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Sample records for alcohol abstinence-a randomized

  1. Associations between Sexual Abstinence Ideals, Religiosity, and Alcohol Abstinence: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620

  2. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  3. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  4. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  5. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607 Section 219.607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  6. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607 Section 219.607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  7. Two random repeat recall methods to assess alcohol use.

    PubMed Central

    Midanik, L T

    1993-01-01

    Two random repeat recall methods were compared with a summary measure to assess alcohol use. Subjects (n = 142) were randomly assigned to one of two groups; they were called either on 14 random days during three 30-day waves and asked about drinking yesterday, or on 2 random days during each wave and asked about drinking in the past week. Follow-up telephone interviews obtained summary measures for each wave. Random repeat methods generally obtained higher estimates. However, the high dropout rate makes questionable the feasibility of using this approach with general population samples. PMID:8498631

  8. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  9. Alcohol-adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the six-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for six months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  10. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator... percent for drugs and 0.15 percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing...

  11. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  12. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2012-07-01

    Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants. There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.

  13. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and alcohol... drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in Washington, DC, on December 1,...

  14. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  15. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    .... SUMMARY: According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug... the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below 0.5 percent for the last... determination is effective December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug...

  16. Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334

  17. Effects of naltrexone on adolescent alcohol cue reactivity and sensitivity: an initial randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robert; Ray, Lara; Blanchard, Alexander; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Monti, Peter M; Chun, Thomas; Justus, Alicia; Swift, Robert M; Tidey, Jennifer; Gwaltney, Chad J; Ramirez, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is associated with myriad adverse consequences and contributes to the leading causes of mortality among youth. Despite the magnitude of this public health problem, evidenced-based treatment initiatives for alcohol use disorders in youth remain inadequate. Identifying promising pharmacological approaches may improve treatment options. Naltrexone is an opiate receptor antagonist that is efficacious for reducing drinking in adults by attenuating craving and the rewarding effects of alcohol. Implications of these findings for adolescents are unclear; however, given that randomized trials of naltrexone with youth are non-existent. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study, comparing naltrexone (50 mg/daily) and placebo in 22 adolescent problem drinkers aged 15-19 years (M = 18.36, standard deviation = 0.95; 12 women). The primary outcome measures were alcohol use, subjective responses to alcohol consumption, and alcohol-cue-elicited craving assessed in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods, and craving and physiological reactivity assessed using standard alcohol cue reactivity procedures. Results showed that naltrexone reduced the likelihood of drinking and heavy drinking (P's ≤ 0.03), blunted craving in the laboratory and in the natural environment (P's ≤ 0.04), and altered subjective responses to alcohol consumption (P's ≤ 0.01). Naltrexone was generally well tolerated by participants. This study provides the first experimentally controlled evidence that naltrexone reduces drinking and craving, and alters subjective responses to alcohol in a sample of adolescent problem drinkers, and suggests larger clinical trials with long-term follow-ups are warranted.

  18. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Therapeutic Workplace for Chronically Unemployed, Homeless, Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Wong, Conrad J.; Diemer, Karly; Needham, Mick; Hampton, Jacqueline; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence contingencies (Paid Training group) or offering unpaid job skill training with no abstinence contingencies (Unpaid Training group). Results: Participants in the Contingent Paid Training group had significantly fewer positive (blood alcohol level ≥ 0.004 g/dl) breath samples than the Paid Training group in both randomly scheduled breath samples collected in the community and breath samples collected during monthly assessments. The breath sample results from the Unpaid Training group were similar in absolute terms to the Contingent Paid Training group, which may have been influenced by a lower breath sample collection rate in this group and fewer reported drinks per day consumed at intake. Conclusion: Overall, the results support the utility of the Therapeutic Workplace intervention to promote abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics, and support paid training as a way of increasing engagement in training programs. PMID:21622676

  19. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012, will remain...

  20. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in Washington, DC on November 1, 2012... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug...

  1. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  2. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  3. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  4. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  5. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  6. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate for the entire aviation industry. If... minimum random drug testing rate at 25%. In 2012, the random drug test positive rate was 0.456%. Therefore... random alcohol test violation rate. If the violation rate remains less than 0.50%, the Administrator...

  7. Assertive Community Treatment For People With Alcohol Dependence: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilburt, Helen; Burns, Tom; Copello, Alex; Crawford, Michael; Day, Ed; Deluca, Paolo; Godfrey, Christine; Parrott, Steve; Rose, Abigail; Sinclair, Julia; Coulton, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of assertive community treatment (ACT) in adults with alcohol dependence. Methods Single blind, individually randomized, pilot RCT of 12 months of ACT plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone in adults (age 18+ years) with alcohol dependence and a history of previous unsuccessful alcohol treatment attending specialist community alcohol treatment services. ACT aimed to actively engage participants for 12 months with assertive, regular, minimum weekly contact. ACT was combined with TAU. TAU comprised access to the full range of services provided by the community teams. Primary outcome is mean drinks per drinking day and percent days abstinent at 12 months follow up. Analysis of covariance was conducted using 80% confidence intervals, appropriate in the context of a pilot trial. Results A total of 94 participants were randomized, 45 in ACT and 49 in TAU. Follow-up was achieved with 98 and 88%, respectively at 12 months. Those in ACT had better treatment engagement, and were more often seen in their homes or local community than TAU participants. At 12 months the ACT group had more problems related to drinking and lower quality of life than TAU but no differences in drinking measures. The ACT group had a higher percentage of days abstinent but lower quality of life at 6 months. The ACT group had less unplanned healthcare use than TAU. Conclusions An trial of ACT was feasible to implement in an alcohol dependent treatment population. Trial registration ISRCTN22775534 PMID:27940571

  8. A randomized, controlled study of treatment for alcohol dependence in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Van Horn, Deborah H A; Lynch, Kevin G; Lucey, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol is the second most common cause of cirrhosis necessitating liver transplantation in the United States, yet rates of posttransplant drinking approach 50% and no controlled clinical trials of alcoholism treatment exist in this population. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), or referral to local treatment sources ("treatment as usual" [TAU]). Addictive behavior, mood states, and general health were compared. Candor concerning alcohol use was encouraged by keeping drinking questionnaires in confidence, except in medical emergencies. Ninety-one subjects were studied; 46 received MET, 45 received TAU, 29 proceeded to transplantation (MET, n = 13; TAU, n = 16). A total of 69 subjects completed 24 weeks of observation, and 25 subjects were assessed at 96 weeks. No difference in study attendance was observed, but significantly more MET subjects attended 1 or more treatment sessions. Twenty-three subjects (25% of sample) drank after randomization but before transplant. Excluding an extreme outlier, MET drinkers had significantly fewer drinks per drinking days than TAU drinkers. Neither treatment plan resulted in significant variances in measures of psychosocial health. In conclusion, although MET afforded no significant benefit over TAU for mood or general health outcomes, this study provides some degree of support for MET to limit the quantity and frequency of pretransplant alcohol consumption among liver transplant candidates with alcohol dependence. However, because of the limited number of study subjects, these data must be interpreted cautiously. Further research to validate our findings or to identify better methods to identify and intervene with patients at risk of pretransplant and posttransplant drinking should continue.

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. Reductions in drinking and alcohol-related harms reported by first-year college students taking an online alcohol education course: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lovecchio, Catherine P; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2010-10-01

    A randomized control trial was conducted at a midsized private university in the Northeast to evaluate the short-term impact of AlcoholEdu for College 8.0, an online alcohol course for first-year students. In September 2007, 1,620 matriculated first-year students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or an assessment-only control group. Both groups of students completed a baseline survey and knowledge test. Treatment group students finished the course, took a second knowledge test, and 30 days later completed a postintervention survey. Control group students completed the postintervention survey and knowledge test during the same time period. Compared with the control group, treatment group students reported a significantly lower level of alcohol use, fewer negative drinking consequences, and less positive alcohol-related attitudes. AlcoholEdu 8.0 had a positive impact on the first-year students' alcohol-related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences. Additional investigations of online alcohol education courses are warranted.

  12. A randomized, open-label, controlled trial of gabapentin and phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mariani, John J; Rosenthal, Richard N; Tross, Susan; Singh, Prameet; Anand, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Gabapentin was compared with phenobarbital for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a randomized, open-label, controlled trial in 27 inpatients. There were no significant differences in the proportion of treatment completers between treatment groups or the proportion of patients in each group requiring rescue medication for breakthrough signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. There were no significant treatment differences in withdrawal symptoms or psychological distress, nor were there serious adverse events. These findings suggest that gabapentin may be as effective as phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Given gabapentin's favorable pharmacokinetic profile, further study of its effectiveness in treating alcohol withdrawal is warranted.

  13. Do Minority or White Patients Respond to Brief Alcohol Intervention in Trauma Centers? A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, Bahman; Caetano, Raul; Frankowski, Ralph; Field, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The current study evaluated if the effectiveness of brief alcohol intervention in reducing 6- and 12-month risk of injuries in a large level 1 urban trauma center varies based on trauma patients’ ethnicity. Methods Eligible White, Hispanic and Black trauma patients ≥ 18 years old were randomized to brief alcohol intervention, or treatment as usual. The intervention, implemented by trained health educators, was a “non-confrontational, patient centered conversation” focused on patients’ drinking pattern with the purpose of encouraging them to change risky drinking. Study outcomes were patient-reported 6 and 12 month incidence of all-type injuries, alcohol-related injuries and serious injuries (i.e. injuries requiring emergency department visit or hospital admission). Results A total of 1,493 trauma patients (668 Whites, 537 Hispanics, 288 Blacks) participated in this study. After one year of follow-up, we were not able to detect any important association between brief intervention and the risk of all-type injuries, alcohol-related injuries or, serious injuries among study participants. In addition, the association between brief intervention and the outcomes of interest was not modified by patients’ ethnicity. Conclusions Our study, congruent with some recent publications, implies that there are some patient- and provider-related impediments that could restrict the effectiveness of brief intervention programs in trauma centers, regardless of patient ethnicity. Unless those impediments are identified and eliminated, assuming that brief intervention will be an effective strategy for controlling future alcohol-related injuries among trauma patients and should be provided under any circumstances, might not be reasonable. PMID:19250705

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  15. Executive Functioning in Alcoholics Following an mHealth Cognitive Stimulation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo; Morais, Diogo; Silva, Diana; Silva, Ana; Rebelo, Sara; Bastos, Marta; Deus, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of alcohol dependence are severe and may range from physical disease to neuropsychological deficits in several cognitive domains. Alcohol abuse has also been related to brain dysfunction specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Conventional neuropsychological interventions (paper-and-pencil cognitive stimulation training) have a positive effect but are time-consuming, costly, and not motivating for patients. Objective Our goal was to test the cognitive effects of a novel approach to neuropsychological intervention, using mobile technology and serious games, on patients with alcohol dependence. Methods The trial design consisted of a two-arm study assessing the cognitive outcomes of neuropsychological intervention with mobile serious games (mHealth) versus control (treatment-as-usual with no neuropsychological intervention) in patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence syndrome. Sixty-eight patients were recruited from an alcohol-rehab clinic and randomly assigned to the mHealth (n=33) or control condition (n=35). The intervention on the experimental group consisted of a therapist-assisted cognitive stimulation therapy for 4 weeks on a 2-3 days/week basis. Results Fourteen patients dropped out of the study. The results of the neuropsychological assessments with the remaining 54 patients showed an overall increase (P<.05) of general cognitive abilities, mental flexibility, psychomotor processing speed, and attentional ability in both experimental (n=26) and control groups (n=28). However, there was a more pronounced improvement (P=.01) specifically in frontal lobe functions from baseline (mean 13.89, SE 0.58) to follow-up (mean 15.50, SE 0.46) in the experimental group but not in the control group. Conclusions The overall increase in general cognitive function for both experimental and control groups supports the beneficial role of existing alcohol treatment protocols aimed at minimizing withdrawal symptoms, but the differential

  16. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  18. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in a College Student Health Center: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Schaus, James F.; Sole, Mary Lou; McCoy, Thomas P.; Mullett, Natalie; O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the effectiveness of brief primary care provider interventions delivered in a college student health center to a sample of college students who screened positive for high-risk drinking. Method: Between November 2005 and August 2006, 8,753 students who presented as new patients to the health service at a large public university were screened for high-risk drinking, and 2,484 students (28%) screened positive on the 5/4 gender-specific high-risk drinking question (i.e., five or more drinks per occasion for men and four or more for women). Students who screened positive for high-risk drinking and consented to participate (N = 363; 52% female) were randomly assigned either to a control group (n = 182) or to an experimental group (n = 181). Participants in the experimental group received two brief intervention sessions that were founded in motivational interviewing techniques and delivered by four specially trained providers within the student health center. Data on alcohol use and related harms were obtained from a Web-based Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire, 30-day Timeline Followback alcohol-use diaries, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), and eight items from the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-2L. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed that, compared with the control group (C), the intervention group (I) had significant reductions in typical estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (C = .071 vs I = .057 at 3 months; C = .073 vs I = .057 at 6 months), peak BAC (C = .142 vs I = .112 at 3 months; C = .145 vs I = .108 at 6 months), peak number of drinks per sitting (C = 8.03 vs I = 6.87 at 3 months; C = 7.98 vs I = 6.52 at 6 months), average number of drinks per week (C = 9.47 vs I = 7.33 at 3 months; C = 8.90 vs I = 6.16 at 6 months), number of drunk episodes in a typical week (C = 1.24 vs I = 0.85 at 3 months; C = 1.10 vs I = 0.71 at 6 months), number of times taken foolish risks (C = 2.24 vs I = 1.12 at 3 months), and RAPI

  19. Computer-Delivered Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ondersma, Steven J.; Beatty, Jessica R.; Svikis, Dace S.; Strickler, Ronald C.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Chang, Grace; Divine, W.; Taylor, Andrew R.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use has demonstrated efficacy in some trials, its implementation has been limited. Technology-delivered approaches are a promising alternative, particularly during pregnancy when the importance of alcohol use is amplified. The present trial evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive, empathic, video-enhanced, and computer-delivered SBI (e-SBI) plus three separate tailored mailings, and estimated intervention effects. Methods We recruited 48 pregnant women who screened positive for alcohol risk at an urban prenatal care clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to the e-SBI plus mailings or to a control session on infant nutrition, and were reevaluated during their postpartum hospitalization. The primary outcome was 90-day period-prevalence abstinence as measured by timeline follow-back interview. Results Participants rated the intervention as easy to use and helpful (4.7-5.0 on a 5-point scale). Blinded follow-up evaluation at childbirth revealed medium-size intervention effects on 90-day period prevalence abstinence (OR = 3.4); similarly, intervention effects on a combined healthy pregnancy outcome variable (live birth, normal birthweight, and no NICU stay) were also of moderate magnitude in favor of e-SBI participants (OR=3.3). As expected in this intentionally under-powered pilot trial, these effects were non-significant (p = .19 and .09, respectively). Conclusions This pilot trial demonstrated the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) plus tailored mailings for alcohol use in pregnancy. These findings mirror the promising results of other trials using a similar approach, and should be confirmed in a fully-powered trial. PMID:26010235

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  1. Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in a random sample of Australian soldiers who served in the Second World War.

    PubMed Central

    Dent, O. F.; Sulway, M. R.; Broe, G. A.; Creasey, H.; Kos, S. C.; Jorm, A. F.; Tennant, C.; Fairley, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the average daily alcohol intake of older men in 1982 and cognitive performance and brain atrophy nine years later. SUBJECTS: Random sample of 209 Australian men living in the community who were veterans of the second world war. Their mean age in 1982 was 64.3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 18 standard neuropsychological tests measuring a range of intellectual functions. Cortical, sylvian, and vermian atrophy on computed tomography. RESULTS: Compared with Australian men of the same age in previous studies these men had sustained a high rate of alcohol consumption into old age. However, there was no significant correlation, linear or non-linear, between alcohol consumption in 1982 and results in any of the neuropsychological tests in 1991; neither was alcohol consumption associated with brain atrophy on computed tomography. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found that apparently persistent lifelong consumption of alcohol was related to the cognitive functioning of these men in old age. PMID:9180067

  2. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  3. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.

  4. Brief intervention for alcohol misuse in people attending sexual health clinics: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention) or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living). Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic intervention for excessive

  5. Cerebral Hemodynamics With rTMS in Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Maiti, Rituparna; Nizamie, S Haque

    2016-04-08

    The authors studied cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol dependence and evaluated their changes with application of high-frequency rTMS. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, parallel-group, sham-controlled clinical study was conducted with patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-IV-TR). The study population comprised 25 subjects each in active rTMS, sham rTMS, and healthy control groups. At baseline, cerebral hemodynamic indices were measured with transcranial Doppler sonography. Subjects in the active rTMS group received 10 sessions of rTMS daily; the sham group was administered sham rTMS with the same parameters. Cerebral hemodynamic parameters were repeated 5 minutes after the last rTMS session. At baseline, mean velocity (MV) of both middle cerebral artery (MCA; R-MCA: p=0.003; L-MCA: p=0.002) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; R-ACA: p=0.003; L-ACA: p=.001) was significantly reduced. Pulsatility index (PI) of MCA (p<0.001) and resistance index (RI) of ACA (R-ACA: p=0.009; L-ACA: p=0.008) were increased in alcohol-dependent subjects in comparison with healthy controls. In the active rTMS group, except L-MCA PI, significant differences were observed in values of MV, PI, and RI of both MCA and ACA following rTMS intervention; such changes were not evident in the sham rTMS group. The changes in mean difference in MV of L-MCA (p=0.006) and L-ACA (p=0.015) were statistically significant in the active rTMS group, in comparison with the sham group. Significant differences were also observed between the two groups postintervention, in RI of L-MCA (p=0.001) and ACA (R-ACA: p=0.010; L-ACA: p=0.015). Alcohol dependence may result in altered cerebral hemodynamic parameters, which can be improved with high-frequency rTMS application.

  6. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  7. Exploring causal associations of alcohol with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in a Chinese population using Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amy E; Lu, Feng; Carslake, David; Hu, Zhibin; Qian, Yun; Liu, Sijun; Chen, Jiaping; Shen, Hongbing; Smith, George Davey

    2015-09-14

    Observational studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective for cardiovascular disease, but results may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. Mendelian randomization, which uses genetic variants as proxies for exposures, can minimise these biases and therefore strengthen causal inference. Using a genetic variant in the ALDH2 gene associated with alcohol consumption, rs671, we performed a Mendelian randomization analysis in 1,712 diabetes cases and 2,076 controls from Nantong, China. Analyses were performed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by sex and diabetes status. The A allele of rs671 was strongly associated with reduced odds of being an alcohol drinker in all groups, but prevalence of alcohol consumption amongst females was very low. The A allele was associated with reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased total and HDL cholesterol in males. The A allele was also associated with decreased triglyceride levels, but only robustly in diabetic males. There was no strong evidence for associations between rs671 and any outcomes in females. Our results suggest that associations of alcohol consumption with blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol are causal. Alcohol also appeared to have adverse effects on triglyceride levels, although this may be restricted to diabetics.

  8. Exploring causal associations of alcohol with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in a Chinese population using Mendelian randomization analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E.; Lu, Feng; Carslake, David; Hu, Zhibin; Qian, Yun; Liu, Sijun; Chen, Jiaping; Shen, Hongbing; Smith, George Davey

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective for cardiovascular disease, but results may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. Mendelian randomization, which uses genetic variants as proxies for exposures, can minimise these biases and therefore strengthen causal inference. Using a genetic variant in the ALDH2 gene associated with alcohol consumption, rs671, we performed a Mendelian randomization analysis in 1,712 diabetes cases and 2,076 controls from Nantong, China. Analyses were performed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by sex and diabetes status. The A allele of rs671 was strongly associated with reduced odds of being an alcohol drinker in all groups, but prevalence of alcohol consumption amongst females was very low. The A allele was associated with reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased total and HDL cholesterol in males. The A allele was also associated with decreased triglyceride levels, but only robustly in diabetic males. There was no strong evidence for associations between rs671 and any outcomes in females. Our results suggest that associations of alcohol consumption with blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol are causal. Alcohol also appeared to have adverse effects on triglyceride levels, although this may be restricted to diabetics. PMID:26364564

  9. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia.

