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  1. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection: role of DRD2.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Marisela; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Yndart, Adriana; Yoo, Changwon; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Nair, Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    According to a survey from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), approximately 53% of HIV-infected patients reported drinking alcohol and 8% were classified as heavy drinkers. The role of alcohol as a risk factor for HIV infection has been widely studied and recent research has found a significant association between heavy alcohol consumption and lower levels of CD4 T cells among HIV-infected alcoholics. Although there is evidence on the role of alcohol as a risk factor for HIV transmission and disease progression, there is a need for population studies to determine the genetic mechanisms that affect alcohol's role in HIV disease progression. One of the mechanisms of interest is the dopaminergic system. To date, the effects of dopamine on HIV neuroimmune pathogenesis are not well understood; however, dopaminergic neural degeneration due to HIV is known to occur by viral invasion into the brain via immune cells, and modulation of dopamine in the CNS may be a common mechanism by which different types of substances of abuse impact HIV disease progression. Although previous studies have shown an association of D(2) dopamine receptor (DRD2) polymorphisms with severity of alcohol dependence, the expression of this allele risk on HIV patients with alcohol dependence has not been systematically explored. In the current study, DRD2 Taq1A and C957T SNP genotyping analyses were performed in 165 HIV-infected alcohol abusers and the results were examined with immune status and CD4 counts.

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  3. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  4. Serotonin-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Alcohol Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Karina; Dévieux, Jessy G.; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P = 0.005). Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P = 0.02). This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND. PMID:27069689

  5. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... ili ovisnost - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Substance Abuse or Dependence 物质滥用或依赖 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  7. Negative Affect and HIV Risk in Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucenko, Barbara A.; Malow, Robert M.; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario; Jennings, Terri; Devieux, Jessy G.

    2003-01-01

    Various depressive symptoms have been linked to elevated levels of HIV risk across diverse adult populations in multiple studies. However, this link has been examined in a much more limited manner among adolescents, despite an exceedingly heightened risk of both HIV and negative affect in this age group. To address the current lack of clinically…

  8. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  9. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  10. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  11. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  12. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Status: The Delicate Balance Among People Living with HIV, with and without Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Espinoza, Luis; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Bryant, Vaughn E.; Vargas, Mayra; Cook, Robert L.; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E.; Deshratan, Asthana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy(cART) has lead to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV(PLWH). However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still remain a significant problem. One possible mechanism for the persistence of these disorders is through the effect of HIV on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is influenced by various factors including hazardous alcohol use (HAU), which is prevalent among PLWH. This study attempts to elucidate the relationships between HAU, BDNF and HAND. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 199 hazardous alcohol users and 198 non-HAU living with HIV. Members of each group were matched according to sociodemographic characteristics and CD4 count. Research procedures included validated questionnaires, neuropsychological assessments and a blood sample to obtain BDNF and immune measurements. Results Hazardous alcohol users showed either significantly lower or significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the Non-hazardous (OR=1,4; 95% CI: 1–2.1, p = 0.003). Therefore, for additional analyses, subjects were categorized based on BDNF values in: Group 1 < 4000, Group 2: 4001–7,999 (reference group), and Group 3 for those >8,000 pg/mL. Groups 1 and 3 performed significantly worse than those in Group 2 in the domains of processing speed, auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. Multivariate analyses confirmed that HAU and BDNF are significant contributors of HAND. Conclusion Our findings offer novel insights into the relationships between BDNF, and alcohol use among PLWH. Our results also lend support to expanding clinical movement to use BDNF as an intervention target for PLWH, in those with evidence of deficiencies, and highlight the importance of including HAU at the inception of clinical trials. PMID:25053366

  13. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  14. Physical and sexual violence, childhood sexual abuse and HIV/STI risk behaviour among alcohol-using women engaged in sex work in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Toivgoo, Aira; Chang, Mingway; Riedel, Marion; Carlson, Catherine; DiBennardo, Rebecca; Witte, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mongolia is low, it could increase without strategic prevention strategies. Female sex workers (FSWs) often experience barriers to prevention, including interpersonal violence. This study investigated if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or recent physical or sexual violence was associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours and if CSA modified associations between recent violence and HIV sexual risk behaviours. Two-hundred twenty-two women who (1) were at least 18 years old and clients at the National AIDS Foundation; (2) reported vaginal or anal sex in the past 90 days in exchange for money or goods and (3) met criteria for harmful alcohol use in the past year were enrolled. In-person interviews assessed sexual risk behaviours and violence in childhood and adulthood. Negative binomial regression, ordinary least squares regression and modified Poisson regression were performed. Sexual risk with paying partners was associated with penetrative CSA and sexual violence by paying partners. CSA and recent violence were not associated with sexual risk behaviours with intimate partners. CSA modified the association between recent sexual violence and unprotected sex with intimate partners. Findings highlight the need for integrated violence and sexual risk reduction services to ensure safe and effective prevention for FSWs.

