergoes deprotonation nor does its tryptophan fluorescence undergo quenching. This result is unlike either the purple species (which absorbs in the blue) or wild-type bacteriorhodopsin expressed in E. coli. As the pH increases, both the color changes and the protonated Schiff base deprotonation efficiency suggest a blue-to-purple transition of the Y185F mutant near pH 9. If this blue-to-purple transition of Y185F corresponds to the blue-to-purple transition of purple-membrane (native) bacteriorhodopsin (occurring at pH 2.6) and of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin expressed in E. coli (occurring at pH 5), the protein-conformation changes of this transition as well as the protonated schiff base deprotonation may be controlled not by surface pH alone, but rather by the coupling between surface potential and the general protein internal structure around the active site. The results also suggest that Tyr-185 does not deprotonate during the photocycle in purple-membrane bacteriorhodopsin.

  19. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S. A.; Shukor, M. Y.; Shamaan, N. A.; Mac Cormack, W. P.; Syed, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  20. Molybdate reduction to molybdenum blue by an Antarctic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S A; Shukor, M Y; Shamaan, N A; Mac Cormack, W P; Syed, M A

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo⁶⁺ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  1. Bonney's blue cystitis: a warning.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Payne, S D; Milroy, E J; Warwick, R T

    1989-03-01

    The instillation of diluted Bonney's blue into the bladder during gynaecological operations has been quite common practice over the last 50 years. Bonney's blue is composed of a 1:1 mixture of brilliant green and crystal violet dissolved in ethanol (90%) or industrial methylated spirit. Before insertion into the bladder this solution must be diluted with water to a 0.5% solution. Failure to do this will result in a severe inflammatory reaction within the bladder. The degree of resultant damage depends upon the duration of exposure. Persistent pain is a feature of this condition, although the other symptoms (frequency and urgency) may settle in time. Two cases of chemical cystitis resulting from the use of undiluted Bonney's blue are described to illustrate the possible consequences. Both patients were awarded 6-figure sums as compensation.

  2. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to Mo-blue by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Rahman, M F; Suhaili, Z; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2010-03-01

    A local molybdenum-reducing bacterium was isolated and tentatively identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain Dr.Y12 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and 16S rDNA comparative analysis. Molybdate reduction was optimized under conditions of low dissolved oxygen (37 degrees C and pH 6.5). Of the electron donors tested, glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose supported molybdate reduction after 1 d of incubation, glucose and fructose supporting the highest Mo-blue production. Optimum Mo-blue production was reached at 20 mmol/L molybdate and 5 mmol/L phosphate; increasing the phosphate concentrations inhibited the production. An increase in an overall absorption profiles, especially at peak maximum at 865 nm and the shoulder at 700 nm, was observed in direct correlation with the increased in Mo-blue amounts. Metal ions, such as chromium, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead (2 mmol/L final concentration) caused approximately 88, 53, 80, 100, and 20 % inhibition, respectively. Respiratory inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide and cyanide showed in this bacterium no inhibition of the Mo-blue production, suggesting that the electron transport system is not a site of molybdate reduction.

  3. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  4. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus.

  5. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  6. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  7. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  8. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  9. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  10. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  11. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  12. Methylene blue adsorption on graphene oxide/calcium alginate composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Wang, Yonghao; Wu, Shaoling; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

    2013-06-01

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the dispersibility in aqueous solution and the biotoxicity to human cells of graphene oxide limits its practical application in environmental protection. In this research, a novel environmental friendly adsorbent, calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was prepared. The effects of pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 181.81 mg/g. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion equation were used to evaluate the kinetic data. Thermodynamic analysis of equilibriums indicated that the adsorption reaction of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  13. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  14. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  15. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  16. PhD and the Manager's Dream: Professionalising the Students, the Degree and the Supervisors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Frederico

    2013-01-01

    This article has two main aims: to analyse relevant literature on the doctoral degree, and to assess whether recent funding changes in the UK have changed the nature of the PhD in the social sciences in a research-intensive and prestigious UK university. Data were collected at BlueSkies University where interviews with social sciences PhD…

  17. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  1. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  2. A Colorful Mixing Experiment in a Stirred Tank Using Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujilo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecillia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballesca´-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Marion Moise´s

    2014-01-01

    A simple experiment designed to study mixing of a material of complex rheology in a stirred tank is described. Non-Newtonian suspensions of blue maize flour that naturally contain anthocyanins have been chosen as a model fluid. These anthocyanins act as a native, wide spectrum pH indicator exhibiting greenish colors in alkaline environments, blue…

  3. Red Shoe-Blue Shoe: An Acid-Base Demonstration with a Fashionable Twist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breyer, Arthur C.; Uzelmeier, Calvin E.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates that acid-base indicators come in many forms and the reversible effects that acids and bases have on the colors of such indicators. An object is dyed in an indicator, which causes the object to turn dark blue at pH less than 3.0 to 5.0. Suggests using dyeable fabric shoes and other cotton articles. (PVD)

  4. Covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes from the violet-blue flowers of Allium 'Blue Perfume'.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norio; Nakamura, Maiko; Shinoda, Koichi; Murata, Naho; Kanazawa, Toshinari; Kato, Kazuhisa; Toki, Kenjiro; Kasai, Hiroko; Honda, Toshio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi

    2012-08-01

    Three covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes (pigments 1-3) were extracted from the violet-blue flower of Allium 'Blue Perfume' with 5% acetic acid-MeOH solution, in which pigment 1 was the dominant pigment. These three pigments are based on delphinidin 3-glucoside as their deacylanthocyanin and were acylated with malonyl kaempferol 3-sophoroside-7-glucosiduronic acid or malonyl-kaempferol 3-p-coumaroyl-tetraglycoside-7-glucosiduronic acid in addition to acylation with acetic acid. By spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of these three pigments 1-3 were determined to be: pigment 1, (6(I)-O-(delphinidin 3-O-(3(I)-O-(acetyl)-β-glucopyranoside(I))))(2(VI)-O-(kaempferol 3-O-(2(II)-O-(3(III)-O-(β-glucopyranosyl(V))-β-glucopyranosyl(III))-4(II)-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-6(II)-O-(β-glucopyranosyl(IV))-β-glucopyranoside(II))-7-O-(β-glucosiduronic acid(VI)))) malonate; pigment 2, (6(I)-O-(delphinidin 3-O-(3(I)-O-(acetyl)-β-glucopyranoside(I))))(2(VI)-O-(kaempferol 3-O-(2(II)-O-β-glucopyranosyl(III))-β-glucopyranoside(II))-7-O-(β-glucosiduronic acid(VI)))); and pigment 3, (6(I)-O-(delphinidin 3-O-(3(I)-O-(acetyl)-β-glucopyranoside(I))))(2(VI)-O-(kaempferol 3-O-(2(II)-O-(3(III)-O-(β-glucopyranosyl(V))-β-glucopyranosyl(III))-4(II)-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-6(II)-O-(β-glucopyranosyl(IV))-β-glucopyranoside(II))-7-O-(β-glucosiduronic acid(VI)))) malonate. The structure of pigment 2 was analogous to that of a covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complex isolated from Allium schoenoprasum where delphinidin was observed in place of cyanidin. The three covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes (pigment 1-3) had a stable violet-blue color with three characteristic absorption maxima at 540, 547 and 618nm in pH 5-6 buffer solution. From circular dichroism measurement of pigment 1 in the pH 6.0 buffer solution, cotton effects were observed at 533 (+), 604 (-) and 638 (-) nm. Based on these results, these covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes were presumed to maintain a

  5. Removal of methylene blue from wastewater using fly ash as an adsorbent by hydrocyclone.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, K; Sahu, J N; Meikap, B C; Biswas, M N

    2008-10-30

    The excessive release of color into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption process is among the most effective techniques for color removal from wastewater and fly ash has been widely used as an adsorbent. Therefore, this study was carried out to understand the adsorption behavior of methylene blue from aqueous systems onto fly ash using the continuous mode. Continuous mode sorption experiments were carried out to remove methylene blue from its aqueous solutions in hydrocyclone equipment. The experiments were performed at constant temperature and dimensions of hydrocyclone with variation of flows through the equipment, concentrations of methylene blue solutions and fly ash concentration, respectively. A maximum removal of 58.24% was observed at adsorbent dosage of 900 mg/l at pH 6.75 for an initial methylene blue concentration of 65 mg/l.

  6. Fast and considerable adsorption of methylene blue dye onto graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Chunjiao; Zhou, Weichang; Lei, Aihua; Zhang, Qinglin; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2011-07-01

    The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed on it. In the aqueous solution of methylene blue at 293 K, the adsorption data could be fitted by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption amount of 1.939 mg/mg and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 18.486 mL/mg. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of the solution pH (3-11), was not affected significantly by KCl under the examined condition and the adsorption process was exothermic in nature. The fast and considerable adsorption of graphene oxide could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal in wastewater treatment process.

  7. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  8. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  9. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  10. Blue Shield Plan Physician Participation

    PubMed Central

    Yett, Donald E.; Der, William; Ernst, Richard L.; Hay, Joel W.

    1981-01-01

    Many Blue Shield Plans offer participation agreements to physicians that are structurally similar to the participation provisions of Medicaid programs. This paper examines physicians' participation decisions in two such Blue Shield Plans where the participation agreements were on an all-or-nothing basis. The major results show that increases in the Plans' reasonable fees or fee schedules significantly raise the probability of participation, and that physicians with characteristics associated with “low quality” are significantly more likely to participate than are physicians with characteristics associated with “high quality.” In this sense the results highlight the tradeoff that must be faced in administering governmental health insurance policy. On the one hand, restricting reasonable and scheduled fees is the principal current tool for containing expenditures on physicians' services. Yet these restrictions tend to depress physicians' willingness to participate in government programs, thereby reducing access to high quality care by the populations those programs were designed to serve. PMID:10309468

  11. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  12. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  13. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  14. Study of Methylene Blue adsorption on keratin nanofibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Aluigi, A; Rombaldoni, F; Tonetti, C; Jannoke, L

    2014-03-15

    In this work, keratin nanofibrous membranes (mean diameter of about 220nm) were prepared by electrospinning and tested as adsorbents for Methylene Blue through batch adsorption tests. The adsorption capacity of the membranes was evaluated as a function of initial dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, time and temperature. The adsorption capacity increased with increasing the initial dye concentration and pH, while it decreased with increasing the adsorbent dosage and temperature, indicating an exothermic process. The adsorption results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. A mean free energy evaluated through the Dubinin-Radushkevich model of about 16kJmol(-1), indicated a chemisorption process which occurred by ion exchange. The kinetic data were found to fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The obtained results suggest that keratin nanofibrous membranes could be promising candidates as dye adsorption filters.

  15. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  16. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  17. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7-C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  18. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  19. Histochemical analysis of the goblet cell matrix in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Lozano, G.; Cajina-Quezada, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental analyses were made to histochemically determine the composition of the goblet cell matrix material in the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Techniques employed following fixation in Carnoy fluid were the periodic acid-Schiff reaction and the alcian blue stain at pH 1.0 and pH 2.5 and following methylation and subsequent saponification. The cumulative evidence suggests that the plug material is an acid mucosubstance.

  20. pH optrode for the complete working range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnoi, Gargi; Goel, Tara C.; Pillai, P. K. C.

    1999-01-01

    We report a fast response and inexpensive optical sensor capable of measuring pH in the range of 0.5 to 13.5 units with good resolution. Three indicator dyes viz. Bromocresol Green, Bromothymol Blue and Nile Blue were used to fabricate the sensor head. ion-exchange resin, Amberlite IRA 400, was powdered and immobilized by these dye solutions. In order to prepare sensing membranes, Polyvinyl chloride was dissolved in Tetrahydrofuran and the solution was poured on to a glass plate. Before the membrane was completely dry, the immobilized resin powder was uniformly sprinkled so that the granules are properly glued to it. A bundle of fibers was attached to the membrane mechanically to carry the light from the source to the membrane and collect the reflected optical signal. He-He laser was used as a light source. The experimental results show a linear dependence of pH value on reflected optical signal for the pH range of 0.5 to 13.5 with the resolution of 0.02 unit. The optrode was also characterized by studying the effect of ionic strength and temperature of the solution on the probe response.

  1. Interaction of omapatrilat with FD&C Blue No. 2 lake during dissolution of modified release tablets.

    PubMed

    Lobo, M; Patel, J; Kamins, G; Francis, R; Breza, B; Jerzewski, R

    2007-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) of omapatrilat degradation observed during dissolution from modified release (MR) tablet formulations containing colorants. The tablets were manufactured by a dry granulation process employing roller compaction. The colorants were added intragranularly and included red and yellow iron oxides and FD&C Blue No. 2 lake and dye. Dissolution studies in pH 6 or 6.8 media do not indicate any omapatrilat degradation in the absence of colorants. In the presence of colorants the degradation rate of omapatrilat in pH 6.8 media was in the following order: blue lake>blue lake+yellow iron oxide>yellow and red iron oxides. Higher degradation was observed with MR tablets formulated with indigo carmine (dye) as opposed to tablets formulated with aluminum oxide or aluminum hydroxide (dye substrate portion of lake). The inclusion of tartaric acid and the photostabilizer, uric acid, in omapatrilat MR tablets containing the blue lake reduced the degradation significantly. The dissolution instability observed at pH 6.8 in the MR tablet formulated with FD&C Blue No. 2 Lake was attributed to the dye component of the lake. The instability was more pronounced at higher pH and in the absence of a photostabilizer.

  2. Glucosylceramide modulates endolysosomal pH in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Sillence, Dan J

    2013-06-01

    GlcCer accumulation causes Gaucher disease where GlcCer breakdown is inhibited due to a hereditary deficiency in glucocerebrosidase. Glycolipids are endocytosed and targeted to the Golgi apparatus in normal cells but in Gaucher disease they are mistargeted to lysosomes. To better understand the role of GlcCer in endocytic sorting RAW macrophages were treated with Conduritol B-epoxide to inhibit GlcCer breakdown. Lipid analysis found increases in GlcCer led to accumulation of both triacylglycerol and cholesterol consistent with increased lysosomal pH. Ratio imaging of macrophages using both acridine orange and lysosensor yellow/blue to measure endolysosomal pH revealed increases in Conduritol B-epoxide treated RAW macrophages and Gaucher patient lymphoblasts. Increased endolysosomal pH was restricted to Gaucher lymphoblasts as no significant increases in pH were seen in Fabry, Krabbe, Tay-Sachs and GM1-gangliosidosis lymphoblasts. Substrate reduction therapy utilises inhibitors of GlcCer synthase to reduce storage in Gaucher disease. The addition of inhibitors of GlcCer synthesis to RAW macrophages also led to increases in cholesterol and triacylglycerol and an endolysosomal pH increase of up to 1 pH unit. GlcCer modulation appears specific since glucosylsphingosine but not galactosylsphingosine reversed the effects of GlcCer depletion. Although no acute effects on glycolipid trafficking were observed using bafilomycin A the results are consistent with a multistep model whereby increases in pH lead to altered trafficking via cholesterol accumulation. GlcCer modulates endolysosomal pH in lymphocytes suggesting an important role in normal lysosomes which may be disrupted in Gaucher disease. PMID:23628459

  3. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michele M.; Jamieson, Christopher G.; Lal, Geeta

    1996-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, an uncommon condition, is manifested by gastrointestinal and skin hemangiomas and gastrointestinal hemorrhage causing anemia. The authors report a unique case of the syndrome in association with a congenital cardiac malformation. A 26-year-old woman presented with iron-deficiency anemia after the birth of her first child. She had a history of skin and gastrointestinal hemangiomas and tetralogy of Fallot. Endoscopy revealed multiple new intestinal hemangiomas, which were removed through enterotomies with resolution of the anemia. Iron therapy was prescribed, and her condition was stable at follow-up 5 years later. PMID:8599795

  4. Spectroscopy of blue stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Nations, H. L.; Barden, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for the brightest objects from a list of blue stellar objects found in a Palomar Schmidt field centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. Four of the objects presented here comprise a complete sample of objects with UV excess and magnitudes brighter than or equal to B = 16.3 mag. The object with the largest UV excess is a previously undiscovered quasar of redshift 0.25 and cataloged B magnitude of 15.6 mag. The object shows some evidence of variability. Spectroscopy for one bright object in a companion field centered on Selected Area 29 is also presented.

  5. Blue color formation of cyanobacteria with beta-cyclocitral.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ken-Ichi; Ozaki, Keiko; Tsuzuki, Sayaka; Kato, Hajime; Hasegawa, Masateru; Kuroda, Emilia K; Arii, Suzue; Tsuji, Kiyomi

    2009-11-01

    Volatile compounds, such as beta-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, from cyanobacteria showed a lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Particularly, beta-cyclocitral caused an interesting color change in the culture broth from green to blue during the lysis process. In the present study, the lytic behavior of various cyanobacteria with beta-cyclocitral was investigated, and a mechanism for the blue color formation was developed. beta-Cyclocitral lysed both the laboratory strains of any genera and bloom samples including many species of cyanobacteria, and caused the characteristic color change from green to blue. beta-Cyclocitral provided a characteristic behavior, such that the absorption maxima of chlorophyll-a and beta-carotene disappeared, but that of phycocyanin still remained after 12 h, which indicated that beta-cyclocitral decomposed chlorophyll-a and beta-carotene rapidly, so that the inherent colors from the tolerant water-soluble pigments became observable in the cultured broth. This phenomenon was confirmed by another experiment using Phormidium (NIES-611), which showed a pink color derived from phycoerythrin. beta-Cyclocitral was more easily oxidized when compared with similar aldehyde compounds, so that the pH of the solution quickly decreased to 4.5. An oxidation product of beta-cyclocitral in water solution was isolated and identified as 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid. This study provides support that beta-cyclocitral derived from cyanobacteria plays an important role in the lysis of cyanobacteria and participates in the blue color formation under natural conditions.

  6. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Gönül; Turabik, Meral

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 degrees C and 3.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  7. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  8. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  10. The Blue Dots Initiative and Roadmapping Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2010-10-01

    The Blue Dots initiative (a grassroot effort to build a scientific community in Europe around the exoplanet theme) is introduced. The Blue Dots activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets, a summary of which is presented here. While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  11. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  12. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  13. Blue angioedema of eyelip after patent blue injection for lymphatic mapping procedure.

    PubMed

    Weng, P-W; Hsu, H-M; Chen, T-W; Hsieh, C-B; Chang, T-M; Chen, V T K; Yu, J-C

    2007-07-01

    Sentinel node biopsy using patent blue dye in breast cancer is a well-documented procedure to assess the axillary status. We presented an unusual and previously unreported complication of simple blue angioedema over bilaterally periorbital tissue after blue dye injection.

  14. Blue moons and large fires.

    PubMed

    Porch, W M

    1989-05-15

    Theoretical analysis of simulations of optical effects from the 1950 Canadian forest fires has revealed what conditions are necessary for large fires to cause blue moons and suns. This study shows how large fires can be used to improve our understanding of long range pollution transport on a global scale as well as the evolution of aerosol radiative effects so important to global climate studies. The most important aerosol characteristics are the initial submicron smoke particle concentration and areal extent of the fire and its effect on fire plume dispersion. Capping clouds above the fire and near saturation humidity effects are simulated and found to help establish anomalous optical effects. Data are included showing probable anomalous extinction events associated with concentrated fire plumes.

  15. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  16. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Great blue heron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.; Cooper, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The great blue heron is the largest, most widely distributed, and best known of the American herons (Henny 1972). Great blue herons occur in a variety of habitats from freshwater lakes and rivers to brackish marshes, lagoons, mangrove areas, and coastal wetlands (Spendelow and Patton in prep.).

  18. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... million. Mercury (as Hg), not more than 1 part per million. (c) Uses and restrictions. The color additive ultramarine blue may be safely used for coloring salt intended for animal feed subject to the restriction that the quantity of ultramarine blue does not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the salt. (d)...

  19. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  20. Adsorption of chlorophenol, chloroaniline and methylene blue on fuel oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Andini, Salvatore; Cioffi, Raffaele; Colangelo, Francesco; Montagnaro, Fabio; Santoro, Luciano

    2008-09-15

    Fuel oil fly ash has been tested as low-cost carbon-based adsorbent of 2-chlorophenol (CP), 2-chloroaniline (CA) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. In all the cases the adsorption was found to be of cooperative type. Different adsorption capacities were found for the three organics. Specifically, it was highest for 2-chlorophenol, reaching about 70 mg g(-1), and quite lower in the other two cases, that is about 47 and 36 mg g(-1) for methylene blue and 2-chloroaniline, respectively. Varying the initial pH and adding KCl were found to have different effects on the adsorption of the three organics. In particular, the presence of other ions had no effect on the adsorption of methylene blue, adverse effect in the case of 2-chlorophenol and enhancing effect in the case of 2-chloroaniline.

  1. Characteristics of blue organic light emitting diodes with different thick emitting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Tsuboi, Taiju; Huang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    We fabricated blue organic light emitting diodes (called blue OLEDs) with emitting layer (EML) of diphenylanthracene derivative 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) doped with blue-emitting DSA-ph (1-4-di-[4-(N,N-di-phenyl)amino]styryl-benzene) to investigate how the thickness of EML and hole injection layer (HIL) influences the electroluminescence characteristics. The driving voltage was observed to increase with increasing EML thickness from 15 nm to 70 nm. The maximum external quantum efficiency of 6.2% and the maximum current efficiency of 14 cd/A were obtained from the OLED with 35 nm thick EML and 75 nm thick HIL. High luminance of 120,000 cd/m2 was obtained at 7.5 V from OLED with 15 nm thick EML.

  2. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  3. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... esophagitis You may need to have the following tests if your doctor suspects esophagitis : Barium swallow Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called upper GI endoscopy)

  4. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  5. Blue/white organic light-emitting diodes and passive matrix display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The blue organic light emitting diodes (OLED) based on anthracene derivatives (ADN) doped with distryrylarylene derivatives (BCzVB and DSA-ph) were presented. The device of ADN doped with BCzVb shows high color purity (x=0.146, y=0.162) with maximum luminance 11600 cd/m2 (15V), current efficiency 2.8 cd/A, while the device of ADN doped with DSA-ph exhibits a sky blue with as high as efficiency 8.29 cd/A, both have a flat efficiency vs current density responses. A typical blue device of ADN doped with TBPe is used for comparison, which gives greenish blue and a stronger current-induced flyorescence quenching. Three kinds of White organic light emitting devices (WOLED) with different dopants and doping sites were constructed. The cell with a single-doped red dye in the light emitting layer (EML)(single-doped) and the cell with both red and blue dyes doped in a single EML (double-doped as well as the cell with red and blue dyes doped in EML and a green dye in another layer (triple-doped). The triple-doped cell shows much higher performance than other two cells: maximum luminance 21200cd/m2, 1026 cd/m2 at driving current 20mA/cm2, efficiency 6cd/A and a half lifetime over 22245h were reached. A passive display features 102x64 pixels with pixel size of 0.25x0.25mm2 pixel pitch 0.08mm, luminance 100 cd/m2 at driving duty 1/64, and power consumption of 0.6W was constructed.

  6. Growth of Legionella pneumophila in association with blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Tison, D.L.; Pope, D.H.; Cherry, W.B.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1980-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease bacterium) of serogroup 1 was isolated from an algal-bacterial mat community growing at 45/sup 0/C in a man-made thermal effluent. This isolate was grown in mineral salts medium at 45/sup 0/C in association with the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Fischerella sp. over a pH range of 6.9 to 7.6. L. pneumophila was apparently using algal extracellular products as its carbon and energy sources. These observations indicate that the temperature, pH, and nutritional requirements of L. pneumophila are not as stringent as those previously observed when cultured on complex media. This association between L. pneumophila and certain blue-green algae suggests an explanation for the apparent widespread distribution of the bacterium in nature.

  7. Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2014-02-15

    Three adsorbents, calcium alginate beads (AB), sodium hydroxide activated carbon based coconut shells (C), and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (ACB) were prepared. Their textural properties were characterized by N2-adsorption at -196°C and scanning electron microscopy. The porosity, surface area and total pore volume of C>ACB>AB, but AB adsorbent was more acidic function groups more than the other adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of methylene blue. Methylene blue adsorption on C, AB and ACB was observed at pH>6 to avoid the competition of H(+). The amount of dye adsorbed increases as the adsorbent dosage increase. Adsorption of dye follows pseudo-second order mechanism. Thermodynamic studies show spontaneous and endothermic nature of the overall adsorption process.

  8. Removal of Methylene Blue and Orange-G from Waste Water Using Magnetic Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, N. M.; Fo, Y. T.; Al-Salim, Hikmat Said; Sahu, J. N.; Abdullah, E. C.; Nizamuddin, S.; Jayakumar, N. S.; Ganesan, P.

    2015-04-01

    The study on the removal of methylene blue (MB) and orange-G dyes using magnetic biochar derived from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was carried out. Process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, agitation speed and contact time were optimized using Design-Expert Software v.6.0.8. The statistical analysis reveals that the optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption of MB are at pH 2 and pH 10, dosage 1.0 g, and agitation speed and contact time of 125 rpm and 120 min respectively. While for orange-G, at pH 2, dosage 1.0 g, and agitation speed and contact time of 125 rpm and 120 min respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of 31.25 mg/g and 32.36 mg/g for MB and orange-G respectively. The adsorption kinetic for both dyes obeyed pseudo-second order.

  9. Reuse of waste beer yeast sludge for biosorptive decolorization of reactive blue 49 from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoe; Guo, Xiu

    2011-06-01

    Reactive blue 49 was removed from aqueous solution by biosorption using powder waste sludge composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the beer-brewing industry. The effect of initial pH, temperature and the biosorption thermodynamics, equilibrium, kinetics was investigated in this study. It was found that the biosorption capacity was at maximum at initial pH 3, that the effect of temperature on biosorption of reactive blue 49 was only slight in relation to the large biosorption capacity (25°C, 361 mg g(-1)) according as the biosorption capacity decreased only 43 mg g(-1) at the temperature increased from 25 to 50°C. The biosorption was spontaneous, exothermic in nature and the dye molecules movements decreased slightly in random at the solid/liquid interface during the biosorption of dye on biosorbents. The biosorption equilibrium data could be described by Freundich isotherm model. The biosorption rates were found to be consistent with a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The functional group interaction analysis between waste beer yeast sludge and reactive blue 49 by the aid of Fourier transform infrared (abbr. FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that amino components involved in protein participated in the biosorption process, which may be achieved by the mutual electrostatic adsorption process between the positively charged amino groups in waste beer yeast sludge with negatively charged sulfonic groups in reactive blue 49.