  10. A Randomized Trial of Extended Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol Dependence: Within-Treatment Substance Use Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Oslin, David W.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Ivey, Megan; Ward, Kathleen; Drapkin, Michelle L.; Becher, Julie R.; Coviello, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study tested whether adding up to 18 months of telephone continuing care, either as monitoring and feedback (TM) or longer contacts that included counseling (TMC), to intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) improved outcomes for alcohol-dependent patients. Method: Participants (N = 252) who completed 3 weeks of IOP were randomized to…

  11. Alcohol-Specific Parenting within a Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Swedish Primary Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Anna K.; Bodin, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of an ongoing cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of a parental prevention program, the aim of the present study is to investigate attitudes towards under-age drinking and use of program components, i.e. alcohol-specific parenting behaviors, in parents who did and did not take part in the programme.…

  12. A smartphone application to support recovery from alcoholism: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; McTavish, Fiona M.; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Atwood, Amy K.; A. Johnson, Roberta; G. Boyle, Michael; S. Levy, Michael; Driscoll, Hilary; M. Chisholm, Steven; Dillenburg, Lisa; Isham, Andrew; Shah, Dhavan

    2014-01-01

    Importance: Patients leaving treatment for alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) are not typically offered evidence-based continuing care, although research suggests that continuing care is associated with better outcomes. A smartphone-based application could provide effective continuing care. Objective: To determine whether patients leaving residential treatment for AUDs with a smartphone application to support recovery have fewer risky drinking days than control-group patients. Design: An un-blinded randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to treatment as usual or treatment as usual plus a smartphone with A-CHESS, an application designed to improve continuing care for AUDs. “A-CHESS” stands for Addiction – Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System. Setting: Three residential programs operated by one treatment organization in the Midwestern US and 2 residential programs operated by one organization in the Northeastern US. Participants: 349 patients who met the criteria for DSM-IV alcohol dependence when they entered residential treatment. 179 were randomized to the control group and 170 to the treatment group. Intervention: Treatment as usual varied across programs; none offered patients coordinated continuing care after discharge. A-CHESS provides monitoring, information, communication, and support services to patients, including ways for patients and counselors to stay in contact. The intervention lasted 8 months and the follow-up period lasted 4 months. Main Outcome Measure: Risky drinking days—the number of days during which a patient’s drinking in a 2-hour period exceeded, for men, 4 standard drinks and for women, 3 standard drinks. Patients were asked to report their risky drinking days in the previous 30 days on surveys taken 4, 8, and 12 months after discharge from residential treatment. Results: For the 8 months of the intervention and 4 months of follow-up, patients in the A-CHESS group reported significantly fewer risky drinking days

  13. Women with Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Trial of Couple versus Individual plus Couple Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K.

    2016-01-01

    Couple therapy for women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yields positive drinking outcomes, but many women prefer individual to conjoint treatment. The present study compared conjoint cognitive behavioral therapy for women with AUDs to a blend of individual and conjoint therapy. Participants were 59 women with AUDs (95% Caucasian, mean age = 46 years) and their male partners randomly assigned to 12 sessions of Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) or to a blend of five individual CBT sessions and seven sessions of ABCT (Blended-ABCT). Drinking and relationship satisfaction were assessed during and for one year post-treatment. Treatment conditions did not differ significantly on number of treatment sessions attended, percent of drinking days (PDD), or heavy drinking days (PDH), during or in the 12 months following treatment. However, effect size estimates suggested a small to moderate effect of Blended-ABCT over ABCT in number of treatment sessions attended, d=−.41, and first- and second-half within treatment PDD, d=−.41, d=−.28, and PDH, d=−.46, d=−.38. Moderator analyses found that women lower in baseline sociotropy had lower PDH across treatment weeks 1–8 in Blended-ABCT than ABCT and that women lower in self-efficacy had lower PDH during follow-up in Blended-ABCT than ABCT. The two treatment groups did not differ significantly in within-treatment or post-treatment relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that blending individual and conjoint treatment yields similar or slightly better outcomes than ABCT, is responsive to women’s expressed desire for individual sessions as part of their treatment, and decreases the challenges of scheduling conjoint sessions. PMID:27214168

  14. Association Splitting: A randomized controlled trial of a new method to reduce craving among inpatients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brooke C; Moritz, Steffen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Reimer, Jens; Andreou, Christina; Jelinek, Lena

    2016-04-30

    Association Splitting, a novel cognitive intervention, was tested in patients with alcohol dependence as an add-on intervention in an initial randomized controlled trial. Preliminary support for Association Splitting has been found in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as in an online pilot study of patients with alcohol use disorders. The present variant sought to reduce craving by strengthening neutral associations with alcohol-related stimuli, thus, altering cognitive networks. Eighty-four inpatients with verified diagnoses of alcohol dependence, who were currently undergoing inpatient treatment, were randomly assigned to Association Splitting or Exercise Therapy. Craving was measured at baseline, 4-week follow-up, and six months later with the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (primary outcome) and the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire. There was no advantage for Association Splitting after three treatment sessions relative to Exercise Therapy. Among Association Splitting participants, 51.9% endorsed a subjective decline in craving and 88.9% indicated that they would use Association Splitting in the future. Despite high acceptance, an additional benefit of Association Splitting beyond standard inpatient treatment was not found. Given that participants were concurrently undergoing inpatient treatment and Association Splitting has previously shown moderate effects, modification of the study design may improve the potential to detect significant effects in future trials.

  15. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of... CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25...-6313); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955)....

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  17. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  18. High-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence (BACLAD study): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian A; Geisel, Olga; Pelz, Patricia; Higl, Verena; Krüger, Josephine; Stickel, Anna; Beck, Anne; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Hellweg, Rainer; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of the selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence have reported divergent results, possibly related to the low to medium dosages of baclofen used in these studies (30-80mg/d). Based on preclinical observations of a dose-dependent effect and positive case reports in alcohol-dependent patients, the present RCT aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of individually titrated high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Out of 93 alcohol-dependent patients initially screened, 56 were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment with individually titrated baclofen or placebo using dosages of 30-270mg/d. The multiple primary outcome measures were (1) total abstinence and (2) cumulative abstinence duration during a 12-week high-dose phase. More patients of the baclofen group maintained total abstinence during the high-dose phase than those receiving placebo (15/22, 68.2% vs. 5/21, 23.8%, p=0.014). Cumulative abstinence duration was significantly higher in patients given baclofen compared to patients of the placebo group (mean 67.8 (SD 30) vs. 51.8 (SD 29.6) days, p=0.047). No drug-related serious adverse events were observed during the trial. Individually titrated high-dose baclofen effectively supported alcohol-dependent patients in maintaining alcohol abstinence and showed a high tolerability, even in the event of relapse. These results provide further evidence for the potential of baclofen, thereby possibly extending the current pharmacological treatment options in alcohol dependence.

  19. Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yari, Zahra; Rahimlou, Mehran; Eslamparast, Tannaz; Ebrahimi-Daryani, Naser; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2016-06-01

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management.

  20. Effect of modafinil on cognitive functions in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E; Schmaal, Lianne; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Dom, Geert

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and may have a detrimental impact on treatment response and treatment outcome. Enhancing cognitive functions may improve treatment success. Modafinil is a promising compound in this respect. Therefore, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted with modafinil (300 mg/d) or placebo in 83 AD patients for 10 weeks. Various cognitive functions (digit span task, Tower of London task, Stroop task) were measured at baseline, during and after treatment. Compared to placebo, modafinil improved verbal short-term memory (number of forward digit spans) (p=0.030), but modafinil exerted a negative effect on the working memory score of the digit span task (p=0.003). However, subgroup analyses revealed that modafinil did improve both working memory and verbal short-term memory in AD patients with a poor working memory ability at baseline (25% worst performers), whereas no significant treatment effect of modafinil was found on these two dependent variables in patients with good working memory skills at baseline (25% best performers). No effect of modafinil was found on measures of planning (Tower of London task) and selective attention (Stroop task). Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between cognitive remediation and treatment outcome in order to design targeted treatments.

  1. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups.

  2. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Siepmann, Timo; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24) attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale), anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN) analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2). Results Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05), whereas craving was unchanged at this time point in the control group. Anxiety was reduced at follow-ups 1 and 2 post-biofeedback, but was unchanged in the control group (P<0.05). Following biofeedback, CVNN tended to be increased (10.3%±2.8% post-biofeedback, 10.1%±3.5% follow-up 1, 10.1%±2.9% follow-up 2 versus 9.7%±3.6% baseline; P=not significant). There was no such trend in the control group. Vasomotor function assessed using the mean duration to 50% vasoconstriction of cutaneous vessels after deep inspiration was improved following biofeedback

  3. Patient-centered care interventions for the management of alcohol use disorders: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Pablo; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Issues Patient-centered care (PCC) is increasingly accepted as an integral component of good health care, including addiction medicine. However, its implementation has been controversial in people with alcohol use disorders. Approach A systematic search strategy was devised to find completed randomized controlled trials enrolling adults (>18 years) with alcohol use disorders. Studies had to use a PCC approach such that they should have been individualized, respectful to the patients’ own goals, and empowering. Studies until September 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, and Web of Knowledge. Key findings In total, 40 studies enrolling 16,020 patients met the inclusion criteria. Assessment revealed two main categories of study: psychosocial (n=35 based on motivational interviewing) and pharmacological (n=5 based on an as needed dosing regimen). Psychosocial interventions were further classified according to the presence or absence of an active comparator. When no active comparator was present, studies were classified according to the number of sessions (≥1). Results from single sessions of motivational interviewing showed no clear benefit on alcohol consumption outcomes, with few studies indicating benefit of PCC versus control. Although the results for studies of multiple sessions of counseling were also mixed, many did show a significant benefit of the PCC intervention. By contrast, studies consistently demonstrated a benefit of pharmacologically supported PCC interventions, with most of the differences reaching statistical significance. Implications PCC-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing alcohol consumption in people with alcohol use disorders. PMID:27695301

  4. Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Use among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasquez, Mary M.; von Sternberg, Kirk; Johnson, David H.; Green, Charles; Carbonari, Joseph P.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial (N = 253) evaluated the efficacy of a theory-based intervention designed to reduce both alcohol use and incidence of unprotected sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with alcohol use disorders. An integrated, manualized intervention, using both individual counseling and peer group…

  5. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Sannibale, Claudia; Teesson, Maree; Creamer, Mark; Sitharthan, Thiagarajan; Bryant, Richard A; Sutherland, Kylie; Taylor, Kirsten; Bostock-Matusko, Delphine; Visser, Alicia; Peek-O'Leary, Marie

    2013-08-01

    Aims This study aimed to test the efficacy of integrated cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for coexisting post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Setting Clinics across Sydney, Australia.Design Randomized controlled trial of 12 once-weekly individual sessions of either integrated CBT for PTSD and AUD(integrated therapy, IT; n = 33) or CBT for AUD plus supportive counselling (alcohol-support, AS; n = 29). Blind assessments were conducted at baseline and post-treatment and at 5 [standard deviation (SD) = 2.25] and 9.16(SD = 3.45) months post-treatment. Participants Sixty-two adults with concurrent PTSD and AUD. Measurements Outcomes included changes in alcohol consumption (time-line follow-back), PTSD severity [clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS)], alcohol dependence and problems, and depression and anxiety. Findings Reductions in PTSD severity were evident in both groups. IT participants who had received one or more sessions of exposure therapy exhibited a twofold greater rate of clinically significant change in CAPS severity at follow-up than AS participants [IT60%, AS 39%, odds ratio (OR): 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 5.01]. AS participants exhibited larger reductions than IT participants in alcohol consumption, dependence and problems within the context of greater treatment from other services during follow-up. Results lend support to a mutually maintaining effect between AUD and PTSD. Conclusions Individuals with severe and complex presentations of coexisting post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) can derive substantial benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy targeting AUD, with greater benefits associated with exposure for PTSD. Among individuals with dual disorders, these therapies can generate significant, well-maintained treatment effects on PTSD, AUD and psychopathology.

  6. Baseline predictors of treatment outcome in Internet-based alcohol interventions: a recursive partitioning analysis alongside a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are seen as attractive for harmful users of alcohol and lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Some participants will however not achieve the desired results. In this study, harmful users of alcohol have been partitioned in subgroups with low, intermediate or high probability of positive treatment outcome, using recursive partitioning classification tree analysis. Methods Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two Internet-based alcohol interventions. The main outcome variable was treatment response, a dichotomous outcome measure for treatment success. Candidate predictors for the classification analysis were first selected using univariate regression. Next, a tree decision model to classify participants in categories with a low, medium and high probability of treatment response was constructed using recursive partitioning software. Results Based on literature review, 46 potentially relevant baseline predictors were identified. Five variables were selected using univariate regression as candidate predictors for the classification analysis. Two variables were found most relevant for classification and selected for the decision tree model: ‘living alone’, and ‘interpersonal sensitivity’. Using sensitivity analysis, the robustness of the decision tree model was supported. Conclusions Harmful alcohol users in a shared living situation, with high interpersonal sensitivity, have a significantly higher probability of positive treatment outcome. The resulting decision tree model may be used as part of a decision support system but is on its own insufficient as a screening algorithm with satisfactory clinical utility. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (Cochrane Collaboration): NTR-TC1155. PMID:23651767

  7. A randomized trial of combined citalopram and naltrexone for nonabstinent outpatients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Simon J; Sellman, J Douglas; Foulds, James A; Frampton, Christopher M A; Deering, Daryle; Dunn, Alistair; Berks, John; Nixon, Lee; Cape, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Despite the high rate of co-occurrence of major depression and alcohol dependence, the role of pharmacotherapy in their treatment remains unclear. In the new era of naltrexone for alcohol dependence, it is notable that only 1 study to date has examined the efficacy of antidepressant medication prescribed concurrently with naltrexone. We aimed to determine whether combining naltrexone with citalopram produced better treatment outcomes than naltrexone alone in patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and depression, and to investigate whether either sex or depression type (independent or substance-induced depression) moderated treatment response. Participants were 138 depressed alcohol-dependent adults who were not required to be abstinent at the commencement of the trial. They were randomized to 12 weeks of citalopram or placebo, plus naltrexone and clinical case management. Treatment was well attended, and medications were reasonably well tolerated with high adherence rates. Substantial improvements in both mood and drinking occurred in both groups, with no significant differences between groups on any of the mood or drinking outcome measures, whether or not other variables were controlled for. No interaction effect was found for independent/substance-induced depression status, whereas there was a marginal effect found by sex, with greater improvement in 1 drinking outcome measure (percent days abstinent) in women taking citalopram. These findings suggest that citalopram is not a clinically useful addition to naltrexone and clinical case management in this treatment population. Independent/substance-induced depression status did not predict treatment response. Findings for sex were equivocal.

  8. Effects of heroin-assisted treatment on alcohol consumption: findings of the German randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haasen, C; Eiroa-Orosa, F J; Verthein, U; Soyka, M; Dilg, C; Schäfer, I; Reimer, J

    2009-06-01

    Alcohol has been suggested to be a risk factor for opioid-dependent patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Literature shows that MMT has limited effects on alcohol use. Nevertheless, a decrease in alcohol use was detected in the Swiss heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) study. In this article, we carry out an in-depth analysis of the German HAT trial with the aim of determining whether alcohol use was affected among patients undergoing HAT and MMT. Analysis was carried out using self-reported data on consumption units of alcohol used (CU), Addiction Severity Index composite scores (ASI CSs), and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measures. Results suggest significant reduction of CU and CDT in both groups, yet larger effects in the HAT group. ASI CS significantly decreased in the HAT but not in the MMT group. The greater benefit of HAT in reducing alcohol use may be due to the greater daily frequency of dispensing heroin coupled with a requirement of sobriety at each dosing occasion.

  9. Brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication – a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse among youth is a major public health concern and numbers of adolescents admitted to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication in Germany are recently growing. The emergency setting offers an opportunity to reach at-risk alcohol consuming adolescents and provide brief interventions in a potential “teachable moment”. However, studies on brief interventions targeting adolescents in emergency care are scarce and little is known about their effectiveness when delivered immediately following hospitalization for acute alcohol intoxication. In this protocol we present the HaLT-Hamburg trial evaluating a brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in the emergency department after an episode of acute alcoholic intoxication. Methods The trial design is a parallel two-arm cluster randomized-controlled trial with follow-up assessment after 3 and 6 months. N = 312 participants aged 17 years and younger will be recruited Fridays to Sundays in 6 pediatric clinics over a period of 30 months. Intervention condition is a manual-based brief motivational intervention with a telephone booster after 6 weeks and a manual-guided intervention for caregivers which will be compared to treatment as usual. Primary outcomes are reduction in binge drinking episodes, quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking day and alcohol-related problems. Secondary outcome is further treatment seeking. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline differences will be conducted according to intention-to-treat (ITT) and completers (per-protocol) principles to examine intervention effects. We also examine quantitative and qualitative process data on feasibility, intervention delivery, implementation and receipt from intervention providers, receivers and regular emergency department staff. Discussion The study has a number of strengths. First, a rigorous evaluation of HaLT-Hamburg is timely because variations of the HaLT project are widely used in

  10. Telephone self-monitoring among alcohol use disorder patients in early recovery: a randomized study of feasibility and measurement reactivity.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Tracy L; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bush, Kristen R; McFall, Miles E

    2005-08-01

    Frequent symptom self-monitoring protocols have become popular tools in the addiction field. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) is a telephone monitoring system that has been shown to be feasible for collecting frequent self-reports from a variety of research populations. Little is known, however, about the feasibility of using IVR monitoring in clinical samples, and few controlled trials exist assessing the impact of any type of frequent self-report monitoring on the behaviors monitored. This pilot study with patients in early recovery from an alcohol use disorder (n=98) evaluated compliance with two IVR monitoring protocols, subjective experiences with monitoring, and change in symptoms associated with monitoring (i.e., measurement reactivity). Participants were randomly assigned to call an IVR system daily for 28 days, once per week for 4 weeks, or only to complete 28-day follow-up assessment including retrospective drinking reports. Monitoring calls assessed alcohol craving, substance use, emotional well-being, and PTSD symptoms. Most monitoring participants completed calls on at least 75% of scheduled days (72.2% and 59.2% for daily and weekly, respectively). Including reconstructed data from follow-up of missed calls yielded 77.8% and 74.1% of maximum data points, respectively. Most monitoring participants indicated the protocol was manageable and reported positive or no effects of monitoring on urges to use alcohol, actual drinking, and PTSD symptoms. Analyses of measurement reactivity based on assessment one month after randomization found no significant group differences on drinking, craving for alcohol, or PTSD-related symptoms. Results suggest that IVR technology is feasible and appropriate for telephone symptom monitoring in similar clinical samples.

  11. Effect of modafinil on impulsivity and relapse in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E; Schmaal, Lianne; Fransen, Erik; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Dom, Geert

    2013-08-01

    Poor impulse control plays an important role in the development, course and relapse of substance use disorders. Therefore, improving impulse control may represent a promising approach in the treatment of alcohol dependence. This study aimed to test the effect of modafinil on impulse control and alcohol use in alcohol dependent patients (ADP) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-three abstinent ADP were randomized to 10 weeks modafinil (300 mg/d) or placebo. Alcohol use was quantified using the timeline follow-back method and was assessed until 6 months after treatment discontinuation. Impulsivity was assessed using self-report questionnaires (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; State Impulsivity questionnaire) and neurocognitive tasks (Stop Signal Task; Delay Discounting Task) administered before, during and after treatment. Modafinil significantly improved self-report measures of state impulsivity, but had no effect on percentage of abstinent days or percentage of heavy drinking days, nor on the behavioral measures of impulsivity. However, subgroup analysis revealed that modafinil prolonged the time to relapse (p=.022) and tended to increase the percentage of abstinent days (p=.066) in ADP with poor response inhibition at baseline, whereas modafinil increased the percentage of heavy drinking days (p=.003) and reduced the percentage of abstinent days (p=.002) in patients with better baseline response inhibition. Overall results do not favor the use of modafinil in order to reduce relapse or relapse severity in ADP, and caution is required in prescribing modafinil to a non-selected sample of ADP. Further research on the effect of modafinil in ADP with poor baseline response inhibition is warranted.