  15. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  16. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  17. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  18. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  20. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  1. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  2. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  3. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  5. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  6. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  7. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  8. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  9. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  12. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  13. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  14. [Suicidality and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Smulders, Yvo M; Biesaart, Monique C H I; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the role played by a patient's mental competency in the assessment and treatment of patients who are under the influence of alcohol and expressing suicidal thoughts. The factors that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of suicidality are not always clear: somatic complications or possible discharge from the emergency room. The treating physician at the emergency department should evaluate the mental competency. The risk of suicide should also be assessed by a psychiatrist. In order to make the right decisions about treatment and mental competency, the key concepts of proportionality, effectiveness and subsidiarity in the assessment of mental competency are crucial. These concepts require a personalized, multidisciplinary approach and result in unique decisions which may differ from case to case. In the assessment and treatment of patients under the influence of alcohol who are suicidal and do not want to have a proper medical evaluation, communication between the emergency physician, internist and psychiatrist is crucial to optimize both evaluation and treatment. In this context, tasks and responsibilities should be clearly defined in order to minimize the risk of errors and complications. PMID:26443116

  15. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  16. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  17. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, H.; Møller, H.; Andersen, J. R.; Jensen, E.; Juel, K.

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers. PMID:8297729

  18. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  19. Neuroendocrine consequences of alcohol abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Mello, N K; Mendelson, J H; Teoh, S K

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with a broad spectrum of reproductive system disorders. Amenorrhea, anovulation, luteal phase dysfunction, and ovarian pathology may occur in alcohol-dependent women and alcohol abusers. Luteal phase dysfunction, anovulation and persistent hyperprolactinemia have also been observed in social drinkers studied under clinical research ward conditions. The mechanisms underlying alcohol-related disruptions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-adrenal axis are unknown. The reproductive consequences of alcohol abuse and alcoholism range from infertility and increased risk for spontaneous abortion to impaired fetal growth and development. Recent studies of alcohol's effects on pituitary gonadotropins and on gonadal, steroid and adrenal hormones in women are reviewed. Research on the acute effects of alcohol on opioid antagonist and synthetic LHRH-stimulated pituitary gonadotropins is summarized. The implications of alcohol's effects on reproductive hormones for impairment of fetal growth and development are discussed.

  20. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  1. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

  2. Youths and Alcohol Abuse: A Continuing Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Defines problem drinking and alcoholism, and differentiates normal drinking escapes from alcohol abuse by teenagers and other youths. Suggests teenagers consume alcohol for a myriad of reasons and this behavior often leads to alcohol dependence which can cause interference in normal relationships with others. (Author)

  3. Biomedical Consequences of Alcohol Use Disorders in the HIV-Infected Host Invited Review

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Patricia E.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the most common and costly form of drug abuse in the United States. It is well known that alcohol abuse contributes to risky behaviors associated with greater incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. As HIV has become a more chronic disease since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, it is expected that alcohol use disorders will have an adverse effect on the health of HIV-infected patients. The biomedical consequences of acute and chronic alcohol abuse are multisystemic. Based on what is currently known of the comorbid and pathophysiological conditions resulting from HIV infection in people with alcohol use disorders, chronic alcohol abuse appears to alter the virus infectivity, the immune response of the host, and the progression of disease and tissue injury, with specific impact on disease progression. The combined insult of alcohol abuse and HIV affects organ systems, including the central nervous system, the immune system, the liver, heart, and lungs, and the musculoskeletal system. Here we outline the major pathological consequences of alcohol abuse in the HIV-infected individual, emphasizing its impact on immunomodulation, erosion of lean body mass associated with AIDS wasting, and lipodystrophy. We conclude that interventions focused on reducing or avoiding alcohol abuse are likely to be important in decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25053365