  10. Photo-degradation of methylene blue using Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Jizhou; Li Aidong; Li Xiangyu; Zhai Haifa; Zhang Wenqi; Gong Youpin; Li Hui; Wu Di

    2010-06-15

    A photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The structural, morphological properties and photocatalytic activity of 1 mol % Ta-doped ZnO samples annealed at different temperatures were characterized. The photo-oxidation of methylene blue under the visible-light irradiation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. It is found that the photocatalysis of 1% Ta-doped ZnO annealed at 700 {sup o}C showed excellent performance of the photodegradation of methylene blue, which was attributed to a competitive trade-off among the crystallinity, surface hydroxyl groups, and specific surface area. The processing parameter such as the pH value also played an important role in tuning the photocatalytic activity. The maximum photodecomposed rate was achieved at pH=8, and an novel model about the absorption of methylene blue on the surface of the catalysts was proposed. - Graphical abstract: This model describes the adsorption between the amphoteric behavior of the metal oxide and the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) on the surface of the catalyst at the acidic and alkaline condition.

  11. Design and characterization of a plastic optical fiber pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Licínio; Simões, Pedro; Carvalho, Rui S.; Lopes, Paulo; Ferreira, Mário

    2013-11-01

    In this paper are present the design and characterization of a pH sensor using plastic optical fiber (POF) technology and a material produced by the sol-gel process with TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) to immobilize universal indicator of pH (comprised of Thymol Blue, Methyl Red, Bromothymol Blue and Phenolphthalein) inside the silica matrix. This matrix is positioned between two extensions of plastic optical fiber tightly positioned at each side with both fibers aligned and sharing a common optical axis. This set will work as a pH sensor since the matrix embedded with indicator and in the presence of a solution (basic or acid solution) will change the optical transmittance properties. The optical source is a superluminescent white LED and the receiver is a photodiode having a good and linear responsivity in the visible spectrum. This pH sensitive matrix has large pores which allow the diffusion of the surrounding fluid molecules into the matrix and thus the close contact of these to the indicator molecules. This contact causes the change of color of the whole matrix allowing proper colorimetric detection by the photodiode. This variation of color associated with the detector wavelength linear response is the base of operation of the proposed device. This pH sensor presents many advantages over the standard and commercial pH meters namely, lightweight, portability and a low cost.

  12. Simulation of dye adsorption by beech sawdust as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Batzias, F A; Sidiras, D K

    2007-03-22

    The effect of pH on the batch kinetics of methylene blue adsorption on beech sawdust was simulated, in order to evaluate sawdust potential use as low cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The zero point of charge pH(pzc) of the sawdust, in order to explain the effect of pH in terms of pH(pzc), was measured by the mass titration and the automatic titration methods. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, indicate that increase of the pH enhances the adsorption behaviour of the examined material. The lower adsorption of methylene blue at acidic pH is due to the presence of excess H(+) ions that compete with the dye cation for adsorption sites. As the pH of the system increases, the number of positively charged sites decreases while the number of the negatively charged sites increases. The negatively charged sites favour the adsorption of dye cation due to electrostatic attraction. The increase in initial pH from 8.0 to 11.5 increases the amount of dye adsorbed. PMID:16934396

  13. Anguilla: tranquility wrapped in blue.

    PubMed

    Langmaid, P

    Anguilla is the most northerly of the Leeward Islands, situated at 63.05 W, 18.12 N for those of my colleagues still able to afford a boat with transatlantic capability after the new contract, and wishing to visit. Sixteen miles long and three and a half miles wide at its widest point, Anguilla is an independent British Crown Colony, and home to around 7000 citizens, mainly of African descent and some of Irish descent. It is an uncrowded, easy-to-explore island with a spinal road running the length of the island, and 'natural' roads leading to the beaches and some villages. There are 12 miles of beaches where white sand (VMK A1) meets crystal clear, turquoise blue water, at a comfortable 75 degrees F. Is this the answer to 'Ski with occlusion', the ultimate postgraduate course venue? Probably, until another dentist from deep in the Pacific writes in to the Journal with a view from his/her surgery.

  14. Blue protein with red fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Swagatha; Yu, Chi-Li; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Sudha, Sai; Pal, Samir Kumar; Schaefer, Wayne F.; Gibson, David T.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The walleye (Sander vitreus) is a golden yellow fish that inhabits the Northern American lakes. The recent sightings of the blue walleye and the correlation of its sighting to possible increased UV radiation have been proposed earlier. The underlying molecular basis of its adaptation to increased UV radiation is the presence of a protein (Sandercyanin)–ligand complex in the mucus of walleyes. Degradation of heme by UV radiation results in the formation of Biliverdin IXα (BLA), the chromophore bound to Sandercyanin. We show that Sandercyanin is a monomeric protein that forms stable homotetramers on addition of BLA to the protein. A structure of the Sandercyanin–BLA complex, purified from the fish mucus, reveals a glycosylated protein with a lipocalin fold. This protein–ligand complex absorbs light in the UV region (λmax of 375 nm) and upon excitation at this wavelength emits in the red region (λmax of 675 nm). Unlike all other known biliverdin-bound fluorescent proteins, the chromophore is noncovalently bound to the protein. We provide here a molecular rationale for the observed spectral properties of Sandercyanin. PMID:27688756

  15. [Biodegradation of reactive turquoise blue].

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Wen, X; Xu, L; Qian, Y

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the anaerobic degradation and the aerobic degradation of a kind of reactive dye--Reactive Turquoise Blue(RTB) were compared. The results proved that anaerobic sludge could only decompose RTB in the presence of glucose while aerobic sludge decomposed RTB with or without the presence of glucose (RTB of 20 mg/L was reduced by 37.4% through 24 hours' aerobic treatment with RTB as sole carbon source). The enhancement of glucose concentration was beneficial for both anaerobic and aerobic degradation of RTB: the anaerobic and the aerobic removal efficiencies were respectively 81.5% and 73.6% with RTB of 20 mg/L and glucose of 1200 mg/L. In the influent RTB concentration also had influence on the activity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. When glucose concentration was 800 mg/L or 1200 mg/L and RTB concentration was 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L, anaerobic removal efficiency of RTB was higher than aerobic removal efficiency by 4.9%-27.2%, which meant that anaerobic bacteria is more powerful than aerobic bacteria in terms of RTB removal.

  16. X-ray Photochemistry of Prussian Blue Cellulosic Materials: Evidence for a Substrate-Mediated Redox Process.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Claire; Languille, Marie-Angélique; Moretti, Giulia; Réguer, Solenn

    2015-07-28

    Beside its promising applications in the design of multifunctional materials, batteries and biosensors, the pigment Prussian blue is still studied in heritage science because of its capricious fading behavior due to a complex light-induced redox mechanism. We studied model heritage materials composed of Prussian blue embedded into a cellulosic fiber substrate by means of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Significant X-ray radiation damage was observed and characterized. X-ray radiation induced first a reduction of Prussian blue, in a similar way to what visible light does, followed by a complete degradation of the pigment and the formation of iron(III) oxyhydroxide. We took advantage of this X-ray photochemistry to investigate in depth the redox behavior of Prussian blue. We could particularly demonstrate that the rate, extent, and quality of Prussian blue photoreduction can be tuned by modifying the pH and alkali cation content of the cellulosic substrate. The present study represents a step further in the understanding of Prussian blue heritage materials from an electrochemical viewpoint and provides evidence of substrate-mediated photochemistry applicable to a wider class of Prussian blue composite materials.

  17. Decolorization and biodegradation of textile dye Navy blue HER by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326.

    PubMed

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2009-07-30

    Navy blue HER was decolorized and degraded within 24h by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326 under static condition. In the present study, we investigated various physicochemical parameters such as agitation, temperature, pH, cell concentration, initial dye concentration and different carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve maximum dye degradation by T. beigelii. Sequentially, decolorization and decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of Navy blue HER by T. beigelii were measured. Among five strains T. beigelii gave the better performance on the decolorization of Navy blue HER along with a 95% TOC reduction within 24h. A significant increase in the activities of NADH-DCIP (dichlorophenolindophenol) reductase and azoreductase in the cells obtained after complete decolorization presumably indicates involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process. UV-vis, TLC, HPLC and FTIR analysis of extracted products confirmed the biodegradation of Navy blue HER. Phytotoxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegraded products with respect to plants viz. Phaseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare. In addition to Navy blue HER, this strain also shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes, including Red HE7B, Golden yellow 4BD, Green HE4BD, Orange HE2R, Malachite green, Crystal violet and Methyl violet.

  18. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Stirpe, G. M.; Dultzin, D.; Del Olmo, A.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    [OIII]λ 5007 "blue outliers"—that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars—appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40~% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate z sample of 52 sources qualify as "blue outliers" (i.e., quasars with [OIII]λλ 4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of "blue outliers" to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  19. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  20. A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Cho, Thomas N; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Wang, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer.

  1. A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Cho, Thomas N; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Wang, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer. PMID:26838451

  2. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  3. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  4. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2016-07-12

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  5. Blue Ribbon Panel Report Cover Letter

    Cancer.gov

    The letter from NCI Acting Director Douglas R. Lowy, M.D., to Vice President Biden that accompanied the Blue Ribbon Panel final report, thanking the Vice President for his commitment to and leadership of the Cancer Moonshot.

  6. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Cancer.gov

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot

    Cancer.gov

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  8. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  9. Blue Origin Tests BE-3 Engine

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin successfully fires the thrust chamber assembly for its new 100,000 pound thrust BE-3 liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen rocket engine. As part of the company's Reusable Booster System (RBS)...

  10. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

    2003-09-01

    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

  11. Studies on plasma processing of blue dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, S. K.; P, Sindhoora L.; Mishra, S. C.; Mishra, B.

    2015-02-01

    Plasma smelting was carried out using blue dust and petroleum coke mixtures for five different compositions. By altering percentage of reductant and type of plasma forming gas, recovery rate and degree of metallization were calculated in order to examine the extent of reduction of blue dust. The products were characterized by XRD and optical microscopy techniques. The results of these investigations exhibited that highest degree of metallization and recovery rate of about 98% and 86% respectively, were achieved for nitrogen plasma smelted products.

  12. Blue-white screening liquid can eliminate false positives in blue-white colony screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y S

    2016-06-10

    Although blue-white screening based on α-complementation has been widely used in the screening of genetically modified bacteria, only a single blue-white screening is typically not enough to eliminate false positives. Sometimes, a secondary blue-white screening for the target colonies is required. In this study, two methods were used to investigate the feasibility of secondary blue-white screening for target colonies on lysogeny broth (LB)-ampicillin agar plates. The first method consisted of covering the target colonies grown on LB-ampicillin plate medium with a sterilized filter paper soaked in a solution of 60 μL 20 mg/mL X-gal and 8 μL 20% IPTG. The second method was that blue and white colonies were randomly selected from the blue-white screening plate medium and then re-streaked onto the blue-white screening medium. The colonies were then treated by two methods and incubated at 37°C for 12 h. The results showed that some of the white colonies treated by the two methods showed results similar to the colonies grown on the blue-white screening medium. These results indicate that the target colonies grown on blue-white screening medium can still be used to carry out a secondary blue-white screening. Thus, a blue-white screening liquid was successfully developed. Using the blue-white screening liquid, false positives can be eliminated directly based on the color of the target colonies. This will greatly improve the screening efficiency of positive clones and has important practical implications.

  13. Blue-white screening liquid can eliminate false positives in blue-white colony screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Although blue-white screening based on α-complementation has been widely used in the screening of genetically modified bacteria, only a single blue-white screening is typically not enough to eliminate false positives. Sometimes, a secondary blue-white screening for the target colonies is required. In this study, two methods were used to investigate the feasibility of secondary blue-white screening for target colonies on lysogeny broth (LB)-ampicillin agar plates. The first method consisted of covering the target colonies grown on LB-ampicillin plate medium with a sterilized filter paper soaked in a solution of 60 μL 20 mg/mL X-gal and 8 μL 20% IPTG. The second method was that blue and white colonies were randomly selected from the blue-white screening plate medium and then re-streaked onto the blue-white screening medium. The colonies were then treated by two methods and incubated at 37°C for 12 h. The results showed that some of the white colonies treated by the two methods showed results similar to the colonies grown on the blue-white screening medium. These results indicate that the target colonies grown on blue-white screening medium can still be used to carry out a secondary blue-white screening. Thus, a blue-white screening liquid was successfully developed. Using the blue-white screening liquid, false positives can be eliminated directly based on the color of the target colonies. This will greatly improve the screening efficiency of positive clones and has important practical implications. PMID:27323169

  14. Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, José A.; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; Bukusoglu, Emre; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Blue phases of liquid crystals represent unique ordered states of matter in which arrays of defects are organized into striking patterns. Most studies of blue phases to date have focused on bulk properties. In this work, we present a systematic study of blue phases confined into spherical droplets. It is found that, in addition to the so-called blue phases I and II, several new morphologies arise under confinement, with a complexity that increases with the chirality of the medium and with a nature that can be altered by surface anchoring. Through a combination of simulations and experiments, it is also found that one can control the wavelength at which blue-phase droplets absorb light by manipulating either their size or the strength of the anchoring, thereby providing a liquid–state analog of nanoparticles, where dimensions are used to control absorbance or emission. The results presented in this work also suggest that there are conditions where confinement increases the range of stability of blue phases, thereby providing intriguing prospects for applications. PMID:26460039

  15. Vibrio azureus emits blue-shifted light via an accessory blue fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Karatani, Hajime; Wada, Minoru; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Luminous marine bacteria usually emit bluish-green light with a peak emission wavelength (λ(max) ) at about 490 nm. Some species belonging to the genus Photobacterium are exceptions, producing an accessory blue fluorescent protein (lumazine protein: LumP) that causes a blue shift, from λ(max)  ≈ 490 to λ(max)  ≈ 476 nm. However, the incidence of blue-shifted light emission or the presence of accessory fluorescent proteins in bacteria of the genus Vibrio has never been reported. From our spectral analysis of light emitted by 16 luminous strains of the genus Vibrio, it was revealed that most strains of Vibrio azureus emit a blue-shifted light with a peak at approximately 472 nm, whereas other Vibrio strains emit light with a peak at around 482 nm. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this blue shift in V. azureus NBRC 104587(T) . Here, we describe the blue-shifted light emission spectra and the isolation of a blue fluorescent protein. Intracellular protein analyses showed that this strain had a blue fluorescent protein (that we termed VA-BFP), the fluorescent spectrum of which was almost identical to that of the in vivo light emission spectrum of the strain. This result strongly suggested that VA-BFP was responsible for the blue-shifted light emission of V. azureus.

  16. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  17. Quantitative determination of cesium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Patrick J; Yang, Yongsheng; Progar, Joseph J; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Leutzinger, Eldon; Place, David A; Duffy, Eric P; Houn, Florence; Loewke, Sally A; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Ellison, Christopher D; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Lyon, Robbe C

    2008-05-12

    Ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe4III[FeII(CN)6]3), also known as insoluble Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of the drug product, Radiogardase. Radiogardase is the first FDA approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of internal contamination with radioactive cesium (Cs) or thallium in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb". A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have evaluated the use of PB as an investigational decorporation agent to enhance the excretion of metal cations. There are few sources of published in vitro data that detail the binding capacity of cesium to insoluble PB under various chemical and physical conditions. The study objective was to determine the in vitro binding capacity of PB APIs and drug products by evaluating certain chemical and physical factors such as medium pH, particle size, and storage conditions (temperature). In vitro experimental conditions ranged from pH 1 to 9, to cover the range of pH levels that PB may encounter in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. Measurements of cesium binding were made between 1 and 24h, to cover gastric and intestinal tract residence time using a validated atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) method. The results indicated that pH, exposure time, storage temperature (affecting moisture content) and particle size play significant roles in the cesium binding to both the PB API and the drug product. The lowest cesium binding was observed at gastric pH of 1 and 2, whereas the highest cesium binding was observed at physiological pH of 7.5. It was observed that dry storage conditions resulted in a loss of moisture from PB, which had a significant negative effect on the PB cesium binding capacity at time intervals consistent with gastric residence. Differences were also observed in the binding capacity of PB with different particle sizes. Significant batch to batch differences were also observed in the binding capacity of some PB API and

  18. Quantitative determination of cesium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Patrick J; Yang, Yongsheng; Progar, Joseph J; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Leutzinger, Eldon; Place, David A; Duffy, Eric P; Houn, Florence; Loewke, Sally A; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Ellison, Christopher D; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Lyon, Robbe C

    2008-05-12

    Ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe4III[FeII(CN)6]3), also known as insoluble Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of the drug product, Radiogardase. Radiogardase is the first FDA approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of internal contamination with radioactive cesium (Cs) or thallium in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb". A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have evaluated the use of PB as an investigational decorporation agent to enhance the excretion of metal cations. There are few sources of published in vitro data that detail the binding capacity of cesium to insoluble PB under various chemical and physical conditions. The study objective was to determine the in vitro binding capacity of PB APIs and drug products by evaluating certain chemical and physical factors such as medium pH, particle size, and storage conditions (temperature). In vitro experimental conditions ranged from pH 1 to 9, to cover the range of pH levels that PB may encounter in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. Measurements of cesium binding were made between 1 and 24h, to cover gastric and intestinal tract residence time using a validated atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) method. The results indicated that pH, exposure time, storage temperature (affecting moisture content) and particle size play significant roles in the cesium binding to both the PB API and the drug product. The lowest cesium binding was observed at gastric pH of 1 and 2, whereas the highest cesium binding was observed at physiological pH of 7.5. It was observed that dry storage conditions resulted in a loss of moisture from PB, which had a significant negative effect on the PB cesium binding capacity at time intervals consistent with gastric residence. Differences were also observed in the binding capacity of PB with different particle sizes. Significant batch to batch differences were also observed in the binding capacity of some PB API and

  19. [pH sensors based on rubbery ormosils preparation and their spectrum studies].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Dai, Yuan-jing; Li, Wei; Zhuang, Zhi-xia; Wang, Xiao-ru

    2002-02-01

    A new type of methyl substituted ormosils as a matrix for bromophenol blue (BPhB) and bromocresol green (BCG) is described. The new ormosils combine features of classical TEOS sol-gel material such as solvability in organic solvent and those of sol-gel glasses such as transparent and a porous structure, the ormosils also make a good mechanical stability. The influence of the conditions during the polymerisation process on the photochemical properties of BPhB and BCG has been studied. This sol-gel material was wed to immobilize pH-sensitive absorption dyes, bromothymol blue and bromocresol green, to prepare pH sensing films. The several aspects of the sensing films, including the leaching of the dye from gel, response time to different pH buffer solution, absorption spectra and the improvement of the immobilization of the dyes to filmo, were also discussed.

  20. In Situ Spectrophotometric Determination of pH under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Method Development and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Qafoku, Odeta; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-02-25

    Injecting massive amounts of CO2 into deep geologic formations will cause a range of coupled thermal, hydrodynamic, mechanical, and chemical changes. A significant perturbation in water-saturated formations is the pH drop in the reservoir fluids due to CO2 dissolution. Knowing the pH under geological CO2 sequestration conditions is important for a better understanding of the short- and long-term risks associated with geological CO2 sequestration and will help in the design of sustainable sequestration projects. Most previous studies on CO2-rock-brine interactions have utilized thermodynamic modeling to estimate the pH. In this work, a spectrophotometric method was developed to determine the in-situ pH in CO2-H2O-NaCl systems in the presence and absence of reservoir rock by observing the spectra of a pH indicator, bromophenol blue, with a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Effects of temperature, pressure, and ionic strength on the pH measurement were evaluated. Measured pH values in CO2-H2O-NaCl systems were compared with several thermodynamic models. Results indicate that bromophenol blue can be used to accurately determine the pH of brine in contact with supercritical CO2 under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions.

  1. Separation and Preconcentration of Sudan Blue II Using Membrane Filtration and UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Determination in River Water and Industrial Wastewater Samples.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Yunus Emre; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A new separation and preconcentration method based on adsorption on a cellulose acetate membrane filter and elution with ethanol was established for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric determination of Sudan blue II. Various analytical parameters such as pH of working media, flow rates of solutions, and sample volumes were optimized. Matrix effects of concomitants were investigated for the quantitative recovery values of Sudan blue II. The preconcentration factor was 200. LOD was calculated as 0.96 μg/L. RSD was 5.1%. The optimized procedure was applied to the spectrophotometric determination of Sudan blue II in river and industrial wastewater samples from oil and dye products.

  2. Sustained effects of blue light on Streptococcus mutans in regrown biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Berneron, Julie; Steinberg, Doron; Featherstone, John D B; Feuerstein, Osnat

    2016-04-01

    In prior studies, exposure of Streptococcus mutans in biofilm to blue light using high fluences of up to 680 J/cm(2) did not interfere with bacterial capability to reform an initial biofilm; however, a delayed antibacterial effect was observed. Our aim was to determine the sustained effecttts of blue light-emitting diode (LED) curing light on the pathogenicity of the newly formed biofilm. S. mutans were grown to form biofilm that was exposed to blue light (wavelengths, 460-480 nm) for 1, 3, and 7 min (equivalent to 37, 112, and 262 J/cm(2), respectively). Then, bacteria were suspended and allowed to regrow into new biofilms. The regrown biofilms were assessed for bacterial quantification by optical density (OD) measurement and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), bacterial viability and extracellular polysaccharide production by fluorescent staining using confocal scanning laser microscopy, acid production by bacteria (acidogenicity), and bacterial survival at low pH (aciduricity) using qPCR. Bacterial growth in the regrown biofilms was increased when samples were previously exposed to light; however, under the confocal microscopy, a higher proportion of dead bacteria and a reduction in polysaccharide production were observed. The acidogenicity from the regrown biofilm was lowered as fluences of light increased. The aciduricity of the regrown biofilm was decreased, meaning less growth of bacteria into biofilm in low pH with increasing fluences. Blue light has sustained effects on S. mutans bacteria grown into new biofilm. Although bacterial growth in biofilm increased, bacterial viability and virulence characteristics were impaired. The cariogenic potential over time of S. mutans previously exposed to blue light when grown on tooth surfaces is yet to be determined.

  3. Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel.

    PubMed

    Nemr, Ahmed El; Abdelwahab, Ola; El-Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2009-01-15

    The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as approximately 2.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 30min after the beginning for every experiment. The adsorption of direct blue-86 followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit well Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations better than Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The maximum removal of direct blue-86 was obtained at pH 2 as 92% for adsorbent dose of 6gL(-1) and 100mgL(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 33.78mgg(-1). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of DB-86 was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2>0.99) with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from orange peel can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of DB-86.

  4. Studying Mixing in Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions Using Color Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballescá-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. Methodology and Findings We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA) in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter) and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. Conclusion and Relevance Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general) in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB) can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions. PMID:25401332

  5. Colour and stability assessment of blue ferric anthocyanin chelates in liquid pectin-stabilised model systems.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, M; Brauch, J; Carle, R; Kammerer, D R

    2013-06-01

    The formation of blue coloured ferric anthocyanin chelates and their colour stability during storage and thermal treatment were monitored in a pH range relevant to food (3.6-5.0). Liquid model systems were composed of different types of Citrus pectins, juices (J) and the respective phenolic extracts (E) from elderberry (EB), black currant (BC), red cabbage (RC) and purple carrot (PC) in the presence of ferric ions. For EB, BC and PC, pure blue colours devoid of a violet tint were exclusively observed for the phenolic extracts and at pH values ≥ 4.5 in model systems containing high methoxylated and amidated pectins, respectively. Colour and its stability strongly depended on the amount of ferric ions and the plant source; however, colour decay could generally be described as a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Despite optimal colour hues for RC-E and RC-J, storage and heat stabilities were poor. Highest colour intensities and best stabilities were observed for model systems containing PC-E at a molar anthocyanin:ferric ion ratio of 1:2. Ascorbic and lactic acids interfered with ferric ions, thus significantly affecting blue colour evolution and stability. Colour loss strongly depended on heat exposure with activation energies ranging between 60.5 and 78.4 kJ/mol. The comprehensive evaluation of the interrelationship of pigment source, pH conditions and pectin type on chelate formation and stability demonstrated that ferric anthocyanin chelates are promising natural blue food colourants.

  6. 2D ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor for tracking of cells proliferation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Ding, Changqin; Zhou, Jie; Tian, Yang

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular pH plays a vital role no matter in physiological or pathological studies. In this work, a hydrogel, CD@Nile-FITC@Gel (Gel sensor), entrapping the ratiometric fluorescent probe CD@Nile-FITC was developed. The Gel sensor was successfully used for real-time extracellular pH monitoring. In the case of CD@Nile-FITC, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was chosen as the response signal for H(+) and Nile blue chloride (Nile) as the reference signal. The developed fluorescent probe exhibited high selectivity for pH over other metal ions and amino acids. Meanwhile, the carbon-dots-based inorganic-organic probe demonstrated excellent photostability against long-term light illumination. In order to study the extracellular pH change in processes of cell proliferation and metabolism, CD@Nile-FITC probe was entrapped in sodium alginate gel and consequently formed CD@Nile-FITC@Gel. The MTT assay showed low cytotoxicity of the Gel and the pH titration indicated that it could monitor the pH fluctuations linearly and rapidly within the pH range of 6.0-9.0, which is valuable for physiological pH determination. As expected, the real-time bioimaging of the probe was successfully achieved.

  7. Desorption and photodegradation of methylene blue from modified sugarcane bagasse surface by acid TiO2 hydrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Chi, Ru-An; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Xiao, Chun-Qiao

    2012-02-01

    Waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacity for cationic dyes. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of the modified SCB for methylene blue was 564 mg g-1, which was about 12 times than that obtained on the unmodified SCB. Methylene blue loaded modified SCB was regenerated by a self-clean eluent: TiO2 hydrosol with pH ranged from 1 to 4, and HNO3 solution with the same pH range was tested at the same time for comparison. Results showed that desorption kinetics of methylene blue in the hydrosol systems fit two-step kinetic model and controlled mainly by the slow step. As a self-clean eluent, acid hydrosol could firstly desorb and then photodegrade methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. After five desorption-photodegradation cycles, 78.3% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed by using hydrosol (pH 2) as eluent. The hydrosol could be continuously used in desorption and photodegradation process, which would economize large volume of the eluent and moreover it would not bring secondary pollution.

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue onto sonicated sepiolite from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Küncek, Ilknur; Sener, Savaş

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to enhance the methylene blue (MB) adsorption of sepiolite by ultrasonic treatment. The natural sepiolite was pretreated by sonication to improve the surface characteristics and enhance the dye uptake capacity. Sonication process resulted in a significant increase in the specific surface area (SSA) of sepiolite. The FTIR spectrum of the sonicated sepiolite indicates that the tetrahedral sheet is probably distorted after sonication process. The effect of various parameters such as sonication, pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on dye adsorption has been investigated. The adsorbed amount of MB on sepiolite increased after sonication as well as with increasing pH and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by applying the pseudo-first- and second-order, and the intraparticle diffusion adsorption kinetic models. Adsorption process of MB onto sepiolite followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and found that the isotherm data were reasonably well correlated by Langmuir isotherm. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of sepiolite for MB increased from 79.37 to 128.21 mg/g after the sonication. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as Delta G(0), Delta H(0) and DeltaS(0) were calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/sepiolite system indicated spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. Adsorption measurements showed that the process was very fast and physical in nature.