  12. Improving the alcohol retail environment to reduce youth access: a randomized community trial of a best practices toolkit intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Lisa S; El Ayadi, Alison M; Lyons, Nancy J; Herr-Zaya, Kathleen; Noll, Debra; Perfas, Fernando; Rots, Gisela

    2011-06-01

    Underage alcohol use remains a significant public health problem throughout the United States and has important consequences for the health of individuals and communities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of distributing an alcohol retailer toolkit via direct mail on increasing positive alcohol retailer attitudes towards checking IDs, encouraging retail managers to formalize ID checking procedures with their employees, and promoting consumers to be prepared to show ID when purchasing alcohol. This community randomized study included five matched Massachusetts community pairs. Our analysis sample consisted of 209 retailers (77 intervention; 132 control). In models adjusted for baseline response and matching community and establishment characteristics, intervention communities reported posting, on average, one additional sign or wall decal in their establishments (β = 0.937, P = 0.0069), and a twofold higher odds of handing out written materials on ID checking to staff (OR: 2.074, 95%CI: 1.003-4.288) compared to control establishments. However, the intervention was not found to have an effect on changing establishment policies, retailer attitudes, or other establishment practices. Intervention retailers perceived all components of the toolkit to be very useful for their establishments, and nearly all reported having shared materials with their employees and customers. These results suggest that some significant changes in alcohol retailer establishment practices can be achieved among motivated owners or managers through the distribution of a toolkit targeting best retailer practices. We do, however, recommend that future program planners consider alternative dissemination and marketing strategies beyond direct mail to encourage greater utilization.

  13. Guided and Unguided Internet-Based Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use – A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Johansson, Magnus; Blankers, Matthijs; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Stenlund-Gens, Erik; Berman, Anne H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. Methods An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of ≥ 6 for women and ≥ 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. Results In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Conclusion Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more

  14. Sitagliptin in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Tisha R; McKenzie, Charles A; Tirona, Rommel G; Summers, Kelly; Seney, Shannon; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Malhotra, Neel; Beaton, Melanie D

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of sitagliptin vs placebo on histologic and non-histologic parameters of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS Twelve patients with biopsy-proven NASH were randomized to sitagliptin (100 mg daily) (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) for 24 wk. The primary outcome was improvement in liver fibrosis after 24 wk. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of changes in NAFLD activity score (NAS), individual components of NAS (hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, and steatosis), glycemic control and insulin resistance [including measurements of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and adipocytokines], lipid profile including free fatty acids, adipose distribution measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thrombosis markers (platelet aggregation and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels). We also sought to determine the correlation between changes in hepatic fat fraction (%) [as measured using the Iterative Decomposition of water and fat with Echo Asymmetry and Least-squares estimation (IDEAL) MRI technique] and changes in hepatic steatosis on liver biopsy. RESULTS Sitagliptin was not significantly better than placebo at reducing liver fibrosis score as measured on liver biopsy (mean difference between sitagliptin and placebo arms, 0.40, P = 0.82). There were no significant improvements evident with the use of sitagliptin vs placebo for the secondary histologic outcomes of NAS total score as well as for the individual components of NAS. Compared to baseline, those patients who received sitagliptin demonstrated improved HbA1C (6.7% ± 0.4% vs 7.9% ± 1.0%, P = 0.02), and trended towards improved adiponectin levels (4.7 ± 3.5 μg/mL vs 3.9 ± 2.7 μg/mL, P = 0.06) and triglyceride levels (1.26 ± 0.43 mmol/L vs 2.80 ± 1.64 mmol/L, P = 0.08). However, when compared with placebo, sitagliptin did not cause a statistically significant improvement in HbA1C (mean difference, -0.7%, P = 0.19) nor triglyceride levels (mean difference -1.10 mmol

  15. Addressing Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…

  16. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate... alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for...

  17. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate... alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for...

  18. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate... alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for...

  19. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts.

  20. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    .... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... notice of determination is effective December 26, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth...

  1. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine in patients with bipolar disorder, mixed or depressed phase, and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. Sherwood; Domingo Davila, S.; Nakamura, Alyson; Carmody, Thomas J.; Rush, A. John; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci; Adinoff, Bryon; Caetano, Raul; Swann, Alan C; Sunderajan, Prabha; Bret, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is common in bipolar disorder (BPD) and associated with treatment non-adherence, violence, and hospitalization. Quetiapine is a standard treatment for BPD. We previously reported improvement in depressive symptoms, but not alcohol use, with quetiapine in BPD and alcohol dependence. However, mean alcohol use was low and a larger effect size on alcohol-related measures was observed in those with higher levels of alcohol consumption. In this study, efficacy of quetiapine in patients with BPD and alcohol dependence was examined in patients with higher mean baseline alcohol use than in the prior study. Methods Ninety outpatients with bipolar I or II disorders, depressed or mixed mood state, and current alcohol dependence were randomized to 12 weeks of sustained release quetiapine (to 600 mg/day) add-on therapy or placebo. Drinking was quantified using the Timeline Follow Back method. Additional assessment tools included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), liver enzymes, and side effects. Alcohol use and mood were analyzed using a declining-effects random-regression model. Results Baseline and demographic characteristics in the two groups were similar. No significant between-group differences were observed on the primary outcome measure of drinks/day or other alcohol-related or mood measures (p>.05). Overall side effect burden, glucose and cholesterol were similar in the two groups. However, a significant weight increase was observed with quetiapine at week 6 (+2.9 lbs [SE 1.4] quetiapine vs. −2.0 lbs [SE 1.4], p=.03), but not at week 12. Scores on the Barnes Akathisia Scale increased significantly more (p=.04) with quetiapine (+0.40 (SE 0.3)) than placebo (−0.52 (SE 0.3)) at week 6 but not week 12. Retention (survival) in the study was similar in the groups. Conclusions Findings suggest that

  3. Data from a randomized and controlled trial of LCarnitine prescription for the treatment for Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Somi, Mohamad Hosein; Fatahi, Ebrahim; Panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Judaki, Arezo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consists of a range of complication. The disease describes clinical , para clinical and pathological conditions from simple steatosis in non-alcoholic steato hepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepato cellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the grade of fatty liver and Liver Function Test in NAFLD patients. We collected samples and data from 80 patients referred to gastrointestinal clinic of Emam Reza hospital with sonography diagnosed NAFLD and were evaluated in two groups in a randomized clinical trial. The effects of L-Carnitine (500 mg) prescription twice a day on liver enzymes and echogenicity changes in case group was documented and compared with the control group. The mean age of the patients was 40.7±8 in the age range of 25 to 62 years old with 66 (82.5%) male and 14 (17.5%) female patients. Data show that fatty liver changes were not significantly different in the two groups (P=0.23). It is observed that the ALT was the only enzyme with significant changes (P=0.01) after a 24-week interval. It is also noted that the difference in fatty liver sonographic grading was also significant in the two groups (P=0.0001). Thus, proper therapeutic protocols can be adopted beside diet and weight loss to control the disease trend in consideration to the significant changes observed both in enzymatic levels and sonographic grading between the two groups of patients with NAFLD.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of goal choice interventions for alcohol use disorders among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Jon; Irwin, Thomas W; Wainberg, Milton L; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Muench, Frederick; Bux, Donald A; Kahler, Christopher W; Marcus, Susan; Schulz-Heik, Jay

    2007-02-01

    This study tested the efficacy of behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUD) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and who are at risk for HIV transmission. HIV-negative MSM with current AUD (N = 198) were recruited, offered treatment focused on reducing drinking and HIV risk, and followed during treatment and 12 months posttreatment. Participants (n = 89) accepted treatment and were randomized to either 4 sessions of motivational interviewing (MI) or 12 sessions of combined MI and coping skills training (MI + CBT). Other participants (n = 109) declined treatment but were followed, forming a non-help-seeking group (NHS). MI yielded significantly better drinking outcomes during the 12-week treatment period than MI + CBT, but posttreatment outcomes were equivalent. NHS participants significantly reduced their drinking as well. Service delivery and treatment research implications are discussed.

  5. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a.... Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the...

  6. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation...

  7. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation...

  8. Effects of a Web-Based Tailored Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Candel, Math JJM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Reinwand, Dominique A; Jander, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based tailored interventions provide users with information that is adapted to their individual characteristics and needs. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of tailored alcohol self-help programs among adults are scarce. Furthermore, it is a challenge to develop programs that can hold respondents’ attention in online interventions. Objective To assess whether a 3-session, Web-based tailored intervention is effective in reducing alcohol intake in high-risk adult drinkers and to compare 2 computer-tailoring feedback strategies (alternating vs summative) on behavioral change, dropout, and appreciation of the program. Methods A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with an experimental group and a control group (N=448) in Germany in 2010-2011. Follow-up took place after 6 months. Drinking behavior, health status, motivational determinants, and demographics were assessed among participants recruited via an online access panel. The experimental group was divided into 2 subgroups. In the alternating condition (n=132), the tailored feedback was split into a series of messages discussing individual topics offered while the respondent was filling out the program. Participants in the summative condition (n=181) received all advice at once after having answered all questions. The actual texts were identical for both conditions. The control group (n=135) only filled in 3 questionnaires. To identify intervention effects, logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted among complete cases (n=197) and after using multiple imputation. Results Among the complete cases (response rate: 197/448, 44.0%) who did not comply with the German national guideline for low-risk drinking at baseline, 21.1% of respondents in the experimental group complied after 6 months compared with 5.8% in the control group (effect size=0.42; OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.14-6.16, P=.02). The experimental group decreased by 3.9 drinks per week compared to 0

  9. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of providing access to a brief personalized alcohol feedback intervention in university students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence indicating that web-based personalized feedback interventions can reduce the amount of alcohol consumed in problem drinking college students. This study sought to evaluate whether providing voluntary access to such an intervention would have an impact on drinking. Methods College students responded to an email inviting them to participate in a short drinking survey. Those meeting criteria for risky drinking (and agreeing to participate in a follow-up) were randomized to an intervention condition where they were offered to participate in a web-based personalized feedback intervention or to a control condition (intervention not offered). Participants were followed-up at six weeks. Results A total of 425 participants were randomized to condition and 68% (n = 290) completed the six-week follow-up. No significant difference in drinking between conditions was observed. Conclusions Web-based personalized feedback interventions that are offered to students on a voluntary basis may not have a measurable impact on problem drinking. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01521078 PMID:23185985

  10. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; van der Heever, Hendry; Skaal, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. PMID:23698697

  11. Impact of an Online Alcohol Education Course on Behavior and Harm for Incoming First-Year College Students: Short-Term Evaluation of a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, Katherine; Lewis, Deborah; Marchell, Timothy; Lesser, Martin L.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Kubicki-Bedford, Lisa; Feffer, Mitchel; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed short-term effectiveness of a Web-based alcohol education program on entering freshmen. Participants: 3,216 incoming first-year students were randomized to a control or intervention group. Methods: Controls completed a survey and knowledge test the summer before college; 4 to 6 weeks after arrival on campus, they…

  12. Data from a randomized and controlled trial of LCarnitine prescription for the treatment for Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Somi, Mohamad Hosein; Fatahi, Ebrahim; Panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; judaki, Arezo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consists of a range of complication. The disease describes clinical , para clinical and pathological conditions from simple steatosis in non-alcoholic steato hepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepato cellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the grade of fatty liver and Liver Function Test in NAFLD patients. We collected samples and data from 80 patients referred to gastrointestinal clinic of Emam Reza hospital with sonography diagnosed NAFLD and were evaluated in two groups in a randomized clinical trial. The effects of L-Carnitine (500 mg) prescription twice a day on liver enzymes and echogenicity changes in case group was documented and compared with the control group. The mean age of the patients was 40.7±8 in the age range of 25 to 62 years old with 66 (82.5%) male and 14 (17.5%) female patients. Data show that fatty liver changes were not significantly different in the two groups (P=0.23). It is observed that the ALT was the only enzyme with significant changes (P=0.01) after a 24-week interval. It is also noted that the difference in fatty liver sonographic grading was also significant in the two groups (P=0.0001). Thus, proper therapeutic protocols can be adopted beside diet and weight loss to control the disease trend in consideration to the significant changes observed both in enzymatic levels and sonographic grading between the two groups of patients with NAFLD. PMID:25352725

  13. Randomized community-level HIV prevention intervention trial for men who drink in South African alcohol-serving venues

    PubMed Central

    Simbayi, Leickness C.; Cain, Demetria; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Eaton, Lisa; Harel, Ofer; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mwaba, Kelvin

    2014-01-01

    Background: South African alcohol-serving establishments (i.e., shebeens) offer unique opportunities to reduce HIV risks among men who drink. Purpose: To test an individual- and a social structural-level HIV prevention intervention for men who drink in shebeens. Methods: Twelve matched pairs of township neighbourhoods were randomized to receive either (i) an HIV prevention intervention (guided by Social Action Theory) to reduce sexual risk and increase risk reduction communication in social networks, or (ii) an attention-matched control intervention that focused on the prevention of relationship violence. At the individual level, the interventions delivered skills building workshops focused on sexual risk reduction. At the social structural level, the intervention aimed to increase conversations about safer sex among men in the shebeens, distributed small media and implemented community educational events. Individual-level outcomes were assessed by following the workshop cohorts for 1 year (N = 984), and community-level outcomes were examined through cross-sectional community surveys conducted for 1 year in the shebeens (N = 9,678). Results: Men in the HIV prevention workshops demonstrated greater condom use, more HIV prevention-oriented conversations and greater perceptions of safer sex norms than men in the comparison workshops. Changes at the community level demonstrated significant differences in condom use, although the pattern was not consistent over time. Conclusions: Multi-level interventions that target men who drink in South African shebeens may help reduce risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24248803

  14. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  15. Effects of Mood Inductions by Meal Ambiance and Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Endocannabinoids and N-Acylethanolamines in Humans: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Ripken, Dina; Stafleu, Annette; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on plasma ECs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), anandamide (AEA), and some N-acylethanolamine (NAE) congeners in humans. Methods Healthy women (n = 28) participated in a randomized cross-over study. They consumed sparkling white wine (340 mL; 30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine (340 mL; <2 g alcohol) as part of a standard evening meal in a room with either a pleasant or an unpleasant ambiance. Results Plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and stearoylethanolamide (SEA) increased after 30 min in the unpleasant ambiance, while they decreased in the pleasant ambiance. Changes in ECs and their NAE congeners correlated with mood states, such as happiness and fatigue, but in the pleasant ambiance without alcohol only. ECs and their NAE congeners were correlated with serum free fatty acids and cortisol. Conclusion This is the first human study to demonstrate that plasma NAEs are responsive to an unpleasant meal ambiance. Furthermore, associations between mood states and ECs and their NAE congeners were observed. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022 PMID:25962070

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Individual Differences in Subjective Responses to D-Amphetamine, Alcohol, and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Using a Within-Subjects Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Marcus, Benjamin A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Polydrug use is common, and might occur because certain individuals experience positive effects from several different drugs during early stages of use. This study examined individual differences in subjective responses to single oral doses of d-amphetamine, alcohol, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy social drinkers. Each of these drugs produces feelings of well-being in at least some individuals, and we hypothesized that subjective responses to these drugs would be positively correlated. We also examined participants’ drug responses in relation to personality traits associated with drug use. In this initial, exploratory study, 24 healthy, light drug users (12 male, 12 female), aged 21–31 years, participated in a fully within-subject, randomized, counterbalanced design with six 5.5-hour sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20mg), alcohol (0.8 g/kg), or THC (7.5 mg), each paired with a placebo session. Participants rated the drugs’ effects on both global measures (e.g. feeling a drug effect at all) and drug-specific measures. In general, participants’ responses to the three drugs were unrelated. Unexpectedly, “wanting more” alcohol was inversely correlated with “wanting more” THC. Additionally, in women, but not in men, “disliking” alcohol was negatively correlated with “disliking” THC. Positive alcohol and amphetamine responses were related, but only in individuals who experienced a stimulant effect of alcohol. Finally, high trait constraint (or lack of impulsivity) was associated with lower reports of liking alcohol. No personality traits predicted responses across multiple drug types. Generally, these findings do not support the idea that certain individuals experience greater positive effects across multiple drug classes, but instead provide some evidence for a “drug of choice” model, in which individuals respond positively to certain classes of drugs that share similar subjective effects, and dislike other

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Individual Differences in Subjective Responses to D-Amphetamine, Alcohol, and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Using a Within-Subjects Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; Marcus, Benjamin A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Polydrug use is common, and might occur because certain individuals experience positive effects from several different drugs during early stages of use. This study examined individual differences in subjective responses to single oral doses of d-amphetamine, alcohol, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy social drinkers. Each of these drugs produces feelings of well-being in at least some individuals, and we hypothesized that subjective responses to these drugs would be positively correlated. We also examined participants' drug responses in relation to personality traits associated with drug use. In this initial, exploratory study, 24 healthy, light drug users (12 male, 12 female), aged 21-31 years, participated in a fully within-subject, randomized, counterbalanced design with six 5.5-hour sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20mg), alcohol (0.8 g/kg), or THC (7.5 mg), each paired with a placebo session. Participants rated the drugs' effects on both global measures (e.g. feeling a drug effect at all) and drug-specific measures. In general, participants' responses to the three drugs were unrelated. Unexpectedly, "wanting more" alcohol was inversely correlated with "wanting more" THC. Additionally, in women, but not in men, "disliking" alcohol was negatively correlated with "disliking" THC. Positive alcohol and amphetamine responses were related, but only in individuals who experienced a stimulant effect of alcohol. Finally, high trait constraint (or lack of impulsivity) was associated with lower reports of liking alcohol. No personality traits predicted responses across multiple drug types. Generally, these findings do not support the idea that certain individuals experience greater positive effects across multiple drug classes, but instead provide some evidence for a "drug of choice" model, in which individuals respond positively to certain classes of drugs that share similar subjective effects, and dislike other types of drugs.

  18. A randomized trial of three marketing strategies to disseminate a screening and brief alcohol intervention programme to general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F; Heather, N; McAvoy, B R; Gilvarry, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. A dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different marketing strategies for the dissemination of a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Seven hundred and twenty-nine GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority were randomly assigned to one of three marketing strategies: postal marketing (mailing a promotional brochure to GPs), telemarketing (following a script to market the programme over the telephone), and personal marketing (following the same script during face-to-face marketing at GPs' practices). GPs who took up the programme were asked if they would agree to use it. Outcome measures included the proportions of GPs who took up the programme and agreement to use it. RESULTS: Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, 321 (52%) took the programme. There was a significant difference in the proportions of GPs from the three marketing strategies who took the programme (82% telemarketing, 68% personal marketing, and 22% postal marketing). Of the 315 GPs who took the programme and were eligible to use it, 128 (41%) agreed to use the programme for three months. GPs in the postal marketing group were more likely to agree to use the programme (55% postal marketing, 44% personal marketing, and 34% telemarketing). Personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination strategy; however, economic analysis revealed that telemarketing was the most cost-effective strategy. Costs for dissemination per GP were: 13 Pounds telemarketing, 15 Pounds postal marketing, and 88 Pounds personal marketing. CONCLUSION: Telemarketing appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Behavioral Couples Therapy versus Individually-Based Treatment for Women with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Murphy, Marie M.; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies show that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance use and relationship outcomes among men with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study compared BCT with IBT for women with AUD. Method: Participants were women with AUD (N = 105) and their male partners without SUD. Participants were mostly White and in their forties. Women were randomized to equally intensive treatments consisting of either BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT or IBT only. Primary outcomes included: Timeline Followback Interview percentage days abstinent (PDA) and Inventory of Drug Use Consequences measure of substance-related problems. Secondary outcomes included: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Happiness Scale (RHS), and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales measure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and quarterly for 1-yr follow-up. Results: Compared to IBT only, BCT plus IBT had significantly better primary outcomes of higher PDA and fewer substance-related problems during the 1-yr follow-up period. Compared to IBT only, BCT had significantly higher male RHS during the 1-yr follow-up. Women with lower pretreatment DAS had significantly higher DAS following BCT versus IBT, and there was an increasing advantage for BCT on female DAS over the follow-up. IPV was significantly reduced from pretreatment to follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. Conclusion: Results showed that BCT for women with AUD was more efficacious than IBT in reducing substance use and substance-related problems and improving partner relationships. PMID:25045910

  20. Internet Therapy versus Internet Self-Help versus No Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankers, Matthijs; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Problematic alcohol use is the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease, partly because the majority of problem drinkers are not receiving treatment. Internet-based alcohol interventions attract an otherwise untreated population, but their effectiveness has not yet been established. The current study examined the…

  1. Hybrid Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Relaxation Training for Co-Occurring Anxiety and Alcohol Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Matt G.; Maurer, Eric W.; Thuras, Paul; Donahue, Chris; Frye, Brenda; Menary, Kyle R.; Hobbs, Jennifer; Haeny, Angela M.; Van Demark, Joani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is far less effective for those with a co-occurring anxiety disorder. Surprisingly, adding an independent anxiety treatment to AUD treatment does not substantially improve the poor alcohol outcomes of these patients. This may reflect the lack of attention from independent treatments to the…

  2. Personalized feedback as a universal prevention approach for college drinking: a randomized trial of an e-mail linked universal web-based alcohol intervention.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first