  4. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  5. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  6. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  7. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  8. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  9. HIV infection and drugs of abuse: role of acute phase proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Methods Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, and HIV-positive alone and HIV-positive METH, cocaine, and alcohol users, and age-matched control subjects. The plasma CRP and SAA levels were measured by ELISA and western blot respectively and the CD4 counts were also measured. Results Observed results indicated that the CRP and SAA levels in HIV-positive subjects who are METH, cocaine and alcohol users were significantly higher when compared with either drugs of abuse or HIV-positive alone. The CD4 counts were also dramatically reduced in HIV-positive with drugs of abuse subjects compared with only HIV-positive subjects. Conclusions These results suggest that, in HIV-positive subjects, drugs of abuse increase the levels of CRP and SAA, which may impact on the HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:24044608

  10. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV disease progression is mixed, in vitro studies as well as studies using in vivo animal models have indicated that drugs of abuse have the ability to enhance HIV infection/replication. Drugs of abuse may also be a risk factor for perinatal transmission of HIV. Because high levels of viral load in maternal blood are associated with increased risk of HIV vertical transmission, it is likely that drugs of abuse play an important role in promoting mother-fetus transmission. Furthermore, because the neonatal immune system differs qualitatively from the adult system, it is possible that maternal exposure to drugs of abuse would exacerbate neonatal immunity defects, facilitating HIV infection of neonate immune cells and promoting HIV vertical transmission. The availability and use of antiretroviral therapy for women infected with HIV increase, there is an increasing interest in determining the impact of drug abuse on efficacy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) -standardized treatment regimens for woman infected with HIV in the context of HIV vertical transmission. PMID:21056582

  11. Strategies for Recognizing and Treating Elderly Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Dupree, Larry W.

    This paper describes the Gerontology Alcohol Project (GAP), which was established by the National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse as a pilot treatment/research project for late life drinkers, those who begin abusing alcohol after age 50. Two strategies developed by GAP for identifying elderly alcohol abusers are described including…

  12. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study.

  13. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 11,...

  14. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

  15. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

  16. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  17. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  19. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  20. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  1. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  2. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  3. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  4. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  5. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  6. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  7. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  8. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  9. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  10. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  11. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  12. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  13. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  14. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism..., National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  15. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  16. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  17. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  18. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...

  20. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  1. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  2. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  3. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  4. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  5. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  6. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  7. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  8. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  10. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  11. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  12. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  13. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD...

  14. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  15. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  16. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of...

  17. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  18. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  19. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  20. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  1. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  2. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  3. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 12-13, 2013. Closed: June 12, 2013. Time: 5:00 p.m. to 7:30...

  4. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  5. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  6. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  7. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  8. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  9. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  10. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Bethesda, MD...

  11. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161012.html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For some teens with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and ...

  12. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Alcohol Research ] Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  13. Alcohol abuse and suicide attempts among youth.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Dave, Dhaval; Dave, Daval; Kaestner, Robert; Markowitz, Sara

    2004-06-01

    This study uses the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) to explore the causal relationship between alcohol abuse (binge drinking and clinically defined alcohol use disorders) and suicide attempts among youth. We use an empirical approach that allows one to assess the possible existence and strength of a causal relationship without relying on identifying assumptions. Our results suggest that a causal relationship between binge drinking and suicide attempts is very unlikely. The findings, however, support a causal relationship between clinically defined alcohol use disorders and suicide attempts among girls.

  14. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV-1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point. PMID:22973853

  15. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: TNF alpha, IL1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL8, IL12 and MCP-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake. PMID:20020329

  16. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Recent findings Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called “designer,” drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. Summary In this review we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them. PMID:24100364

  17. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  18. [Nicotine abusing in adult children of alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) are people who were raised in families abusing alcohol where one of the parents (or both) was addicted to alcohol and where alcohol was the main problem affecting all areas of life. It is estimated that in Poland adult population consists of ACA in 35-40%. Those people represent higher risk of addiction to psychoactive substances, most of all alcohol, but also nicotine. Higher addiction propensity among ACA is a result of their personality's features consisting so called "ACA syndrome". The goal of the study was to determine nicotine addiction frequency and assessment of self-propensity to addiction in chosen ACA group, gathered in three abstinent clubs for alcoholics in Warsaw. Nicotine addiction frequency among the study group members was 58.4% and alcohol addiction frequency was 21.2%. Strong nicotine addiction represented 49.2% of smokers. Men more often than women were addicted to nicotine (0.67 vs. 0.52), on the other hand women were more often than men alcohol addicts (0.18 vs. 0.15). All smokers and nicotine addicts (assessment by HIS test) were aware of their addiction. In relation to initial addiction diagnosis by CAGE test regarded higher percentage of people than it resulted from study group self-assessment (21.2% vs. 16.8). Professional psychotherapy for ACA did not influence substantially the nicotine addiction frequency in the study group. PMID:21360917

  19. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on...