  9. [Adsorption of methylene blue onto vanadium-doped magnetite].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Jian-Xi; He, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Peng

    2010-06-01

    A series of vanadium-doped magnetite (Fe3-x VxO4, x < 0.4) synthesized by an oxidation-precipitation method, were characterized using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The obtained results show that the synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 has spinel structure while vanadium mostly replaces Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. The synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 is magnetic material, with crystal size ranging from 28 to 35 nm. The substitution of vanadium in the magnetite structure increases the amount of surface hydroxyls. The experimental adsorption results indicate that, in neutral pH condition, the maximum adsorption capacities of Fe3-x VxO4 increase obviously with the increase of vanadium concentration in magnetite while the adsorption isotherm complies well with the Langmuir model. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on Fe3-x VxO4 can get equilibrium in the first 25 min, supporting a pseudo-second order equation. Moreover, the rise of the solution pH value results in an increase of the adsorption capability of MB on Fe3-x VxO4.

  10. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Mostafa Mahmoud Sami; El-Ayouty, Yassin Mahmoud; Piercey-Normore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4mg/g DW, respectively) was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW) was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis. PMID:26991300

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  12. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  13. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  14. Phenylcarbazole and phosphine oxide/sulfide hybrids as host materials for blue phosphors: effectively tuning the charge injection property without influencing the triplet energy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Liao, Yi; Wu, Shui-Xing; Li, Hai-Bin; Su, Zhong-Min

    2012-02-01

    Compared with red and green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), efficient blue PHOLEDs are still scarce, because it is difficult for the host materials for blue phosphors to achieve a trade-off between a wide triplet energy and good charge injection properties. We theoretically studied a series of hybrid phosphine oxide/sulfide-phenylcarbazole host molecules (PO(S)PhCBZs) for blue phosphors through different linkage modes between phenylcarbazole (PhCBZ) and phosphine oxide/sulfide (PO/PS) moieties. The results indicate that the singlet excitons of all PO(S)-PhCBZs are delocalized over the entire molecule with intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character and different linkage modes cause various degrees of ICT, which determines the injection abilities of carriers from neighboring layers following the order: PO-Phs (PO linked to the phenyl of PhCBZ) > para-POs (PO linked to the para-positions of PhCBZ) > meta-POs (PO linked to the meta-positions of PhCBZ). By contrast, the triplet excitons are confined to the carbazole unit for all PO(S)-PhCBZs. High triplet energies (E(T)) are therefore kept up for all systems, except for para-POs showing a slight drop in E(T) due to the delocalization of their triplet excitons to the phenyl moiety of PhCBZ. All hybrid PO(S)-PhCBZs, especially PO(s)-Phs, exhibit an enhancement in electron injection and triplet energy compared with the most widely used host material (N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene) for blue PHOLEDs, and thereby have great potential for application in highly efficient light emitting diodes. PMID:22193557

  15. Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes.

  16. Nile blue and brilliant cresyl blue as redox indicators in iron(II) titrations.

    PubMed

    Sriramam, K

    1975-01-01

    Nile Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue, two compounds related to diaminophenoxazine, have been studied as indicators in titrations of iron(II) with cerium(IV)(in hydrochloric, sulphuric and perchloric acid media), dichromate, vanadate and permanganate. They are particularly suited for titrations in a fairly concentrated sulphuric acid medium and for titrations with dilute solutions. A probable indicator mechanism is suggested.

  17. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  18. Group 2 PH: Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, Marco; Labate, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to left heart disease, classified as Group 2, is a widely underestimated target of therapy. Prevention and treatment of initial subclinical stages are not valued as a priority in the management of this chronic disease population, whereas attention is high for PH consequences in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) requiring a left ventricular mechanical assist device or heart transplant candidates. Even so, there is a growing interest toward the evidence of a clinical and prognostic role of PH in the elderly populations and in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Certainly, along with a prevalence definition not yet defined, the search for effective pharmacological approaches that might favorably affect the aging process and the natural history of HFpEF from earlier stages is not an easy task. Pharmacological studies that have tested some traditional pulmonary arterial hypertension approved drugs (i.e., prostanoids and endothelin-1 receptor blockers) primarily in PH and HF with reduced ejection fraction have not been positive, especially because of concomitant side effects, i.e., systemic hypotension, fluid retention and hepatic toxicity. In recent years, interest has moved toward drugs overexpressing the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway with recent availability of well-tolerated selective pulmonary vasodilators, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and guanylate cyclase stimulators. Single center studies performed with these drugs have shown good tolerability and safety profile providing alternating hemodynamic results mainly because of recruitment of patients at different stages of the pulmonary vascular disease. Nonetheless, the overexpression of NO pathway appears to remain the most solid background for targeting lung microvessel dysfunction and treating RV dysfunction since the earliest stages of the disease. PMID:27389809

  19. Blue cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines--a review.

    PubMed

    Skog, Kerstin

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of compounds formed when protein-rich foods, such as meat or fish, are prepared under normal cooking conditions, such as frying, grilling, or broiling. To evaluate and estimate the risks associated with HCAs contained in the diet, it is important to determine the levels in cooked foods, and the levels of HCAs and metabolites in the body. HCAs are normally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which necessitates a good purification method and a sensitive detection system. The objective of this review was to briefly present the current knowledge on the use of Blue Cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of HCAs.

  20. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon: effect of acidic and alkaline solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Chun, Ji I; Han, Da H; Cho, Hye Y; O, Se J; Kim, Dong S

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using activated carbon (AC) has been investigated. Adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied on the adsorption process. Equilibrium data were mathematically modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different dye concentrations and temperature. Parameters of best-fit model were calculated and discussed. To understand the mechanism of adsorption, kinetic models were employed to follow the adsorption processes; the pseudo-first-order best described the adsorption of MB onto AC. It was found that pH plays a major role in the adsorption process; adsorption capacity was influenced by the physical and surface chemical properties of carbon and the pH of the solution. 99.0% MB removal was achieved at equilibrium.

  1. Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto perlite.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Mehmet; Alkan, Mahir; Türkyilmaz, Aydin; Ozdemir, Yasemin

    2004-06-18

    The kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue adsorption on perlite have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as initial dye concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption rate were investigated. Adsorption measurements show that the process is very fast and physical in nature. The extent of the dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of the dye and the initial pH and temperature of solution. Adsorption data were modelled using the first and second-order kinetic equations, mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion models. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The diffusion coefficient, D, was found to increase when the initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were raised. Thermodynamic activation parameters, such as DeltaG*, DeltaS* and DeltaH*, were calculated.

  2. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  3. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (<1 Hz) to relatively high frequencies (∼kHz) and are also low-cost, lightweight, and easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications. PMID:27408982

  4. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (<1 Hz) to relatively high frequencies (∼kHz) and are also low-cost, lightweight, and easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  5. Room-Temperature Liquid Crystal Blue Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taushanoff, Stefanie; van Le, Khoa; Twieg, Robert; Jakli, Antal

    2009-03-01

    The ``blue phases'' of a highly chiral liquid crystal are defect-studded structures of double-twist cylinders that are laced together. The three phases, BPI*, BPII* and BPIII* differ only in the packing of the double-twist cylinders. Until recently, blue phases were of limited practical use because they appeared for only a very narrow temperature range. Mixtures that show BPI* and BPII* phases for wide temperature ranges at or around room temperature are now available [1]. Relatively wide temperature BPIII (the blue fog) phase so far was available only at very high temperatures [2]. Here we present mixtures with room-temperature wide range BPIII* phase and compare the ability of chiral dopants to form the different blue phases in a base nematic mixture. PDLC films cast with blue-phase material are also examined.[3pt] [1] H. Coles and M. Pivnenko, Nature 2005 436-18 997-1000 [0pt] [2] C. V. Yelamaggad, I. S. Shashikala, G. Liao, D.S. Shankar Rao, S. K. Prasad , Q. Li A. Jakli, Chem. Mater Comm, 2006, 18, 6100-6102

  6. Leader streamers nature of blue jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2007-06-01

    A new model of blue jets as a lightning-related phenomenon is proposed. A blue jet consists of the bi-leader, whose top part is seen on photos as a “trunk of a tree”, and is capped at the topside of the leader by its streamer zone. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of “the tree”. It is shown that the time independent fractal blue jet model does not provide an adequate description of blue jets and streamer zone of a leader. It ignores an important fact of the fast loss of the streamer channel conductivity due to the electron attachment to the oxygen. The top streamer branches were born mostly prior to the bottom branches not as result of branching, but formed by the leader tip. It was shown that due to transfer of the high potential of the edge of the thundercloud by the leader, long streamers of blue jets can be sustained by moderate cloud charge. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can reach the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N and in the self-consistent electric field of the streamer zone was computed. It was found that the critical external field ES required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law ES/N⋍const. The similarity law was numerically studied in a wide range of N.

  7. New spiro[benzotetraphene-fluorene] derivatives: synthesis and application in sky-blue fluorescent host materials.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Ryung; Lee, Chil-Won; Gong, Myoung-Seon

    2014-07-01

    Blue light-emitting spiro[benzotetraphene-fluorene] (SBTF)-based host materials, 3-(1-naphthyl)-10-naphthylspiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] (1), 3-(2-naphthyl)-10-naphthylspiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] (2), and 3-[2-(6-phenyl)naphthyl]-10-naphthylspiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] (3) were designed and prepared via multi-step Suzuki coupling reactions. Introducing various aromatic groups into SBTF core lead to a reduction in band gap and a determination of the color purity and luminescence efficiency. Typical sky-blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with the configuration of ITO/N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-bis[(4-diphenylamino)phenyl]-biphenyl-4,4'-diamie (60 nm)/N,N,N',N'-tetra(1-biphenyl)-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (30 nm)/host: dopant (30 nm, 5%)/LG201 (electron transporting layer, 20 nm)/LiF/Al were developed using SBTF derivatives as a host material and p-bis(p-N,N-diphenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (DSA-Ph) as a sky-blue dopant material. A device obtained from three materials doped with DSA-Ph showed color purity of 0.148 and 0.239, a luminance efficiency of 7.91 cd/A, and an external quantum efficiency >4.75% at 5 V. PMID:24859632

  8. Photooxidative Death in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, A.; Shilo, M.

    1972-01-01

    When incubated in the light under 100% oxygen, wild-type blue-green algae (Anacystis nidulans, Synechococcus cedrorum) die out rapidly at temperatures of 4 to 15 C, and at 35 C (or at 26 C in the case of S. cedrorum) in the absence of CO2. Photosynthesis is impaired in these cells long before they die. Blocking of photosystem II at high temperatures in the presence of CO2 sensitizes the algae to photooxidative death. Photooxidative death and bleaching of photosynthetic pigments are separable phenomena. Photooxidative conditions were demonstrated in Israeli fish ponds using A. nidulans as the test organism during dense summer blooms, when dissolved CO2 is low, and in winter, when water temperatures generally drop below 15 C. This finding suggests that photooxidative death may be responsible for the sudden decomposition of blue-green blooms in summer, and may be a factor in the absence of blue-green blooms in winter. PMID:4626540

  9. Bistable defect structures in blue phase devices.

    PubMed

    Tiribocchi, A; Gonnella, G; Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Salvadore, F

    2011-12-01

    Blue phases are liquid crystals made up by networks of defects, or disclination lines. While existing phase diagrams show a striking variety of competing metastable topologies for these networks, very little is known as to how to kinetically reach a target structure, or how to switch from one to the other, which is of paramount importance for devices. We theoretically identify two confined blue phase I systems in which by applying an appropriate series of electric field it is possible to select one of two bistable defect patterns. Our results may be used to realize new generation and fast switching energy-saving bistable devices in ultrathin surface treated blue phase I wafers. PMID:22182126

  10. Rapid Suppression of Growth by Blue Light

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    1981-01-01

    The inhibition of stem elongation in dark-grown seedlings by blue light was studied with marking techniques and with a high-resolution, growth-measuring apparatus. Blue light rapidly suppresses growth in a variety of cultivated species. In some species, the inhibition persists only during the period of irradiation, after which time growth quickly returns to the high dark rate, whereas, in other species, the light response has an additional long-term component which lasts for at least several hours in the dark. The long-term inhibition may be mediated by phytochrome, whereas the rapid, short-term component is specific to a blue-light receptor. The rapid inhibition of growth in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) requires high-energy blue irradiation, which is perceived directly by the growing region of the hypocotyl and inhibits all regions below the hook to the same extent. Detailed investigation of the kinetics of the inhibition in cucumber and in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) shows that, after a short lag period (20 to 30 seconds in cucumber, 60 to 70 seconds in sunflower), the growth rate declines in an exponential fashion to a lower rate, with a half-time of 15 to 25 seconds in cucumber and 90 to 150 seconds in sunflower. Excision of the hypocotyl greatly reduces the sensitivity of the growth rate to blue-light inhibition. Because of the rapid kinetics, the blue-light photoreceptor cannot affect cell enlargement by altering the supply of growth hormone or the sensitivity to hormones but probably operates more directly either on the biochemical process which loosens cell walls or on cell turgor. PMID:16661718

  11. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  12. Adsorption thermodynamics of Methylene Blue onto bentonite.

    PubMed

    Hong, Song; Wen, Cheng; He, Jing; Gan, Fuxing; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2009-08-15

    The effect of temperature on the equilibrium adsorption of Methylene Blue dye from aqueous solution using bentonite was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using three widely applied isotherms: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson. A non-linear method was used for comparing the best fit of the isotherms. Best fit was found to be Redlich-Peterson isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters, such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees were calculated using adsorption equilibrium constant obtained from the Langmuir isotherm. Results suggested that the Methylene Blue adsorption on bentonite was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  13. Severe anaphylactic shock with methylene blue instillation.

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie; Tréchot, Philippe; Lleu, Jean-Claude; Mertes, Paul Michel

    2005-07-01

    We report a documented severe immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction associated with use of 1% methylene blue for detection of tubal permeability occurring during general anesthesia. Clinical symptoms, biological assessment results, and cutaneous test positivity confirmed an anaphylactic reaction to methylene blue. This case report confirms the need for systematic allergological investigation of all drugs and substances administered during the perioperative period in the event of a hypersensitivity reaction occurring during anesthesia. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the possibility of hypersensitivity reactions involving any drug or substance used during surgery.

  14. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  15. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  16. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values (~ 4 and ~ 11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH ~ 14 and brown at pH ~ 2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms "C", "H" and "Dprot" at pH ~ 14 and Forms "A", "D", and "P" at pH ~ 2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH ~ 2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450 cm- 1, 616 to 632 cm- 1, 1332 to 1343 cm- 1 etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at ~ 1548 cm- 1 in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at ~ 1580 cm- 1. Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH ~ 14. For example, the 423 cm- 1 band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at ~ 447 cm- 1 in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at ~ 850, ~ 1067 and ~ 1214 cm- 1 in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH ~ 2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH ~ 14). The DFT

  17. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values (~4 and ~11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH~14 and brown at pH~2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms "C", "H" and "Dprot" at pH~14 and Forms "A", "D", and "P" at pH~2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH~2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450cm(-1), 616 to 632cm(-1), 1332 to 1343cm(-1) etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at ~1548cm(-1) in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at ~1580cm(-1). Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH~14. For example, the 423cm(-1) band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at ~447cm(-1) in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at ~850, ~1067 and ~1214cm(-1) in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH~2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH~14). The DFT calculations for these

  18. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  19. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

  20. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  1. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  2. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  3. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  4. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 3. Trypan blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-11-01

    Trypan blue is colorant from the 19(th) century that has an association with Africa as a chemotherapeutic agent against protozoan (Trypanosomal) infections, which cause sleeping sickness. The dye still is used for staining biopsies, living cells and organisms, and it also has been used as a colorant for textiles.

  5. Helping Blue-Collar Workers in Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney Hillman Health Center, New York, NY.

    This conference examined both past and potential results of a mental health rehabilitation program serving members of a New York clothing union. This research-demonstration project, which is being conducted by the Sidney Hillman Health Center with union and management cooperation, represents an attempt to keep emotionally disturbed blue collar…

  6. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  7. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  8. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, E.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  9. Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

  10. Miniaturized Blue Laser using Second Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaoka, Yasuo; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Mizuuchi, Kiminori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrate a miniaturized blue laser (5× 12× 1.5 mm3) using second harmonic generation (SHG), which consists of a quasi-phase-matched (QPM)-SHG waveguide device on an x-cut Mg-doped LiNbO3 substrate and a tunable distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode. By using the QPM-SHG waveguide device on an x-cut substrate, efficient optical coupling was realized without a half-wave plate, and the maximum coupling efficiency of 75% was achieved. The blue light power of 2 mW was generated for the fundamental coupling power of 20 mW, which agreed with a conversion efficiency of 10%. The mechanical stability of the planar-type butt-coupled SHG blue laser was examined, where the coupling efficiency was maintained constantly under the change of module temperature and the temperature cycle test from 10 to 60°C. We succeeded in downsizing the SHG blue laser to 0.1 cm3, which is sufficiently small for its application to optical disk systems.

  11. Blue Ridge Technical College Adult Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Caren

    The development and implementation of a tutor training program designed to eliminate adult illiteracy in one area of North Carolina are described in this paper. Various sections of the paper provide information about (1) the history of the program, which was initiated by staff members at the learning center of the Blue Ridge Technical College in…

  12. The Blues/Rock Group Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Blues and rock groups provide vivid topics for research and writing at the secondary level. Instructional suggestions acknowledge the abundance of both fact and flack noting the need for discrimination between the two by both teacher and student in the research and evaluation processes. (JH)

  13. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  14. Kinematics of luminous blue compact galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östlin, Göran; Amram, Philippe; Boulesteix, Jaques; Bergvall, Nils; Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    We present results from a Fabry-Perot study of the Hα velocity fields and morphologies of a sample of luminous blue compact galaxies. We estimate masses from photometry and kinematics and show that many of these BCGs are not rotationally supported. Mergers or strong interactions appear to be the triggering mechanism of the extreme starbursts seen in these galaxies.

  15. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    PubMed

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

  16. [Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto magnetic Fe3O4/ graphene oxide nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Jiang, Guo-Dong; Hu, Meng-Xuan; Huang, Jia; Tang, He-Qing

    2014-05-01

    A simple ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method was developed to prepare magnetic Fe3O4/graphene oxide (Fe3O4/ GO) nanoparticles. The characterization with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that the products possessed small particle size. The hysteresis loop of the dried Fe3O4/GO nanoparticles demonstrated that the sample had typical features of superparamagnetic material. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to investigate the effects of the initial pH of the solution, the dosage of adsorbent, the contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue. The results indicated that the composites prepared could be used over a broad pH range (pH 6-9). The adsorption process was very fast within the first 25 min and the equilibrium was reached at 180 min. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The composite exhibited fairly high adsorption capacity (196.5 mg.g-1) of methylene blue at 313 K. In addition, the magnetic composite could be effectively and simply separated by using an external magnetic field, and then regenerated by hydrogen peroxide and recycled for further use. The results indicated that the adsorbent had a potential in the application of the dye wastewater treatment.

  17. Adsorption and electropolymerization of toluidine blue on the nanostructured octakis(hydridodimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro do Carmo, Devaney Rocha de Castro, Gustavo; Utrera Martines, Marco Antonio; Filho, Newton Luiz Dias; Ramos Stradiotto, Nelson

    2008-12-01

    Toluidine blue O (TBO) was adsorbed on the octakis(hydridodimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane (Q{sub 8}M{sub 8}{sup H}) surface. The characterization of the precursor (Q{sub 8}M{sub 8}{sup H}) and resulting materials obtained by the reaction of Q{sub 8}M{sub 8}{sup H} and toluidine blue (CTBO) were defined using Fourier transform infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance solid-state {sup 13}C and Si{sup 29} magic angle spinning. The electrochemical polymerization in a glassy carbon electrode was verified by means of a film silsesquioxane formation (FCTBO) using cyclic voltammetry in a potential range of -0.5 to 1.3 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) in a Britton Robinson (B-R) buffer solution (pH 2.0). The cyclic voltammogram of the film exhibits two redox couples with a formal potential of -0.15 and -0.02 V (B-R buffer pH 5). The formal potential shifts linearly in the cathodic direction by increasing the pH solution with a slope of 71 and 57 mV per unit for the first and second couple, respectively. The film was electrochemically very stable.

  18. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  19. Effects of Spectral Characteristics of Ganzfeld Stimuli on the Photopic Negative Response (PhNR) of the ERG

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, Nalini V.; Shirato, Suguru; Kaneko, Muneyoshi; Digby, Beth I.; Robson, John G.; Frishman, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine flash and background colors that best isolate the photopic negative response (PhNR) and maximize its amplitude in the primate ERG. Methods Photopic full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized macaque monkeys before and after pharmacologic blockade of Na+-dependent spiking activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 to 2 μM, n = 3), blockade of ionotropic glutamatergic transmission with cis-2,3 piperidine dicarboxylic acid (PDA, 3.3–3.8 mM, n = 3) or laser-induced monocular experimental glaucoma (n = 6), and from six normal human subjects. Photopically matched colored flashes of increasing stimulus strengths were presented on scotopically matched blue, white, or yellow backgrounds of 100 scot cd/m2 using an LED-based stimulator. Results PhNRs that could be eliminated by TTX or severe experimental glaucoma were present in responses to brief (<5 ms) and long-duration (200 ms) stimuli of all color combinations. In normal monkey and human eyes for brief low-energy flashes, PhNR amplitudes were highest for red flashes on blue backgrounds and blue flashes on yellow backgrounds. For high-energy flashes, amplitudes were more similar for all color combinations. For long-duration stimuli, the PhNRon at light onset in monkeys was larger for red and blue stimuli, regardless of background color, than for spectrally broader flashes, except for stimuli >17.7 cd/m2 when PhNRons were all of similar amplitude. For red flashes, eliminating the PhNRon pharmacologically or by glaucoma removed the slowly recovering negative wave that normally followed the transient b-wave and elevated the whole ON response close to the level of the b-wave peak. However, for white, blue, and green flashes, a lower-amplitude plateau that could be removed by PDA remained. Conclusions For weak to moderate flash strengths, the best stimulus for maximizing PhNR amplitude is one that primarily stimulates one cone type, on a background with minimal adaptive effect on cones. For stronger

  20. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens.

  1. Identifying blues: an interview with lesbian blues musician and lyricist Gaye Adegbalola. Interview by Carmen Phelps.

    PubMed

    Adegbalola, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, blues lyricist and musician Gaye Adegbalola shares with audiences how various political, social, and artistic influences have inspired her work since her activist years during the Black Arts Movement leading up to the present day. As a lesbian blues artist, Adegbalola's personal and artistic development implicates the often inextricable and intimate relationships between artistic production, political involvement, and individual fulfillment. PMID:21279914

  2. Design and Synthesis of Metal Complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-Phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide and Their Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, P. Murali; Reddy, N. B. Gopal; Kottam, Nagaraju; Yallur, B. C.; Katreddi, Hussain Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation has been considered to be an efficient process for the degradation of organic pollutants, which are present in the effluents released by industries. The photocatalytic bleaching of cationic dye methylene blue was carried out spectrometrically on irradiation of UV light using Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL). The effects of pH and metal ion were studied on the efficiency of the reaction. Cu(II) complex shows better catalytic activity and the highest percentage degradation (~88.8%) of methylene blue was observed at pH 12. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. PMID:24363623

  3. Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin

    2013-04-22

    Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).

  4. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects.

  5. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

  6. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue. PMID:27617215

  7. Adamantane-based wide-bandgap host material: blue electrophosphorescence with high efficiency and very high brightness.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhu, Liping; Li, Yifan; Yu, Ling; Wu, Kailong; Chen, Tianheng; Huang, Manli; Wang, Feng; Gong, Shaolong; Ma, Dongge; Qin, Jingui; Yang, Chuluo

    2015-05-26

    An adamantane-based host material, namely, 4-{3-[4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]adamantan-1-yl}benzonitrile (CzCN-Ad), was prepared by linking an electron-donating carbazole unit and an electron-accepting benzonitrile moiety through an adamantane bridge. In this approach, two functional groups were attached to tetrahedral points of adamantane to construct an "sp(3)" topological configuration. This design strategy endows the host material with a high triplet energy of 3.03 eV due to the disruption of intramolecular charge transfer. Although CzCN-Ad has a low molecular weight, the rigid nonconjugated adamantane bridge results in a glass transition temperature of 89 °C. These features make CzCN-Ad suitable for fabricating blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The devices based on sky-blue phosphor bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C(2')](picolinato)iridium(III) (FIrpic) achieved a high maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.1%, which is among the best results for blue PhOLEDs ever reported. Furthermore, blue PhOLEDs with bis(2,4-difluorophenylpyridinato)-tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate iridium(III) (FIr6) as dopant exhibited a maximum EQE of 14.2% and a maximum luminance of 34 262 cd m(-2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest luminance ever reported for FIr6-based PhOLEDs. PMID:25900890

  8. Adsorption-regeneration by heterogeneous Fenton process using modified carbon and clay materials for removal of indigo blue.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Solache-Ríos, Marcos J; Linares-Hernández, Ivonne; Martínez-Miranda, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Indigo blue dye is mainly used in dyeing of denim clothes and its presence in water bodies could have adverse effects on the aquatic system; for this reason, the objective of this study was to promote the removal of indigo blue dye from aqueous solutions by iron and copper electrochemically modified clay and activated carbon and the saturated materials were regenerated by a Fenton-like process. Montmorillonite clay was modified at pH 2 and 7; activated carbon at pH 2 and pH of the system. The elemental X-ray dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the optimum pH for modification of montmorillonite with iron and copper was 7 and for activated carbon was 2. The dye used in this work was characterized by infrared. Unmodified and modified clay samples showed the highest removal efficiencies of the dye (90-100%) in the pH interval from 2 to 10 whereas the removal efficiencies decrease as pH increases for samples modified at pH 2. Unmodified clay and copper-modified activated carbon at pH 2 were the most efficient activated materials for the removal of the dye. The adsorption kinetics data of all materials were best adjusted to the pseudo-second-order model, indicating a chemisorption mechanism and the adsorption isotherms data showed that the materials have a heterogeneous surface. The iron-modified clay could be regenerated by a photo-Fenton-like process through four adsorption-regeneration cycles, with 90% removal efficiency.