  3. Online Alcohol Assessment and Feedback for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Findings From the AMADEUS-2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Routine Practice in Swedish Universities

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research on the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions for college students has shown mixed results. Small benefits have been found in some studies and because online interventions are inexpensive and possible to implement on a large scale, there is a need for further study. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of national provision of a brief online alcohol intervention for students in Sweden. Methods Risky drinkers at 9 colleges and universities in Sweden were invited by mail and identified using a single screening question. These students (N=1605) gave consent and were randomized into a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of immediate or delayed access to a fully automated online assessment and intervention with personalized feedback. Results After 2 months, there was no strong evidence of effectiveness with no statistically significant differences in the planned analyses, although there were some indication of possible benefit in sensitivity analyses suggesting an intervention effect of a 10% reduction (95% CI –30% to 10%) in total weekly alcohol consumption. Also, differences in effect sizes between universities were seen with participants from a major university (n=365) reducing their weekly alcohol consumption by 14% (95% CI –23% to –4%). However, lower recruitment than planned and differential attrition in the intervention and control group (49% vs 68%) complicated interpretation of the outcome data. Conclusions Any effects of current national provision are likely to be small and further research and development work is needed to enhance effectiveness. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 02335307; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN02335307 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ZdPUh0R4). PMID:26159179

  4. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Fuglestad, Anita J; Eckerle, Judith K; Fink, Birgit A; Hoecker, Heather L; Boys, Christopher J; Radke, Joshua P; Kroupina, Maria G; Miller, Neely C; Brearley, Ann M; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are conditions characterized by physical anomalies, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and neurocognitive deficits, including intellectual, executive, and memory deficits. There are no specific biological treatments for FASDs, but rodent models have shown that prenatal or postnatal choline supplementation reduces cognitive and behavioral deficits. Potential mechanisms include phospholipid production for axonal growth and myelination, acetylcholine enhancement, and epigenetic effects. Objective: Our primary goal was to determine whether postnatal choline supplementation has the potential to improve neurocognitive functioning, particularly hippocampal-dependent memory, in children with FASDs. Design: The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in children (aged 2.5–5 y at enrollment) with FASDs (n = 60) who received 500 mg choline or a placebo daily for 9 mo. Outcome measures were Mullen Scales of Early Learning (primary) and the elicited imitation (EI) memory paradigm (secondary). Results: The administration proved feasible, and choline was well tolerated. Participants received a dose on 88% of enrolled days. The only adverse event linked to choline was a fishy body odor. Choline supplementation improved the secondary outcome (EI) only after immediate recall performance was controlled for, and the outcome was moderated by age. The treatment effect on EI items recalled was significant in the younger participants (2.5- to ≤4.0-y-olds); the young choline group showed an increase of 12–14 percentage points greater than that of the young placebo group on delayed recall measures during treatment. However, there was a marginal baseline difference in delayed item recall between the young choline and placebo groups as well as a potential ceiling effect for item recall, both of which likely contributed to the observed treatment effect. We also observed a trend toward a negative effect of

  5. Moderate consumption of wine, through both its phenolic compounds and alcohol content, promotes hydroxytyrosol endogenous generation in humans. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Papaseit, Esther; Pujadas, Mitona; Fitó, Montserrat; Robledo, Patricia; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Cheynier, Véronique; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Escudier, Jean-Louis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    In humans, urinary hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) concentrations have been associated to alcohol and wine consumption. To explore the role of wine components on promoting an endogenous OHTyr generation we performed a cross-over, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 28 healthy volunteers). Ethanol (wine and vodka), dealcoholized wine, and placebo were administered. Alcohol, dealcoholized wine, and particularly wine promoted a de novo OHTyr generation in vivo in humans. Potential OHTyr precursors (tyrosine, tyrosol, tyramine) were investigated in rats. Tyrosol was metabolized to OHTyr. Collating both studies, it is postulated that an increased Tyr bioavailability, a shift to a reductive pathway in dopamine and tyramine oxidative metabolism, and the biotransformation of Tyr to OHTyr were mechanisms involved in the OHTyr endogenous generation.

  6. Effects of microwave resonance therapy on erythrocyte and plasma proteins and lipids in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Patisheva, E V; Prokopyeva, V D; Bokhan, N A

    2009-07-01

    The content of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in erythrocytes and plasma were elevated in patients with alcoholism during abstinence. A course of microwave resonance therapy reduced the level of lipid peroxide in erythrocytes, but not in the plasma, and significantly decreased the content of protein carbonyls in the plasma and erythrocytes.

  7. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  8. Mandated College Students’ Response to Sequentially-Administered Alcohol Interventions in a Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Hustad, John T.P.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Eaton, Erica; Monti, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Students referred to school administration for alcohol policies violations currently receive a wide variety of interventions. This study examined predictors of response to two interventions delivered to mandated college students (N = 598) using a stepped care approach incorporating a peer-delivered 15-minute BA session (BA; Step 1) and a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention delivered by trained interventionists (BMI; Step 2). Method Analyses were completed in two stages. First, three types of variables (screening variables, alcohol-related cognitions, mandated student profile) were examined in a logistic regression model as putative predictors of lower-risk drinking (defined as 3 or fewer heavy episodic drinking [HED] episodes and/or 4 or fewer alcohol-related consequences in the past month) six weeks following the BA session. Second, we used generalized estimating equations to examine putative moderators of BMI effects on HED and peak blood alcohol content (pBAC) compared to assessment-only control (AO) over the 3, 6, and 9 month follow-ups. Results Participants reporting lower scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), more benefits to changing alcohol use, and those who fit the ‘Bad Incident’ profile at baseline were more likely to report lower risk drinking 6 weeks after the BA session. Moderation analyses revealed that ‘Bad Incident’ students who received the BMI reported more HED at 9-month follow up than those who received AO. Conclusion Current alcohol use as well as personal reaction to the referral event may have clinical utility in identifying which mandated students benefit from treatments of varying content and intensity. PMID:26460571

  9. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study comparing quetiapine with placebo, associated to naltrexone, in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Guardia, Josep; Roncero, Carlos; Galan, Jaime; Gonzalvo, Begoña; Burguete, Teresa; Casas, Miquel

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether quetiapine plus naltrexone is more effective than naltrexone alone for the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. This was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial where eligible alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive naltrexone (50mg/day) plus quetiapine (25-200mg/day) or naltrexone (50mg/day) plus placebo for 12 weeks, and afterwards patients received naltrexone alone during 4 additional weeks. The primary efficacy measures were percent days abstinent, drinks per drinking day, and the relapse rate. Sixty-two patients received a single-blind treatment with placebo plus naltrexone, and they were thereafter randomly assigned to quetiapine plus naltrexone (n=30) or placebo plus naltrexone (n=32). Eleven (36.7%) patients in the quetiapine-treated group and 4 (12.5%) patients in the placebo-treated group withdrew before they completed 12 weeks of treatment. There were no statistically significant differences for any primary drinking outcomes between treatment groups. Both regimens were well tolerated. This study failed to demonstrate any additional benefit from the combination of quetiapine and naltrexone compared to naltrexone alone on drinking outcomes.

  10. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Methods Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). Results The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=–0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Conclusions Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both

  11. Brief Report: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Proof-of-Concept Trial of Adjunctive Topiramate for Alcohol Use Disorders in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, Louisa G.; Gold, Alexandra K.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Perlis, Roy H.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Ostacher, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Topiramate is effective for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among non-psychiatric patients. We examined topiramate for treating comorbid AUDs in bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Twelve participants were randomized to topiramate or placebo for 12 weeks. Results The topiramate group, with two out of five participants (40%) completing treatment, experienced less improvement in drinking patterns than the placebo group, with five out of seven participants (71%) completing treatment. Discussion and Conclusions Topiramate did not improve drinking behavior and was not well-tolerated. This study failed to recruit adequately. Problems surrounding high attrition, a small study sample, and missing data preclude interpretation of study findings. Scientific Significance This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate for AUDs in BD. PMID:26894822

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Goal Choice Interventions for Alcohol Use Disorders among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Irwin, Thomas W.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Muench, Frederick; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marcus, Susan; Schulz-Heik, Jay

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUD) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and who are at risk for HIV transmission. HIV-negative MSM with current AUD (N = 198) were recruited, offered treatment focused on reducing drinking and HIV risk, and followed during treatment and 12 months posttreatment.…

  13. Angelica keiskei Koidzumi extracts improve some markers of liver function in habitual alcohol drinkers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Yun, Jae-Moon; Cho, Be-Long; Paek, Yu-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which can lead to hepatitis and cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that the extracts of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (AKE) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that AKE could improve abnormalities associated with alcoholic liver disease. In this study, the effectiveness of AKE supplementation was assessed in 82 habitual alcohol drinkers (male: more than 14 units per week, female: more than 7 units per week) with abnormal liver biochemistry in a placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind trial over 12 weeks. Among the subjects, 65% (n=43) were heavy drinkers consuming more than 35 units per week. Among heavy drinkers, gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of 19 subjects per AKE-treated group were significantly decreased (21.16±37.63, P=.016) with significant differences observed compared to the 24 subjects per placebo group (P=.046). However, no significant differences were observed in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels between the AKE- and placebo-treated groups. These results suggest that AKE supplementation might improve liver function in heavy drinkers.

  14. Randomized pilot trial of a cognitive-behavioral alcohol, self-harm, and HIV prevention program for teens in mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hadley, Wendy; Curby, Timothy W; Brown, Larry K

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C). Participants included 81 adolescents and a parent. Assessments were completed at pre-intervention as well as 1, 6, and 12-months post-enrollment, and included measures of family-based mechanisms and high-risk behaviors. ASH-P relative to AO-C was associated with greater improvements in most family process variables (perceptions of communication and parental disapproval of alcohol use and sexual behavior) as well as less DSH and greater refusal of sex to avoid a sexually transmitted infection. It also had a moderate (but non-significant) effect on odds of binge drinking. No differences were found in suicidal ideation, alcohol use, or sexual intercourse. ASH-P showed initial promise in preventing multiple high-risk behaviors. Further testing of prevention protocols that target multiple high-risk behaviors in clinical samples is warranted.

  15. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = − 1.18), binge drinking (d = − 1.61) and drunkenness (d = − 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  16. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  17. Effectiveness of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    He, Xi-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Ren-Pin; Chen, Chao; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Bin-Jiao; Huang, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical syndrome with the main characteristic of diffuse liver cells with fatty changes. The clinical evolution of NAFLD includes simple non-alcoholic fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Findings We conducted this review to identify the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) in NAFLD. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ω-3 PUFA treatment for NAFLD were considered. Two reviewers assessed the quality of each study and collected data independently. Disagreements were resolved by discussion among the reviewers and any of the other authors of the paper. We performed a meta-analysis and reported summary estimates of outcomes as inverse variance (IV), fixed or random, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included seven RCTs involving 442 patients (227 for the experimental group and 215 for the control group). All the patients were divided into two groups: one treated with ω-3 PUFA and the other was the control group (generally placebo). The demographics of the ω-3 PUFA and control groups were comparable. Beneficial changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (IV 95% CI: −7.61 [−12.83 to −2.39], p = 0.004), total cholesterol (TC) (IV 95% CI: −13.41 [−21.44 to −5.38], p = 0.001), triglyceride (TG) (IV 95% CI: −43.96 [−51.21 to −36.71], p<0.00001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (IV 95% CI: 6.97 [2.05 to 11.90], p = 0.006) favored ω-3 PUFA treatment. Omega-3 PUFA tended towards a beneficial effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (IV 95% CI: −6.89 [−17.71 to 3.92], p = 0.21), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (IV 95% CI: −8.28 [−18.38 to 1.83], p = 0.11) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (IV 95% CI: −7.13 [−14.26 to 0.0], p = 0.05). Conclusions Supplementation with ω-3 PUFA is a

  18. Orofacial antinociceptive activity of (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol in mice: a randomized, controlled and triple-blind study.

    PubMed

    Tomaz-Morais, J F; Braga, R M; de Sousa, F B; de Sousa, D P; deM Pordeus, L C; de Almeida, R N; de Castro, R D

    2017-02-20

    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol (PA) on orofacial nociception in Swiss male mice using formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced pain tests. For each test, eight animals per group were pre-treated intraperitoneally by a blinded investigator with PA (50 or 75mg/kg), morphine, or vehicle (saline+0.2% Tween 80). The treatment was performed before the induction of orofacial nociception by injecting formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate solution into the right area of the upper lip. The orofacial nociceptive behaviour was timed in all tests by an investigator who was blinded to the treatments. The statistical analysis was performed using confidence intervals (CI), the effect size, and power. PA blocked the orofacial nociceptive behaviour at both doses tested (P<0.05) similarly to morphine (P>0.05), in all tests. The effect size was high in the phase 1 formalin test for 50mg/kg PA (95% CI 0.48-2.31, power 84.6%) and 75mg/kg PA (95% CI 0.82-2.76, power 96.2%), in phase 2 for 75mg/kg PA (95% CI 0.44-2.26, power 82.3%), and in the glutamate test for 75mg/kg PA (95% CI 1.11-3.16, power 99.2%). These findings show strong evidence for the antinociceptive properties of PA in the orofacial region.

  19. EFFECT OF A NOVEL ESSENTIAL OIL MOUTHRINSE WITHOUT ALCOHOL ON GINGIVITIS: A DOUBLE-BLINDED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Bezerra, José Gomes; Correa, Luciano Lima; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Montenegro, Danusa; Gapski, Ricardo; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Several different plant extracts have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and for reduction of gingivitis. Given that a large number of these substances have been associated with significant side effects that contraindicate their long-term use, new compounds need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of a Lippia sidoides ("alecrim pimenta")-based essential oil mouthrinse on gingival inflammation and bacterial plaque. Fifty-five patients were enrolled into a pilot, double-blinded, randomized, parallel-armed study. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a 7-day treatment regimen with either the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The results demonstrated decreased plaque index, gingival index and gingival bleeding index scores at 7 days, as compared to baseline. There was no statistically significance difference (p>0.05) between test and control groups for any of the clinical parameters assessed throughout the study. Adverse events were mild and transient. The findings of this study demonstrated that the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse was safe and efficacious in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation. PMID:19089126

  20. The impact of an alcohol harm reduction intervention on interpersonal violence and engagement in sex work among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: Results from a randomized controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; L'Engle, Kelly L.; Martin, Sandra L.; Green, Sherri; Sinkele, William; Suchindran, Chirayath; Speizer, Ilene S.; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate whether an alcohol harm reduction intervention was associated with reduced interpersonal violence or engagement in sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV prevention drop-in centers in Mombasa, Kenya. Participants 818 women 18 or older in Mombasa who visited HIV prevention drop-in centers, were moderate-risk drinkers and engaged in transactional sex in past six months (410 and 408 in intervention and control arms, respectively). Intervention 6 session alcohol harm reduction intervention. Comparator 6 session non-alcohol related nutrition intervention. Measurements In-person interviews were conducted at enrollment, immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. General linear mixed models examined associations between intervention assignment and recent violence (physical violence, verbal abuse, and being robbed in the past 30 days) from paying and non-paying sex partners and engagement in sex work in the past 30 days. Findings The alcohol intervention was associated with statistically significant decreases in physical violence from paying partners at 6 months post-intervention and verbal abuse from paying partners immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. Those assigned to the alcohol intervention had significantly reduced odds of engaging in sex work immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. Conclusions The alcohol intervention was associated with reductions in some forms of violence and with reductions in engagement in sex work among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. PMID:26872880

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid improves glycemic response, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehrangiz; Jamali, Haleh; Mahdavi, Reza; Kakaei, Farzad; Abedi, Rana; Kabir-Mamdooh, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate if conjugated linoleic acid supplementation (CLA) affects metabolic factors and oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods The study was a randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in specialized and subspecialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from January 2014 to March 2015. 38 obese NAFLD patients were randomly allocated into either the intervention group, receiving three 1000 mg softgel of CLA with a weight loss diet and 400 IU vitamin E, or into the control group, receiving only weight loss diet and 400 IU vitamin E for eight weeks. Dietary data and physical activity, as well as anthropometric, body composition, metabolic factors, and oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Results Weight, body composition, and serum oxidative stress, insulin, and lipid profile significantly improved in both groups, while hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (P = 0.004), total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio (P = 0.008), low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein ratio (LDL/HDL) (P = 0.002), and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio (P = 0.025) significantly decreased in the intervention group. At the end of the study, fat mass (P = 0.001), muscle mass (P = 0.023), total body water (P = 0.004), HbA1c (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P = 0.006), LDL/HDL ratio (P = 0.027), and ALT/AST ratio (P = 0.046) were significantly better in the CLA group than in the control group. Conclusion CLA improved insulin resistance, lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and liver function in NAFLD. Therefore, it could be considered as an effective complementary treatment in NAFLD. Registration number: IRCT2014020516491N1. PMID:27586548

  2. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  3. Efficacy of As-Needed Nalmefene in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with at Least a High Drinking Risk Level: Results from a Subgroup Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled 6-Month Studies

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, Wim; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bladström, Anna; Torup, Lars; Gual, Antoni; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of as-needed use of nalmefene 18 mg versus placebo in reducing alcohol consumption in patients who did not reduce their alcohol consumption after an initial assessment, i.e. the pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day) at both screening and randomization from the two randomized controlled 6-month studies ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720) and ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461). Methods: Nalmefene 18 mg and placebo were taken on an as-needed basis. All the patients also received a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA). The co-primary outcomes were number of heavy drinking days (HDDs) and mean total alcohol consumption (g/day) in Month 6 measured using the Timeline Follow-back method. Additionally, data on clinical improvement, liver function and safety were collected throughout the study. Results: The pooled population consisted of 667 patients: placebo n = 332; nalmefene n = 335. There was a superior effect of nalmefene compared with placebo in reducing the number of HDDs [treatment difference: −3.2 days (95% CI: −4.8; −1.6); P < 0.0001] and total alcohol consumption [treatment difference: −14.3 g/day (−20.8; −7.8); P < 0.0001] at Month 6. Improvements in clinical status and liver parameters were greater in the nalmefene group compared with the placebo group. Adverse events and adverse events leading to dropout were more common with nalmefene than placebo. Conclusion: As-needed nalmefene was efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption in patients with at least a high drinking risk level at both screening and randomization, and the effect in this subgroup was larger than in the total population. PMID:23873853

  4. Guided Internet-Based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James N; McGrath, Patrick; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Huguet, Anna; Hewitt, Amy; Green, Courtney; Wozney, Lori; Mushquash, Christopher; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Roane, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term used to encompass the full range of neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunction that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. There is relatively little research on intervention strategies that specifically target the behavioral problems of children with FASD. Availability and access to services are barriers to timely and effective care for families. The Strongest Families FASD intervention was recently adapted from the Strongest Families “Parenting the Active Child” program to include FASD-specific content delivered via an Internet-based application in conjunction with 11 telephone coaching sessions. Objective Our objectives are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of Strongest Families FASD in reducing externalizing problems (primary outcome), internalizing problems, and parent distress (secondary outcomes) in children aged between 4 and 12 years diagnosed with FASD when compared to a control group with access to a static resource Web page; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of Strongest Families FASD in improving social competence (secondary outcome) in school-aged children aged between 6 and 12 diagnosed with FASD when compared with an online psychoeducation control; and (3) explore parental satisfaction with the Strongest Families FASD online parenting program. Methods Parents and caregivers (N=200) of children diagnosed with FASD who have significant behavioral challenges, ages 4-12, are being recruited into a 2-arm randomized trial. The trial is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Web-based Strongest Families FASD parenting intervention on child behavior and caregiver distress, compared to a control group receiving access to a static resource Web page (ie, a list of FASD-specific websites, readings, videos, and organizations). Results The primary outcome will be externalizing problems measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Secondary outcomes include (1) internalizing

  5. Reduction of Alcohol Drinking in Young Adults by Naltrexone: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Ikomi, Jolomi; Romano, Denise M.; Wu, Ran; Toll, Benjamin A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, may facilitate reduction in drinking among young adults. We compared the efficacy and safety of naltrexone administered daily plus targeted dosing with placebo to reduce drinking in heavy drinking young adults. Methods Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, outpatient research center, March 2008-January 2012. Participants were ages 18-25, reporting ≥ 4 heavy drinking days in the prior 4 weeks. Interventions included naltrexone 25 mg daily plus 25 mg targeted (at most daily) in anticipation of drinking (n = 61) or daily/targeted placebo (n = 67). All received a personalized feedback session and brief counseling every other week. Primary outcomes were percent days heavy drinking (PHDD) and percent days abstinent (PDA) over the 8-week treatment period. Secondary outcomes included drinks/drinking day and percent days with estimated blood alcohol levels ≥0.08 g/dL. Results Of 140 randomized, 128 began treatment, comprising the evaluable sample. During treatment, PHDD (Naltrexone M=21.60, SD=16.05; Placebo M=22.90, SD=13.20) (p=0.58) and PDA (Naltrexone M=56.60, SD=22.52; Placebo M=62.50, SD=15.75) (p=0.39) did not differ by group. Naltrexone significantly reduced drinks per drinking day (Naltrexone M=4.90, SD=2.28; Placebo M=5.90, SD=2.51) (p=0.009) and percentage of drinking days with estimated BAC ≥0.08 g/dL (Naltrexone M=35.36, SD=28.40; Placebo M=45.74, SD=26.80) (p=0.042). There were no serious adverse events. Sleepiness was more common with naltrexone. Conclusions Naltrexone did not reduce frequency of drinking or heavy drinking days, but reduced secondary measures of drinking intensity. While effects were modest, the risk-benefit ratio favors offering naltrexone to help young adult heavy drinkers reduce their drinking. Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00568958 PMID:25742208

  6. [Does acamprosate diminish the appetite for alcohol in weaned alcoholics?].