  20. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health,...

  1. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: June 18,...

  2. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards...

  3. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Katrina L Foster,...

  4. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30...

  5. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m....

  6. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Richard A. Rippe,...

  7. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599,...

  8. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  9. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  10. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special... shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  11. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  12. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21,...

  13. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  14. 74 FR 8097 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-02-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol Treatment. Date: March 17, 2009. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism;...

  15. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  16. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  17. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  18. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Shafil, M; Lavely, R; Jaffe, R

    1975-09-01

    The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N equals 126) and a matched control group (N equals 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than 2 years reported discontinuation within the first 6 months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus 1 percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.

  19. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  20. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  1. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  2. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  3. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  4. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. Substance Abuse, Violence, HIV, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    González-Guarda, Rosa Maria; McCabe, Brian E.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence from the literature suggests that substance abuse, violence, HIV risk, depressive symptoms, and underlying socioeconomic conditions are tied intrinsically to health disparities among Latinas. Although these health and social conditions appear to comprise a syndemic, an underlying phenomenon disproportionately accounting for the burden of disease among marginalized groups, these hypothesized relationships have not been formally tested. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess (a) if substance abuse, violence, HIV risk, and depressive symptoms comprised a syndemic and (b) if this syndemic was related to socioeconomic disadvantage among Latinas. Methods Baseline assessment data from a randomized controlled community trial testing the efficacy of an HIV risk reduction program for adult Latinas (n = 548) were used to measure demographic variables, substance abuse, violence, risk for HIV, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to test a single underlying syndemic factor model and any relation to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results The results of this study support the idea that HIV risk, substance abuse, violence, and depressive symptoms comprise a syndemic, χ2(27) = 53.26, p < .01 (relative χ2 = 1.97, comparative fit index = .91, root mean square error of approximation = .04). In addition, in limited accord with theory, this factor was related to 2 measures of socioeconomic disadvantage, percentage of years in the United States (b = 7.55, SE = 1.53, p < .001) and education (b = −1.98, SE = .87, p < .05). Discussion The results of this study could be used to guide public health programs and policies targeting behavioral health disparity conditions among Latinos and other vulnerable populations. Further study of the influence of gender-role expectations and community-level socioeconomic indicators may provide additional insight into this syndemic. PMID:21522030

  7. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  8. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  9. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... 20892. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on...

  10. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Spectrum Disorders in Young Children (U01), RFA AA-10-005. Date: March 2, 2010. Time: 2 p.m. to 6...

  11. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  12. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  13. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  14. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  15. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT oF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  16. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  17. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  18. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  19. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  20. 76 FR 32978 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  1. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  2. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  3. 75 FR 37818 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  4. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  5. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  6. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  7. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  8. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  9. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  10. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  11. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  12. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  13. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  14. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  15. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  16. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  17. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  18. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...

  19. Effects of alcohol abuse on reproductive function in women.

    PubMed

    Mello, N K

    1988-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with disorders of reproductive function in both men and women. Amenorrhea, anovulation, and luteal phase dysfunction may occur in alcohol-dependent women and alcohol abusers. Yet there has been relatively little research on the consequences of alcohol abuse for female reproductive function. Recent clinical and survey studies of alcohol effects on pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroid hormones in women are reviewed. Experimental studies of the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in normal women and in animal models are also described. Recent studies of the acute effects of alcohol on opioid antagonist and synthetic LHRH-stimulated pituitary gonadotropins are summarized. Possible mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced disruptions of menstrual cycle regularity are discussed.

  20. Physiological processes underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Lang, Charles H; Nagy, Laura E; Bailey, Shannon M; Parsons, Loren H; Murray, Gary J

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes the American Physiological Society (APS) Presidential Symposium 1 entitled "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse" at the 2016 Experimental Biology meeting. The symposium was organized by Dr. Patricia Molina, past president of the APS, was held on April 3 at the Convention Center in San Diego, CA, and was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse Symposium" assembled experts and leaders in the field and served as a platform to discuss and share knowledge on the latest developments and scientific advances on the mechanisms underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse. This symposium provided unique, interdisciplinary alcohol research, including several organs, liver, muscle, adipose, and brain, affected by excessive alcohol use. PMID:27436613