  9. Adsorption-regeneration by heterogeneous Fenton process using modified carbon and clay materials for removal of indigo blue.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Solache-Ríos, Marcos J; Linares-Hernández, Ivonne; Martínez-Miranda, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Indigo blue dye is mainly used in dyeing of denim clothes and its presence in water bodies could have adverse effects on the aquatic system; for this reason, the objective of this study was to promote the removal of indigo blue dye from aqueous solutions by iron and copper electrochemically modified clay and activated carbon and the saturated materials were regenerated by a Fenton-like process. Montmorillonite clay was modified at pH 2 and 7; activated carbon at pH 2 and pH of the system. The elemental X-ray dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the optimum pH for modification of montmorillonite with iron and copper was 7 and for activated carbon was 2. The dye used in this work was characterized by infrared. Unmodified and modified clay samples showed the highest removal efficiencies of the dye (90-100%) in the pH interval from 2 to 10 whereas the removal efficiencies decrease as pH increases for samples modified at pH 2. Unmodified clay and copper-modified activated carbon at pH 2 were the most efficient activated materials for the removal of the dye. The adsorption kinetics data of all materials were best adjusted to the pseudo-second-order model, indicating a chemisorption mechanism and the adsorption isotherms data showed that the materials have a heterogeneous surface. The iron-modified clay could be regenerated by a photo-Fenton-like process through four adsorption-regeneration cycles, with 90% removal efficiency. PMID:26878687

  10. Methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy for resistant plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Salah, Manal; Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2009-01-01

    Topical treatment of resistant psoriatic plaque stage lesions may be difficult and the systemic therapies seem inappropriate. Therefore, a topical 0.1% methylene blue (MB) hydrogel was prepared and evaluated for percent drug content, drug uniformity, pH, rheological and organoleptic characters such as feel tackiness, grittiness sensation, and transparency in addition to release kinetics study in vitro. The efficiency of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of MB photo-activated using 565 mW Light emitting diode (LED) 670 nm was evaluated in patients with resistant plaque psoriasis. The gel was evaluated in single blinded study. The patients were subjected to repeated sessions of irradiation, skin biopsies from each patient in the beginning and at the end of the sessions were taken for histopathological studies. Results showed the hydrogel was transparent nongritty and the drug uniformly dispersed with pH=7.2 and viscosity value=25.04 Pa. The drug content was found to be 99.4 +/- 0.15 %. Drug release was following zero order kinetics with rate constant K=0.348 +/- 0.01 and T(1/2) = 0.95 +/- 0.5 hours. Sixteen patients experienced complete clearance of their treated lesions. Skin appeared normal in color, texture, and pliability with no complications indicating the lack of skin sensitivity. Histopathological examinations showed nearly normal epidermis at the end of all sessions. The authors concluded that the prepared hydrogel was safe, stable, and very effective. The results are encouraging to accept MB as a photosensitizer for PDT and as a safe and effective method for treatment of selected cases of resistant localized psoriasis PMID:19180895

  11. Methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy for resistant plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Salah, Manal; Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2009-01-01

    Topical treatment of resistant psoriatic plaque stage lesions may be difficult and the systemic therapies seem inappropriate. Therefore, a topical 0.1% methylene blue (MB) hydrogel was prepared and evaluated for percent drug content, drug uniformity, pH, rheological and organoleptic characters such as feel tackiness, grittiness sensation, and transparency in addition to release kinetics study in vitro. The efficiency of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of MB photo-activated using 565 mW Light emitting diode (LED) 670 nm was evaluated in patients with resistant plaque psoriasis. The gel was evaluated in single blinded study. The patients were subjected to repeated sessions of irradiation, skin biopsies from each patient in the beginning and at the end of the sessions were taken for histopathological studies. Results showed the hydrogel was transparent nongritty and the drug uniformly dispersed with pH=7.2 and viscosity value=25.04 Pa. The drug content was found to be 99.4 +/- 0.15 %. Drug release was following zero order kinetics with rate constant K=0.348 +/- 0.01 and T(1/2) = 0.95 +/- 0.5 hours. Sixteen patients experienced complete clearance of their treated lesions. Skin appeared normal in color, texture, and pliability with no complications indicating the lack of skin sensitivity. Histopathological examinations showed nearly normal epidermis at the end of all sessions. The authors concluded that the prepared hydrogel was safe, stable, and very effective. The results are encouraging to accept MB as a photosensitizer for PDT and as a safe and effective method for treatment of selected cases of resistant localized psoriasis

  12. 7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section 1217.2... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the 21-member committee representing businesses that manufacture softwood lumber...

  13. 7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section 1217.2... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the 21-member committee representing businesses that manufacture softwood lumber...

  14. 7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section 1217.2... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the 21-member committee representing businesses that manufacture softwood lumber...

  15. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  16. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the interactive model of methylene blue with DNA by means of β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guang-Chao; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    1999-05-01

    The formation of the inclusion complex of methylene blue with β-cyclodextrin is studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods and the binding constant of the inclusion complex is 4.5×10 3 l mol -1. The interactive model of methylene blue with DNA has been investigated by means of the inclusion action of β-cyclodextrin. Through the changes of absorption and fluorescence spectra, the intrinsic binding constant ( k) of methylene blue with DNA and inclusion complex with DNA is obtained. In the case of 20 m mol l -1 Tris buffer solution (pH 7.2), their values are 1.53×10 5 l mol -1 and 9.98×10 4 l mol -1, respectively. The experimental results suggest that the inclusion complex does not decompose when it interacts with DNA. The binding number ( n) is 1 for both methylene blue and inclusion complex with DNA. According to the experimental results, it can be inferred that the interactive model of methylene blue with DNA is 'electrostatic binding'. This conclusion is able to explain the experimental phenomena clearly.

  18. Phycobilisomes in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Ruth B.; Bowen, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater blue-green algae, including unicellular, filamentous, and colonial forms, were subjected to a variety of fixatives, fixation conditions, and stains for comparison of the preservation of phycobilisomes. Absorption spectra of the corresponding in vivo and released photosynthetic pigments, in 10 of the species that were maintained in culture, demonstrated the presence of phycocyanin in all 10 species and phycoerythrin in only 2 of them. Spectroscope and electron microscope evidence was obtained for localization of phycobiliproteins in phycobilisomes of Nostoc muscorum. Phycobilisomes were observed in all species examined in situ, strenghening the hypothesis that phycobilisomes are common to all phycobiliprotein-containing photosynthetic blue-green algae. Images PMID:4204443

  19. Model of Blue Jet Formation and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, Gennadiy; Shneider, Mikhail; Mokrov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Upward-propagating luminous flashes above thunderstorms were discovered two decades ago. They were named blue jets (BJ) due to primarily blue color. It is broadly accepted that BJ are produced by a lightning leader running upward in the nonuniform atmosphere. It is also suggested that formation of a leader is governed by the contraction of the current of a streamer flash into a small radius channel. The paper presents results of simulations of the current contraction in the air as a function of the pressure, and convective heat removal time. It was shown that transition to the contracted state occurs in hysteresis mode in which contracted and diffusive stable states exist simultaneously. The critical current for the phase transition was obtained. Similarity methods were applied to the simulations of the critical contraction current, along with chosen observations of BJ, to study BJ formation and propagation in the atmosphere.

  20. Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

  1. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  2. Starbursts in blue compact dwarf galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, Trinh Xuan

    1987-01-01

    All the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD) are summarized. It is shown that spectral synthesis of far-ultraviolet spectra of BCDs constitutes a powerful way to study the star formation history in these galaxies. BCD luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, aiding in the counting and dating of the bursts.

  3. Accidental mydriasis from blue nightshade "lipstick".

    PubMed

    Rubinfeld, R S; Currie, J N

    1987-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with bilaterally dilated pupils, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after head trauma. Pilocarpine pupil testing led to the correct diagnosis of pharmacologic pupillary dilation from an unexpected and unusual source of plant poisoning, Solanum dulcamara (blue nightshade). In patients with internal ophthalmoplegia, awareness of the possibility of pharmacologic mydriasis and correct use of topical pilocarpine testing can preclude the necessity for neuroradiologic and invasive diagnostic studies, even in cases with atypical or complex presentations.

  4. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  5. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  6. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  7. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  8. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  9. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  10. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    PubMed

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents.

  11. Adsorption of methylene blue onto jute fiber carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaar, S; Varadarajan, P R; Porkodi, K; Subbhuraam, C V

    2005-04-01

    Jute fiber obtained from the stem of a plant was used to prepare activated carbon using phosphoric acid. Feasibility of employing this jute fiber activated carbon (JFC) for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated. The adsorption of MB on JFC has found to dependent on contact time, MB concentration and pH. Experimental result follows Langmuir isotherm model and the capacity was found to be 225.64 mg/g. The optimum pH for the MB removal was found to be 5-10. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order equation, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich equation. Among the kinetic models studied, the intraparticle diffusion was the best applicable model to describe the adsorption of MB onto JFC.

  12. Plasma degradation of Cationic Blue dye with contact glow discharge electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing-long; Wang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Qing-feng; Yue, Jun-jie; Cai, Ya-qi

    2010-01-01

    Contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE) of Cationic Blue SD-GTL (CB) was investigated by determining degradation rates and rate constants under different voltages, pH, temperature and initial concentrations. The results indicated that 500 V was the optimum voltage for CGDE of CB under experimental conditions. The effect of pH was not appreciable. Fe²(+) and Fe³(+) had a remarkable catalytic effect on the degradation of CB. The degradation rate was up to 99.7% after 3 minutes CGDE treatment when the concentration of Fe²(+) was 20.0 mg/L. And when the concentration of Fe³ (+) was 5.0 mg/L, the degradation rate was only 68.6% after 10 minutes CGDE treatment. The reaction mechanisms were also well illustrated by relative reactions and their rate constants. It had been demonstrated that CB underwent oxidative degradation in CGDE. PMID:20935361

  13. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  14. pH- and Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel Nanoparticles with Dual Photoluminescence for Bioprobes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Ce; Yang, Xudong; Shen, Bowen; Sun, Yuanqing; Chen, Yang; Xu, Xiaowei; Sun, Hongchen; Yu, Kui; Yang, Bai; Lin, Quan

    2016-06-28

    This study demonstrates high contrast and sensitivity by designing a dual-emissive hydrogel particle system, whose two emissions respond to pH and temperature strongly and independently. It describes the photoluminescence (PL) response of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-based core/shell hydrogel nanoparticles with dual emission, which is obtained by emulsion polymerization with potassium persulfate, consisting of the thermo- and pH-responsive copolymers of PNIPAM and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). A red-emission rare-earth complex and a blue-emission quaternary ammonium tetraphenylethylene derivative (d-TPE) with similar excitation wavelengths are inserted into the core and shell of the hydrogel nanoparticles, respectively. The PL intensities of the nanoparticles exhibit a linear temperature response in the range from 10 to 80 °C with a change as large as a factor of 5. In addition, the blue emission from the shell exhibits a linear pH response between pH 6.5 and 7.6 with a resolution of 0.1 unit, while the red emission from the core is pH-independent. These stimuli-responsive PL nanoparticles have potential applications in biology and chemistry, including bio- and chemosensors, biological imaging, cancer diagnosis, and externally activated release of anticancer drugs. PMID:27232534

  15. Wide range pH measurements using a single H(+)-selective chromoionophore and a time-based flow method.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Rostamzadeh, Abolfazl; Maesum, Saeed

    2006-02-28

    A hydrophilic transparent triacetyl cellulose membrane was adopted as a pH optode by immobilizing highly selective and sensitive Nile blue indicator on the membrane. Contrary to the common procedure for determinations using optodes, in which a steady state response is measured, a new approach is introduced in which the dynamic response of the optode is used as the analytical signal. While in common procedures, pH optodes exhibit limited linear dynamic range (often 2-4 pH units only), it is shown that in a time-based flow method, an optode with only one acid-base indicator can be used for measurement in the pH range of 0-10. The procedure is simple, inexpensive and rapid. PMID:18970487

  16. Novel lanthanide pH fluorescent probes based on multiple emissions and its visible-light-sensitized feature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Zheng, Yuhui; Wang, Qianming; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Cheng Cheng

    2014-08-11

    A new type of Eu(III) ofloxacin complex as the fluorescent pH indicator has been presented. Compared to pure ligand, the complex offers more distinguished color changes (green-red-blue) derived from both lanthanide line emissions and the secondary ionization steps of ofloxacin. During the concentration dependence experiments, the photoluminescence studies on the complex showed that the excitation of this pH probe can occur at a very long wavelength which extends to visible range (Ex=427 nm). Furthermore, the functional complex was successfully incorporated into soft networks and two novel luminescent hydrogels (rod and film) were fabricated. The soft materials also exhibited specific responses towards the pH variation. Finally, the onion cell-stain experiments were carried out to further confirm the validity of pH dependence and the results support the idea that the material will be suitable for monitoring biological samples in the future. PMID:25066718

  17. Novel lanthanide pH fluorescent probes based on multiple emissions and its visible-light-sensitized feature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Zheng, Yuhui; Wang, Qianming; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Cheng Cheng

    2014-08-11

    A new type of Eu(III) ofloxacin complex as the fluorescent pH indicator has been presented. Compared to pure ligand, the complex offers more distinguished color changes (green-red-blue) derived from both lanthanide line emissions and the secondary ionization steps of ofloxacin. During the concentration dependence experiments, the photoluminescence studies on the complex showed that the excitation of this pH probe can occur at a very long wavelength which extends to visible range (Ex=427 nm). Furthermore, the functional complex was successfully incorporated into soft networks and two novel luminescent hydrogels (rod and film) were fabricated. The soft materials also exhibited specific responses towards the pH variation. Finally, the onion cell-stain experiments were carried out to further confirm the validity of pH dependence and the results support the idea that the material will be suitable for monitoring biological samples in the future.

  18. Comparison of acridine orange, methylene blue, and Gram stains for blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Mirrett, S; Lauer, B A; Miller, G A; Reller, L B

    1982-01-01

    Direct microscopic screening of blood cultures by Gram stain or methylene blue stain is time consuming and frequently insensitive. Therefore, we evaluated a fluorescent-staining procedure that uses acridine orange (AO) at pH 3.5 and compared it with the methylene blue and Gram stain procedures. All smears were prepared within 24 h of receiving the culture, fixed with methanol, and examined without the results of the companion smears being known. AO-stained smears were examined with incident-light fluorescence at 600 x magnification and confirmed at 1,500x magnification. All bottles macroscopically positive within 24 h were excluded from the study. Of 2,946 cultures entered into the study, 204 (6.9%) were positive within 3 days. The sensitivity and specificity of AO based on these culture results were 52 and 98%, respectively, compared with 38% sensitivity and 99% specificity by methylene blue and Gram stains. The AO staining procedure is a simple, sensitive, screening technique for the early detection of positive blood cultures. PMID:6175656

  19. Blue emitting ZnO nanostructures grown through cellulose bio-templates.

    PubMed

    Oudhia, Anjali; Sharma, Savita; Kulkarni, Pragya; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a green and cost-effective recipe for the synthesis of blue-emitting ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using cellulose bio-templates. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract prepared in different solvents were used as biological templates to produce nanostructures of wurtzite ZnO with a particle size ~12-36 nm. A cellulose-driven capping mechanism is used to describe the morphology of ZnO NPs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that solvents affect the growth process and the capping mechanism of bio-template severely. Structural changes in ZnO NPs were evident with variation in pH, dielectric constants (DC) and boiling points (BP) of solvents. Furthermore, an energy band model is proposed to explain the origin of the blue emission in the as-obtained ZnO NPs. PL excitation studies and the theoretical enthalpy values of individual defects were used to establish the association between the interstitial-zinc-related defect levels and the blue emission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26597927

  20. Kinetics of Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by Bacillus sp. Strain A.rzi

    PubMed Central

    Othman, A. R.; Bakar, N. A.; Halmi, M. I. E.; Johari, W. L. W.; Ahmad, S. A.; Jirangon, H.; Syed, M. A.; Shukor, M. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum is very toxic to agricultural animals. Mo-reducing bacterium can be used to immobilize soluble molybdenum to insoluble forms, reducing its toxicity in the process. In this work the isolation of a novel molybdate-reducing Gram positive bacterium tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. strain A.rzi from a metal-contaminated soil is reported. The cellular reduction of molybdate to molybdenum blue occurred optimally at 4 mM phosphate, using 1% (w/v) glucose, 50 mM molybdate, between 28 and 30°C and at pH 7.3. The spectrum of the Mo-blue product showed a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of bacterial electron transport system (ETS) such as rotenone, sodium azide, antimycin A, and potassium cyanide could not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing activity. At 0.1 mM, mercury, copper, cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, cobalt, and zinc showed strong inhibition on molybdate reduction by crude enzyme. The best model that fitted the experimental data well was Luong followed by Haldane and Monod. The calculated value for Luong's constants pmax, Ks, Sm, and n was 5.88 μmole Mo-blue hr−1, 70.36 mM, 108.22 mM, and 0.74, respectively. The characteristics of this bacterium make it an ideal tool for bioremediation of molybdenum pollution. PMID:24369531

  1. Flood Tide Transport of Blue Crab Postlarvae: Limitations in a Lagoonal Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudaback, C.; Eggleston, D.

    2005-05-01

    Blue crabs, an important commercial species, spend much of their life in estuaries along the east coast. The larvae spawn at or near the ocean, but the juveniles mature in the lower salinity waters of the estuary. It is generally believed that blue crab postlarvae migrate into near surface waters on flood, possibly cued by increasing salinity, and return to the bottom on ebb. Over several tidal cycles, the postlarvae travel a significant distance up-estuary. This model applies quite well to Chesapeake Bay, which has a strong along-estuary salinity gradient and large tides, but may not apply as well to Pamlico Sound, where circulation and salinity are more wind-driven than tidal. A recently completed study (N. Reyns, PhD), indicates that postlarval blue crabs use flood tides and wind-driven currents to cross Pamlico Sound. This study was based on observations with good spatial coverage, but limited vertical and temporal resolution. We have recently completed a complementary study, sampling crab larvae around the clock at four depths at a single location. Preliminary results from the new study suggest that the crab postlarvae do swim all the way to the surface, on flood only, and that flood currents are strongest slightly below the surface. These observations suggest the utility of flood tide transport in this system. However, near bottom salinity does not seem to be driven by tides; at this point it is unclear what cue might trigger the vertical migration of the postlarvae.

  2. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  3. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  4. Isoelectric focusing of human parotid salivary proteins in hybrid carrier ampholyte-immobilized pH gradient polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Khoo, K S; Beeley, J A

    1990-06-01

    Isoelectric focusing of human salivary proteins with carrier ampholyte-isoelectric focusing systems requires prior desalting and concentration of samples, a procedure which is time-consuming and requires relatively large volumes of samples. By contrast, immobilized pH gradient gels are more tolerant to salt loads. Thus pretreatment of samples consists only of centrifugation prior to isoelectric focusing. If larger loads (greater than 50 micrograms) are required, the samples may be concentrated by lyophilization and reconstitution in a smaller volume of water or by dialysis against 30% w/v polyethylene glycol. Immobilized pH gradient polyacrylamide gels (incorporating a hybrid carrier ampholyte system) of two pH ranges (pH 4-9 and pH 3.5-5.0) have been used to separate the proteins in human parotid saliva. The effects of urea on focused patterns were studied; in pH 4-9 gels it gave improved resolution of protein bands, whereas in pH 3.5-5.0 gels it prevented protein precipitation. The salivary proteins were then visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 or a silver procedure. Using the latter, 25-30 well-resolved bands were formed on a pH 4-9 gel loaded with 20 micrograms of proteins. The method offers considerable advantages compared with carrier ampholyte-isoelectric focusing. PMID:1697536

  5. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-01

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner.

  6. Preparing "Chameleon Balls" from Natural Plants: Simple Handmade pH Indicator and Teaching Material for Chemical Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Naoki; Asano, Takayuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Onoda, Makoto

    1995-12-01

    Anthocyanins are found in the flowers and fruits of natural plants. Since their color depends on pH, they are sometines used as a pH indicator. Since these sequences are reversible, they are also useful in demonstrating chemical equilibrium in the repetitive color changes of anthocyanins from flowers by controlling pH conditions. We prepared the polysaccharide beads conatining water extracts of red cabbage as calcium alginate. The beads showed a clear red color under acidic conditions, turned blue at neutral pH of 7, and orange-yellow at pH of 13. This color change could be demonstrated over and over. Because the color changes of these polysaccharide beads depended darmatically on pH, junior high students in science classes called them "chameleon balls" when we demonstrated this reaction for them. In this paper we describe how polysaccharide beads, which are made from calcium alginate with natural pigments, served as a teaching tool for the chemical equilibrium of anthocyanins under different pH conditions. Preparation of the chameleon ball is very easy. The most important thing is that making the chameleon ball is great fun. The ball should therefore be viewed not only as a handmade pH indicator but also an interesting teaching tool of the chemical equilibrium reaction.

  7. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei

    2009-10-15

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10(-4) to 9.28 x 10(-4)mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  8. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei

    2009-10-15

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10(-4) to 9.28 x 10(-4)mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. PMID:19447547

  9. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-11-10

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

  10. Sonochemical degradation of naphthol blue black in water: Effect of operating parameters.

    PubMed

    Ferkous, Hamza; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Merouani, Slimane

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the sonochemical degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB), an acidic diazo dye, in water was investigated. The effects of several operating parameters such as initial NBB concentration, acoustic intensity, ultrasonic frequency, nature of the dissolved gas and solution pH on the degradation of the dye were carried out. The obtained results showed that ultrasound completely destroyed NBB (5 mg L(-1)) after 45 min of sonication and most of the chemical oxygen demand was eliminated after 90 min of treatment. It was found that the initial rate of sonolytic degradation increased with increasing the initial NBB concentration. The fitting of the experimental data by a heterogeneous Langmuir-kinetics model showed that NBB degraded mainly at the interfacial region of the bubble by hydroxyl radical (OH) attack. The degradation rate of the dye increased substantially with increasing acoustic intensity in the range of 0.44-3.58 W cm(-2) and decreased with increasing frequency in the range of 585-1140 kHz. The rate of NBB degradation decreased in the order of Ar>air>N2. The significant degradation was achieved in acidic conditions (pH 2) where the initial degradation rate was 1.37 and 1.66 higher than those observed at pH 6 and pH 10, respectively. PMID:25843901

  11. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Nasiri Kokhdan, Syamak

    2015-02-01

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  12. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri

    2015-02-01

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  13. Slow-blue PanSTARRS transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Bruce, Alastair; Lawrence, Andy; Ward, Martin; Collinson, James; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Smartt, Steven; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl; Fraser, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 50 blue, nuclear "transients" in PanSTARRS-1 has revealed different types of extremely variable AGN. The majority show a gradual brightening by ~2 mag from the SDSS observation a decade ago and may represent a new class of AGN microlensed by foreground galaxies. Spectra from the William Herschel Telescope identify these as z~1 AGN with atypical spectroscopic properties. We present an analysis of their photometric and spectroscopic variability in an effort to constrain the detailed structure of the source AGN.

  14. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  15. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  16. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  17. Trypan blue dye for anterior segment surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Jhanji, V; Chan, E; Das, S; Zhang, H; Vajpayee, R B

    2011-01-01

    Use of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery has gained increased importance in the past few years. Trypan blue (TB) has been a popular choice among anterior segment surgeons mainly due to its safety, ease of availability, and remarkable ability to enable an easy surgery in difficult situations mostly related to visibility of the targeted tissue. It is being used in cataract surgery since nearly a decade and its utilization has been extended to other anterior segment surgeries like trabeculectomy and corneal transplantation. This review will discuss the techniques and outcome of TB dye-assisted anterior segment surgeries. PMID:21681214

  18. Blue running of the primordial tensor spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2014-07-01

    We examine the possibility of positive spectral index of the power spectrum of the primordial tensor perturbation produced during inflation in the light of the detection of the B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 collaboration. We find a blue tilt is in general possible when the slow-roll parameter decays rapidly. We present two known examples in which a positive spectral index for the tensor power spectrum can be obtained. We also briefly discuss other consistency tests for further studies on inflationary dynamics.

  19. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  20. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources. PMID:12889758

  1. Fetal scalp pH testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Normal pH: 7.25 to 7.35 Borderline pH: 7.20 to 7.25 The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ...

  2. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  3. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  4. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  5. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  6. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  7. Colorimetric determination of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.; Buchanan, B.R.

    1991-12-31

    There is a need for a simple, rapid, reliable means for determining pH values of concentrated, high salt solutions without reliance on human eye and ambient light. The method comprises the steps of preparing a set of reference solutions, measuring the light absorption by each reference solution, adding indicator dye to each reference solution, measuring the light absorption by each such reference mixture, comparing the two solutions to determine the dye color at each pH, normalizing the spectra of mixture to the isosbestic point, and matching the color of the pH of the solution to one of the colors of the pHs in the reference solution set. In this way, the pH can be determined to within 0.1 pH unit, a far more precise method than using the human eye.

  8. Intracellular pH modulates quinary structure

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Rachel D; Guseman, Alex J; Pielak, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy can provide information about proteins in living cells. pH is an important characteristic of the intracellular environment because it modulates key protein properties such as net charge and stability. Here, we show that pH modulates quinary interactions, the weak, ubiquitous interactions between proteins and other cellular macromolecules. We use the K10H variant of the B domain of protein G (GB1, 6.2 kDa) as a pH reporter in Escherichia coli cells. By controlling the intracellular pH, we show that quinary interactions influence the quality of in-cell 15N–1H HSQC NMR spectra. At low pH, the quality is degraded because the increase in attractive interactions between E. coli proteins and GB1 slows GB1 tumbling and broadens its crosspeaks. The results demonstrate the importance of quinary interactions for furthering our understanding of protein chemistry in living cells. PMID:26257390

  9. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  10. "Big Blue Marble" Fact Sheet and "Big Blue Marble" Program Content (Shows 1 through 78).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., New York, NY.

    This booklet describes the content of 78 programs presented in the "Big Blue Marble" series, an international series of children's television shows sponsored by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. The major sequence of subjects is given, as well as a description of each program's folktale adaptation (a regular feature) and…

  11. Mutagenicity studies on two triphenylmethane dyes, bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Lin, G H; Brusick, D J

    1992-08-01

    Bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue are two triphenylmethane dyes. Triphenylmethane derivatives and their structurally related compounds, such as fluoresceins and xathenes, are widely used as industrial dyes for foods, drugs, cosmetics, textiles, printing inks or laboratory indicators. Since a number of these types of dyes have been reported to be genotoxic, safety concerns on these two dyes of interest have been raised. Consequently, a battery of genetic toxicology assays, including the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay, L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay, mouse micronucleus test and mitotic recombination assay with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5, has been performed on each of the two dyes. The results of the evaluations indicate that both bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue were not active and can be considered non-genotoxic for the three genetic endpoints assessed (gene mutation, chromosome aberrations and primary DNA damage). Genetic activities in some structurally related compounds of these dyes have been reported but may be attributed to the presence of mutagenic impurities rather than the compound itself.