    PubMed

    Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M

    1996-01-01

    A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  8. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  9. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  10. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palpacuer, Clément; Laviolle, Bruno; Boussageon, Rémy; Reymann, Jean Michel; Bellissant, Eric; Naudet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853) to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication. Methods and Findings Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1) health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications), (2) alcohol consumption outcomes, (3) biological outcomes, or (4) treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane’s Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF); for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population

  11. 49 CFR 382.305 - Random testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.305 Random testing. (a) Every employer shall comply with the requirements of this section. Every driver shall submit to random alcohol and controlled substance testing as... minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing shall be 10 percent of the average number...

  12. 49 CFR 382.305 - Random testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.305 Random testing. (a) Every employer shall comply with the requirements of this section. Every driver shall submit to random alcohol and controlled substance testing as... minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing shall be 10 percent of the average number...

  13. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  14. 49 CFR 655.45 - Random testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types... employees; the random alcohol testing rate shall be 10 percent. As provided in paragraph (b) of this section... increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug and alcohol testing is...

  15. The effect of hydro alcoholic Nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind control trial.

    PubMed

    Namazi, N; Esfanjani, A T; Heshmati, J; Bahrami, A

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle (Urtica dioica) on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic patients were studied. A randomized double-blind clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes was done for 8 weeks. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg-1nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8 weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), High Sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Fasting Insulin concentration were measured. Insulin Sensitivity was calculated, at the beginning and the end of the study. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, p<0.05 was considered significant for all variables. After 8 weeks, IL-6 and hs-CRP showed a significant decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The findings showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of nettle has decreasing effects on IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks intervention.

  16. The effect of hydro alcoholic nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Namazi, N; Tarighat, A; Bahrami, A

    2012-01-15

    Diabetes type 2 is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia and impairment of oxidant/antioxidant balance, can increase oxidative stress and increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, Effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Fifty patients (27 men, 23 women) with type 2 diabetes patients were studied. They received 100 mg kg(-1) of nettle extract of body weight hydro alcoholic for 8 weeks. At the baseline and end of 8th weeks of intervention blood levels of oxidative stress markers were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18, p < 0.05 was considered significant for all variables. After 8 weeks, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Superoxidant Dismutase (SOD) showed a significant increase in the intervention group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The findings showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of nettle has increasing effects on TAC and SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes without no changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxides (GPX) after eight weeks intervention.

  17. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  18. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  19. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  20. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyle G.; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18–40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. PMID:26391367

  1. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  2. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  3. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  4. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  5. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  6. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  7. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  9. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975–2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  10. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study.

  11. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481.

  12. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  13. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  14. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  15. Comparison of the Efficacy of the Embolic Agents Acrylamido Polyvinyl Alcohol Microspheres and Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres for Uterine Artery Embolization for Leiomyomas: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L.; Chesnick, Richard

    2011-06-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of acrylamido polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (a-PVAM) as an embolic agent for uterine artery embolization (UAE) compared with Tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TAGM).Design, Setting, ParticipantsProspective randomized double-blind noninferiority trial. Conducted at two sites both with regional UAE practices. Forty-six women with symptomatic leiomyomas.InterventionUAE procedure was performed with either of the two embolic agents. Either 700-900-{mu}m a-PVAM or 500-700-{mu}m TAGM was used.Main Outcome MeasuresChanges in leiomyoma perfusion, overall uterine volume, and dominant leiomyomas volume measured by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after UAE by a reader blinded to the embolic agent used. Changes in Uterine Fibroid Symptoms and Quality of Life questionnaire scores were measured at 3, 6, and 12 months after UAE. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized and treated under the study protocol (a-PVAM n = 22, TAGM n = 24). There were no procedure-related complications. Two patients were excluded from analysis (one technical failure of the procedure, one withdrawal from study). Successful (>90%) leiomyoma devascularization was observed in 81% of subjects at 1 week after UAE, 97% at 3 months after UAE, and 95% at 6 months after UAE. No significant differences were observed in 14 of 15 outcome measurements, consistent with noninferiority. TAGM was slightly superior to a-PVAM on one comparison (overall quality of life at 3 months after UAE).

  16. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  19. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  20. Genetic markers in alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lareu, M V; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Pardiñas, C; Concheiro, L; Carracedo, A

    1992-01-01

    11 genetic markers were typed in 157 individuals suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis, and compared with a random sample of healthy individuals. No significant differences were found for transferrin, specific group component, orosomucoid, esterase D, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and adenylate kinase. Strong associations between alcoholic cirrhosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin PI*Z allele, haptoglobin HP*1 allele and acid phosphatase ACP AC phenotype were observed. The biological significance of these associations and their relationships with the development of alcoholic cirrhosis are also discussed.

  1. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  2. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  5. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy

  6. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  9. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  10. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  11. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  12. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  14. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  15. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  18. Mixing an Energy Drink with an Alcoholic Beverage Increases Motivation for More Alcohol in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Henges, Amy L.; Ramsey, Meagan A.; Young, Chelsea R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink (AmED), or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire. Results The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of “desire” for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmED compared to alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. Conclusions An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. PMID:22724427

  19. Effects of Alcohol on Women's Risky Sexual Decision Making during Social Interactions in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of alcohol on women's sexual decision making during a laboratory social interaction with a potential dating partner. Participants completed an assessment of sex-related alcohol expectancies, were randomly assigned to consume alcohol, no alcohol, or a placebo, and then interacted with a male confederate.…

  20. Alcohol coverage in California newspapers: frequency, prominence, and framing.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Sonja L; Saphir, Melissa Nichols; Flora, June A; Howard, Kim Ammann; Gonzalez, Emily McChesney

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature and extent of alcohol coverage in California newspapers by examining the frequency, positioning, and framing of alcohol-related articles. A content analysis assessed the frequency and nature of alcohol references in news content drawn from a random sample of nine California newspaper issues from September 1997 to June 1998. The study findings indicate that alcohol is mentioned at least once a day in daily newspapers with more frequent mention in smaller newspapers. Alcohol is most often discussed in relation to trauma or in the context of promoting alcohol consumption. Articles on trauma and driving while intoxicated receive more prominence than other stories mentioning alcohol. Despite the relative frequency of alcohol content in trauma news, these stories are rarely framed with any sort of health context. Public health advocates should work toward increasing the frequency and improving the framing of alcohol in newspaper coverage.

  1. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  2. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  3. 49 CFR 655.45 - Random testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., respectively, on the reported positive drug and alcohol violation rates for the entire industry. All... from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry's verified positive... random drug and alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may...

  4. 49 CFR 655.45 - Random testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., respectively, on the reported positive drug and alcohol violation rates for the entire industry. All... from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry's verified positive... random drug and alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may...

  5. 49 CFR 655.45 - Random testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., respectively, on the reported positive drug and alcohol violation rates for the entire industry. All... from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry's verified positive... random drug and alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may...

  6. The Expectancy Challenge Alcohol Literacy Curriculum (ECALC): a single session group intervention to reduce alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Fried, Abigail B; Dunn, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    The Expectancy Challenge Alcohol Literacy Curriculum (ECALC) is a single session group-delivered program designed to modify alcohol expectancy processes and reduce alcohol use among children and young adults. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ECALC in reducing risky alcohol use among heavy drinking college men. Four fraternities at a large state university were randomly assigned to receive either the single session ECALC or a control presentation (2 fraternity houses per condition, n=250). Alcohol expectancies were assessed before and immediately after program presentation. Results demonstrated significant changes on 5 of the 7 subscales of the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Scale (CEOA) among students who received the ECALC when compared with control participants. Alcohol use data were collected for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after program presentation. Compared with those in the control condition, students who received the ECALC demonstrated significant reductions in all facets of alcohol use measured, including decreased mean and peak blood alcohol content (BAC), decreased mean number of days drinking per week, decreased mean drinks per sitting, and decreased number of binge-drinking episodes per month. This study represents 2 important advances. First is the significant reduction in risky alcohol use produced by a single session group-delivered program. The second important advance is the success in changing expectancy processes without using impractical elements common in previous expectancy challenge methods (e.g., a "barlab" environment and actual alcohol administration).

  7. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  11. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  12. Public opinions about alcoholism and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R

    1987-03-01

    Survey respondents' views about alcoholism as an illness, support for treatment, treatment recommendation and stigma surrounding alcoholics are examined. Subjects (N = 482) comprise a random sample of the population of Contra Costa County, California. About 91% of the respondents agree with the notion that alcoholism is an illness, but 40% also agree that alcoholics drink because they want to. More women than men support the idea that to recover alcoholics will have to quit drinking forever. The contrary is true of the idea of controlled drinking. Education and income are negatively associated with items on loss of control and controlled drinking. Respondents who have had their lives deeply affected by an alcoholic and those who report a drinking problem of their own do not differ in their opinions about alcoholism from those who do not have these characteristics. Alcoholics Anonymous is the most common form of treatment recommended by the respondents. In general, results show considerable support for treatment as well as ambivalence regarding the disease concept.

  13. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  14. Intravenous Ghrelin Administration Increases Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Heavy Drinkers: a Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Edwards, Steven M.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify novel pharmacological targets to treat alcoholism. Animal and human studies suggest a role of ghrelin in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and craving. Here, we were the first to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin acutely increases alcohol craving. Methods This was a double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory proof-of-concept study. Non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin 1mcg/kg, 3 mcg/kg or 0 mcg/kg (placebo), followed by a cuereactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol cues. The primary outcome variable was the increase in alcohol craving (also called “urge”) for alcohol, assessed by the Alcohol Visual Analogue Scale. Results Out of 103 screenings, 45 individuals received the study drug. Repeated measures of ANCOVA revealed a group effect across ghrelin doses in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05). A dose-specific examination revealed a significant effect of ghrelin 3 mcg/kg vs. placebo in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05) with a large effect size (d = .94). By contrast, no significant ghrelin effect was found in increasing either urge to drink juice or food craving (p: n.s.). No significant differences in side effects were found (p: n.s.). Conclusions Intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin increased alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals. Although the small sample requires confirmatory studies, these findings provide preliminary evidence that ghrelin may play a role in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, thus demonstrating a novel pharmacological target for treatment. PMID:24775991

  15. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Joel M.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15–24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. Results A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47–70% ever users and 20–45% current users) than females (24–54% ever users and 12–47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11–28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Conclusions Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking

  16. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  18. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  19. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  3. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  4. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  5. Alcoholic Beverage Buying Habits of University of Delaware Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Goal of study was comparing alcoholic beverage buying habits of University of Delaware students with those of students at other colleges. Random sample of 639 was drawn from 13,000 undergraduates and interviews conducted. Drinking at Delaware was similar to that at other schools. Seniors spent significantly more on alcohol than freshmen. (Author)

  6. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support. PMID:21272368

  7. Typology of Alcohol Users Based on Longitudinal Patterns of Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F.; Ramsey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance. However, heterogeneity among alcohol users has been widely recognized. This paper presents a typology of alcohol users based on an implementation of idiographic methodology to examine longitudinal daily and cyclic (weekly) patterns of alcohol use at the individual level. Method A secondary data analysis was performed on the pre-intervention data from a large randomized control trial. A time series analysis was performed at the individual level, and a dynamic cluster analysis was employed to identify homogenous longitudinal patterns of drinking behavior at the group level. The analysis employed 180 daily observations of alcohol use in a sample of 177 alcohol users. Results The first order autocorrelations ranged from −.76 to .72, and seventh order autocorrelations ranged from −.27 to .79. Eight distinct profiles of alcohol users were identified, each characterized by a unique configuration of first and seventh autoregressive terms and longitudinal trajectories of alcohol use. External validity of the profiles confirmed the theoretical relevance of different patterns of alcohol use. Significant differences among the eight subtypes were found on gender, marital status, frequency of drug use, lifetime alcohol dependence, family history of alcohol use and the Short Index of Problems. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that individuals can have very different temporal patterns of drinking behavior. The daily and cyclic patterns of alcohol use may be important for designing tailored interventions for problem drinkers. PMID:24333036

  8. Alcohol intoxication and memory for events: a snapshot of alcohol myopia in a real-world drinking scenario.

    PubMed

    Compo, Nadja Schreiber; Evans, Jacqueline R; Carol, Rolando N; Kemp, Daniel; Villalba, Daniella; Ham, Lindsay S; Rose, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Alcohol typically has a detrimental impact on memory across a variety of encoding and retrieval conditions (e.g., Mintzer, 2007; Ray & Bates, 2006). No research has addressed alcohol's effect on memory for lengthy and interactive events and little has tested alcohol's effect on free recall. In this study 94 participants were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control groups and consumed drinks in a bar-lab setting while interacting with a "bartender". Immediately afterwards all participants freely recalled the bar interaction. Consistent with alcohol myopia theory, intoxicated participants only differed from placebo and control groups when recalling peripheral information. Expanding on the original hypervigilance hypothesis, placebo participants showed more conservative reporting behaviour than the alcohol or control groups by providing more uncertain and "don't know" responses. Thus, alcohol intoxication had confined effects on memory for events, supporting and extending current theories.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Association Between Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Early Adolescents' Beliefs About Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the momentary association between exposure to alcohol advertising and middle school students' beliefs about alcohol in real-world settings and to explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. Methods Middle school students (N = 588) carried handheld data collection devices for 14 days, recording their exposures to all forms of alcohol advertising during the assessment period. Students also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) on each day of the assessment period. After each exposure to advertising and at each control prompt, students reported their beliefs about alcohol. Mixed effects regression models compared students' beliefs about alcohol between moments of exposure to alcohol advertising and control prompts. Results Students perceived the typical person their age who drinks alcohol (prototype perceptions) more favorably and perceived alcohol use as more normative at times of exposure to alcohol advertising than at times of non-exposure (i.e., at control prompts). Exposure to alcohol advertising was not associated with shifts in the perceived norms of Black and Hispanic students, however, and the association between exposure and prototype perceptions was stronger among non-Hispanic students than among Hispanic students. Conclusions Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with acute shifts in adolescents' perceptions of the typical person that drinks alcohol and the normativeness of drinking. These associations are both statistically and substantively meaningful. PMID:26480846

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  11. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  12. Evaluating a Health Education Web Site: The Case of AlcoholEdu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Building on the promise of interactive, multimedia education, this evaluation study examines an alcohol abuse prevention program, AlcoholEdu, delivered through an interactive Web-based format for the purpose of reducing the harm associated with student alcohol abuse. The study uses a clustered, randomly assigned post-test only evaluation design…

  13. Practitioner Review: Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders--Assessment and Treatment Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Krystal, John H.; Kaufman, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods: A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state…

  14. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  15. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  16. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  17. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  18. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  19. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  2. [Determination of blood alcohol among aviation personnel: proposed operative protocol].

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Cardoni, F; Bova, M; Simonazzi, S; Romolo, F S; Ricciardi Tenore, G

    2003-01-01

    The problems of the use/abuse of alcohol need a special attention by the Public Authorities, based on the scientific evidences related to the subject. We would like to define in the present paper the procedures for alcohol testing (and drug testing) in the sailors, following the international aviation authorities (ICAO, JAR-OPS-1, FAA) recommendations. A Working Group was established to study both the scientific and the legal aspects of the problems related to alcohol testing in Italy. Experts from the Università "La Sapienza" and from Alitalia studied the alcohol testing issues abroad to set out criteria, guidelines and procedures for random testing in Italy.

  3. Alcohol-related content of animated cartoons: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages.

  4. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  5. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of methylated liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C S

    1978-01-01

    Reductive methylation of lysine residues activates liver alcohol dehydrogenase in the oxidation of primary alcohols, but decreases the activity of the enzyme towards secondary alcohols. The modification also desensitizes the dehydrogenase to substrate inhibition at high alcohol concentrations. Steady-state kinetic studies of methylated liver alcohol dehydrogenase over a wide range of alcohol concentrations suggest that alcohol oxidation proceeds via a random addition of coenzyme and substrate with a pathway for the formation of the productive enzyme-NADH-alcohol complex. To facilitate the analyses of the effects of methylation on liver alcohol dehydrogenase and factors affecting them, new operational kinetic parameters to describe the results at high substrate concentration were introduced. The changes in the dehydrogenase activity on alkylation were found to be associated with changes in the maximum velocities that are affected by the hydrophobicity of alkyl groups introduced at lysine residues. The desensitization of alkylated liver alcohol dehydrogenase to substrate inhibition is identified with a decrease in inhibitory Michaelis constants for alcohols and this is favoured by the steric effects of substituents at the lysine residues. PMID:697732

  6. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  7. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  8. Effects of Antrodia camphorata on alcohol clearance and antifibrosis in livers of rats continuously fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Tze; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Kang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-04-27

    Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) is the result of an excessive or chronic consumption of alcohol. Nine male Wistar rats per group were randomly assigned to one of the following drinking treatments: a 20% (w/w) alcohol solution (ALC); a 20% (w/w) alcohol solution cotreated with 0.25 g silymarin/kg BW/day; or a 20% (w/w) alcohol solution cotreated with 0.025 g Niuchangchih ( Antrodia camphorata )/kg BW/day for 4 weeks. Rats with cotreatments of silymarin or Niuchangchih had smaller (p < 0.05) relative liver size, less (p < 0.05) liver lipid accumulation, and lower (p < 0.05) liver damage indices [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values]. In the regulation of alcohol metabolism, the lower serum alcohol level was observed only in alcohol-fed rats supplemented with Niuchangchih. Meanwhile, cotreatment of silymarin or Niuchangchih increased (p < 0.05) CAT and ALDH activities but did not (p > 0.05) affect ADH and CYP2E1 expressions, which accelerate alcohol metabolism in the body. Additionally, neither silymarin nor Niuchangchih (p > 0.05) influenced serum/hepatic MMP-2 activities and NF-κB, AP1, and α-SMA gene expressions, but serum/hepatic MMP-9 activities and TNF-α, KLF-6, and TGF-β1 gene expressions of alcohol-fed rats were down-regulated (p < 0.05) by silymarin or Niuchangchih, which also could explain the lower liver damage observed in rats chronically fed alcohol.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  10. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  12. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  13. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  14. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  15. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  16. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  17. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  18. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  19. Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV/STDs in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhorst, Diane M.; Choi, Y. Joon; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Svikis, Dace S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) examined effectiveness of HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Building + Alcohol (SSB+A) intervention for women with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) in a residential treatment setting. Method: After randomizing thirty-six women with AUDs and reporting having intercourse with a male partner in the past 180 days…

  20. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  1. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  2. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  3. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita

    2011-07-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: In the beer/no-go condition, participants performed a go/no-go task that consistently paired alcohol-related stimuli with a stopping response, to increase response inhibition for alcohol-related stimuli. In the beer/go condition, in contrast, participants were always required to respond to alcohol-related stimuli during the go/no-go task. Before and after the go/no-go manipulation, we measured weekly alcohol intake and implicit attitudes toward alcohol. In addition, we measured alcohol consumption during a taste test immediately after the go/no-go manipulation. Following the manipulation, participants in the beer/no-go condition demonstrated significantly increased negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol, and a significant reduction in weekly alcohol intake, while participants in the beer/go condition showed a non-significant increase in implicit positive attitudes toward alcohol and a significant increase in weekly alcohol intake. This study demonstrates that repeatedly stopping prepotent responses toward alcohol-related stimuli can be an effective strategy to reduce excessive alcohol use.