  1. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin: a marker for alcohol abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, A.; Wild, G.; Milford-Ward, A.; Triger, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin as detected by isoelectric focusing on agarose as an indicator of alcohol abuse. DESIGN--Coded analysis of serum samples taken from patients with carefully defined alcohol intake both with and without liver disease. Comparison of carbohydrate deficient transferrin with standard laboratory tests for alcohol abuse. SETTING--A teaching hospital unit with an interest in general medicine and liver disease. PATIENTS--22 "Self confessed" alcoholics admitting to a daily alcohol intake of at least 80 g for a minimum of three weeks; 15 of the 22 self confessed alcoholics admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal; 68 patients with alcoholic liver disease confirmed by biopsy attending outpatient clinics and claiming to be drinking less than 50 g alcohol daily; 47 patients with non-alcoholic liver disorders confirmed by biopsy; and 38 patients with disorders other than of the liver and no evidence of excessive alcohol consumption. INTERVENTION--Serial studies performed on the 15 patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal in hospital. MAIN OUTCOME measure--Determination of relative value of techniques for detecting alcohol abuse. RESULTS--Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was detected in 19 of the 22 (86%) self confessed alcohol abusers, none of the 47 patients with non-alcoholic liver disease, and one of the 38 (3%) controls. Withdrawal of alcohol led to the disappearance of carbohydrate deficient transferrin at a variable rate, though in some subjects it remained detectable for up to 15 days. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was considerably superior to the currently available conventional markers for alcohol abuse. CONCLUSION--As the technique is fairly simple, sensitive, and inexpensive we suggest that it may be valuable in detecting alcohol abuse. Images FIG 1 PMID:2571374

  2. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  3. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  4. Alcohol Abuse and the Young Offender: Alcohol Education as an Alternative to Custodial Sentencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problem of how to address relationship between alcohol abuse and criminal offending. Suggests that Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) offer workable alternative to custodial sentencing. AECs offer various techniques that target abusive alcohol consumption level of the population, the problem of offending, or both. Asserts that evaluation…

  5. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2304. This meeting will now be held at 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2012, 4 p.m. to March 29, 2012, 8 p.m.,...

  6. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Register on August 30, 2010, 75 FR DOC. 2010- 21663. Date and time was changed from 11/3/2010; 2 p.m. to 5... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2 p.m. to November 3, 2010, 5...

  7. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  8. Drug–drug interactions between anti-retroviral therapies and drugs of abuse in HIV systems

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. Areas covered This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. Expert opinion We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse. PMID:25539046

  9. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 2: Clinical and laboratory indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S; Skinner, H A; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in hospital and in general medical practice. The diagnosis of alcohol abuse has been emphasized repeatedly in the literature but far less attention has been paid to indicators that would permit detection of excessive drinking at a stage when intervention might be more effective and less costly. The search for indicators of early alcohol abuse is complicated since many of the medical sequelae of alcoholism are nonspecific and may only be manifested after a number of years of excessive drinking. Part 2 of this two-part series considers various clinical and laboratory features related to alcohol abuse and highlights items that are potentially more sensitive for detecting early stages of problem drinking. Use by physicians of a composite profile of both biomedical and psychosocial indicators of excessive alcohol consumption is recommended for early identification of this problem. PMID:7016289

  10. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  11. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  12. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I and axis II psychopathology. Alcohol dependent patients who did not meet criteria for alcohol abuse were significantly more likely to be female, have a later age of onset for alcohol dependence, have fewer dependence symptoms, and have a lower rate of positive family history for alcoholism, and were less likely to report a lifetime history of DSM-IV drug use disorders and PTSD. These findings suggest that diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent patients may be clinically useful as an index of severity and higher likelihood of comorbid drug abuse and dependence. Future studies are needed to establish whether these differences are clinically significant in terms of the course of the disorder and response to treatment. PMID:19362427

  13. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel, Review of Resource Grant Applications (R24). Date: November 3, 2010. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m..., Alcohol National Research Service Awards for Research Training; 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  14. [Disturbances of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Cylwik, Bogdan; Chrostek, Lech

    2011-04-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse leads to malnutrition, and thus to the deficiency of many nutrients, including vitamins and trace elements. Most often comes to the deficiency of all vitamins, however because the clinical implications, the most important is folic acid (vitamin B9) deficiency. Biochemical effect of folate deficiency is elevated homocysteine concentration in the blood, named "cholesterol of XXI. century". In the paper, the folate and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse was discussed. Mechanisms of alcohol action on folate homeostasis in the human body have been indicated. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to deficiency of this vitamin due to their dietary inadequacy, intestinal malabsorption, decreased hepatic uptake and increased body excretion, mainly via urine. The decreased concentration of serum folic acid may occur in 80% of alcoholics. The cause of elevated concentrations of homocysteine in the serum of alcohol abusers is also a deficiency of vitamins involved such as vitamin B12 and pyridoxal phosphate. Disturbance of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abusers can lead to serious clinical consequences. Folic acid deficiency leads inter alia to macrocytic and megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia occurs in about half of alcohol abusers with chronic liver diseases. In turn, high level of homocysteine in blood is associated with an inreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor that favors the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes in patients with coronary heart disease.