  12. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  13. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  14. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.

  15. Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

  16. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  17. Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.

    PubMed

    Travis, A S

    2012-05-01

    Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914.

  18. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:27666663

  19. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  20. Treatment and toxicity evaluation of methylene blue using electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-sung; Wei, Ming-Chi; Peng, Tzu-Huan; Li, Heng-Ching; Chao, Shu-Ju; Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    Treatment of a basic dye, methylene blue, by electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption, and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption was compared. Methylene blue at 100 mgL(-1) was used in this study. The toxicity was also monitored by the Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. When electrochemical oxidation was used, 99% color and 84% COD were removed from the methylene blue solution in 20 min at a current density of 428 Am(-2), NaCl of 1000 mgL(-1), and pH(0) of 7. However, the decolorized solution showed high toxicity (100% light inhibition). For fly ash adsorption, a high dose of fly ash (>20,000 mgL(-1)) was needed to remove methylene blue, and the Freundlich isotherm described the adsorption behavior well. In the combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption treatment, the addition of 4000 mgL(-1) fly ash effectively reduced intermediate toxicity and decreased the COD of the electrochemical oxidation-treated methylene blue solution. The results indicated that the combined process effectively removed color, COD, and intermediate toxicity of the methylene blue solution.

  1. Twisted bilayer blue phosphorene: A direct band gap semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.; Suárez Morell, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We report that two rotated layers of blue phosphorene behave as a direct band gap semiconductor. The optical spectrum shows absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum and in addition the energy of these peaks can be tuned with the rotational angle. These findings makes twisted bilayer blue phosphorene a strong candidate as a solar cell or photodetection device. Our results are based on ab initio calculations of several rotated blue phosphorene layers.

  2. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  3. Measuring Cell Death by Trypan Blue Uptake and Light Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Trypan blue is a colorimetric dye that stains dead cells with a blue color easily observed using light microscopy at low resolution. The staining procedure is rapid and cells can be analyzed within minutes. The number of live (unstained) and dead (blue) cells can be counted using a hemocytometer on a basic upright microscope. Trypan blue staining is therefore a convenient assay for rapidly determining the overall viability of cells in a culture before commencing scientific experimentation, or for quantitating cell death following treatment with any cytotoxic stimuli. PMID:27371594

  4. Prussian-blue-modified iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as effective peroxidase-like catalysts to degrade methylene blue with H2O2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Yuming

    2011-07-15

    Prussian-blue (PB)-modified γ-Fe(2)O(3) magnetic nanoparticles (PBMNPs) were successfully synthesized based on electric interactions between negatively charged [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) and positively charged γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. The in situ PB coating was generated by the coordinating reaction between the adsorbed [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) and the ferric ions on the surface of γ-Fe(2)O(3) NPs. The as-prepared PBMNPs were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM, and used to remove organic pollutants from aqueous solution, namely, using methylene blue (MB) as model compound. The experimental results showed that the target compound could be removed efficiently from solution over a wide pH range from 3 to 10 in the presence of PBMNPs as peroxidase-like catalyst and H(2)O(2) as oxidant. Under optimal conditions, MB could be removed completely after 120 min of reaction at 298 K; the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the total organic carbon (TOC) abatement efficiency were 53.6% and 35%, respectively. Furthermore, the PBMNPs catalysts showed high magnetization, temperature tolerance, long-term storage and operational stability, and they could be readily separated from solution by applying an external magnetic field. Finally, a possible reaction mechanism for MB degradation was also discussed. PMID:21570769

  5. Validation of an in vitro method for the determination of cyanide release from ferric-hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongsheng; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Del Grosso, Alfred V; Lyon, Robbe C; Faustino, Patrick J

    2007-03-12

    Prussian blue (PB), ferric hexacyanoferrate, Fe(4)[Fe(CN)(6)](3) is indicated for the treatment of known or suspected internal contamination with radioactive cesium, radioactive thallium, or non-radioactive thallium. Owing to the molecular properties, cyanide is likely dissociated from PB under physiologically relevant pH conditions, thus raising a concern for the safety of the product. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate a cyanide assay over a wide pH range (from 0.5 to 12) on the basis of Spectroquant cyanide test method (Merck). Merck's photometric method requires that the measurement solution be within pH 5.5-6.0, hence samples and standards need to be adjusted to this pH range. Since the process of pH adjustment may have significant impact on the determination of cyanide, the analysis method needs to be optimized, calibrated and validated under each pH condition in the study. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, quantification limit, linearity, and stability. The intra-day accuracy ranged from 90% to 109% for the deionized water and solutions of pH 0.5-12. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) ranged from 2.4% to 8.1% for the deionized water and solutions of pH 0.5-12. The analytical range was linear from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm (mg/L). The R(2) ranged from 0.9925 to 0.9998. This validated method was successfully implemented to determine cyanide release from PB under various pH conditions (from 1.0 to 12) at different time-points (from 1 to 24 h). PMID:17174056

  6. Simple Bipolar Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue, Green, and White Phosphorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Liu, Di; Jin, Qian

    2016-08-31

    3-(1H-Pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine is used as electron-transporting unit to construct bipolar host materials o-CzPyPz, m-CzPyPz, and p-CzPyPz for application in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). By varying the ortho-, meta-, or para-linking mode between the n-type 3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine and the p-type carbazole on phenylene bridge, the optoelectronic parameters are tuned to large extent. The highly twisted o-CzPyPz has high triplet energy of 2.95 eV, while the isomer p-CzPyPz with more coplanar conformation has smaller triplet energy of 2.67 eV. The m-CzPyPz-hosted blue PhOLED exhibits a peak current efficiency of 49.1 cd A(-1) (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 24.5%) and low-efficiency roll-off, while the p-CzPyPz-hosted green PhOLEDs turns on at 2.8 V and exhibits high efficiencies of 91.8 cd A(-1) (96.1 lm W(-1) and 27.3%). Furthermore, two-emitting-layer white OLEDs are fabricated with m-CzPyPz or p-CzPyPz as common hosts for both blue and orange phosphors, which realize high efficiencies of 57.8 cd A(-1) (45.4 lm W(-1) and 23.6%) and 60.7 cd A(-1) (38.1 lm W(-1) and 23.1%). The optimization of host structure for good matching of host and dopant and finally for the ideal performance is discussed. PMID:27517473

  7. A chimeric repressor of petunia PH4 R2R3-MYB family transcription factor generates margined flowers in torenia.

    PubMed

    Kasajima, Ichiro; Sasaki, Katsutomo

    2016-05-01

    The development of new phenotypes is key to the commercial development of the main floricultural species and cultivars. Important new phenotypes include features such as multiple-flowers, color variations, increased flower size, new petal shapes, variegation and distinctive petal margin colourations. Although their commercial use is not yet common, the transgenic technologies provide a potentially rapid means of generating interesting new phenotypes. In this report, we construct 5 vectors which we expected to change the color of the flower anthocyanins, from purple to blue, regulating vacuolar pH. When these constructs were transformed into purple torenia, we unexpectedly recovered some genotypes having slightly margined petals. These transgenic lines expressed a chimeric repressor of the petunia PhPH4 gene under the control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA promoter. PhPH4 is an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. The transgenic lines lacked pigmentation in the petal margin cells both on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Expressions of Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and Flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes were reduced in the margins of these transgenic lines, suggesting an inhibitory effect of PhPH4 repressor on anthocyanin synthesis. PMID:27089475

  8. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  9. Facile synthesis of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue nanocomposites for selective cesium removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-09-01

    This work focused on the development of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue (PSMGPB) nanocomposites for removal of cesium from wastewater. The PSMGPB nanocomposite showed an improved adsorption capacity of 1.609mmol/g for cesium, compared with magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue, magnetic pectin Prussian blue, and magnetic Prussian blue nanocomposites, which exhibited adsorption capacities of 1.230, 0.901, and 0.330mmol/g, respectively. Increased adsorption capacity of PSMGPB nanocomposites was attributed to the pectin-stabilized separation of graphene oxide sheets and enhanced distribution of magnetites on the graphene oxide surface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the effective separation of graphene oxide sheets due to the incorporation of pectin. The optimum temperature and pH for adsorption were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. A thermodynamic study indicated the spontaneous and the exothermic nature of cesium adsorption. Based on non-linear regression, the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Tempkin models. PMID:27262093

  10. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  11. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Methods Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Results Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P < 0.03, all) and on temporal frequency (P < 0.03, all). In the presence of blue light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change −0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>−0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P < 0.003). Overall, neonatal astigmatism was reduced with blue light. Conclusions Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work. PMID:26393671

  12. Brilliant Blue G assisted epiretinal membrane surgery.

    PubMed

    Totan, Yüksel; Güler, Emre; Dervişoğulları, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-01-01

    We report intensely staining epiretinal membrane (ERM) with Brilliant Blue G (BBG) under air for two minutes. ERM peeling was performed in 21 cases. After removal of posterior hyaloid, 0.2 mL BBG was first applied on the macula, to stain ERM under air conditions for 2 minutes. Internal limiting membrane (ILM) was intensely stained and peeled in all cases following ERM removal. In 4 cases, the ERM was also observed to be intensely stained with BBG and peeled with an ILM forceps. Postoperatively, the ganglion cell layer thickness was lower in three of the cases, however VA improved in all cases and multifocal electroretinogram revealed no toxicity. Light microscopy of ERM revealed masses of cells whereas; the ILM did not. The increased staining characteristics of ERM and ILM may be resulted from longer contact time of BBG under air pressure.

  13. A bolt out of the blue.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R

    2005-05-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It causes more deaths and injuries in the U.S. than either hurricanes or tornadoes do, and it strikes without warning, sometimes with nothing but blue sky overhead. In central Florida, where I live, thunderstorms are a daily occurrence during the summer, and so, ironically, people in the Sunshine State often spend their afternoons indoors to avoid the risk of death from the sky. Worldwide, lightning flashes about four million times a day, and bolts have even been observed on other planets. Yet despite its familiarity, we still do not know what causes lightning. It is a misconception that Benjamin Franklin solved the puzzle when he conducted his famous kite experiment in 1752. PMID:15882023

  14. Big Blue Transgenic Mouse lacl mutation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stiegler, G.L.; Stillwell, L.C. )

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors describe a rapid general method for mutant blue plaque molecular analysis. The mutant analysis discussed here resulted from radon inhalation exposure. The described method circumvents Stratagene's plasmid isolation and ensuing sequence analysis of the entire lac1 gene. The authors have adapted the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis for localizing mutations within the lac1 coding region. Three overlapping PCR products of approximately 450 bp representing the entire lac1 coding region are used for SSCP analysis. Those PCR products with an altered SSCP electrophoretic migration focus the mutation to a smaller region of the lac1 gene that is analyzed by direct cycle sequencing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Blue laser inorganic write-once media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Mau; Yeh, Ru-Lin

    2004-09-01

    With the advantages of low cost, portability and compliance with ROM disc, write once disk has become the most popular storage media for computer and audio/video application. In addition, write once media, like CD-R and DVD-/+ R, are used to store permanent or nonalterable information, such as financial data transitions, legal documentation, and medical data. Several write once recording materials, such as TeO[1], TeOPd[2] and Si/Cu [3] have been proposed to realize inorganic write once media. Moreover, we propose AlSi alloy [4] to be used for recording layer of write once media. It had good recording properties in DVD system although the reflectivity is too low to be used for DVD-R disk. In this paper, we report the further results in blue laser system, such as the static and dynamic characteristics of write once media.

  16. Approaches toward a blue semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.

    1989-01-01

    Possible approaches for obtaining semiconductor diode laser action in the blue region of the spectrum are surveyed. A discussion of diode lasers is included along with a review of the current status of visible emitters, presently limited to 670 nm. Methods are discussed for shifting laser emission toward shorter wavelengths, including the use of II-IV materials, the increase in the bandgap of III-V materials by addition of nitrogen, and changing the bandstructure from indirect to direct by incorporating interstitial atoms or by constructing superlattices. Non-pn-junction injection methods are surveyed, including avalanche breakdown, Langmuir-Blodgett diodes, heterostructures, carrier accumulation, and Berglund diodes. Prospects of inventing new multinary semiconducting materials are discussed, and a number of novel materials described in the literature are tabulated. New approaches available through the development of quantum wells and superlattices are described, including resonant tunneling and the synthesis of arbitrary bandgap materials through multiple quantum wells.

  17. A bolt out of the blue.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R

    2005-05-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It causes more deaths and injuries in the U.S. than either hurricanes or tornadoes do, and it strikes without warning, sometimes with nothing but blue sky overhead. In central Florida, where I live, thunderstorms are a daily occurrence during the summer, and so, ironically, people in the Sunshine State often spend their afternoons indoors to avoid the risk of death from the sky. Worldwide, lightning flashes about four million times a day, and bolts have even been observed on other planets. Yet despite its familiarity, we still do not know what causes lightning. It is a misconception that Benjamin Franklin solved the puzzle when he conducted his famous kite experiment in 1752.

  18. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

  19. Leader-Streamer Nature of Blue Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2006-12-01

    A new model of Blue Jets (BJ's) is proposed and substantiated. It consists of the leader whose top part is seen on BJ photos as a "trunk of a tree", and of the streamer zone of the leader. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of "the tree". It is obtained that due to upward transfer of the high thundercloud potential by the leader, BJ streamers can be sustained by moderate cloud charges. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can escape into the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N is computed. It is justified by the numerical simulations for a wide range of air density that the critical field Es required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law Es/N = const. Shortcomings of the existing BJ models are discussed in detail.

  20. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  1. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD

    Cancer.gov

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  2. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  3. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

    2001-02-01

    Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer.

  4. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    The thesis proposes and explores an underwater lidar system architecture based on chaotic modulation of recently introduced, commercially available, low cost blue laser diodes. This approach is experimentally shown to allow accurate underwater impulse response measurements while eliminating the need for several major components typically found in high-performance underwater lidar systems. The proposed approach is to: 1. Generate wideband, noise-like intensity modulation signals using optical chaotic modulation of blue-green laser diodes, and then 2. Use this signal source to develop an underwater chaotic lidar system that uses no electrical signal generator, no electro-optic modulator, no optical frequency doubler, and no large-aperture photodetector. The outcome of this thesis is the demonstration of a new underwater lidar system architecture that could allow high resolution ranging, imaging, and water profiling measurements in turbid water, at a reduced size, weight, power and cost relative to state-of-the-art high-performance underwater lidar sensors. This work also makes contributions to the state of the art in optics, nonlinear dynamics, and underwater sensing by demonstrating for the first time: 1. Wideband noise-like intensity modulation of a blue laser diode using no electrical signal generator or electro-optic modulator. Optical chaotic modulation of a 462 nm blue InGaN laser diode by self-feedback is explored for the first time. The usefulness of the signal to chaotic lidar is evaluated in terms of bandwidth, modulation depth, and autocorrelation peak-to-sidelobe-ratio (PSLR) using both computer and laboratory experiments. In laboratory experiments, the optical feedback technique is shown to be effective in generating wideband, noise-like chaotic signals with strong modulation depth when the diode is operated in an external-cavity dominated state. The modulation signal strength is shown to be limited by the onset of lasing within the diode's internal

  5. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    The thesis proposes and explores an underwater lidar system architecture based on chaotic modulation of recently introduced, commercially available, low cost blue laser diodes. This approach is experimentally shown to allow accurate underwater impulse response measurements while eliminating the need for several major components typically found in high-performance underwater lidar systems. The proposed approach is to: 1. Generate wideband, noise-like intensity modulation signals using optical chaotic modulation of blue-green laser diodes, and then 2. Use this signal source to develop an underwater chaotic lidar system that uses no electrical signal generator, no electro-optic modulator, no optical frequency doubler, and no large-aperture photodetector. The outcome of this thesis is the demonstration of a new underwater lidar system architecture that could allow high resolution ranging, imaging, and water profiling measurements in turbid water, at a reduced size, weight, power and cost relative to state-of-the-art high-performance underwater lidar sensors. This work also makes contributions to the state of the art in optics, nonlinear dynamics, and underwater sensing by demonstrating for the first time: 1. Wideband noise-like intensity modulation of a blue laser diode using no electrical signal generator or electro-optic modulator. Optical chaotic modulation of a 462 nm blue InGaN laser diode by self-feedback is explored for the first time. The usefulness of the signal to chaotic lidar is evaluated in terms of bandwidth, modulation depth, and autocorrelation peak-to-sidelobe-ratio (PSLR) using both computer and laboratory experiments. In laboratory experiments, the optical feedback technique is shown to be effective in generating wideband, noise-like chaotic signals with strong modulation depth when the diode is operated in an external-cavity dominated state. The modulation signal strength is shown to be limited by the onset of lasing within the diode's internal

  6. 77 FR 68117 - Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Blue Summit Wind, LLC (Blue Summit) filed a...) interconnection facilities that deliver power from the Blue Summit's wind energy generator (Blue Summit...

  7. Facile Synthesis of Prussian Blue Derivate-Modified Mesoporous Material via Photoinitiated Thiol-Ene Click Reaction for Cesium Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Ma, Jiaqi; He, Weiwei; Hua, Daoben

    2015-08-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize a functional mesoporous material for efficient removal of cesium is reported. Specifically, Prussian blue derivate-modified SBA-15 (SBA-15@FC) was prepared by photoinitiated thiol-ene reaction between thiol-modified SBA-15 and pentacyano(4-vinyl pyridine)ferrate complex. The effects of weight percentage of the Prussian blue derivate, pH, adsorbent dose, co-existing ions, and initial concentration were evaluated on the adsorption of cesium ions. The adsorption kinetically follows a pseudo-second-order model and reaches equilibrium within 2 h with a high adsorption capacity of about 13.90 mg Cs g(-1) , which indicates that SBA-15@FC is a promising adsorbent to effectively remove cesium from aqueous solutions.

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue on raw and MTZ/imogolite hybrid surfaces: effect of concentration and calorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Denis L; Batista, Adriano C; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

    2010-11-15

    The synthetic imogolite sample was used for organofunctionalization process with 2-mercaptothiazoline (MTZ). The compound 2-mercaptothiazoline was anchored onto imogolite surface by heterogeneous route. Due to the increment of basic centers attached to the pendant chains the dye adsorption capability of the final chelating material, was found to be higher than is precursor. The ability of these materials to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms at room temperature and pH 4.0. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 40.32×10(-2) and 65.13×10(-2) mmol g(-1) for IMO and IMO(MTZ), respectively. The energetic effects caused by dye cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such methylene blue-nitrogen and sulfur interactions.

  9. The comparison of sonochemistry, electrochemistry and sonoelectrochemistry techniques on decolorization of C.I Reactive Blue 49.

    PubMed

    Radi, M Amin; Nasirizadeh, Navid; Rohani-Moghadam, Masoud; Dehghani, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the ability of three decolorization techniques including sonochemistry, electrochemistry and sonoelectrochemistry for decolorization of C.I Reactive Blue 49 in aqueous solutions have been compared. Various parameters affecting decolorization efficiency, such as pH, initial concentration of the dye, the decolorization time, H2O2 concentration and effect of applied potential on electrochemistry and sonoelectrochemistry, were evaluated. For further comparison, the methods were evaluated based on their ability in COD removal percentage. The maximum COD removal at the optimum condition of each method were 36.0%, 68.0%, 87.8% and 76.2% for sonochemistry, electrochemistry, sonoelectrochemistry with H2O2 and sonoelectrochemistry without H2O2, respectively. The result was an environment friendly method for removal of C.I Reactive Blue 49 from aqueous solutions.

  10. Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

    2013-02-01

    Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  11. Pathogenesis of blue fox parvovirus on blue fox kits and pregnant vixens.

    PubMed

    Veijalainen, P M; Smeds, E

    1988-11-01

    To study the pathogenicity of a newly isolated parvovirus of blue fox (Alopex lagopus), pregnant vixens and 43 kits of different ages were experimentally infected with the agent. The kits had no clinical signs of disease, even though most of them excreted virus in their feces, and they responded immunologically to viral exposure. Infection during pregnancy appeared to affect the fetuses. A group of 15 blue fox vixens inoculated with the virus produced a statistically smaller number of kits (78) than did 15 untreated controls (131). Vaccination with a homologous inactivated virus preparation appeared to afford protection against reproductive losses. After infection, 15 vaccinated vixens gave birth to 97 kits, compared with 54 kits born to a similar, non-vaccinated experimental group.

  12. BLUE JOINT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA, AND BLUE JOINT ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    During field studies of the Blue Joint Wilderness Study Area, Montana, and the Blue Joint Roadless Area, Idaho, areas of substantiated resource potential for epithermal precious-metal vein deposits were identified in areas of hydrothermal alteration and fossil hot springs activity in the Eocene volcanic rocks. Areas with substantiated resource potential for cobalt, copper, silver, and barite resources of the sediment-hosted type were identified in the Proterozoic quartz schist of the eastern part of the area. Probable potential exists for molybdenum in a prophyry system; anomalously high molybdenum values are coincident with high values for precious and base metals and uranium in some places. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  13. Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

    1981-01-01

    Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

  14. Blue starters∷ Brief upward discharges from an intense Arkansas thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Sentman, D. D.; Heavner, M. J.; Hampton, D. L.; Osborne, D. L.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    This paper documents the first observations of a new stratospheric electrical phenomenon associated with thunderstorms. On the night of 30 June (UT 1 July) 1994, 30 examples of these events, which we have called “blue starters,” were observed in a 6 m 44 s interval above the very energetic Arkansas thunderstorm where blue jets were first observed. The blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They are bright and blue in color, and protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km (83,655 ft.) in altitude. All blue starters events were recorded from two small areas near Texarkana, Texas/Arkansas where hail 7.0 cm in diameter was falling. Comparison to cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes revealed: 1. Blue starters were not observed to be coincident with either positive or negative CG flashes, but they do occur in the same general area as negative CG flashes; 2. Cumulative distributions of the negative CG flashes in ±5 s before and after the starter and within a radius of 50 km shows a significant reduction for about 3 s following the event in the two cells where starters and jets were observed. The energy deficit is approximately 109 J. It is possible that blue starters are a short-lived streamer phenomenon.

  15. The Blue Bottle Experiment and Pattern Formation in this System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamčíková, L'.; Ševčík, P.

    1997-09-01

    The methylene blue - saccharide - NaOH system, the so-called "Blue Bottle" experiment was investigated. When this system is poured into an open petri dish, spatial structures start to generate after an induction period. The induction period increases in the order of xylose < glucose < galactose < arabinose < mannose.

  16. Two-dimensional inverse opal hydrogel for pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Meng, Zihui; Qi, Fenglian; Xue, Min; Wang, Fengyan; Chen, Wei; Yan, Zequn

    2014-12-01

    A novel hydrogel film with a highly ordered macropore monolayer on its surface was prepared by templated photo-polymerization of hydrogel monomers on a two-dimensional (2D) polystyrene colloidal array. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel has prominent advantages over traditional three-dimensional (3D) inverse opal hydrogels. First, the formation of the 2D array template through a self-assembly method is considerably faster and simpler. Second, the stable ordering structure of the 2D array template makes it easier to introduce the polymerization solution into the template. Third, a simple measurement, a Debye diffraction ring, is utilized to characterize the neighboring pore spacing of the 2D inverse opal hydrogel. Acrylic acid was copolymerized into the hydrogel; thus, the hydrogel responded to pH through volume change, which resulted from the formation of the Donnan potential. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel showed that the neighboring pore spacing increased by about 150 nm and diffracted color red-shifted from blue to red as the pH increased from pH 2 to 7. In addition, the pH response kinetics and ionic strength effect of this 2D mesoporous polymer film were also investigated. PMID:25292208

  17. Two-dimensional inverse opal hydrogel for pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Meng, Zihui; Qi, Fenglian; Xue, Min; Wang, Fengyan; Chen, Wei; Yan, Zequn

    2014-12-01

    A novel hydrogel film with a highly ordered macropore monolayer on its surface was prepared by templated photo-polymerization of hydrogel monomers on a two-dimensional (2D) polystyrene colloidal array. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel has prominent advantages over traditional three-dimensional (3D) inverse opal hydrogels. First, the formation of the 2D array template through a self-assembly method is considerably faster and simpler. Second, the stable ordering structure of the 2D array template makes it easier to introduce the polymerization solution into the template. Third, a simple measurement, a Debye diffraction ring, is utilized to characterize the neighboring pore spacing of the 2D inverse opal hydrogel. Acrylic acid was copolymerized into the hydrogel; thus, the hydrogel responded to pH through volume change, which resulted from the formation of the Donnan potential. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel showed that the neighboring pore spacing increased by about 150 nm and diffracted color red-shifted from blue to red as the pH increased from pH 2 to 7. In addition, the pH response kinetics and ionic strength effect of this 2D mesoporous polymer film were also investigated.

  18. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. PMID:27288994

  19. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display.

  20. Why are blue visual pigments blue? A resonance Raman microprobe study.

    PubMed Central

    Loppnow, G R; Barry, B A; Mathies, R A

    1989-01-01

    A resonance Raman microscope has been developed to study the structure of the retinal prosthetic group in the visual pigments of individual photoreceptor cells. Raman vibrational spectra are obtained by focusing the probe laser on intact photoreceptors frozen on a 77 K cold stage. To elucidate the mechanism of wavelength regulation in blue visual pigments, we have used this apparatus to study the structure of the chromophore in the 440-nm absorbing pigment found in "green rods" of the toad (Bufo marinus). The 9-cis isorhodopsin form of the green rod pigment exhibits a 1662-cm-1 C = NH+ Schiff base stretching mode that shifts to 1636 cm-1 in deuterium-substituted H2O. This demonstrates that the Schiff base linkage to the protein is protonated. Protonation of the Schiff base is sufficient to explain the 440-nm absorption maximum of this pigment without invoking any additional protein-chromophore interactions. The absence of additional perturbations is supported by the observation that the ethylenic band and the perturbation-sensitive C-10-C-11 and C-14-C-15 stretching modes have the same frequency as those of the 9-cis protonated retinal Schiff base in solution. Our demonstration that a blue visual pigment contains an unperturbed protonated Schiff base provides experimental evidence that the protein charge perturbation responsible for the opsin shift in the 500-nm absorbing pigments is removed in the opsins of blue pigments, as suggested by the sequence data. PMID:2493645

  1. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display. PMID:23053367

  2. Decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye by AOPs using bleach wastewater as source of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Abdullah; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Aamir Amanat Ali; Yousaf, Anwer

    2007-01-01

    This research was focused on the investigation of the efficacy of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, ozonation and UV/H2O2) for decolorization of reactive azo dye (Blue CL-BR) using bleach wastewater as possible source of H202. All the experiments were performed on the laboratory scale set-up. The results showed that colour removal efficiencies by UV or bleach (H2O2) alone were not so efficient. Fenton process with bleach wastewater was found to be the most effective at process conditions such as pH of 3 and H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of 24:1, resulting in 64% colour removal. Almost complete colour removal, i.e., 99% and 95% were achieved by UV/H2O2 and UV/bleach wastewater in 30 and 60 min, respectively. Ozonation proved an efficient method for decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye at alkaline pH. It was possible to achieve 98% colour removal with 30 min of ozonation at pH 9. The colour removal of dye was found to follow first order kinetics.