  4. Alcohol outlet density and related use in an urban Black population in Philadelphia public housing communities

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Petering, Robin; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; He, Amy S.; Wilson, John P.; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use behaviors are influenced by familial patterns and neighborhood factors. This work explored the influence of individual, family, and environment on alcohol use. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial with Black mothers son dyads (n=382) were paired with census tract and alcohol control board data. Among mothers, younger age, along with neighborhood factors of alcohol outlet density, race, and education were significantly associated with use. Among sons, older age and alcohol outlet density in the neighborhood predicted use. Findings highlight neighborhood influence, beyond family qualities, as a significant determinant of disadvantaged Black mothers’ alcohol use. Implications for public health policy are discussed. PMID:25463915

  5. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  6. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  7. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  8. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  9. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  10. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  11. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  12. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  13. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E

    2006-10-01

    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  14. Randomization Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of randomization is important both for study design and to assist medical professionals in evaluating the medical literature. Simple randomization can be done through a variety of techniques, but carries a risk of unequal distribution of subjects into treatment groups. Block randomization can be used to overcome this limitation by ensuring that small subgroups are distributed evenly between treatment groups. Finally, techniques can be used to evenly distribute subjects between treatment groups while accounting for confounding variables, so as to not skew results when there is a high index of suspicion that a particular variable will influence outcome.

  15. Primary alcohol versus primary drug use among adolescents: An examination of differences

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Glebova, Tatiana; Glade, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Examination of differences between primary alcohol and drug abusing adolescents can provide valuable direction to intervention efforts, though little research in this area has been conducted. The current study compared primary alcohol and primary drug abusing runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual. Baseline differences, as well as response to treatment, were examined separately for alcohol and drug use and by gender. Although few baseline differences were found, hierarchical linear modeling indicated that alcohol and drug abusing male and female adolescents responded differently to therapy. Primary drug using males showed poorer alcohol use outcomes than did primary alcohol abusers. Specifically, alcohol use increased for primary drug using males receiving family therapy, while drug use decreased in all groups. Findings suggest that alcohol and drug use outcomes might be improved at treatment planning through consideration of client’s gender and primary alcohol versus drug use. PMID:16564644

  16. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  17. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  18. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  19. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  20. Random thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  1. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed.

  2. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  3. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses.

  4. An Experimental Trial Exploring the Impact of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring upon Alcohol Consumption in a Cohort of Male Students

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Fergus G.; Williams, Damien J.; Goodall, Christine A.; Murer, Jeffrey S.; Donnelly, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Method Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants’ experiences of the trial. Results Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. Conclusions The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour. PMID:23825656

  5. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    A liquid formulation of sodium oxybate (Alcover(®)), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is approved in Italy and Austria for use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of sodium oxybate in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate that sodium oxybate was at least as effective as diazepam and clomethiazole in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, rapidly alleviating symptoms, and was at least as effective as naltrexone or disulfiram in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Sodium oxybate was generally well tolerated. The risk of sodium oxybate abuse is generally low when it is administered to alcohol-dependent patients at its approved dosage, under the supervision of a designated family member and with continuous strict medical surveillance. However, certain patient groups, such as patients with alcohol dependence and borderline personality disorder or who are in remission from heroin or cocaine addiction, may not be suitable candidates for sodium oxybate therapy because of an increased risk of abuse. In conclusion, sodium oxybate is a useful option for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

  6. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  7. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  8. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  9. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Single-session motivational intervention to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Osterman, Robin L; Carle, Adam C; Ammerman, Robert T; Gates, Donna

    2014-07-01

    This randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of a single-session of motivational interviewing (MI) to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy, while examining theory-based mechanisms of the intervention. Eligible pregnant women who drank any amount of alcohol in the previous year (n=122) were randomized to an intervention or comparison group. Drinking behaviors, basic psychological need satisfaction, and autonomous motivation to decrease prenatal alcohol use were measured at baseline, 30 day postbaseline, and 30 day postpartum follow-ups. Poisson and linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate treatment effects over time. Although MI was not found effective in decreasing alcohol use, low levels of reported alcohol use by the women at baseline left little room for improvement due to the intervention. To prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, future studies will use self-report and biomarkers to more accurately identify women in need of interventions to reduce their risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

  12. Single-session motivational intervention to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Robin L.; Carle, Adam C.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gates, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of a single-session of motivational interviewing (MI) to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy, while examining theory-based mechanisms of the intervention. Eligible pregnant women who drank any amount of alcohol in the previous year (n=122) were randomized to an intervention or comparison group. Drinking behaviors, basic psychological need satisfaction, and autonomous motivation to decrease prenatal alcohol use were measured at baseline, 30 day postbaseline, and 30 day postpartum follow-ups. Poisson and linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate treatment effects over time. Although MI was not found effective in decreasing alcohol use, low levels of reported alcohol use by the women at baseline left little room for improvement due to the intervention. To prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, future studies will use self-report and biomarkers to more accurately identify women in need of interventions to reduce their risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies. PMID:24637202

  13. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  14. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  15. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  16. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  18. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  19. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  20. The glass is half full: evidence for efficacy of alcohol-wise at one university but not the other.

    PubMed

    Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah K; Reyna, Valerie F; Marchell, Timothy C; Frank, Jeremy; Ives, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research extends the growing literature about online alcohol prevention programs for first-year college students. Two independent randomized control studies, conducted at separate universities, evaluated the short-term effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise, an online alcohol prevention program not previously studied. It was hypothesized the prevention program would increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol consumption, including high-risk alcohol-related behaviors, among first-year college students. At both universities, the intervention significantly increased alcohol-related knowledge. At one university, the prevention program also significantly reduced alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking behaviors, such as playing drinking games, heavy drinking, and extreme ritualistic alcohol consumption. Implications for the use of online alcohol prevention programs and student affairs are discussed.

  1. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  2. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  3. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  4. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  5. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  6. Effects of school, family and alcohol marketing communication on alcohol use and intentions to drink among Thai students.

    PubMed

    Kheokao, Jantima K; Kirkgulthorn, Tassanee; Yingrengreung, Siritorn; Singhprapai, Phuwasith

    2013-07-04

    This study explored effects of family, school, and marketing communications on alcohol use and intention to drink of Thai students. We conducted a survey in which 5,184 students participated. Respondents were selected randomly from school districts throughout Thailand. In this survey we measured the exposure to, reception of, and perceptions concerning alcohol marketing communication, school absenteeism and achievement, family alcohol use, students' alcohol use, and drinking intentions. Findings indicated students' low alcohol use, moderate intention to drink, and high prevalence of family drinking. The levels of exposure and also the information receptivity to alcohol media marketing of Thai students were low. The respondents had a high level of media literacy on alcohol marketing communication. Multiple regression and focus group discussions provided support for the contention that there were significant effects of school achievement, absenteeism and media marketing communication on alcohol use (R2 = 14%) and intention to drink (R2 = 11%). Therefore, consideration of relevant school and alcohol policies, including monitoring of media marketing communication, will be needed.

  7. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  8. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  9. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  12. Alcoholism in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1994-01-01

    Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…

  13. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  15. Fractional randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  16. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  17. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  18. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  19. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  20. Age at Onset of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorder: Time-trend Study in Patients Seeking De-addiction Services in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Reghukumaran; Vidhukumar, K.; Prabhakaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Declining age at onset of alcohol consumption over years has been one of the alarming findings in the epidemiology of alcoholism. The study was done to examine whether there was a decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder in subjects categorized as birth cohorts over the last 60 years seeking de-addiction services from a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A time-trend study, based on data collected from records, was done among 700 randomly selected subjects seeking de-addiction services. The study was done in a Government Medical College. Besides birth year, family history of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric comorbidity were the main independent variables studied. Trend was tested by linear regression. Results: There was a significant linear decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. The mean age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder declined from 24 to 17 years and 46 to 21 years, respectively, from the pre-1950 birth cohort to the post-1985 birth cohort. Surprisingly, there was a plateau for mean age at onset of alcohol use during 1960s. The trend was significant even after adjusting for variables related to age at onset of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The trend of decreasing age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder over time has policy implications. Further studies are needed for exploring mediating or causal factors for the decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. PMID:27570342

  1. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

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  3. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

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  5. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-12-15

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  6. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-09

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  7. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

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  8. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  9. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  10. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  12. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... relate to alcohol use. 1 Racial and Ethnic Minority Stress Stress also can arise as a result of a person’s minority status, especially as it pertains to prejudice and discrimination. Such stress may range from mild (e.g., hassles such ...

  13. Electronic Interventions for Alcohol Misuse and Alcohol Use Disorders A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dedert, Eric. A.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Stein, Roy; McNiel, J. Murray; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Freiermuth, Caroline E.; Hemminger, Adam; Williams, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of electronic interventions (e-interventions) may improve treatment of alcohol misuse. Purpose To characterize treatment intensity and systematically review the evidence for efficacy of e-interventions, relative to controls, for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related impairment in adults and college students. Data Sources MEDLINE (via PubMed) from January 2000 to March 2015 and the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from January 2000 to August 2014. Study Selection English-language, randomized, controlled trials that involved at least 50 adults who misused alcohol; compared an e-intervention group with a control group; and reported outcomes at 6 months or longer. Data Extraction Two reviewers abstracted data and independently rated trial quality and strength of evidence. Data Synthesis In 28 unique trials, the modal e-intervention was brief feedback on alcohol consumption. Available data suggested a small reduction in consumption (approximately 1 drink per week) in adults and college students at 6 months but not at 12 months. There was no statistically significant effect on meeting drinking limit guidelines in adults or on binge-drinking episodes or social consequences of alcohol in college students. Limitations E-interventions that ranged in intensity were combined in analyses. Quantitative results do not apply to short-term outcomes or alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Evidence suggests that low-intensity e-interventions produce small reductions in alcohol consumption at 6 months, but there is little evidence for longer-term, clinically significant effects, such as meeting drinking limits. Future e-interventions could provide more intensive treatment and possibly human support to assist persons in meeting recommended drinking limits. Primary Funding Source U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:26237752

  14. Simultaneous vs. concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis in the National Alcohol Survey

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi S.; Kerr, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most commonly used drug among those who drink, yet no study has directly compared those who use cannabis and alcohol simultaneously vs. concurrently (i.e., separately) in the adult general population. Here we assess differences in demographics, alcohol-related social consequences, harms to self, and drunk driving across simultaneous, concurrent, and alcohol-only using groups. Methods Secondary analyses of the 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N=8,626; 4,522 female, 4,104 male), a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview survey of individuals aged 18 and older from all 50 states and DC. Blacks and Hispanics are over-sampled. Data were collected using list-assisted Random Digit Dialing (RDD). Multinomial and multivariable logistic regressions were used for analyses. Results The prevalence of simultaneous use was almost twice as high as concurrent use, implying that individuals who use both cannabis and alcohol tend to use them at the same time. Furthermore, simultaneous use was associated with increased frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Simultaneous use was also the most detrimental: compared to alcohol only, simultaneous use approximately doubled the odds of drunk driving, social consequences, and harms to self. The magnitudes of differences in problems remained when comparing drunk driving among simultaneous users to concurrent users. Conclusion The overall set of results is particularly important to bear in mind when studying and/or treating problems among alcohol/cannabis co-users because they demonstrate that in the general population, co-users are a heterogeneous group who experience different likelihoods of problems relative to co-use patterns. PMID:25872596

  15. Random grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. A.

    1998-04-01

    Contents § 1. Definitions1.1. Grammars1.2. Random grammars and L-systems1.3. Semigroup representations § 2. Infinite string dynamics2.1. Cluster expansion2.2. Cluster dynamics2.3. Local observer § 3. Large time behaviour: small perturbations3.1. Invariant measures3.2. Classification § 4. Large time behaviour: context free case4.1. Invariant measures for grammars4.2. L-systems4.3. Fractal correlation functions4.4. Measures on languages Bibliography

  16. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  17. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  18. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Mark; Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen; Nettleman, Mary; Sobell, Linda; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Ceperich, Sherry; von Sternberg, Kirk; Bolton, Burt; Skarpness, Bradley; Nagaraja, Jyothi

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Design A randomized controlled trial (2002–2005; data analyzed 2005–2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk drinking and ineffective contraception use. Setting/Participants A total of 830 nonpregnant women, aged 18–44 years, and currently at risk for an AEP were recruited in six diverse settings in Florida, Texas, and Virginia. Combined settings had higher proportions of women at risk for AEP (12.5% overall) than in the general population (2%). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive information plus a brief motivational intervention (n=416) or to receive information only (n=414). The brief motivational intervention consisted of four counseling sessions and one contraception consultation and services visit. Main Outcome Measures Women consuming more than five drinks on any day or more than eight drinks per week on average, were considered risk drinkers; women who had intercourse without effective contraception were considered at risk of pregnancy. Reversing either or both risk conditions resulted in reduced risk of an AEP. Results Across the follow-up period, the odds ratios (ORs) of being at reduced risk for AEP were twofold greater in the intervention group: 3 months, 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69–3.20); 6 months, 2.15 (CI=1.52–3.06); 9 months, 2.11 (CI=1.47–3.03). Between-groups differences by time phase were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 14. 8%, respectively. Conclusions A brief motivational intervention can reduce the risk of an AEP. PMID:17218187

  19. Alcohol-related symptoms in heterogeneous families of hospitalized alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1988-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.

  20. Randomized Trial of Group Interventions to Reduce HIV/STD Risk and Change Theoretical Mediators among Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Broaddus, Michelle R.; Levin, Michael; Bryan, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    Criminally involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior and alcohol use, and alcohol use may contribute to lack of condom use. Detained adolescents (n = 484) were randomized to (1) a theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention (GPI), (2) the GPI condition with a group-based alcohol risk reduction motivational enhancement…

  1. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  2. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  3. The Consequences of Providing Drinkers with Blood Alcohol Concentration Information on Assessments of Alcohol Impairment and Drunk-Driving Risk*

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, MARK B.; VOAS, ROBERT B.; KELLEY-BAKER, TARA; FURR-HOLDEN, C. DEBRA M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of providing drinkers with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) information on subjective assessments of alcohol impairment and drunk-driving risk. Method We sampled 959 drinking participants from a natural drinking environment and asked them to self-administer a personal saliva-based alcohol test. Participants then were asked to rate their alcohol impairment and to indicate whether they could drive legally under one of four BAC feedback conditions (assigned at random): (1) control condition (no BAC feedback provided before the ratings); (2) categorical BAC information (low, high, and highest risk) from the saliva test; (3) categorical BAC information corroborated by a calibrated police breath alcohol analyzer; and (4) precise (three-digit) BAC information from the breath alcohol analyzer. Results Both control participants and participants who received precise BAC feedback gave subjective impairment ratings that correlated with actual BACs. For participants who received categorical BAC information from the saliva test, subjective impairment did not correlate with the actual BAC. Providing drinkers with BAC information, however, did help them predict more accurately if their BAC was higher than the legal BAC driving limit. Conclusions Although BAC information can influence drinkers’ assessments of alcohol impairment and drunk-driving risk, there is no strong evidence that personal saliva-based alcohol tests are particularly useful. PMID:18612570

  4. Alcohol and hypertension--kill or cure?

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Puddey, I B; Burke, V

    1996-02-01

    An association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure levels has been observed in over 60 population studies world wide. The relationship is generally linear but with some studies showing a threshold effect at around 2-3 standard drinks a day. Effects are seen with all types of alcoholic beverages, and in men and women. The affect appears additive to effects of obesity and higher dose oral contraceptives. Studies of acute effects of alcohol suggest an initial vasodilator response, while population studies suggest that heavy drinkers may show some rebound hypertension. Randomized controlled trials show that reducing alcohol consumption lowers blood pressure in both treated and untreated hypertensives. Mechanisms of alcohol induced hypertension are still unclear. Despite predisposing to hypertension, regular light to moderate drinking (1-4 standard drinks a day) appears to protect against coronary deaths and ischaemic strokes, while heavier drinking increases the risk of haemorrhagic stroke and heart disease. There is some suggestion that wine drinking may be associated with lower cardiovascular risks, however in a study of 343 working men we found that beverage preference and drinking patterns correlated strongly with diet habits, smoking education and socioeconomic status, factors that are likely to confound the interpretation of epidemiological studies suggesting favourable cardiovascular effects to a particular beverage. Although light drinkers have lower mortality than non drinkers those drinking more than 2 standard alcohol drinks per day show a rising mortality as well as an increased risk of hypertension. Those facts should be the basis of public health advice on 'safe' levels of drinking.

  5. A meta-analysis of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults: Variability in effects across alcohol measures

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Risser, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief alcohol interventions are one approach for reducing drinking among youth, but may vary in effectiveness depending on the type of alcohol assessments used to measure effects. Objectives To conduct a meta-analysis that examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on exploring variability in effects across outcome measurement characteristics. Method Eligible studies were those using an experimental or quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention on a post-intervention alcohol use measure for youth ages 11–30. A comprehensive literature review identified 190 unique samples that were included in the meta-analysis. Taking a Bayesian approach, we used random-effects multilevel models to estimate the average effect and model variability across outcome measurement types. Results Brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in self-reported alcohol use among adolescents ( g¯ = 0.25, 95% CrI [0.13, 0.37]) and young adults ( g¯ = 0.15, 95% CrI [0.12, 0.18]). These results were consistent across outcomes with varying reference periods, but varied across outcome construct type and assessment instruments. Among adolescents, effects were larger when measured using the Timeline Followback; among young adults, effects were smaller when measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Conclusion The strength of the beneficial effects of brief alcohol interventions on youth’s alcohol use may vary depending upon the outcome measure utilized. Nevertheless, significant effects were observed across measures. Although effects were modest in size, they were clinically significant and show promise for interrupting problematic alcohol use trajectories among youth. PMID:26905387

  6. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Reduction of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Shoptaw, Steven; Cohen, Allan; Greengold, Barbara; Nyamathi, Kamala; Marfisee, Mary; de Castro, Viviane; Khalilifard, Farinaz; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Methadone-Maintained (MM) clients who engage in excessive alcohol use are at high risk for HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nurse-led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) may be one strategy to decrease alcohol use in this population. Objective To evaluate the impact of nurse-led HHP, delivered by nurses compared to Motivational Interviewing (MI), delivered by trained therapists in group sessions or one-on-one on reduction of alcohol use. Methods A three-arm randomized, controlled trial, conducted with 256 MM adults attending one of five MM outpatient clinics in the Los Angeles area. Within each site, moderate-to-heavy alcohol-using MM participants were randomized into one of three conditions: 1) nurse-led hepatitis health promotion group sessions (n=87); 2) MI delivered in group sessions (MI-group; n=90), or 3) MI delivered one-on-one sessions (MI-single, n=79). Results Self-reported alcohol use was reduced from a median of 90 drinks/month at baseline to 60 drinks/month at six month follow-up. A Wilcoxon sign-rank test indicated a significant reduction in alcohol use in the total sample (p < .05). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for alcohol consumption at baseline and other covariates, no differences by condition were found. Discussion As compared to two programs delivered by MI specialists, a culturally-sensitive and easy to implement nurse-led HHP program produced similar reductions in alcohol use over six months. Employing nurse-led programs may allow cost savings for treatment programs as well as a greater integration of alcohol reduction counseling along with a more comprehensive focus on general health-related issues than previously conducted. PMID:19836904

  7. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  8. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...

  9. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  10. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you ... dieting. Keep in mind that alcohol has empty calories. This means it has a lot of calories ( ...

  11. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  12. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15201626 . Definitions Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): AUD is a medical ... or more days in the past month. NIAAA’s Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing AUD: ...

  13. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  14. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  15. Alcohol Use Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... as irreversible dementia, if not promptly treated. Birth defects. Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause miscarriage. It ... as depression or anxiety? Do you use recreational drugs? You're likely to start by seeing your ...

  16. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?

  17. Maternal Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Metabolism Genes, and the Risk of Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Norway, 1996–2001

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Lie, Rolv T.; Taylor, Jack A.; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen J.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out in Norway (1996–2001), the authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of oral clefts according to mother and infant ADH1C haplotypes encoding fast or slow alcohol-metabolizing phenotypes. Subjects were 483 infants with oral cleft malformations and 503 control infants and their mothers, randomly selected from all other livebirths taking place during the same period. Mothers who consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks per sitting during the first trimester of pregnancy had an elevated risk of oral cleft in their offspring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 4.7). This increased risk was evident only in mothers or children who carried the ADH1C haplotype associated with reduced alcohol metabolism (OR= 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8). There was no evidence of alcohol-related risk when both mother and infant carried only the rapid-metabolism ADH1C variant (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.1). The teratogenic effect of alcohol may depend on the genetic capacity of the mother and fetus to metabolize alcohol. PMID:20810466

  18. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  19. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■󈧒:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution

  20. Alcohol administration attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in healthy men at low genetic risk for alcoholism, but not in high-risk subjects.