  3. [Contribution of Trichrome Blue in the diagnosis of microsporidiosis].

    PubMed

    Honoré, P S; Houze, S; Sarfati, C; Challier, S; Kac, G; Le Bras, J; Derouin, F

    1996-01-01

    Detection of microsporidia belongs to the usual coprologic and urine detection of parasites from HIV seropositive patients. To improve the identification of microsporidial spores, several stains have been used. Trichrome Blue stain has been evaluated in this study. We first compared Trichrome Blue stain to Weber's trichrome for the detection of microsporidia in smears of stools received from HIV seropositive patients. No difference of sensibility has been demonstrated between the two stains, and Uvitex 2B used on the same samples has confirmed these results. Then, Trichrome Blue stain has been used for the detection of microsporidial spores in other specimens (40 samples of nasal mucus, conjonctival samples, duodenal biopsy and urine), also Giemsa and Uvitex 2B. The advantage of Trichrome Blue stain is its ready-to-use presentation, and faster realisation at higher temperature. Trichrome Blue stain is interesting as a confirmation technique or for laboratories which do not have fluorescent microscopy equipment.

  4. Kinetics of competitive adsorption of β-casein and methylene blue on hydrophilic glass.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi-mei; Lu, Dan-feng; Deng, Lin; Matsuda, Naoki

    2012-03-01

    The competitive adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and β-casein on hydrophilic glass from an aqueous mixed solution was directly detected at the solution pH smaller than the protein isoelectric point (pI) by means of the waveguide-based broadband time-resolved evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy. The competitive adsorption causes the MB coverage to exponentially decrease with time from its peak value and prevents MB aggregation at the interface. The kinetic equation for the competitive adsorption of binary adsorbates was theoretically deduced based on the Langmuir model, and was used for creating the best fit to the experimental data. In the case of a fixed concentration of MB in the mixed solution, the best-fit parameter τ(-1) increases with the protein concentration at a specific pH and decreases with the solution pH at a given concentration of protein. The findings suggest that the β-casein concentration in sub-μM level can be rapidly determined by the time-resolved waveguide absorptiometry based on the competitive adsorption of MB and protein.

  5. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by Artist's Bracket fungi: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Naghipour, Daryush; Taghavi, Kamran; Moslemzadeh, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye onto Artist's Bracket (AB) fungi was investigated in aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate surface characteristic of AB fungi. Influence of operational parameters such as pH, contact time, biosorbent dosage, dye concentration, inorganic salts and temperature was studied on dye removal efficiency. With the increase of pH from 3 to 9, removal efficiency increased from 74.0% to 90.4%. Also, it reduced from 99.8% to 81.8% with increasing initial MB concentration from 25 mg L(-1) to 100 mg L(-1), whereas it increased from 54.7% to 98.7% and from 98.5% to 99.9% with increasing biosorbent dosage from 0.5 g L(-1) to 2 g L(-1) and with increasing temperature from 25 °C to 50 °C, respectively. Isotherm studies have shown adsorption of MB dye over the AB fungi had a better coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.98 for Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qm) was 100 mg g(-1). Also, the MB dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetic. In general, AB fungi particles can be favorable for removal of MB dye from dye aqueous solution with natural pH and high temperature. PMID:27232421

  6. Adsorption behavior of a textile dye of Reactive Blue 19 from aqueous solutions onto modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gök, Özer; Özcan, A. Safa; Özcan, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) onto modified bentonite from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were investigated in the experimentally. Natural bentonite was modified by using 1,6-diamino hexane (DAH) as a modifying agent. The characterization of modified bentonite (DAH-bentonite) was accomplished by using FTIR, TGA, BET and elemental analysis techniques. The optimum pH value for the adsorption experiments was found to be 1.5 and all the experiments were carried out at this pH value. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model agrees very well with the experimental results. Equilibrium data were also fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model in the studied concentration range of RB19 at 20 °C. The results indicate that DAH-modified bentonite is a suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of textile dyes.

  7. Adsorption of blue copper on a natural and electrochemically treated bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjaji, M.; Mountassir, Y.; Benyaich, A.

    2016-03-01

    Kinetics and equilibrium studies of the adsorption of blue copper on a natural (NC) and electrochemically treated (EMC) bentonite, taken in different experimental conditions, were carried out. Changes of the dye uptake versus operating factors were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). The kinetics at 5-50 °C and pH < 10 obeyed the pseudo-first-order equation. Beyond pH 10, the pseudo-second-order equation also was suitable. The kinetics for NC was essentially controlled by external diffusion. However, both internal and external diffusion were the rate-limiting steps of the EMC kinetics. The NC isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model and the maximum uptake was around 21 mg/g. In the case of EMC, the Freundlich equation was rather fitting. Dye adsorption on both sorbents was a non-spontaneous process (2 < Δ G T 0 < 8 kJ/mol). According to the RSM results, pH had a negative impact on the dye adsorption and was the most influential factor in the case of EMC. For NC, the clay dose was rather the most important parameter.

  8. Oxidative degradation of Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133 by soybean peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Marchis, Tatiana; Avetta, Paola; Bianco-Prevot, Alessandra; Fabbri, Debora; Viscardi, Guido; Laurenti, Enzo

    2011-02-01

    Reactive dyes are widely employed in textile industries and their removal from wastewaters is a relevant environmental problem. In addition to chemical and physical methods, several bioremediation approaches, involving intact micro-organisms or isolated enzymes, have been proposed to decolorize dye solutions. In this paper, we report the complete and fast decolourization of a Cu(II)-phthalocyanine based reactive dye (Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133) by means of the soybean peroxidase/H(2)O(2) system. The oxidative degradation of the dye in aqueous solution at 25°C was studied as function of pH, revealing a quantitative decolourization yield at acidic pH values with a maximum of activity at pH 3.3. The reaction products were identified and characterized by HPLC-diode array detector (DAD)-mass spectrometry (MS), ionic chromatography and EPR techniques. This analysis showed that the enzyme catalyses the breaking of the phthalocyanine ring producing sulfophthalimide as the main degradation product, and the release of stoichiometric amount of ammonium and Cu(II) ions. PMID:21194634

  9. Oxidative degradation of Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133 by soybean peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Marchis, Tatiana; Avetta, Paola; Bianco-Prevot, Alessandra; Fabbri, Debora; Viscardi, Guido; Laurenti, Enzo

    2011-02-01

    Reactive dyes are widely employed in textile industries and their removal from wastewaters is a relevant environmental problem. In addition to chemical and physical methods, several bioremediation approaches, involving intact micro-organisms or isolated enzymes, have been proposed to decolorize dye solutions. In this paper, we report the complete and fast decolourization of a Cu(II)-phthalocyanine based reactive dye (Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133) by means of the soybean peroxidase/H(2)O(2) system. The oxidative degradation of the dye in aqueous solution at 25°C was studied as function of pH, revealing a quantitative decolourization yield at acidic pH values with a maximum of activity at pH 3.3. The reaction products were identified and characterized by HPLC-diode array detector (DAD)-mass spectrometry (MS), ionic chromatography and EPR techniques. This analysis showed that the enzyme catalyses the breaking of the phthalocyanine ring producing sulfophthalimide as the main degradation product, and the release of stoichiometric amount of ammonium and Cu(II) ions.

  10. Photosynthetic regeneration of ATP using a strain of thermophilic blue-green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, Y.; Kanayama, K.; Ochiai, H.

    1982-02-01

    Photosynthetic ATP accumulation was shown in the presence of exogenous ADP plus ortho-phosphate on illumination to the intact cells of a strain of thermophilic blue-green algae isolated from Matsue hot springs, Mastigocladus sp. Kinetic studies of various effectors on the ATP accumulation proved that the ATP synthesis depends mainly on the cyclic photophosphorylation system around photosystem I (PS-I) in the algal cells. The temperature and pH optima for the accumulation were found at 45 degrees C and pH 7.5. Maximum yield was obtained with light intensity higher than 15 mW/squared cm. Borate ion exerted pronounced enhancement on the ATP synthesis. With a continuous reactor at a flow rate of 1 ml/hour at 45 degrees C and pH 7.5, efficient photoconversion of ADP (2mM, at substrate reservoir) to ATP (1mM, at product outlet) has been maintained for a period of 2.5 days, though the efficiency has decreased in a further 2-day period to the level of 0.5 mM ATP/9.5 h of residence time. (Refs. 24).

  11. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). The certification was amended... Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et...,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management...

  12. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  13. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. This action is in response to two... additional copolymers of 1,4-bis anthraquinone (C.I. Reactive Blue 246) as color additives in contact lenses... and/or acrylic monomers for use in coloring contact lenses.\\2\\ The petitions sought to expand the...

  14. 78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. DATES: Effective date confirmed: May 2, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regarding CAP 1C0291 (C.I. Reactive Blue 246... rule that published in the Federal Register of April 1, 2013 (78 FR 19413), and that amended the...

  15. Production and Processing Traits of Blue Catfish, Blue Catfish X Channel Catfish Hybrids, and Two Strains of Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is the primary species used in commercial catfish farming. However, increased incidence of disease and associated economic losses have led to speculation that other catfish species or hybrids also have potential. In this study production and processing traits of blue catfish, blue x ...

  16. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  17. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  18. MRF with adjustable pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2011-10-01

    Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

  19. Tracking of proton flow during transition from anaerobiosis to steady state. 2. Effect of cation uptake on the response of a hydrophobic membrane bound pH indicator.

    PubMed

    Luvisetto, S; Cola, C; Schmehl, I; Azzone, G F

    1991-11-15

    1. During aerobic cation uptake in liver mitochondria, the hydrophobic pH indicator bromothymol blue undergoes a multiphase response: phase 1 (rapid acidification), phase 2 (slow alkalinization), phase 3 (rapid alkalinization) and phase 4 (reacidification). 2. Titrations with ruthenium red and malonate indicate that the various phases depend on the relative rates of cation uptake and proton translocation: at high rates of cation uptake, phase 1 disappears and phases 2 and 3 are transformed in a monotonic process of alkalinization. 3. The comparison of the bromothymol blue response with the arsenazo III, 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and safranine responses indicates that: (a) phase 2 (slow alkalinization) corresponds to a slow rise of matrix pH and a parallel decline of membrane potential; (b) phase 3 (rapid alkalinization) corresponds to termination of proton translocation and initiation of the processes of cation efflux and proton reuptake. All the above processes reach completion during phase 4. 4. Although bromothymol blue always behaves as a membrane-bound indicator, the extent to which it reflects the matrix or the cytosolic pH is a function of the membrane-potential-determined asymmetric distribution: in parallel with the lowering of the membrane potential, the dye chromophore is shifted from the cytosolic to the matrix side membrane layer. 5. A model is discussed which describes the behaviour of bromothymol blue as pH indicator recording the changes in membrane layers facing either the matrix or the cytosolic side. The complex response of the dye during cation uptake is due to two independent processes, one of pH change and another of dye intramembrane shift. Computer simulations of the dye response, based on the conversion of a kinetic model into an electrical network and closely reproducing the experimental observations, are reported. PMID:1718751

  20. A microdestructive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; González-Herráez, Miguel; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-26

    This manuscript describes the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the detection of acid and basic dyes and its application to real samples, blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper. First, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation of basic and acid dyes, by studying the separation medium (buffer nature, pH and relative amount of additive) and instrumental parameters (temperature, voltage and capillary dimensions). The method performance was evaluated in terms of selectivity, resolution (above 5 and 2 for acid dyes and basic dyes, respectively, except for two basic dye standards), LOD (lower than 0.4 mg/L) and precision as intraday and interday RSD values of peak migration times (lower than 0.6%). The developed method was then applied to 34 blue pens from different technologies (rollerball, ballpoint, markers) and with different ink composition (gel, water-based, oil-based). A microdestructive sample treatment using a scalpel to scratch 0.3mg of ink stroke was performed. The entire electropherogram profile allowed the visual discrimination between different types of ink and brands, being not necessary a statistical treatment. A 100% of discrimination was achieved between pen technologies, brands, and models, although non-reproducible zones in the electropherograms were found for blue gel pen samples. The two different batches of blue oil-based pens were also differentiated. Thus, this method provides a simple, microdestructive, and rapid analysis of different blue pen technologies which may complement the current analysis of questioned documents performed by forensic laboratories. PMID:26003620

  1. Highly Efficient Multiphoton-Pumped Frequency-Upconversion Stimulated Blue Emission with Ultralow Threshold from Highly Extended Ladder-Type Oligo(p-phenylene)s.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Li, King Fai; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Cheah, Kok Wai; Wong, Man Shing

    2016-08-26

    A series of highly extended π-conjugated ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene)s containing up to 10 phenyl rings with (L)-Ph(n)-NPh (n=7-10) or without diphenylamino endcaps (L)-Ph(n) (n=7 and 8) were synthesized and investigated for their multiphoton absorption properties for frequency upconverted blue ASE/lasing. Extremely large two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-sections and highly efficient 2PA ASE/lasing with ultralow threshold were achieved. (L)-Ph(10)-NPh exhibits the highest intrinsic 2PA cross-section of 3643 GM for a blue emissive organic fluorophore reported so far. The record-high 2PA pumped ASE/lasing efficiency of 2.06 % was obtained by un-endcapped oligomer, (L)-Ph(8) rather than that with larger σ2 , suggesting that a molecule with larger σ2 is not guaranteed to exhibit higher η2 . All of these oligomers exhibit exceptionally ultralow 2PA pumped ASE/lasing thresholds, among which the lowest 2PA pumped threshold of circa 0.26 μJ was achieved by (L)-Ph(10)-NPh. PMID:27485210

  2. Immobilized pH gradients (IPG) simulator--an additional step in pH gradient engineering: II. Nonlinear pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Righetti, P G; Tonani, C

    1991-12-01

    While in the companion paper (Tonani, C. & Righetti, P. G., Electrophoresis 1991, 12, 1011-1021) we gave the general outline of our new computer program, immobilized pH gradients (IPG) simulator, able to simulate and optimize linear pH gradients for isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients, in the present report we extend the application of such a program to: (i) convex exponential gradients, (ii) logarithmic and (iii) polynomial gradients. Such gradients are meant to give equal space to protein spots in complex protein mixtures (e.g., cell lysates, biological fluids) and follow the statistical distribution of protein pI values along the pH axis. They will prove of fundamental importance in two-dimensional maps, both because they optimize the spreading of spots in the two-dimensional plane and because of the excellent reproducibility of immobilized pH gradients. The following concave exponential recipes are given: pH 3-8, pH 3-9, pH 3-10, pH 3-11, pH 4-7, pH 4-8, pH 4-9, pH 4-10, pH 4-11, pH 5-8, pH 5-9, and pH 5-10, as well as the most extended pH 2.5-11 interval. Two interesting logarithmic gradients are described: pH 3-6 and pH 3-7 and one sigmoidal (derived with a polynomial of 5th degree): pH 3-11.

  3. Evaluation of Experimentally Measured and Model-Calculated pH for Rock-Brine-CO2 Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-14

    Reliable pH estimation is essential for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies of formation reactivities conducted under geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH; however, the accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In this study, we expanded the measurement range of a spectrophotometric method for pH determination, and we applied the method to measure the pH in batch-reactor experiments utilizing rock samples from five ongoing GCS demonstration projects. A combination of color-changing pH indicators, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green, was shown to enable measurements over the pH range of 2.5-5.2. In-situ pH measurements were compared with pH values calculated using geochemical models. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. For rocks comprised of carbonate, siltstone, and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain proton consuming and producing reactions that occur between the basalt minerals and CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  4. An immunocytochemical study of pituitary cells of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup 1858).

    PubMed

    Rendon, C; Rodriguez-Gomez, F J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; Piñuela, C; Sarasquete, C

    1997-01-01

    Different antisera directed against mammalian and piscine pituitary hormones, as well as a battery of various conventional histochemical techniques (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2.5, Bromophenol Blue) and lectins, were used to identify the different hormonal cell types in the pituitary of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. Prolactin and adrenocorticotrophic cells were located in the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary. Gonadotrophic, thyrotrophic and growth hormone cells were distributed in the proximal pars distalis, but gonadotrophic cells appear also at the border of the pars intermedia. Somatolactin cells, as well as alpha-melanotrophic cells were located in the pars intermedia of the Solea senegalensis pituitary. The PAS reaction was positive in somatolactin cells, which were unreactive with the lead-Haematoxylin technique, whereas melanotrophic cells were positive. Glycoproteins containing mannose and/or glucose, as well as N-acetyl-glucosamine and sialic acid sugar residues, are synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophic, thyrotrophic and somatolactin cells. Adrenocorticotrophic cells and, especially, the amphiphilic somatolactin and acidophilic growth hormone cells were stained with the Bromophenol Blue technique that identifies proteins in general, but adrenocorticotrophic and growth hormone cells were unreactive towards PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2.5 and lectins (Con A and WGA).

  5. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  6. Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. )

    1988-03-01

    A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

  7. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  8. pH fluorescent probes: chlorinated fluoresceins.

    PubMed

    Ge, Feng-Yan; Chen, Li-Gong

    2008-01-01

    A series of regiospecific chlorinated fluoresceins have been synthesized by the reaction of the regiospecific chlorinated resorcinols with chlorinated phthalic anhydride. The regioisomers were successfully separated by chromatography. The photophysical properties of the obtained chlorinated fluoresceins were examined and found their absorption and emission maxima at long wavelength with high fluorescence quantum yield. Especially, pH-dependent properties of chlorinated fluoresceins have been studied in detail. These compounds show strongly pH-sensitive range of 3.5-7.0, and have lower pK (a) values than fluorescein. Furthermore, their fluorescent intensity could reach the maximum in the physiological environment of pH range 6.8-7.4. Due to higher fluorescence quantum yield and lower pK (a) values, chlorinated fluoresceins will be expected to be used as excellent pH fluorescent probes for pH measurement of the acidic cell.

  9. Pattern recognition of ocean pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Albert

    2016-09-01

    The manuscript shows how the few, scattered, latest measurements of ocean pH lacking a proper spatial and time coverage do not permit a meaningful computation of global trends, as the ocean pH is strongly variable in latitude, longitude and depth and very likely is subject to the multi-decadal oscillations that have been identified in the atmospheric and ocean systems. The proposed mathematical model is based on the assumption that the monthly averaged ocean pH may be described by the superposition of a linear trend and inter-annual, decadal and multi-decadal oscillations, with linear and sinusoidal regression coefficients requiring data that are presently unavailable.

  10. Blue-green pulsed propagation through fog.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, G C; Geller, M; Stotts, L B; Stephens, D H; Krautwald, R A

    1979-02-15

    Measurements and analysis of a blue-green pulsed propagation through fog have identified three distinct regions for energy transport. Region I small number of attenuation lengths tau in the path (0 32): the direct beam and the forwardscattered beam have decayed to the point where the diffusion type multiple-scattered radiation is the dominant energy received. This component does not decay exponentially but results in large spatial, angular, and temporal spreading. This paper presents quantitative data on Region II. PMID:20208740

  11. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis.

  12. Blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade.

    PubMed

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wetcharungsri, Jutaphet; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara; Ajayan, Pulickel Madhavapanicker; Tang, I-Ming; Asanithi, Piyapong

    2016-12-01

    Carbon-based photoluminescent nanodot has currently been one of the promising materials for various applications. The remaining challenges are the carbon sources and the simple synthetic processes that enhance the quantum yield, photostability and biocompatibility of the nanodots. In this work, the synthesis of blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade via a single-step hydrothermal carbonization process is presented. Lime carbon nanodot (L-CnD), whose the quantum yield exceeding 50% for the 490nm emission in gram-scale amounts, has the structure of graphene core functionalized with the oxygen functional groups. The micron-sized flake of the as-prepared L-CnD powder exhibits multicolor emission depending on an excitation wavelength. The L-CnDs are demonstrated for rapidly ferric-ion (Fe(3+)) detection in water compared to Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) ions. The photoluminescence quenching of L-CnD solution under UV light is used to distinguish the Fe(3+) ions from others by naked eyes as low concentration as 100μM. Additionally, L-CnDs provide exceptional photostability and biocompatibility for imaging yeast cell morphology. Changes in morphology of living yeast cells, i.e. cell shape variation, and budding, can be observed in a minute-period until more than an hour without the photoluminescent intensity loss. PMID:27612786

  13. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis. PMID:24006536

  14. The 100 brigthest Blue Straggler Stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Durán, C.; Llorente de Andrés, F.; Ahumada, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Blue straggler stars (BSS) are characterized by their appearance in the CMD of globular and open clusters, in the Main Sequence extension, above the turn-off and blueward of this. In accordance with the Standard Theory of stellar evolution, BSS should be out of the Main Sequence and over the Giant Branch if they really belong to the cluster and are formed at the same time than the rest of cluster stars. There are several theories that try to explain the existence of BSS but at present prevails the idea that they can be the product of mass transfer in binaries (McCrea, 1964), and the luminosity of the receiver star is incremented in such a way that now it is over the Main Sequence turn-off point of its cluster. Also it is believed that they are the result of stellar fussion of two or several stars, specially in dense systems as the globular cluster nucleus. This work is focalised in all the BSS brihgter the V = 10 mag. that we have been able to identify in open clusters. It is a sample unprecedented by its number and as well it is a sample with plentiful observational information, it is why we hope to be able to assure their membership to the parent cluster and obtain reliable information about their possible origin.

  15. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  16. Brighter yellow blue tits make better parents.

    PubMed Central

    Senar, J C; Figuerola, J; Pascual, J

    2002-01-01

    Whether or not bird ornaments are a signal for direct (e.g. good parents) or indirect (e.g. good genes) benefits to prospective partners in sexual selection is controversial. Carotene coloration in Parus species is directly related to the ingestion of caterpillars, so that a brightly carotene-coloured tit may be signalling its ability to find caterpillars, a main high-quality food source for good fledgling development, and hence its parental abilities. If carotene-based plumage coloration is related to the good-parent hypothesis, we predict that yellow plumage brightness of tit fathers should be positively correlated to their investment in offspring provisioning. Here, we use cross-fostering experiments in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to show that chick development (as measured by tarsus length) is related to yellowness of the foster father, but not to that of the genetic parents. Using these data, we were able to measure, for the first time to our knowledge, the separate contribution of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. parental plumage coloration) to chick development, and hence parental investment. Our data, which relate carotenoid coloration to models of good parents, and data from other authors, which relate ultraviolet coloration to good-genes models, stress that different kinds of coloration within an individual may provide different units of information to prospective females. PMID:11839194

  17. The outlook for blue-phase LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

  18. Ambipolar Phosphine Derivatives to Attain True Blue OLEDs with 6.5% EQE.

    PubMed

    Kondrasenko, Ilya; Tsai, Zheng-Hua; Chung, Kun-You; Chen, Yi-Ting; Ershova, Yana Yu; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Hung, Wen-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai; Karttunen, Antti J; Koshevoy, Igor O

    2016-05-01

    A family of new branched phosphine derivatives {Ph2N-(C6H4)n-}3P → E (E = O 1-3, n = 1-3; E = S 4-6, n = 1-3; E = Se 7-9, n = 1-3; E = AuC6F5 4-6, n = 1-3), which are the donor-acceptor type molecules, exhibit efficient deep blue room temperature fluorescence (λem = 403-483 nm in CH2Cl2 solution, λem = 400-469 nm in the solid state). Fine tuning the emission characteristics can be achieved varying the length of aromatic oligophenylene bridge -(C6H4)n-. The pyramidal geometry of central R3P → E fragment on the one hand disrupts π-conjugation between the branches to preserve blue luminescence and high triplet energy, while on the other hand provides amorphous materials to prevent excimer formation and fluorescence self-quenching. Hence, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 12 were used as emitters to fabricate nondoped and doped electroluminescent devices. The luminophore 2 (E = O, n = 2) demonstrates excellently balanced bipolar charge transport and good nondoped device performance with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQEmax) of 3.3% at 250 cd/m(2) and Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.08). The doped device of 3 (E = O, n = 3) shows higher efficiency (EQEmax of 6.5, 6.0 at 100 cd/m(2)) and high color purity with CIE (0.15, 0.06) that matches the HDTV standard blue. The time-resolved electroluminescence measurement indicates that high efficiency of the device can be attributed to the triplet-triplet annihilation to enhance generation of singlet excitons. PMID:27100797

  19. Immune defense reduces respiratory fitness in Callinectes sapidus, the Atlantic blue crab.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Louis E; Holman, Jeremy D; Jorgensen, Darwin D; Ikerd, Jennifer L; Burnett, Karen G

    2006-08-01

    Crustacean gills function in gas exchange, ion transport, and immune defense against microbial pathogens. Hemocyte aggregates that form in response to microbial pathogens become trapped in the fine vasculature of the gill, leading to the suggestion by others that respiration and ion regulation might by impaired during the course of an immune response. In the present study, injection of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio campbellii into Callinectes sapidus, the Atlantic blue crab, caused a dramatic decline in oxygen uptake from 4.53 to 2.56 micromol g-1 h-1. This decline in oxygen uptake is associated with a large decrease in postbranchial PO2, from 16.2 (+/-0.46 SEM, n=7) to 13.1 kPa (+/-0.77 SEM, n=9), while prebranchial PO2 remains unchanged. In addition, injection of Vibrio results in the disappearance of a pH change across the gills, an indication of reduced CO2 excretion. The hemolymph hydrostatic pressure change across the gill circulation increases nearly 2-fold in Vibrio-injected crabs compared with a negligible change in pressure across the gill circulation in saline-injected, control crabs. This change, in combination with stability of heart rate and branchial chamber pressure, is indicative of a significant increase in vascular resistance across the gills that is induced by hemocyte nodule formation. A healthy, active blue crab can eliminate most invading bacteria, but the respiratory function of the gills is impaired. Thus, when blue crabs are engaged in the immune response, they are less equipped to engage in oxygen-fueled activities such as predator avoidance, prey capture, and migration. Furthermore, crabs are less fit to invade environments that are hypoxic.