    PubMed

    Mick, Inge; Spring, Konstanze; Uhr, Manfred; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2013-09-01

    Acute alcohol challenge studies in rodents and naturalistic observations in drinking alcoholics suggest that alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The literature on respective studies in healthy volunteers is more inconsistent, suggesting differential alcohol effects depending on dosage, recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism and alcohol-induced side effects. These papers and the putative pharmacologic mechanisms underlying alcohol effects on the HPA system are reviewed here and compared with a new study, in which we investigated how secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol is affected by ingestion of 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 33 young healthy socially drinking males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHP) versus 30 family history negative (FHN) males. Alcohol and placebo were administered in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with randomized administration sequence. After administration of placebo, ACTH and cortisol decreased steadily over 130 minutes. In FHN subjects, secretion of both hormones was even more attenuated after alcohol, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with placebo. In PHP subjects, no alcohol effect on hormone secretion could be detected. The ratio of cortisol to ACTH secretion, each expressed as area under the secretion curve, was significantly increased by alcohol in FHN and PHP participants. These results argue against HPA stimulation being a mechanism that promotes the transition from moderate to dependent drinking. The fact that alcohol-induced HPA suppression was not detected in PHP males is consistent with the general concept that subjects at high risk for alcoholism exhibit less-pronounced alcohol effects.

  1. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  2. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism.

  3. Drinking and Driving among College Students: The Influence of Alcohol-Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Randomly selected full-time college students attending four-year colleges in 39 states completed a questionnaire about alcohol consumption and driving. The results revealed that 29 percent of the students drove after drinking some amount of alcohol 10 percent drove after drinking five or more drinks, and 23 percent rode with a driver who was high…

  4. Drug and Alcohol Use by Canadian University Athletes: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, John C.; Gauvin, Lise

    1996-01-01

    Using a stratified random sampling procedure, 754 student athletes were surveyed regarding drug and alcohol use in eight different sports from eight universities across Canada. Provides statistics of substances athletes reported using, including pain medications, weight loss products, anabolic steroids, smokeless tobacco products, alcohol,…

  5. The Relationship between Victim's/Perpetrator's Alcohol Use and Spousal Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; And Others

    This study examined the relationships between alcohol abuse and spousal violence for 96 women in alcoholism treatment as compared to these comparison groups: 78 women receiving mental health treatment; 98 women receiving services for family violence; 91 women from a random sample of households; and 100 women in a driver education program following…

  6. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  7. Legal-Age Students' Provision of Alcohol to Underage College Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard L.; Matousek, Therese A.; Radue, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the magnitude and cultural context of legal-age university students' provision of alcohol to underage students and how such alcohol provision might be deterred. Participants: 130 legal-age students at a midwestern university in the United States were randomly selected. Methods: The authors assessed 16 focus…

  8. Behavioral Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention with High-Risk College Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Royce B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 fraternity pledges to behavioral self-management, alcohol education, self-monitoring of drinking behavior, or no-treatment control. Found no differences among treatment conditions on four self-reported dependent variables of drinking behavior. Found significant differences on self-report measures of alcohol consumption at…

  9. Possible new ways in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder and comorbid alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Garay, Ricardo P; Perugi, Giulio; Vieta, Eduard; Young, Allan H

    2010-03-24

    About half of all bipolar patients have an alcohol abuse problem at some point of their lifetime. However, only one randomized, controlled trial of pharmacotherapy (valproate) in this patient population was published as of 2006. Therefore, we reviewed clinical trials in this indication of the last four years (using mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and other drugs). Priority was given to randomized trials, comparing drugs with placebo or active comparator. Published studies were found through systematic database search (PubMed, Scirus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct). In these last four years, the only randomized, clinically relevant study in bipolar patients with comorbid alcoholism is that of Brown and colleagues (2008) showing that quetiapine therapy decreased depressive symptoms in the early weeks of use, without modifying alcohol use. Several other open-label trials have been generally positive and support the efficacy and tolerability of agents from different classes in this patient population. Valproate efficacy to reduce excessive alcohol consumption in bipolar patients was confirmed and new controlled studies revealed its therapeutic benefit to prevent relapse in newly abstinent alcoholics and to improve alcohol hallucinosis. Topiramate deserves to be investigated in bipolar patients with comorbid alcoholism since this compound effectively improves physical health and quality of life of alcohol-dependent individuals. In conclusion, randomized, controlled research is still needed to provide guidelines for possible use of valproate and other agents in patients with a dual diagnosis of bipolar disorder and substance abuse or dependence.

  10. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  11. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  12. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  13. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  14. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  15. Etiologic heterogeneity in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1987-01-01

    Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the

  16. Family history of alcoholism interacts with alcohol to affect brain regions involved in behavioral inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Wetherill, Leah; Eiler, William; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Wang, Yang; O’Connor, Sean J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Impulsive behavior is associated with both alcohol use disorders and a family history of alcoholism (FHA). One operational definition of impulsive behavior is the stop signal task (SST), which measures the time needed to stop a ballistic hand movement. Objective Employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study right frontal responses to stop signals in heavy drinking subjects with and without FHA, and as a function of alcohol exposure. Methods Twenty two family history positive (FHP; age = 22.7 years, SD= 1.9) and 18 family history negative (FHN; age = 23.7, SD= 1.8) subjects performed the SST in fMRI in two randomized visits: once during intravenous infusion of alcohol, clamped at a steady-state breath alcohol (BrAC) concentration of 60mg%, and once during infusion of placebo saline. An independent reference group (n= 13, age= 23.7, SD= 1.8) was used to identify a priori right prefrontal regions activated by successful inhibition (Inh) trials, relative to ‘Go’ trials that carried no need for inhibition (Inh > Go). Results FHA interacted with alcohol exposure in right prefrontal cortex, where alcohol reduced [Inh > Go] activation in FHN subjects, but not in FHP subjects. Within this right frontal cortical region, stop signal reaction time (SSRT) also correlated negatively with [Inh > Go] activation, suggesting that the [Inh > Go] activity was related to inhibitory behavior. Conclusions The results are consistent with the low level of response theory (Schuckit, 1980; Quinn & Fromme, 2011), with FHP being less sensitive to alcohol’s effects. PMID:23468100

  17. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  18. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  19. Alcohol expectancies, alcohol use, and hostility as longitudinal predictors of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2012-09-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.

  20. The Impact of an Online Educational Video and a Medical Amnesty Policy on College Students' Intentions to Seek Help in the Presence of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…

  1. Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a review.

    PubMed

    Bien, T H; Miller, W R; Tonigan, J S

    1993-03-01

    Relatively brief interventions have consistently been found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption or achieving treatment referral of problem drinkers. To date, the literature includes at least a dozen randomized trials of brief referral or retention procedures, and 32 controlled studies of brief interventions targeting drinking behavior, enrolling over 6000 problem drinkers in both health care and treatment settings across 14 nations. These studies indicate that brief interventions are more effective than no counseling, and often as effective as more extensive treatment. The outcome literature is reviewed, and common motivational elements of effective brief interventions are described. There is encouraging evidence that the course of harmful alcohol use can be effectively altered by well-designed intervention strategies which are feasible within relatively brief-contact contexts such as primary health care settings and employee assistance programs. Implications for future research and practice are considered.

  2. Risk factors for treatment failure in smokers: relationship to alcohol use and to lifetime history of an alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; McKee, Sherry A; Toll, Benjamin A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L; Makuch, Robert W; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of two types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to three levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate, or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol usexAUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and, to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking.

  3. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to 3 levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol use × AUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking. PMID:19023831

  4. Mesler entrainment in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg-Anderson, R. K.; Saylor, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the "standard" behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.

  5. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  6. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  7. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  8. Do women develop alcoholic brain damage more readily than men?

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Batra, A; Günthner, A; Schroth, G

    1992-12-01

    Chronic alcoholism is related to brain damage (i.e., volume changes) in both men and women. There is an open question whether the brains of women are more vulnerable than those of men to alcohol toxicity. The present follow-up study focuses on a direct comparison of sex-related differences in alcoholic brain shrinkage and its reversibility. In a prospective design, a random sample of 65 alcoholics of both sexes (51 males and 14 females) was studied. Computerized tomography brain scans before and after a 6-week inpatient treatment program with controlled abstinence revealed a significant re-expansion of the brain as assessed by linear measurements. By controlling for moderating variables such as age, mean daily alcohol consumption, liver dysfunction, etc. the degree of brain shrinkage was found to be similar in men and women despite significantly shorter ethanol expositions in the women. These findings corroborate the hypotheses of other investigators about basic biological differences between the two sexes as to the effects of alcohol. The hypothesis of an enhanced vulnerability of women to acute and chronic complications of alcoholism is supported.

  9. The Effect of Brief Alcohol Intervention on Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Georgiana; Moberg, D. Paul; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on secondary results from the Healthy Moms Study, a clinical trial to test the efficacy of brief intervention on reducing alcohol use and alcohol-related harms in postpartum women. Study Design and Methods Data from a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2002 and 2005 with a sample of Wisconsin women was analyzed. This report presents comparison data on depressive symptomatology between postpartum women drinking above recommended levels who received a brief alcohol intervention and those who received no intervention. Results At six month follow-up, there was a significant reduction in mean depression scores compared to baseline in the women who received the alcohol intervention (p <.001). There was not a significant reduction in depressive symptomatology in the control group. Mean level of depression at six months was significantly predicted by baseline depression and the intervention (p=.018). Alcohol use at either baseline or follow-up was not a predictive factor in determining mean depressive symptomatology. Clinical Implications The results of the Healthy Moms Study support the importance of both alcohol and depression screening during the postpartum period. Brief alcohol intervention during this time may also positively affect depressive symptomatology. PMID:19713798

  10. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    PubMed

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness.

  11. Effects of alcohol ingestion following exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, M S; AL-Bayatti, M F

    2001-01-01

    The study determined the effect of alcohol ingestion postexercise on postprandial lipemia during recovery. The mean values were compared with those obtained in a control experiment during which no alcohol was given. Nineteen normolipidemic subjects (11 males and 8 females) performed two exercise trials at an intensity corresponding to 70% VO2max for 35 min. In a random order, alcoholic (0.7 g/kg) or alcohol-free drinks were given 1 h after the completion of exercise. Venous blood samples were obtained pre- (before breakfast) and postexercise and pre- and postprandially during recovery. Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no change with exercise or alcohol ingestion. In the control trial, when subjects consumed a standardized lunch, triglycerides showed no significant change, but when alcohol was consumed postexercise triglyceride concentration increased substantially 5 h during recovery in both males and females. The mechanism responsible for the rise in triglyceride concentration during recovery when alcohol was ingested following exercise is not known, but this appears to be a late phenomenon.

  12. Influencing Alcohol Control Policies and Practices at Community Festivals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Traci L.; Fabian, Lindsey A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Fletcher, Linda; Lenk, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of two interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related risks at community festivals--a training program for festival planners and a community organizing campaign. We randomly selected four festivals for each intervention and had 24 comparison festivals. Our assessment included…

  13. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  14. The Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders among Nighttime Weekend Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C Debra; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John; Romano, Eduardo; Jones, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to establish the extent of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among drivers at risk for alcohol-related crashes. The prevalence of drivers with AUDs on U.S. roads on weekend evenings when alcohol-related crashes are most frequent is unknown. This study will inform laws and programs designed to reduce alcohol-involved crashes. Design Interviews using a 15-item AUD questionnaire with a stratified random sample of noncommercial drivers at 60 primary sampling locations in the 48 contiguous states on Fridays and Saturdays between 10 PM and 3 AM from July to November 2007. Setting Off-road locations into which a police officer directed a random selection of motorist passing the site. Participants 4614 drivers of noncommercial vehicles. Measurements AUDs, including heavy drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence. Findings Of the participating drivers, 73.7% were current drinkers (reported drinking in the last year). Among those drinkers, 14% were classifiable either as dependent drinkers or as abusive drinkers based on self-reports of drinking. Another 10% of the drivers were classified as heavy drinkers. Nearly half of the drivers in the survey who had BACs at or higher than the 0.08 grams per deciliter legal limit fell into one of those three AUD categories. Conclusions Survey data suggest that the majority of high-BAC drivers on U.S. roads show no clinical signs of an alcohol use disorder, but they are categorized as heavy drinkers. This suggests that environmental programs directed at reducing heavy drinking and brief behavioral interventions aimed at reducing episodes of excessive consumption have promise for reducing alcohol-related crashes. PMID:21342301

  15. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  16. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  17. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  18. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  19. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  20. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  1. Delineating potential mechanisms of implicit alcohol cognitions: drinking restraint, negative affect, and their relationship with approach alcohol associations.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Cameron, Amy Y; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. It is paradoxical that attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction not temptation was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation not IAT predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking not temptation to drink and are less strongly influenced by mood state.

  2. Delineating Potential Mechanisms of Implicit Alcohol Cognitions: Drinking Restraint, Negative Affect, and their Relationship with Approach Alcohol Associations

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M.; Cameron, Amy Y.; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. Ironically, attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction, but not temptation, was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation, but not IAT, predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking, but not temptation to drink, and are less strongly influenced by mood state. PMID:22369223

  3. [Alcohol and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B

    1988-10-01

    Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.

  4. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  5. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  6. Perturbation in kidney lipid metabolic profiles in diabetic rats with reference to alcoholic oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, K. R.; Ramakrishna, C. H.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Reddy, K. Sathyavelu

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is a major threat to global public health, and the number of diabetic patients is rapidly increasing worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications and alcoholic diseases. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of alcohol on lipid metabolic profiles in kidney tissue under streptozotocin induced diabetic condition. No study has been reported so far on the effect of alcohol on diabetic condition and also with reference to lipid metabolic profiles. Hence, the present study has been designed to elucidate the impact of alcoholism on diabetic condition. Male wistar strain albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (saline treated) NC, alcohol-treated (At), diabetic control (DC), and alcohol-treated diabetic rats (D+At). In alcohol-treated diabetic rats, we observed high levels of MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and also high levels of blood glucose than other groups. Moreover, degenerative changes of renal cells in alcohol-treated diabetic group were maximized by administration of alcohol as evinced by histopathological examination. This study suggests that alcohol consumption could be an aggravation factor which contributes for the formation of free radicals in diabetic condition. Therefore, consumption of alcohol during diabetic condition is harmful. PMID:20436729

  7. Examining the Associations among Severity of Injunctive Drinking Norms, Alcohol Consumption, and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences: The Moderating Roles of Alcohol Consumption and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Geisner, Irene Markman; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Atkins, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a range of injunctive norms for alcohol use and related consequences from less severe behaviors (e.g., drinking with friends) to more severe behaviors (e.g., drinking enough alcohol to pass out), and their relationship with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. In addition, this research aimed to determine if these relationships between injunctive norms and consequences were moderated by alcohol consumption and level of identification with the typical same-sex college student. A random sample (N = 1,002) of undergraduates (56.9% female) completed a Web–based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking behavior, perceived approval of drinking behaviors that ranged in severity (i.e., injunctive norms), and level of identification with the typical same-sex college student. Results suggest that the association between negative consequences and injunctive drinking norms depend on one's own drinking behavior, identification with other students, and the severity of the alcohol use and related consequences for which injunctive norms are assessed. Findings are discussed in terms of false consensus and false uniqueness effects, and deviance regulation perspectives. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed. PMID:20565144

  8. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  9. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  10. Fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1982-11-16

    An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  11. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  12. Experimental alcohol blastopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandor, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated

  13. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  16. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  17. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  19. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow ...

  20. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem, don't blame yourself. continue How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? If you live with a parent ... needs to get help from a treatment center. Alcoholism affects family members just as much as it ...

  1. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  2. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  3. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... crashes, other injuries, high blood pressure, stroke, violence, suicide, and certain types of cancer. What is a ... than those of male alcoholics, including deaths from suicides, alcohol-related accidents, heart disease and stroke, and ...

  4. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  5. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R

    1987-04-24

    Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.

  6. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  7. Effects of alcohol ingestion post-exercise on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud S

    2002-01-15

    The present study examined the influence of ingesting a moderate dose of alcohol on platelet count and platelet aggregation during recovery following exercise. Nineteen subjects (11 male and 8 female) were studied immediately after a standardised cycle ergometer test and during the 24-h period of recovery. In random order, alcohol (0.7 g/kg body mass) was given 1 h after exercise on one test occasion, while an equal volume of alcohol-free solution was administered on the other. Venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, post-exercise, and at 1, 5, and 22 h post-alcohol ingestion. Blood alcohol level increased significantly 1 h after the ingestion of alcohol, but decreased and returned to the resting baseline level at 5 h during recovery. Males and females subjects exhibited similar mean values of platelet count, platelet aggregation, and beta-thromboglobulin concentration at rest and following exercise and recovery. A significant increase in platelet count and a decrease in platelet aggregation using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was found following exercise. Although plasma beta-thromboglobulin level (pooled data for males and females) showed an increase by 26.0% (from a mean pre-exercise value of 22.3-28.1 IU/ml), this rise was not significant (P>.05). The post-exercise increase in platelet count was mainly due to exercise-induced plasma volume loss. During recovery, while the increase in platelet count post-exercise returned to the baseline level in control and alcohol trials, the optical density of platelet aggregation remained significantly depressed at 5-h during recovery in the alcohol trial but not in the normal control condition. It is concluded that exercise induces significant reduction in platelet aggregation and the consumption of alcohol after physical exercise delays the normal return of platelet aggregation to the resting baseline levels during recovery.

  8. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  9. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  10. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  11. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  12. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  13. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  14. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  15. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  16. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  17. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  18. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  19. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  20. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  1. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  2. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  3. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  4. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  5. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  6. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  7. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  8. Targeting Alcohol Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Hepner, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract On the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey on Active Duty Service Members, 23 percent of female and 4 percent of male service members indicated that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault during their military service. In addition, official numbers show no decline in sexual assaults, despite the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Alcohol misuse is also a problem in the military: One-third of active-duty service members reported binge drinking, a rate that compares unfavorably with that of their civilian counterparts. DoD has invested considerable resources in universal sexual assault prevention programs and social media campaigns, but evaluation results are not yet available, and the effectiveness of these programs is unclear. Research on civilian populations—particularly college students, who share some characteristics with junior enlisted personnel—could provide insights for DoD. For example, the research indicates a connection between alcohol and aggression, including sexual aggression. Alcohol can also have a range of effects on the risk of victimization—from a reduced awareness of risk indicators to incapacitation or unconsciousness. An extensive review of the existing research provides some guidance for how DoD can implement and evaluate efforts to reduce alcohol misuse as part of a larger strategy to reduce the incidence of sexual assault among members of the armed forces. PMID:28083353

  9. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  10. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  11. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  12. Systems Genetics of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Sayarath, Vicki; Moore, Jason H.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual’s entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes1) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene–gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions. PMID:23584748

  13. Loneliness and Adolescent Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)

  14. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01).

  15. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  16. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  17. Artificial sweeteners versus regular mixers increase breath alcohol concentrations in male and female social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer (e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared to the same amount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially-sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer. Methods Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended three sessions where they received one of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as was self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. Results BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared with the alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was .091 g/210 L in the alcohol + diet condition compared to .077 g/210 L in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performance indicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the two alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the two alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, objective and subjective measures. Conclusions Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared to the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol. PMID:23216417

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  19. Dose Specific Effects of Olanzapine in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Claus, Eric D.; Arenella, Pamela; Bogenschutz, Michael; Karoly, Hollis; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale It is well-established that the rewarding effects of alcohol are modulated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Olanzapine, a D2 dopamine antagonist, has been shown to reduce alcohol craving and consumption. Objective To clarify whether olanzapine has clinical utility in the treatment of alcohol dependence, a 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Methods One-hundred twenty-nine treatment-seeking alcohol dependent adults were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of olanzapine (5mg vs. 2.5mg) or placebo. Outcomes examined were average drinks per drinking day (DDD), proportion of drinking days to total days in treatment (PDD), alcohol craving, and impaired control over alcohol use. Mixed models were used to examine medication effects during the course of treatment on specified outcomes. Results All of the analyses indicated a main effect for time, such that there were reductions in alcohol use and craving and an increase in control over alcohol use across treatment conditions. Dose-response analyses indicated that, in comparison to placebo, participants in the 5mg group experienced reduced craving for alcohol and participants in the 2.5mg group decreased in PDD and increased in their control over alcohol use. Better control over alcohol use remained significant 6 months post-treatment for the 2.5mg group. Subjective experiences of the medication suggest that 2.5mg and 5mg were equally well-tolerated. Conclusions Results provide some support for the notion that dosage is an important consideration in relation to effectiveness; however, the cost-benefit balance does not support the clinical utility of olanzapine in treating alcohol dependence. PMID:25304864

  20. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, R.W.