  20. Ambipolar Phosphine Derivatives to Attain True Blue OLEDs with 6.5% EQE.

    PubMed

    Kondrasenko, Ilya; Tsai, Zheng-Hua; Chung, Kun-You; Chen, Yi-Ting; Ershova, Yana Yu; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Hung, Wen-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai; Karttunen, Antti J; Koshevoy, Igor O

    2016-05-01

    A family of new branched phosphine derivatives {Ph2N-(C6H4)n-}3P → E (E = O 1-3, n = 1-3; E = S 4-6, n = 1-3; E = Se 7-9, n = 1-3; E = AuC6F5 4-6, n = 1-3), which are the donor-acceptor type molecules, exhibit efficient deep blue room temperature fluorescence (λem = 403-483 nm in CH2Cl2 solution, λem = 400-469 nm in the solid state). Fine tuning the emission characteristics can be achieved varying the length of aromatic oligophenylene bridge -(C6H4)n-. The pyramidal geometry of central R3P → E fragment on the one hand disrupts π-conjugation between the branches to preserve blue luminescence and high triplet energy, while on the other hand provides amorphous materials to prevent excimer formation and fluorescence self-quenching. Hence, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 12 were used as emitters to fabricate nondoped and doped electroluminescent devices. The luminophore 2 (E = O, n = 2) demonstrates excellently balanced bipolar charge transport and good nondoped device performance with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQEmax) of 3.3% at 250 cd/m(2) and Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.08). The doped device of 3 (E = O, n = 3) shows higher efficiency (EQEmax of 6.5, 6.0 at 100 cd/m(2)) and high color purity with CIE (0.15, 0.06) that matches the HDTV standard blue. The time-resolved electroluminescence measurement indicates that high efficiency of the device can be attributed to the triplet-triplet annihilation to enhance generation of singlet excitons.

  1. Effect of a magnetic field on the adsorptive removal of methylene blue onto wheat straw biochar.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoting; Zhu, Weiyong; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weigao

    2016-04-01

    Biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straw was innovatively used for the adsorptive removal of cationic dye methylene blue through exposure to a magnetic field. The adsorption capability of the biochar pyrolyzed at 200 °C exceeded that of samples pyrolyzed at higher temperatures. The surface acidic functional groups of wheat straw biochar were deduced to be more sensitive to the effects of the external magnetic field. The enhancement of the magnetic field achieved by increases in the initial dye concentration, and a decrease in the biochar dosage and solution pH, were more significant compared with those caused by other conditions. Kinetic experiments indicated that chemisorption occurred during adsorption. The qmax values for dye adsorption without, and with, an external magnetic field were found to be 46.6 and 62.5mg/g, respectively. These demonstrated that wheat straw biochar could be used for the efficient adsorption of pollutants when assisted by an external magnetic field.

  2. Study on the methylene blue adsorption from wastewaters by pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junming; Lin, Bing; Hong, Gui-Bing; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge (ECF) by the batch adsorption technique was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing MB concentration but decreased as pH was increased. In order to investigate the adsorption mechanisms, three simplified isotherm models and kinetic models were used in this study. The best-fit adsorption isotherm was achieved with the Temkin model. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model agreed very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of MB onto ECF. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process of MB onto ECF was spontaneous and exothermic. The results indicated that ECF adsorbed MB efficiently and could be used as a waste adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  3. ``Red-to-blue'' colorimetric detection of cysteine via anti-etching of silver nanoprisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonglong; Li, Zihou; Gao, Yuexia; Gong, An; Zhang, Yujie; Hosmane, Narayan S.; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2014-08-01

    The reported strategies for cysteine (Cys) colorimetric detection based on noble metal nanomaterials include triggering aggregation, etching or fluorescence quenching of nanomaterials by Cys. In this study, we propose a new strategy for Cys colorimetric detection, i.e. anti-etching of silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs). In the absence of Cys, iodide ions (I-) could etch the corners and edges of AgNPRs and induce the morphology transition from nanoprism to nanodisk, which results in color change of the AgNPR dispersion from blue to red. In its presence, however, Cys can prevent the AgNPRs from I- attack. In that case, the color of the AgNPR dispersion containing I- and Cys remains blue. The mechanism is confirmed by using UV-vis spectra, TEM, DLS, Raman spectra and XPS spectra. According to the sensing effect of the Cys detection system, the concentration of I- incubated with AgNPRs, incubation time of AgNPRs and I-, and pH of AgNPR dispersions are optimized to 5.0 μM, 10 min, and pH 6.2, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed Cys detection system has excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. The limit of detection (LOD) of our Cys detection system is 25 nM by the naked eye, which is much better than the reported lowest LOD by eye-vision (100 nM), and 10 nM by UV-vis spectroscopy. The results of Cys detection in rabbit urine or plasma samples reinforce that our Cys detection system is applicable for rapid colorimetric detection of Cys in real body fluid samples.The reported strategies for cysteine (Cys) colorimetric detection based on noble metal nanomaterials include triggering aggregation, etching or fluorescence quenching of nanomaterials by Cys. In this study, we propose a new strategy for Cys colorimetric detection, i.e. anti-etching of silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs). In the absence of Cys, iodide ions (I-) could etch the corners and edges of AgNPRs and induce the morphology transition from nanoprism to nanodisk, which results in color change of the

  4. Thallium(I) sorption using Prussian blue immobilized in alginate capsules.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Thierry; Taulemesse, Jean-Marie; Dauvergne, Agnès; Chanut, Thomas; Testa, Flaviano; Guibal, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Prussian blue (PB) was immobilized in alginate capsules. The composite sorbent was used for the recovery of Tl(I) ions from slightly acidic solutions: optimum pH being close to 4. The sorption isotherm can be described by the bi-site Langmuir sorption isotherm. This means that the metal ion can be bound through two different sorption sites: one having a strong affinity for Tl(I) (probably PB), the other having a lower affinity (probably the encapsulating material). The kinetics are described by either the pseudo-second order rate equation or the Crank's equation (resistance to intraparticle diffusion). The ionic strength (increased by addition of NaCl, KCl or CaCl₂) slightly decreased sorption capacity. The SEM-EDX analysis of PB-alginate capsules (before and after Tl(I) sorption) shows that the PB is homogeneously distributed in the capsules and that all reactive groups remain available for metal binding.

  5. Prussian blue-modified nanoporous gold film electrode for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Seyran; Mehrgardi, Masoud Ayatollahi

    2014-08-01

    In this manuscript, the electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxides on Prussian blue (PB) modified nanoporous gold film (NPGF) electrode is described. The PB/NPGF is prepared by simple anodizing of a smooth gold film followed by PB film electrodeposition method. The morphology of the PB/NPGF electrode is characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of solution pH and the scan rates on the voltammetric responses of hydrogen peroxide have also been examined. The amperometric determination of H2O2 shows two linear dynamic responses over the concentration range of 1μM-10μM and 10μM-100μM with a detection limit of 3.6×10(-7)M. Furthermore, this electrode demonstrated good stability, repeatability and selectivity remarkably.

  6. Current control by electrode coatings formed by polymerization of dopamine at prussian blue-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bowen; Su, Lei; Yang, Hankun; Shu, Tong; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-03-21

    Electrode coating with polydopamine (PDA) is fast becoming a popular surface modification technique. In this study we report the investigation of the use of PDA as electrode coatings with Prussian blue (PB) as an electrode material model. The PB layer was galvanostatically deposited at an Au electrode, followed by PDA coating with the assistance of ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The thickness of PDA coatings was measured to be ∼60 nm. Electrochemical characterization of the PDA-coated PB electrode revealed that the PDA coatings could stabilize the PB at neutral pH and allow the permeation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the PDA coatings were found to effectively exclude the common interfering compounds such as cysteine, ascorbic acid and uric acid, and exhibit selective electrocatalysis towards the electroreduction of H2O2. Accordingly, the PDA-coated PB electrode was applied for determination of H2O2 released from live cells.

  7. Current control by electrode coatings formed by polymerization of dopamine at prussian blue-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bowen; Su, Lei; Yang, Hankun; Shu, Tong; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-03-21

    Electrode coating with polydopamine (PDA) is fast becoming a popular surface modification technique. In this study we report the investigation of the use of PDA as electrode coatings with Prussian blue (PB) as an electrode material model. The PB layer was galvanostatically deposited at an Au electrode, followed by PDA coating with the assistance of ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The thickness of PDA coatings was measured to be ∼60 nm. Electrochemical characterization of the PDA-coated PB electrode revealed that the PDA coatings could stabilize the PB at neutral pH and allow the permeation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the PDA coatings were found to effectively exclude the common interfering compounds such as cysteine, ascorbic acid and uric acid, and exhibit selective electrocatalysis towards the electroreduction of H2O2. Accordingly, the PDA-coated PB electrode was applied for determination of H2O2 released from live cells. PMID:26876689

  8. Comparison effects and dielectric properties of different dose methylene-blue-doped hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, O; Coşkun, R; Okutan, M; Öztürk, M

    2013-08-01

    The dielectric properties of methylene blue (MB)-doped hydrogels were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The real part (ε') and the imaginary part (ε") of the complex dielectric constant and the energy loss tangent/dissipation factor (tan δ) were measured in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 MHz at room temperature for pH 5.5 value. Frequency variations of the resistance, the reactance, and the impedance of the samples have also been investigated. The dielectric permittivity of the MB-doped hydrogels is sensitive to ionic conduction and electrode polarization in low frequency. Furthermore, the dielectric behavior in high-frequency parts was attributed to the Brownian motion of the hydrogen bonds. The ionic conduction for MB-doped samples was prevented for Cole-Cole plots, while the Cole-Cole plots for pure sample show equivalent electrical circuit. The alternative current (ac) conductivity increases with the increasing MB concentration and the frequency.

  9. Ratiometric imaging of pH probes.

    PubMed

    Grillo-Hill, Bree K; Webb, Bradley A; Barber, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of intracellular pH can be readily accomplished using tools and methods described in this chapter. We present a discussion of technical considerations of various ratiometric pH-sensitive probes including dyes and genetically encoded sensors. These probes can be used to measure pH across physical scales from macroscopic whole-mount tissues down to organelles and subcellular domains. We describe protocols for loading pH-sensitive probes into single cells or tissues and discuss ratiometric image acquisition and analysis.

  10. Prophylaxis and reversal of ifosfamide encephalopathy with methylene-blue.

    PubMed

    Küpfer, A; Aeschlimann, C; Wermuth, B; Cerny, T

    1994-03-26

    The antineoplastic ifosfamide produces dose-dependent signs of neurotoxicity. After ifosfamide overdose in a patient, we found excessive urinary excretion of glutaric acid and sarcosine, which is compatible with glutaric aciduria type II, a defect in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation that results from defective electron transfer to flavoproteins. We therefore used the electron-accepting drug methylene-blue as an antidote for ifosfamide encephalopathy. In one patient, ifosfamide neurotoxicity was rapidly reversed by methylene-blue 50 mg intravenously. In another patient with previous episodes of ifosfamide encephalopathy, methylene-blue was administered orally prophylactically. No symptoms of neurotoxicity were noted.

  11. Combatant eye protection: an introduction to the blue light hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimore, Morris R.

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence of metabolic vulnerability to visible blue light is vitally important, as it is indicative of a scalable threshold effect. Added stressors (e.g., increased altitude or contact lens wear) could shift the wavelength effects toward a more damaging clinical picture. Recent reports have indicated rod photo-pigment damage resulting from solar blue-light exposures, adversely affecting unaided night vision, a militarily important performance decrement. The activation wavelength for the daily synchronous setting of the Circadian Clock, which regulates the synchronization of all hormonal and organ systems throughout the body, falls within this blue light perceptual range.

  12. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  13. Synthesis, Photoluminescence and Bio-Targeting Applications of Blue Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Zhou, Ji; Zhou, Wenhua; Shi, Jilong; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Fu, Ming; Zhang, Yongna

    2016-04-01

    Chemical derived graphene oxide, an atomically thin sheet of graphite with two-dimensional construction, offers interesting physical, electronic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties that are currently being explored for advanced physics electronics, membranes, and composites. Herein, we study graphene quantum dots (GQD) with the blue photoluminescence under various parameters. The GQD samples were prepared at different temperatures, and the blue photoluminescence intensity of the solution improved radically as the heating temperatures increased. Concerning PL peak and intensity of the quantum dots, the results demonstrated dependence on time under heating, temperature of heating, and pH adjusted by the addition of sodium hydroxide. After hydrothermal synthesis routes, the functional groups of graphene oxide were altered the morphology showed the stacking configuration, and self-assembled structure of the graphene sheets with obvious wrinkles appeared at the edge structures. In addition, absorption, PL, and PLE spectra of the graphene quantum dots increase with different quantities of sodium hydroxide added. Finally, using GQD to target PNTIA cells was carried out successfully. High uptake efficiency and no cytotoxic effects indicate graphene quantum dots can be suitable for bio-targeting.

  14. Potential biosorbent derived from Calligonum polygonoides for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R (2)) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of methylene blue by a magnetic graphene-carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peifang; Cao, Muhan; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2014-01-01

    A solvothermal method was employed to prepare a novel magnetic composite adsorbent composed of graphene, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the particle size distribution of the samples before and after adsorption was also carried out. The performance of as-prepared composites was investigated by the adsorption of dye methylene blue. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of the samples was up to 65.79 mg g-1, which was almost equal to the sum of magnetic graphene and magnetic MWCNTs. The effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption performance of methylene blue onto the magnetic adsorbents was investigated. The kinetic was well-described by pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model, while the isotherm obeyed the Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, the as-prepared composites were found to be regenerative and reusable. The application in the treatment of an artificial dye wastewater and its cost estimation were also discussed. Therefore, the as-prepared magnetic composites can be severed as a potential adsorbent for removal of dye pollutant, owing to its high adsorption performance, magnetic separability and efficient recyclable property.

  16. Synthesis, Photoluminescence and Bio-Targeting Applications of Blue Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Zhou, Ji; Zhou, Wenhua; Shi, Jilong; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Fu, Ming; Zhang, Yongna

    2016-04-01

    Chemical derived graphene oxide, an atomically thin sheet of graphite with two-dimensional construction, offers interesting physical, electronic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties that are currently being explored for advanced physics electronics, membranes, and composites. Herein, we study graphene quantum dots (GQD) with the blue photoluminescence under various parameters. The GQD samples were prepared at different temperatures, and the blue photoluminescence intensity of the solution improved radically as the heating temperatures increased. Concerning PL peak and intensity of the quantum dots, the results demonstrated dependence on time under heating, temperature of heating, and pH adjusted by the addition of sodium hydroxide. After hydrothermal synthesis routes, the functional groups of graphene oxide were altered the morphology showed the stacking configuration, and self-assembled structure of the graphene sheets with obvious wrinkles appeared at the edge structures. In addition, absorption, PL, and PLE spectra of the graphene quantum dots increase with different quantities of sodium hydroxide added. Finally, using GQD to target PNTIA cells was carried out successfully. High uptake efficiency and no cytotoxic effects indicate graphene quantum dots can be suitable for bio-targeting. PMID:27451650

  17. Localization of gonadotrophic hormones in the dog pituitary gland. A study using immunoenzyme histochemistry and chemical staining.

    PubMed

    El Etreby, M F; Fath El Bab, M R

    1977-09-26

    Using the immunoperoxidase technique and antisera to the specific beta (beta) subunits of FSH and LH1, selective immunochemical staining was localized mostly in the same cell type in the pars distalis and pars tuberalis of the dog pituitary gland. However, some cells were consistently shown to react solely with antisera to either LH beta of FSH beta. The cells stained for FSH beta were at least 1.5 times less numerous than those shown to contain LH beta. In the pars distalis of adult male dogs the immunoreactive gonadotrophs varied greatly in their relative proportion and were mostly shown to be much less numerous than in bitches in the anestrus phase of the sexual cycle. These cells were found to be positive to aldehyde fuchsin, alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and aniline blue. The performic acid-alcian blue (pH 0.2)-PAS-orange G procedure stained the FSH/LH cells blue or turquoise, demonstrating TSH cells (blue-purple), ACTH/MSH cells (red-purple) and PRL cells (orange-red). The FSH/LH cells were further differentiated from other functional cell types of the pars distalis on the basis of their typical cytological features, intraglandular distribution and by immunochemical double staining. These observations support the concept that the one cell-one hormone theory may not apply to gonadotrophic hormones, although some cells seem to be the source of either FSH or LH.

  18. A bifunctional endoglucanase/endoxylanase from Cellulomonas flavigena with potential use in industrial processes at different pH.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Cellulomonas flavigena CDBB-531 was found to secrete a bifunctional cellulase/xylanase with a molecular mass of 49 kDa and pI 4.3. This enzyme was active on Remazol brilliant blue-carboxymethylcellulose (RBB-CMC) and Remazol brilliant blue-xylan (RBB-X). Based on thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the degradation products, the cellulase activity produced glucose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose from CMC as the substrate. When xylan from birchwood was used, end products were xylose, arabinose, and xylobiose. The bifunctional enzyme showed a pH optimum of 6 for cellulase activity and 9 for xylanase activity, which pointed out that this enzyme had separate sites for each activity. In both cases, the apparent optimum temperature was 50 degrees C. The predicted amino acid sequence of purified protein showed similarity with the catalytic domain of several glycosyl hydrolases of family 10.

  19. Evaluation of fluorimetric pH sensors for bioprocess monitoring at low pH.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Nils H; Schmidt, Michael; Krause, Christian; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Optical chemical sensors are the standard for pH monitoring in small-scale bioreactors such as microtiter plates, shaking flasks or other single-use bioreactors. The dynamic pH range of the so far commercially available fluorescent pH sensors applied in small-scale bioreactors is restricted to pH monitoring around neutral pH, although many fermentation processes are performed at pH < 6 on industrial scale. Thus, two new prototype acidic fluorescence pH sensors immobilized in single-use stirred-tank bioreactors, one with excitation at 470 nm and emission at 550 nm (sensor 470/550) and the other with excitation at 505 nm and emission at 600 nm (sensor 505/600), were characterized with respect to dynamic ranges and operational stability in representative fermentation media. Best resolution and dynamic range was observed with pH sensor 505/600 in mineral medium (dynamic range of 3.9 < pH < 7.2). Applying the same pH sensors to complex medium results in a drastic reduction of resolution and dynamic ranges. Yeast extract in complex medium was found to cause background fluorescence at the sensors' operating wavelength combinations. Optical isolation of the sensor by adding a black colored polymer layer above the sensor spot and fixing an aperture made of adhesive photoresistant foil between the fluorescence reader and the transparent bottom of the polystyrene reactors enabled full re-establishment of the sensor's characteristics. Reliability and operational stability of sensor 505/600 was shown by online pH monitoring (4.5 < pH < 5.8) of parallel anaerobic batch fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) with offline pH measurements with a standard glass electrode as reference. PMID:25969385

  20. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  1. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  2. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  3. Development of sulfonamide AKT PH domain inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ahad, Ali Md.; Zuohe, Song; Du-Cuny, Lei; Moses, Sylvestor A.; Zhou, Li Li; Zhang, Shuxing; Powis, Garth; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Mash, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway can lead to apoptosis in cancer cells. Previously we identified a lead sulfonamide that selectively bound to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT and induced apoptosis when present at low micromolar concentrations. To examine the effects of structural modification, a set of sulfonamides related to the lead compound was designed, synthesized, and tested for binding to the expressed PH domain of AKT using a surface plasmon resonance-based competitive binding assay. Cellular activity was determined by means of an assay for pAKT production and a cell killing assay using BxPC3 cells. The most active compounds in the set are lipophilic and possess an aliphatic chain of the proper length. Results were interpreted with the aid of computational modeling. This paper represents the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of a large family of AKT PH domain inhibitors. Information obtained will be used in the design of the next generation of inhibitors of AKT PH domain function. PMID:21353784

  4. Ph.D.'s and the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    Throughout the last decade, Ph.D. recipients were accustomed to a job market in which demand for their services far exceeded supply. During the same period, manpower experts predicted this situation would continue in the foreseeable future. However, when the 60's ended, the employment illusion had been rudely dispelled by frantic reports of a…

  5. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  6. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  7. The Economic Contribution of PhDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Bernard H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at what the value of a doctorate is, both to employers in particular and to society and the economy at large. Given the emphasis many universities and funding agencies/governments are putting upon the development of PhD programmes, this is an issue deserving attention. The paper tries to show how two separate but interrelated…

  8. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B using titanium dioxide thin film.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdul K; McKenzie, Katrina T

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of azo dyes undergo degradation to form harmless intermediates and colorless products following irradiation by visible light in the presence of titanium dioxide thin films. The dyes that were studied in this work are: Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B. Results obtained indicated that complete mineralization of the dyes took place under the experimental conditions. There was an increase in conductivity after the complete mineralization experiments possibly indicating the formation of ions such as NO3- and SO4(2-). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements show a decrease in organic matter for both dyes following complete degradation. The effect of how changing experimental conditions such as pH, temperature and starting concentrations of dyes affected the rate of dye degradation was measured. There was an increase in the rate of disappearance of the dye color at lower pH. High concentrations of dye solutions required long degradation time.

  10. [Preparation of reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff and its spectral properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Yuan, Ya-Qin; Cai, Yu; Zhu, Xian; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2004-08-01

    Reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff was prepared by using reactive bright blue and praseodymium oxide. The spectra of reactive bright blue praseodymium and dyed silk cloth by reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff were studied by UV-Vis and IR spectra respectively. In the range of 200-800 nm, reactive bright blue has four absorption peaks, and lambda(max) is 259 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has three absorption peaks, while lambda(max), is 264.00 nm. In the range of 420-760 nm, reactive bright blue has two absorption peaks at 661.50 and 625.50 nm, respectively, and lambda(max) is 661.50 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has only one absorption peak at 618.00 nm. Coordinate bond links reactive bright blue to praseodymium ion. Reactive bright blue praseodymium increases linking radicals as compared with reactive bright blue.

  11. Freshwater microalgae harvested via flocculation induced by pH decrease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that microalga has been widely regarded as one of the most promising raw materials of biofuels. However, lack of an economical, efficient and convenient method to harvest microalgae is a bottleneck to boost their full-scale application. Many methods of harvesting microalgae, including mechanical, electrical, biological and chemical based, have been studied to overcome this hurdle. Results A new flocculation method induced by decreasing pH value of growth medium was developed for harvesting freshwater microalgae. The flocculation efficiencies were as high as 90% for Chlorococcum nivale, Chlorococcum ellipsoideum and Scenedesmus sp. with high biomass concentrations (>1g/L). The optimum flocculation efficiency was achieved at pH 4.0. The flocculation mechanism could be that the carboxylate ions of organic matters adhering on microalgal cells accepted protons when pH decreases and the negative charges were neutralized, resulting in disruption of the dispersing stability of cells and subsequent flocculation of cells. A linear correlation between biomass concentration and acid dosage was observed. Furthermore, viability of flocculated cells was determined by Evans Blue assay and few cells were found to be damaged with pH decrease. After neutralizing pH and adding nutrients to the flocculated medium, microalgae were proved to maintain a similar growth yield in the flocculated medium comparing with that in the fresh medium. The recycling of medium could contribute to the economical production from algae to biodiesel. Conclusions The study provided an economical, efficient and convenient method to harvest fresh microalgae. Advantages include capability of treating high cell biomass concentrations (>1g/L), excellent flocculation efficiencies (≥ 90%), operational simplicity, low cost and recycling of medium. It has shown the potential to overcome the hurdle of harvesting microalgae to promote full-scale application to biofuels

  12. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From The Blue Book, Official ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From The Blue Book, Official Souvenir View Book Panama Pacific International Exposition - 1915 VIEW FROM THE EAST - Palace of Fine Arts, Baker Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  15. Blue maize: morphology and starch synthase characterization of starch granule.

    PubMed

    Utrilla-Coello, Rubi G; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Martinez-Salgado, Jose L; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2009-03-01

    The use of pigmented maize varieties has increased due to their high anthocyanins content, but very few studies are reported about the starch properties of these grains. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch granules from pigmented blue maize and carry out the morphological, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization studies. The proximate composition of starch granules showed high protein contents, after purification, the blue maize starch presented lower protein amount than starch from white maize (control). Although the purity of starch granules was increased, the damaged starch (determined for the Maltase cross absence) was also increased. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of some pores and channels in the blue maize starch. The electrophoretic protein profiles showed differences in the bands that correspond to the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis; these differences could explain the variation in morphological characteristics of blue maize starches against starch from white maize.

  16. Valuing the European 'coastal blue carbon' storage benefit.

    PubMed

    Luisetti, T; Jackson, E L; Turner, R K

    2013-06-15

    'Blue' carbon ecosystems are important carbon storage providers that are currently not protected by any international mechanism, such as REDD. This study aims to contribute to raising awareness in the political domain about the 'blue' carbon issue. This analysis also provides guidance in terms of how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services adding to the debate begun by the Costanza et al. (1997) paper in Nature. Through scenario analysis we assess how human welfare benefits will be affected by changes in the European coastal blue carbon stock provision. The current extent of European coastal blue carbon has an accounting stock value of about US$180 million. If EU Environmental Protection Directives continue to be implemented and effectively enforced, society will gain an appreciating asset over time. However, a future policy reversal resulting in extensive ecosystem loss could mean economic value losses as high as US$1 billion by 2060. PMID:23623654

  17. Salamander Blue-sensitive Cones Lost During Metamorphosis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Znoiko, Sergey; DeGrip, Willem J.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ma, Jian-xing

    2009-01-01

    The tiger salamander lives in shallow water with bright light in the aquatic phase, and in dim tunnels or caves in the terrestrial phase. In the aquatic phase, there are five types of photoreceptors—two types of rods and three types of cones. Our previous studies showed that the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same visual pigment and have the same absorbance spectra; however, the green rods have a larger photon-catch area and thus have higher light sensitivity than the blue-sensitive cones. Here we show that after metamorphosis, the terrestrial salamander looses the blue-sensitive cones, while the density of the green rods increases. Moreover, the size of the green rod outer segments is increased in the terrestrial phase, compared to that in the aquatic phase. This switch from the blue-sensitive cones to the green rods may represent an adaptation to the dim light environment of the terrestrial phase. PMID:18331398

  18. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Beat the Winter Blues Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness As the days get shorter, ... clock” responds to cues in your surroundings, especially light and darkness. During the day, your brain sends ...

  19. The Blue Gene, GCC and lattice QCD: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochinsky, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    An vector extension to the C programming language utilizing Blue Gene/L floating point hardware is presented. The extensions are implemented in the GNU compiler collection toolchain and are available as a cross compiler.

  20. Valuing the European 'coastal blue carbon' storage benefit.

    PubMed

    Luisetti, T; Jackson, E L; Turner, R K

    2013-06-15

    'Blue' carbon ecosystems are important carbon storage providers that are currently not protected by any international mechanism, such as REDD. This study aims to contribute to raising awareness in the political domain about the 'blue' carbon issue. This analysis also provides guidance in terms of how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services adding to the debate begun by the Costanza et al. (1997) paper in Nature. Through scenario analysis we assess how human welfare benefits will be affected by changes in the European coastal blue carbon stock provision. The current extent of European coastal blue carbon has an accounting stock value of about US$180 million. If EU Environmental Protection Directives continue to be implemented and effectively enforced, society will gain an appreciating asset over time. However, a future policy reversal resulting in extensive ecosystem loss could mean economic value losses as high as US$1 billion by 2060.

  1. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Svein; Spillmann, Lothar; Stürzel, Frank; Werner, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The blue-blindness (tritanopia) of the human foveola normally goes unnoticed but can be directly visualized by having observers view a flickering, monochromatic, short-wavelength field. The blue scotoma appears as a tiny dark spot in central vision, the visibility of which depends upon the wavelength of the field and the temporal frequency of modulation. Comparisons of fading times as a function of flicker frequency for the blue scotoma, foveal afterimages and optically stabilized images indicate a common time course, consistent with the hypothesis that perceptual filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma reflects the operation of neural processes similar to those involved in fading and regeneration of stabilized images. PMID:11704235

  12. Nested Paleozoic successor basins in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, J.F.; Groszos, M.S. )

    1990-11-01

    Field studies in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge and its southwest extension, the Talladega belt, indicate that in at least three regions, polydeformed and metamorphosed turbidite-dominated sequences unconformably overlie rifted-margin continental-terrace wedge clastic rocks and overlying carbonate-platform deposits. These sequences are (1) the Talladega Group (in the Talladega belt), (2) the Walden Creek Group (along the west flank of the Blue Ridge), and (3) the Mineral Bluff Formation (within the core of the Blue Ridge). Paleontologic evidence indicates that the Talladega and Walden Creek Groups are in part as young as Silurian-Devonian. The presence of these anomalously young sequences unconformably above the trailing-margin stratigraphy in the Blue Ridge brings into question conventional ideas of the timing and nature of the tectonic evolution of the ancient continental margin.

  13. View of secondfloor Blue Lodge lobby from the southwest. Left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second-floor Blue Lodge lobby from the southwest. Left door leads to the hallway to Norman Hall. Central door opens to the Egyptian Hall inner vestibule. - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), Retail Coal Storage Bins (far center) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  16. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T.Y

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an intimidating effect on the opponent. However, we argue that there is no colour effect on winning in judo. We show that alternative factors, namely allocation biases, asymmetries in prior experience and differences in recovery time are possible confounding factors in the analysis of Rowe et al. After controlling for these factors, we found no difference in blue and white wins. We further analysed contest outcomes of 71 other major judo tournaments and also found no winning bias. Our findings have implications for sports policy makers: they suggest that a white–blue outfit pairing ensures an equal level of play. PMID:18270157

  17. The toxicology of Octopus maculosa: the blue-ringed octopus.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M S

    1999-10-01

    The biotoxicology of the Australian blue-ringed octopus is detailed with the view of introducing it as a remedy into the homoeopathic Materia Medica and stimulating the second step of proving this venom. PMID:10582647

  18. On the mechanism of blue jet formation and propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2006-12-01

    A new model of blue jets is proposed. A blue jet consists of an upward propagating leader whose top part is seen on photos as a ``trunk of a tree'', and is capped at the top side of the leader by its streamer zone. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of ``the tree''. It is shown that blue jet streamers can be sustained by relatively moderate cloud charges due to upward transfer of the high thundercloud potential by the leader. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can reach the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N is computed. It is found that the critical external field ES required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law ES/N ~ const. Shortcomings of the existing blue jet models are discussed.

  19. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    PubMed

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  20. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  1. Blue Mountain Lake, New York, earthquake of October 7, 1983.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wendt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The October 7 earthquake near Blue Mountain Lake in the central Adirondack Mountains registered a preliminary Richter magnitude of 5.2. It was widely felt throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada and occurred in an area that has been periodically shaken by earthquakes throughout recorded history. Since 1737, at least 346 felt earthquakes have occurred in New York; an earthquake of similar magnitude last shook the Blue Mountain Lake area on June 9, 1975.    

  2. Mica deposits of the Blue Ridge in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank Gardner

    1968-01-01

    Pegmatites in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina are important sources of sheet and scrap mica, feldspar, kaolin, and quartz.  Small amounts of beryl, columbite-tantalite, monazite, samarskite, and uranium minerals also have been produced.  The mica-bearing pegmatites occur in mica and hornblende gneiss and schist throughout the Blue Ridge province but are concentrated in the Spruce Pine and Franklin-Sylva districts.

  3. Methylene blue treatment in experimental ischemic stroke: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Methylene blue, a drug grandfathered by the Food and Drug Administration with a long history of safe usage in humans for treating methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning, has recently been shown to be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The goal of this paper is to review studies on methylene blue in experimental stroke models. PMID:27042692

  4. Removal of reactive blue 19 from aqueous solution by pomegranate residual-based activated carbon: optimization by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize Reactive Blue 19 removal by activated carbon from pomegranate residual. A 24 full factorial central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time on the dye removal efficiency. Methodology The activated carbon prepared by 50 wt.% phosphoric acid activation under air condition at 500°C. The range of pH and initial dye concentration were selected in a way that considered a wide range of those variables. Furthermore, the range of contact time and adsorbent dose were determined based on initial tests. Levels of selected variables and 31 experiments were determined. MiniTab (version 16.1) was used for the regression and graphical analyses of the data obtained. Results It was found that the decrease of initial dye concentration and the increase of initial pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time are beneficial for improving the dye removal efficiency. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results presented high R2 value of 99.17% for Reactive Blue 19 dye removal, which indicates the accuracy of the polynomial model is acceptable. Conclusions Initial pH of 11, adsorbent dose of 1.025 g/L, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, and contact time of 6.8 minutes found to be the optimum conditions. Dye removal efficiency of 98.7% was observed experimentally at optimum point which confirmed close to model predicted (98.1%) result. PMID:24678702

  5. A quantitative model for using acridine orange as a transmembrane pH gradient probe.

    PubMed

    Clerc, S; Barenholz, Y

    1998-05-15

    Monitoring the acidification of the internal space of membrane vesicles by proton pumps can be achieved easily with optical probes. Transmembrane pH gradients cause a blue-shift in the absorbance spectrum and the quenching of the fluorescence of the cationic dye acridine orange. It has been postulated that these changes are caused by accumulation and aggregation of the dye inside the vesicles. We tested this hypothesis using liposomes with transmembrane concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate as model system. Fluorescence intensity of acridine orange solutions incubated with liposomes was affected by magnitude of the gradient, volume trapped by vesicles, and temperature. These experimental data were compared to a theoretical model describing the accumulation of acridine orange monomers in the vesicles according to the inside-to-outside ratio of proton concentrations, and the intravesicular formation of sandwich-like piles of acridine orange cations. This theoretical model predicted quantitatively the relationship between the transmembrane pH gradients and spectral changes of acridine orange. Therefore, adequate characterization of aggregation of dye in the lumen of biological vesicles provides the theoretical basis for using acridine orange as an optical probe to quantify transmembrane pH gradients.

  6. Function of blue iridescence in tropical understorey plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Katherine R; Kolle, Mathias; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2010-12-01

    The blue colouration seen in the leaves of Selaginella willdenowii is shown to be iridescent. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the presence of a layered lamellar structure of the upper cuticle of iridescent leaves. Modelling of these multi-layer structures suggests that they are responsible for the blue iridescence, confirming the link between the observed lamellae and the recorded optical properties. Comparison of blue and green leaves from the same plant indicates that the loss of the blue iridescence corresponds to a loss of the multi-layer structure. The results reported here do not support the idea that iridescence in plants acts to enhance light capture of photosynthetically important wavelengths. The reflectance of light in the range 600-700 nm is very similar for both iridescent and non-iridescent leaves. However, owing to the occurrence of blue colouration in a wide variety of shade dwelling plants it is probable that this iridescence has some adaptive benefit. Possible adaptive advantages of the blue iridescence in these plants are discussed.

  7. Blue whale vocalizations recorded around New Zealand: 1964-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian S; Collins, Kym; Barlow, Jay; Calderan, Susannah; Leaper, Russell; McDonald, Mark; Ensor, Paul; Olson, Paula A; Olavarria, Carlos; Double, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53°S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population. PMID:24606296

  8. Blue whale vocalizations recorded around New Zealand: 1964-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian S; Collins, Kym; Barlow, Jay; Calderan, Susannah; Leaper, Russell; McDonald, Mark; Ensor, Paul; Olson, Paula A; Olavarria, Carlos; Double, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53°S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population.

  9. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, W. H.; Bennett, R. E.

    1963-01-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676–690. 1963.—The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level. Images PMID:14042949

  10. Copper blue in an ancient glass bead: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, J. P.; Figueiredo, M. O.

    2006-06-01

    The blue colour in ancient soda-lime glasses has been attributed to the presence of copper and/or cobalt but the origin of different shades is not yet fully interpreted. As a contribution to this question, a non-destructive X-ray absorption study at [ Cu]K-edge was undertaken on the blue (turquoise) layer from a “Nueva Cadiz” type tubular glass bead dated pre-XVII century where copper is the unique colouring agent. Minerals configuring two distinct blue tonalities due to Cu (2+) in similar square coordination were selected as basic model compounds: azurite, which is a classical navy-blue pigment used in ancient wall paintings over plaster, and chalcanthite, displaying exactly the same turquoise-blue tonality of tubular glass beads manufactured since the Egyptian Antiquity. Theoretical modelling of the XAFS spectra was undertaken using the FEFF code. The IFEFFIT software package was used for fitting the calculated spectra to experimental data. EXAFS results are discussed in view of the crystal structures of copper minerals chosen to model the speciation state and structural situation of that element prevailing in the turquoise-blue archaeological glass. Special attention is focused on the difficulties in theoretical modelling [ Cu]K-XANES spectra of ancient glasses with different colourings.

  11. Final report on the safety assessment of disperse Blue 7.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Disperse Blue 7 is an anthraquinone dye used in cosmetics as a hair colorant in five hair dye and color products reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hair dyes containing Disperse Blue 7, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Disperse Blue 7 is also used as a textile dye. The components of Disperse Blue 7 reportedly include Disperse Turquoise ALF Granules, Disperse Turquoise LF2G, Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil. No data were available that addressed the acute, short-term, or chronic toxicity of Disperse Blue 7. A mouse lymph node assay used to predict the sensitization potential of Disperse Blue 7 was negative. Although most bacterial assays for genotoxicity were negative in the absence of metabolic activation, consistently positive results were found with metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98, which were interpreted as indicative of point mutations. Studies using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells appeared to confirm this mutagenic activity. Mammalian assays for chromosome damage, however, were negative and animal tests found no evidence of dominant lethal mutations. Cases reports describe patients patch tested with Disperse Blue 7 to determine the source of apparent adverse reactions to textiles. In most patients, patch tests were negative, but there are examples in which the patch test for Disperse Blue 7 was positive. In general, anthraquinone dyes are considered frequent causes of clothing dermatitis. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that there was a paucity of data regarding the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as used in cosmetics. The following data are needed in order to arrive at a conclusion on the safety of

  12. Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells.Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several

  13. Structure of a Precursor to the Blue Components Produced in the Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata

    2016-05-27

    The internal blue discoloration in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots has been reported to be a physiological phenomenon after harvest and poses a significant problem for farmers. To avoid this discoloration, the fundamental development of new radish cultivars that do not undergo discoloration and/or improved cultivation methods is required. Elucidating the chemical mechanism leading to this discoloration could help overcome these difficulties. To determine the mechanism underlying this discoloration, this study was designed to probe the structure of a precursor to the blue components generated during the discoloration process. Soaking fresh roots in aqueous H2O2 resulted in rapid blue discoloration, similar to the natural discoloration. Using a H2O2-based blue discoloration assay, the precursor was extracted and isolated from the fresh roots and identified as the glucosinolate, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, via spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

  14. Water quality in the Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek, Oklahoma, March-October 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurklin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Based on samples collected bimonthly for major inorganic and trace elements and monthly for biota and bacteria, water from the Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek is suitable for most uses when compared to water-quality standards or criteria. Concentrations of most chemical constituents gradually increased from spring to fall. The concentrations generally were within established drinking-water standards, with the exception of iron and manganese. Using water-quality determinations and biologic indicators, the water from Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek is: (1) Soft and acidic with little mineral content and conductivity; (2) calm or very slowly moving; and (3) warm and enriched with organic matter.

  15. [Pigment molecules linked to polymer support: blue rayon, blue chitin, and green chitosan-synthesis and applications].

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H

    2000-06-01

    The fact that hemin can inhibit the mutagenic activity of compounds bearing polycyclic structures is ascribable to the ability of the porphyrin structure to complex with the planar surface of the mutagens. The elucidation of this mechanism has led to the discovery of copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate (cpt) as an efficient ligand to trap polycyclic compounds on polymeric supports that bear cpt through covalent bond linkages. In blue cotton, the support for cpt is cotton, in blue rayon, it is amorphous rayon, and in blue chitin it is poly-N-acetylglucosamine. Using these blue materials, we have successfully isolated mutagens of polycyclic structures, e.g., heterocyclic amines, from environmental complex mixtures such as food, urine, feces, and river water. Preparation and properties of these adsorbents are described. Chlorophyllin linked to Sepharose and chitosan is also described. The use of these green materials is discussed.

  16. Optimization of methylene blue using Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R; Arthanareeswaran, G; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    Recently noted that the methylene blue cause severe central nervous system toxicity. It is essential to optimize the methylene blue from aqueous environment. In this study, a comparison of an optimization of methylene blue was investigated by using modified Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads. A batch mode study was conducted using various parameters like time, dye concentration, bio-polymer dose, pH and process temperature. The isotherms, kinetics, diffusion and thermodynamic studies were performed for feasibility of the optimization process. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations were used for the prediction of isotherm parameters and correlated with dimensionless separation factor (RL). Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order Lagegren's kinetic equations were used for the correlation of kinetic parameters. Intraparticle diffusion model was employed for diffusion of the optimization process. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) shows different absorbent peaks of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) beads and the morphology of the bio-polymer material analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The TG & DTA studies show that good thermal stability with less humidity without production of any non-degraded products.

  17. Molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in Serratia sp. Strain DRY5 is catalyzed by a novel molybdenum-reducing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Rahman, M F A; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-01-01

    The first purification of the Mo-reducing enzyme from Serratia sp. strain DRY5 that is responsible for molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in the bacterium is reported. The monomeric enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 105 kDalton. The isoelectric point of this enzyme was 7.55. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.0 and maximum activity between 25 and 35°C. The Mo-reducing enzyme was extremely sensitive to temperatures above 50°C (between 54 and 70°C). A plot of initial rates against substrate concentrations at 15 mM 12-MP registered a V max for NADH at 12.0 nmole Mo blue/min/mg protein. The apparent K m for NADH was 0.79 mM. At 5 mM NADH, the apparent V max and apparent K m values for 12-MP of 12.05 nmole/min/mg protein and 3.87 mM, respectively, were obtained. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of the Mo-reducing enzyme was 5.47 M(-1) s(-1). The purification of this enzyme could probably help to solve the phenomenon of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue first reported in 1896 and would be useful for the understanding of the underlying mechanism in molybdenum bioremediation involving bioreduction.

  18. Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue in Serratia sp. Strain DRY5 Is Catalyzed by a Novel Molybdenum-Reducing Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Shukor, M. Y.; Halmi, M. I. E.; Rahman, M. F. A.; Shamaan, N. A.; Syed, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The first purification of the Mo-reducing enzyme from Serratia sp. strain DRY5 that is responsible for molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in the bacterium is reported. The monomeric enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 105 kDalton. The isoelectric point of this enzyme was 7.55. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.0 and maximum activity between 25 and 35°C. The Mo-reducing enzyme was extremely sensitive to temperatures above 50°C (between 54 and 70°C). A plot of initial rates against substrate concentrations at 15 mM 12-MP registered a Vmax for NADH at 12.0 nmole Mo blue/min/mg protein. The apparent Km for NADH was 0.79 mM. At 5 mM NADH, the apparent Vmax and apparent Km values for 12-MP of 12.05 nmole/min/mg protein and 3.87 mM, respectively, were obtained. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the Mo-reducing enzyme was 5.47 M−1 s−1. The purification of this enzyme could probably help to solve the phenomenon of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue first reported in 1896 and would be useful for the understanding of the underlying mechanism in molybdenum bioremediation involving bioreduction. PMID:24724104

  19. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ∼11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if

  20. Red, White, and the Blues Part 3 of 4: The New Beat of the Blues: R&B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassinos-Carr, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    When rhythm & blues--or, as it is more commonly called, R&B, was first born, it did not even have a name. Prior to 1949, all black popular music, including jazz, blues, and gospel, was known as "race music." But by the end of the 1940s, the music had become so successful that it gained a new-found respect--and Billboard magazine, realizing that…

  1. Benzimidazole-based ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probes for acidic pH in live cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung

    2013-11-27

    Many aspects of cell metabolism are controlled by acidic pH. We report a new family of small molecule and ratiometric two photon (TP) probes derived from benzimidazole (BH1-3 and BH1L) for monitoring acidic pH values. These probes are characterized by a strong two-photon excited fluorescence, a marked blue-to-green emission color change in response to pH, pKa values ranging from 4.9 to 6.1, a distinctive isoemissive point, negligible cytotoxicity, and high photostability, thereby allowing quantitative analysis of acidic pH. Moreover, we show that BH1L optimized as a lysosomal-targeted probe allows for direct, real-time estimation of the pH values inside lysosomal compartments in live cells as well as in living mouse brain tissues through the use of two-photon microscopy. These findings demonstrate that these probes will find useful applications in biomedical research.

  2. Photometric identification of blue horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Xue, X. X.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the performance of some common machine learning techniques in identifying blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars from photometric data. To train the machine learning algorithms, we use previously published spectroscopic identifications of BHB stars from Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data. We investigate the performance of three different techniques, namely k nearest neighbour classification, kernel density estimation for discriminant analysis and a support vector machine (SVM). We discuss the performance of the methods in terms of both completeness (what fraction of input BHB stars are successfully returned as BHB stars) and contamination (what fraction of contaminating sources end up in the output BHB sample). We discuss the prospect of trading off these values, achieving lower contamination at the expense of lower completeness, by adjusting probability thresholds for the classification. We also discuss the role of prior probabilities in the classification performance, and we assess via simulations the reliability of the dataset used for training. Overall it seems that no-prior gives the best completeness, but adopting a prior lowers the contamination. We find that the support vector machine generally delivers the lowest contamination for a given level of completeness, and so is our method of choice. Finally, we classify a large sample of SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) photometry using the SVM trained on the spectroscopic sample. We identify 27 074 probable BHB stars out of a sample of 294 652 stars. We derive photometric parallaxes and demonstrate that our results are reasonable by comparing to known distances for a selection of globular clusters. We attach our classifications, including probabilities, as an electronic table, so that they can be used either directly as a BHB star catalogue, or as priors to a spectroscopic or other classification method. We also provide our final models so that they can be directly applied to new data. Full Tables 7, A.3

  3. Thoracoscopic resection with intraoperative use of methylene blue to localize mediastinal parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yoshin; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Yuji; Miwa, Ken; Fujioka, Shinji; Haruki, Tomohiro

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of thoracoscopic resection of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas using methylene blue to localize the tumors during the operation. After methylene blue 4 mg/kg was injected intravenously, we easily identified methylene blue-stained parathyroid glands and successfully resected them with sufficient surgical margins. The use of methylene blue for detection of parathyroid adenoma is a useful technique.

  4. Linguistic Structure and Non-linguistic Cognition: English and Russian Blues Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the influence of linguistic structure on non-linguistic cognition by comparing Russian and English behavior on tasks involving the color blue. Russians, who differentiate this region into "dark blue" and "light blue," were expected to separate blues more often than English subjects for whom the colors belong to one lexical category.…

  5. 76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard...

  6. What Is a pH Probe Study?

    MedlinePlus

    What is a pH Probe Study ? What is pH a probe study? M easuring the pH in the esophagus helps determine whether or not acid is coming up from the stomach. A pH probe study is usually done in patients where ...

  7. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  11. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  12. Stellar Clusters Forming in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Star formation is one of the most basic phenomena in the Universe. Inside stars, primordial material from the Big Bang is processed into heavier elements that we observe today. In the extended atmospheres of certain types of stars, these elements combine into more complex systems like molecules and dust grains, the building blocks for new planets, stars and galaxies and, ultimately, for life. Violent star-forming processes let otherwise dull galaxies shine in the darkness of deep space and make them visible to us over large distances. Star formation begins with the collapse of the densest parts of interstellar clouds, regions that are characterized by comparatively high concentration of molecular gas and dust like the Orion complex (ESO PR Photo 20/04) and the Galactic Centre region (ESO Press Release 26/03). Since this gas and dust are products of earlier star formation, there must have been an early epoch when they did not yet exist. But how did the first stars then form? Indeed, to describe and explain "primordial star formation" - without molecular gas and dust - is a major challenge in modern Astrophysics. A particular class of relatively small galaxies, known as "Blue Dwarf Galaxies", possibly provide nearby and contemporary examples of what may have occurred in the early Universe during the formation of the first stars. These galaxies are poor in dust and heavier elements. They contain interstellar clouds which, in some cases, appear to be quite similar to those primordial clouds from which the first stars were formed. And yet, despite the relative lack of the dust and molecular gas that form the basic ingredients for star formation as we know it from the Milky Way, those Blue Dwarf Galaxies sometimes harbour very active star-forming regions. Thus, by studying those areas, we may hope to better understand the star-forming processes in the early Universe. Very active star formation in NGC 5253 NGC 5253 is one of the nearest of the known Blue Dwarf Galaxies

  13. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  14. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to mo-blue by a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14.

    PubMed

    Halmi, M I E; Zuhainis, S W; Yusof, M T; Shaharuddin, N A; Helmi, W; Shukor, Y; Syed, M A; Ahmad, S A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  15. Sensing pH with TMCs.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, Christian; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) proteins have been implicated in hair cell mechanotransduction, Drosophila proprioception, and sodium sensing in the nematode C. elegans. In this issue of Neuron, Wang et al. (2016) report that C. elegans TMC-1 mediates nociceptor responses to high pH, not sodium, allowing the nematode to avoid strongly alkaline environments in which most animals cannot survive. PMID:27387645

  16. Not Your Father's Ph.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Brandon G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the author, a devoted blogger, confronts his fear that his virtual life is damaging his career prospects in academe. As a new Ph.D. in religious studies, the author has every reason to believe he will find a tenure-track job. He has read the numbers and know that, on average, job candidates spend two to five years in…

  17. Study on the interaction of methylene blue with cyclodextrin derivatives by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guomei; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Pan, Jinghao

    2003-11-01

    The ability of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) to break the aggregate of the methylene blue (MB) and to form 1:1 inclusion complexes has been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Experimental conditions including concentrations of various cyclodextrins (β-CD, HP-β-CD and CM-β-CD) and media acidity were investigated for the inclusion formation in detail. The formation constants are calculated by using steady-state fluorimetry, from which the inclusion capacity of different cyclodextrins (CDs) is compared. The results suggest that the charged β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) is more suitable for inclusion of the cationic dye MB than the neutral β-cyclodextrins (β-CD, HP-β-CD) at pH>5. A mechanism is proposed which is consistent with the stronger binding of MB with CM-β-CD compared with the other CDs at pH>5.

  18. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies for removal of acid blue 129 from aqueous solution by almond shell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency and performance of Almond shell (AS) adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Acid Blue 129 (AB129) from wastewater is presented in this report. The influence of variables including pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal have been investigated in batch method by one at a time optimization method. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D–R). It was found that adsorption of AB129 on AS well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 98% removal efficiency was obtained within 14 min at adsorbent dose of 0.4 g for initial dye concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 2. Kinetics of the adsorption process was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order model. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of AB129 adsorption on all adsorbents. This work can be used in design of adsorption columns for dyes removal. PMID:24620822

  19. Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Potassium Polytitanate and Solar Simulator.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohammad; El Saliby, Ibrahim; McDonagh, Andrew; Chekli, Laura; Tijing, Leonard D; Kim, Jong-Ho; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-05-01

    Solar photocatalytic degradation of organic water pollutants can be used to degrade toxic organic pollutants in water. In this study, potassium titanate nanofibres were synthesized by an aqueous peroxide route at high pH and examined as photocatalysts for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) using a solar simulator. Initially, MB was adsorbed on the surface of potassium polytitanates to achieve adsorption equilibrium before the photocatalysts were illuminated using solar simulator. The results showed that potassium polytitanate nanofibres were effective adsorbents of MB and also facilitated its photocatalytic degradation. Sulphate ion evolution during photocatalysis confirmed that some mineralisation occurred and hence photo-oxidative degradation of MB took place. The optimum operational conditions for the photocatalytic degradation of MB were found at 0.05 g/L of photocatalyst load, 10 mg/L MB and pH 7. The stability and regeneration of the photocatalyst specimen was also studied for 3 degradation cycles using adsorption/photocatalysis model. Morphological structure analysis of potassium titanate showed nanocrystallines structure of longitudinally-oriented isolated fibre with a length up to several micrometres with diameters ranging from 10 to 20 nanometres.

  20. Experimental Design Approach for Methylene Blue Dye Removal in Aqueous Environment by Nitrilotriacetic Modified Banana Pith.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shi-Ling; Liew, Shu-Wei; Ong, Siew-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Native banana pith (NBP) was modified by using nitrilotriacetic acid to increase its efficiency and adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) dye. The effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, sorption isotherm and adsorbent dosage were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of the NBP and NTA-BP is 100 and 142.86 mg/g, respectively. The IR spectrum of NBP and NTA-BP showed the presence of both carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. From the SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of NTA-BP before adsorption appeared to be smoother as compared to that after adsorption process. The pH(pzc) of NBP is 5.6 whereas for NTA-BP is 7.6. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm with R(2) of 0.992. Plackett-Burman design was applied to identify the significant factors in affecting the uptake whereas the interaction between the factors and their optimum levels for the maximum percentage uptake of MB were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the results, the optimum condition for adsorption of MB was by using 0.06 g of NTA-BP in dye solution at pH 6 with 120 minutes contact time. The maximum adsorption of MB by NTA-BP achieved 99.42% under the optimum condition.