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  1. The Role of Religiosity in Influencing Adolescent and Adult Alcohol Use in Trinidad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollocks, Steve C. T.; Dass, Natasha; Seepersad, Randy; Mohammed, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of religiosity among adolescents' and adults' alcohol use in Trinidad. A stratified random sample design of 369 adolescents and 210 adult parents belonging to the various religious groups in Trinidad was employed. Participants were randomly selected from various educational districts across Trinidad. Adolescent…

  2. [Dose effect of alcohol on sex differences in blood alcohol metabolism--cases where healthy subjects with ALDH2*1/1 genotype drunk beer with meal].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shunji; Haseba, Takeshi; Masuda, Chiaki; Kakimi, Ema; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Ohno, Youkichi

    2013-06-01

    It is said that blood alcohol concentrations (BAG) are higher in female than in male due to the smaller distribution volume of alcohol in female, whereas the rate of alcohol metabolism is faster in female than in males due to a higher activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in female. However, it is also known that alcohol metabolism varies depending on drinking conditions. In this study, we evaluated the dose effect of alcohol on sex differences in alcohol metabolism in daily drinking conditions, where young adults (16 males, 15 females) with ALDH2*1/1 genotype drunk beer at a dose of 0.32g or 1.0g ethanol/kg body weight with a test meal (460kcal). This study was conducted using a randomized cross-over design. In the considerable drinking condition (1.0g/kg), BAG was significantly higher in females than in males, whereas the rate of alcohol metabolism (beta) was higher in female than in male. In the moderate drinking condition (0.32g/kg), however, no sex differences in alcohol metabolism including BAG were seen. These results suggest that an increased first pass metabolism through liver ADH in female, which may be caused by the reduction of gastric emptying rate due to the meal intake, contribute to the vanishing of sex difference in BAC in the moderate drinking condition.

  3. Alcohol consumption and escalatory aggression in intoxicated and sober dyads.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K E

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that alcohol ingestion facilitates escalatory processes in aggressive interactions. The present study examined interaction patterns in intoxicated, sober and mixed dyads. Thirty pairs of men college students were randomly assigned to these conditions. Subjects who received alcohol received .964 g of absolute alcohol per kg of body weight. At the beginning of each trial in a reaction-time competition, each member of the dyad selected the shock level that he wanted his opponent to receive if the opponent was slower on the trial. Further, each member was informed by feedback lights of the shock level that his opponent had selected for him. The results indicated that the intoxicated dyads selected higher shock levels than did the sober dyads. Mixed dyads tended to select lower shock levels than intoxicated dyads but higher shock levels than sober dyads. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, intoxicated dyads escalated in aggression over the first block of six trials, whereas neither sober nor mixed dyads evidenced such an escalation. One interpretation of these findings is that the cognitive disruption caused by the alcohol interfered with the subjects' ability to evaluate the consequences of their behavior and to interpret the behavior of their opponents. A second interpretation is that, because of the expectancy effects associated with alcohol consumption, intoxicated dyads did not feel constrained to a nonaggressive stance. Finally, the value of the dyadic-interaction paradigm in the study of alcohol-related violence was discussed.

  4. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  5. Alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability: a gene × environment interaction study.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Corley, Janie; McNeill, Geraldine; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Studies of the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive ability are often confounded. One approach to avoid confounding is the Mendelian randomization design. Here, we used such a design to test the hypothesis that a genetic score for alcohol processing capacity moderates the association between alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability. Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed the same test of intelligence at age 11 and 70 years. They were assessed for recent alcohol consumption in later life and genotyped for a set of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three alcohol dehydrogenase genes. These variants were unrelated to late-life cognition or to socioeconomic status. We found a significant gene × alcohol consumption interaction on lifetime cognitive change (p = 0.007). Individuals with higher genetic ability to process alcohol showed relative improvements in cognitive ability with more consumption, whereas those with low processing capacity showed a negative relationship between cognitive change and alcohol consumption with more consumption. The effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive change may thus depend on genetic differences in the ability to metabolize alcohol.

  6. Multidimensionality in Impulsivity and Alcohol Use: A Meta-Analysis using the UPPS Model of Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable support for the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use, the use of multidimensional conceptualizations of impulsivity and alcohol use has lead to varying relationship sizes across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis are to (1) examine variability in the magnitude of the bivariate relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use across studies, and (2) describe the pattern of effects between specific impulsivity traits and alcohol use variables, using the UPPS Model of Impulsivity. Methods Ninety-six studies were meta-analyzed using a random effects model to examine the relationship between general impulsivity and alcohol use, as well as the relationships among separate impulsivity traits based in the UPPS model of impulsivity and specific alcohol use outcomes. Results Results indicate that, in general, impulsivity and alcohol use are related (r = .28); however, this effect size varied significantly across studies (from −.05 to 1.02). Drinking quantity was most strongly predicted by lack of perseverance (r = .32), whereas all traits equally predicted drinking frequency. Drinking problems were most highly related to negative (r = .35) and positive (r = .34) urgency, and alcohol dependence was most highly related to negative urgency (r = .38) and lack of planning (r = .37). Conclusion Effect sizes between impulsivity and alcohol use vary significantly by UPPS trait used in each study; thus, findings suggest and further reinforce the view in the literature that specific impulsivity-related constructs differentially relate to specific alcohol use outcomes. PMID:23578176

  7. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  8. Alcohol Can Be a Risky Guest At Holiday Parties

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services. More Health News on: Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  9. Alcohol Use: If You Drink, Keep It Moderate

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring-disorders/older-adults. Accessed July 14, 2016. Alcohol's effects on the body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed July 14, 2016. Klatsky AL. Alcohol ...

  10. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  11. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  12. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  13. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  14. Alcoholic parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandel, L; Hamele-Bena, D

    1997-10-01

    Alcoholism is a primary cause of sialadenosis, which is an asymptomatic, bilateral enlargement of the parotid glands. The authors outline the pathogenesis, symptoms and testing involved in diagnosing sialadenosis. Recognizing sialadenosis is important because it may point to the unsuspected presence of underlying systemic disease. Therefore, dental practitioners need to be able to differentiate sialadenosis from an inflammatory or neoplastic process to prevent unnecessary treatment.

  15. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  16. Methadone and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L Z

    1976-01-01

    We have demonstrated the dangers of alcoholism that complicate methadone treatment of heroin addiction. In future papers, we will attempt to identify contributory factors and suggest interventionist techniques. In the final analysis, however, rehabilitation programs, vocational programs, and, above all, alleviation of the dreadful socioeconomic deprivations related to, among other factors, the racial bias under which most of these people have been born and have suffered during their lives will, in the long run, prove the most satisfactory means of reducing the heroin problem, except for a minority whose psychologic problems will then provide the irreducible minimum from which the majority of the addicts will come. As has so often been stated, the great drug problem in this country is alcoholism. We know that legal prohibition does not prevent the rise of alcoholism, and we know to our sorrow that not only does it give rise to enormous wealth and power to criminals and criminal gangs but that some of them are now also profiting from the great wealth to be made by dealing in heroin.

  17. Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (i.e., the age-group between 16 and 20 years) is characterized by significant changes in neurological and cognitive processes, behavioral and social functioning, and relational and physical contexts as the individual moves toward adulthood. In this age-group, major role transitions affect almost every aspect of life. Moreover, brain development continues—and with it the development of cognitive functions, working memory, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and decisionmaking. The adolescent’s social and emotional development also continues to evolve, affecting interactions with parents, siblings, peers, and first romantic relationships. All of these changes impact drinking behavior during late adolescence, and, in fact, alcohol use, binge drinking, and heavy drinking are particularly prevalent in youth ages 16–20. Determining the common trajectories of drinking behavior in this age–group is important for understanding how adolescent alcohol use helps shape adult outcomes and for identifying risk and protective factors. It also is important to study the short- and long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol use and abuse, including alcohol’s effects on the developing adolescent brain and accomplishment of important developmental tasks of this age. PMID:23104446

  18. Behavioral Economic Predictors of Brief Alcohol Intervention Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Martens, Matthew P.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; MacKillop, James; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study attempted to determine if behavioral economic indices of elevated alcohol reward value, measured before and immediately after a brief alcohol intervention, predict treatment response. Method Participants were 133 heavy drinking college students (49.6% female, 51.4% male; 64.3% Caucasian, 29.5% African American) who were randomized to one of three conditions: motivational interviewing plus personalized feedback (BMI), computerized personalized feedback intervention (e-CHUG), and assessment only. Results Baseline levels of alcohol demand significantly predicted drinks per week and alcohol problems at 1-month (demand intensity= maximum expenditure) and 6-month (relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol) follow-up. BMI and e-CHUG were associated with an immediate post-session reduction in alcohol demand (p < .001, ηρ2 = .29) that persisted at the 1-month follow-up, with greater post-session reductions in the BMI condition (p = .02, ηρ2 = .06). Reductions in demand intensity and Omax (maximum expenditure) immediately post-intervention significantly predicted drinking reductions at one-month follow up (p = .04, ΔR2 = .02 & p = .01, ΔR2 = .03, respectively). Reductions in relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol at 1-month significantly predicted drinking (p = .002, ΔR2 = .06,) and alcohol problem (p < .001, ΔR2 = .13) reductions at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions These results suggest that behavioral economic reward value indices may function as risk factors for poor intervention response and as clinically-relevant markers of change in heavy drinkers. PMID:26167945

  19. Alcohol, intelligence and violent crime in young males.

    PubMed

    Welte, J W; Wieczorek, W F

    1998-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a relationship between alcohol and violent behavior, but proof of a causal connection remains elusive. A recent review concluded that the key task that remained was to identify sub-groups of the population for which alcohol promotes violence. Because alcohol might induce violence by causing cognitive disruption (e.g., misunderstood communication), less intelligent persons could be vulnerable because they start out closer to the lower limit of comprehension. Our objective is to investigate the effect of lower intelligence on the alcohol/violence relationship. This analysis uses data from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men to investigate this hypothesis. Males, 16 to 19 years of age (N = 596), were selected from Buffalo, NY, by random digit dialing. High-risk males were oversampled. Two interviews were conducted 18 months apart, including drinking, criminal offenses, and psychological traits. Verbal intelligence was measured by the Ammons Quick Test and visual-motor intelligence by the Trail Making Test. An analysis of covariance was conducted with wave 2 average alcohol consumption and both measures of intelligence as independent variables, violent offending as the dependent variable, and race, wave 1 alcohol and wave 1 violence as covariates. Results show a positive main effect of wave 2 alcohol consumption, but also interactions with both verbal and visual-motor intelligence. These interactions indicate that the prevalence of violence increases significantly at low intelligence and high alcohol consumption levels. A parallel analysis with nonviolent offending as the dependent variable failed to find significant interactions. The combination of heavy drinking and lower intelligence is associated with a synergistic surge of violent behavior.

  20. Alcohol-Focused Spouse Involvement and Behavioral Couples Therapy: Evaluation of Enhancements to Drinking Reduction Treatment for Male Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of alcohol-focused spouse involvement and behavioral couples therapy (BCT) in group drinking reduction treatment for male problem drinkers. Sixty-four male clients and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: treatment for problem drinkers only (PDO), couples alcohol-focused treatment, or…

  1. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1…

  2. Effectiveness of the Brief Alcohol and Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS) Program with a Mandated Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFulvio, Gloria T.; Linowski, Sally A.; Mazziotti, Janet S.; Puleo, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention designed to reduce alcohol abuse among adjudicated college students. Participants: Participants were college students mandated to attend a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program and a randomly selected comparison group of…

  3. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  4. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  5. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  6. A Systematic Review of Naltrexone for Attenuating Alcohol Consumption in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Canidate, Shantrel S; Carnaby, Giselle D; Cook, Christa L; Cook, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Several clinical trials have evaluated naltrexone as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but few have focused on women. The aim of this review was to systematically review and summarize the evidence regarding the impact of naltrexone compared to placebo for attenuating alcohol consumption in women with an AUD. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Alcohol Studies Database to identify relevant peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1990 and August 2016. Seven published trials have evaluated the impact of naltrexone on drinking outcomes in women distinct from men; 903 alcohol-dependent or heavy drinking women were randomized to receive once daily oral or depot (injectable) naltrexone or placebo with/without behavioral intervention. Two studies examining the quantity of drinks per day observed trends toward reduction in drinking quantity among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. The 4 studies examining the frequency of drinking had mixed results, with 1 study showing a trend that favored naltrexone, 2 showing a trend that favored placebo, and 1 that showed no difference. Two of the 3 studies examining time to relapse observed trends that tended to favor naltrexone for time to any drinking and time to heavy drinking among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. While the growing body of evidence suggests a variety of approaches to treat AUD, the impact of naltrexone to combat AUD in women is understudied. Taken together, the results suggest that naltrexone may lead to modest reductions in quantity of drinking and time to relapse, but not on the frequency of drinking in women. Future research should incorporate sophisticated study designs that examine gender differences and treatment effectiveness among those diagnosed with an AUD and present data separately for men and women.

  7. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Elsasser, Robert; Friedrich, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  8. The neurobiology of alcohol consumption and alcoholism: an integrative history.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L

    2013-11-15

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  9. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  10. Youth Exposure to Alcohol Use and Brand Appearances in Popular Contemporary Movies

    PubMed Central

    DAL CIN, Sonya; WORTH, Keilah A.; DALTON, Madeline A.; SARGENT, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To describe alcohol use and alcohol brand appearances in popular movies and estimate adolescents’ exposure to this alcohol-related content. Design and setting Nationally representative, random-digit dialed survey in the United States and content analysis of alcohol depictions in the top 100 U.S. box office hits each year from 1998 to 2002 and 34 top movies from early 2003. Participants 6522 U.S. adolescents aged 10-14. Measurements Frequency of alcohol use and brand appearances in movies by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating. Estimated exposure to minutes of movie alcohol use and brand appearances among U.S. adolescents in this age group. Findings Most movies (83%, including 57% of G/PG-rated movies) depicted alcohol use and 52% (including 19% of G/PG movies) contained at least one alcohol brand appearance, which consisted of branded use by an actor 30% of the time. These movies exposed the average U.S. adolescent 10-14 years of age to 5.6 (95% CI 5.4,5.7) hours of movie alcohol use and 244 (95% CI 238,250) alcohol brand appearances (5 billion in total), mostly from youth-rated movies. Exposure to movie alcohol content was significantly higher among African American youth than youth of other races. Conclusions Alcohol use and brand appearances are frequently portrayed in popular U.S. movies (which are distributed worldwide). Children and adolescents in the U.S. are exposed to hours of alcohol use depictions and numerous brand appearances in movies and most of this exposure is from movies rated for this segment of the population. PMID:18705684

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  12. The Effectiveness of Brief Intervention among Injured Patients with Alcohol Dependence: Who Benefits from Brief Interventions?

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Background Research investigating the differential effectiveness of Brief Motivational Interventions (BMI) among alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients in the medical setting is limited. Clinical guidelines suggest that BMI is most appropriate for patients with less severe alcohol problems. As a result, most studies evaluating the effectiveness of BMI have excluded patients with an indication of alcohol dependence. Methods A randomized controlled trial of brief intervention in the trauma care setting comparing BMI to treatment as usual plus assessment (TAU+) was conducted. Alcohol dependence status was determined for 1336 patients using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The differential effectiveness of BMI among alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients was determined with regard to volume per week, maximum amount consumed, percent days abstinent, alcohol problems at six and 12 month follow up. In addition, the effect of BMI on dependence status at six and 12 months was determined. Results There was a consistent interaction between BMI and alcohol dependence status, which indicated significantly higher reductions in volume per week at six and twelve month follow up (β=−.56, p=.03, β=−.63, p=.02, respectively), maximum amount at six months (β=−.31, p=.04), and significant decreases in percent days abstinent at twelve months (β=.11, p=.007) and alcohol problems at twelve months (β=−2.7, p12=.04) among patients with alcohol dependence receiving BMI. In addition, patients with alcohol dependence at baseline that received BMI were .59 (95% CI=.39–.91) times less likely to meet criteria for alcohol dependence at six months. Conclusions These findings suggest that BMI is more beneficial among patients with alcohol dependence who screen positive for an alcohol related injury. PMID:20493644

  13. How random is a random vector?

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-12-15

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the “generalized variance” of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the “Wilks standard deviation” –the square root of the generalized variance–is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the “uncorrelation index” –a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation–is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: “randomness measures” and “independence indices” of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to “randomness diagrams”—tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of “independence indices” yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  14. A Randomized Trial Comparing Skin Antiseptic Agents at Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Liu, Jingxia; Stout, Molly J.; Martin, Shannon; Cahill, Alison G.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Colditz, Graham A.; Macones, George A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preoperative skin antisepsis has the potential to decrease the risk of surgical-site infection. However, evidence is limited to guide the choice of antiseptic agent at cesarean delivery, which is the most common major surgical procedure among women in the United States. METHODS In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated whether the use of chlorhexidine–alcohol for preoperative skin antisepsis was superior to the use of iodine–alcohol for the prevention of surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery. We randomly assigned patients undergoing cesarean delivery to skin preparation with either chlorhexidine–alcohol or iodine–alcohol. The primary outcome was superficial or deep surgical-site infection within 30 days after cesarean delivery, on the basis of definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS From September 2011 through June 2015, a total of 1147 patients were enrolled; 572 patients were assigned to chlorhexidine–alcohol and 575 to iodine–alcohol. In an intention-to-treat analysis, surgical-site infection was diagnosed in 23 patients (4.0%) in the chlorhexidine–alcohol group and in 42 (7.3%) in the iodine–alcohol group (relative risk, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.90; P = 0.02). The rate of superficial surgical-site infection was 3.0% in the chlorhexidine–alcohol group and 4.9% in the iodine–alcohol group (P = 0.10); the rate of deep infection was 1.0% and 2.4%, respectively (P = 0.07). The frequency of adverse skin reactions was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The use of chlorhexidine–alcohol for preoperative skin antisepsis resulted in a significantly lower risk of surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery than did the use of iodine–alcohol. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01472549.) PMID:26844840

  15. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  16. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  17. Biomass resources for alcohol fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, J. E.

    The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

  18. The Epigenetic Landscape of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Harish R.; Sakharkar, Amul J.; Teppen, Tara L.; Berkel, Tiffani D.M.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure, but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, holds great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism. PMID:25131543

  19. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.

  20. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute [[Page 59406

  1. The role of alcohol use in intimate partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p < .0001) and a two fold increased risk of femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences.

  2. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  3. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    coated with 3Z Carbowax 20 M. Serum proteins were removed by precipitation with 0.5 M percholoric acid. The clear, protein -free supernatant was...this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...no ethanol, and who according to the history had been two days without any alcohol intake . DISCUSSION The source of the 2,3-butanediol found in the

  4. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content....

  5. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  6. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  7. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  8. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  9. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  10. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  11. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  12. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  14. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  15. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  16. [Assessment of problematic alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Rumpf, H-J; Bischof, G; Freyer-Adam, J; Coder, B

    2009-11-01

    An overview with respect to the identification of patients with risky drinking, alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence is given. As a first step, a simple screening questionnaire should be used. Self-statements in standardized questionnaires are more valid than standard laboratory markers. A useful instrument is for example BASIC. In screening positive patients, an in-depth diagnosis is necessary and helps to distinguish between different forms of problematic alcohol use. Depending on the severity of the alcohol problem, brochures, internet-programs, counselling or referral to treatment services is helpful.

  17. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical features help to establish an alcoholic etiology. These features and the use of liver biopsy are discussed, and a practical guideline for diagnosis and follow-up is offered. PMID:21267299

  18. Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  19. Alcohol Control and Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Cuellar, Alison; Conrad, Ryan M.; Grossman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parental alcohol consumption is often associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse. As consumption is related to price, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the propensity for increases in the full price of alcohol to influence entry rates and the length of time spent in foster care. Using alcoholic beverage prices and a measure of availability in combination with data on foster care cases, we find that higher alcohol prices are not effective in reducing foster care entry rates; however, once in foster care, the duration of stay may be shortened by higher prices and reduced availability. PMID:25506296

  20. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.