  15. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  16. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  17. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Mason, Andrew; Luftig, Ronald B; Bautista, Abraham P

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 400,000 individuals in the United States are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is likely that almost one in two of these subjects consumes alcohol. The majority of these patients suffer an accelerated course of liver disease as manifested by the onset of cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years of developing HCV infection, as well as an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is thought that chronic alcohol abuse mediates liver damage as a result of increased production of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. In the setting of chronic HCV infection, alcohol ingestion has an additional effect of diminishing immune clearance and increasing viral burden to hasten the onset of cirrhosis and HCC. Likewise, chronic HCV and HIV-1 co-infection results in a net increase in HCV burden; higher prevalence rates of HCV transmission to sexual partners and offspring, as well as an accelerated progression to end stage liver disease as compared to individuals with HCV infection alone. Thus, the synergistic effects of alcohol abuse and HIV-1 greatly impact on the morbidity and mortality for patients with HCV coinfection. Ultimately, this cumulative disease process will require far more aggressive management with abstinence and counseling for alcohol abuse; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and combination anti-viral therapy for HCV infection to stem the rapid progression to end stage liver disease. PMID:12086918

  18. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  19. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  20. Parental Abuse as a Mediator of Codependence among Alcoholics' Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Patricia V.; And Others

    Despite little empirical evidence, many psychotherapists believe that parental alcoholism inevitably results in codependence among alcoholics' offspring. The present study examines the hypothesis that intervening factors, such as abusive parenting, mediate the development of codependence. To test this premise, 247 undergraduates completed…

  1. Alcohol Abuse on a College Campus: A Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walfish, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a needs assessment study conducted by a university-based alcohol abuse prevention project. Results suggest that students are experiencing numerous difficulties in the physical, educational, legal, and psychological areas due to their use of alcoholic beverages. Implications for prevention and intervention…

  2. Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

  3. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  4. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  5. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  6. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  7. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  8. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  9. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... and Alcoholism, September 12, 2011, 3:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m., September 13, 2011, 9 a.m. to 1...

  10. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel, Review of RFA AA10-007 & AA10- 008 Gut-Liver-Brain Interactions in Alcohol Induced...

  11. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  12. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  13. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  14. Pavlovian sign-tracking model of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Sharma, Nikyta

    2013-09-01

    While poorly controlled alcohol drinking is a prominent symptom of alcohol abuse, its environmental determinants remain poorly understood. The Sign-Tracking Model (STM), developed by Tomie and his associates, postulates that poorly controlled alcohol drinking is due to the development of signal-directed behaviors induced by Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures. In laboratory studies of animal learning, presentation of the lever (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the presentation of the food (unconditioned stimulus, US) induces sign-tracking conditioned response (CR) performance, wherein rats approach and contact, then express consummatory-like responses (i.e., licking, gnawing, and chewing) directed at the lever CS. The Pavlovian sign-tracking CR is an involuntary acquired reflexive response. It is poorly controlled and elicited by the presentation of the CS. STM proposes that poorly controlled alcohol drinking in humans may be due to repeated pairings of the alcohol sipper (e.g., cocktail glass) CS with alcohol's rewarding effects US, resulting in sign-tracking CR performance. The cocktail glass CS will elicit Pavlovian sign-tracking CR performance of reflexive and involuntary alcohol intake. This paper reviews evidence in the Pavlovian conditioning literature that in animals the positive contingency between the alcohol sipper CS and alcohol US induces sign-tracking of alcohol drinking. Also reviewed is evidence that in human beings alcohol drinking is a direct function of the positive contingency between a particular alcohol glassware CS and alcohol US. Implications of these findings for the Sign-Tracking Model (STM) are discussed.

  15. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse among American Indians: The Mythical and Real Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes evidence supporting and refuting myths and common beliefs about alcohol abuse among American Indians. Discusses the prevalence of drinking and alcoholism among Indians, alcohol metabolism, drinking styles, alcohol-related deaths, uncritical use of statistics, alcohol-related child abuse and neglect, sex differences, fetal alcohol…

  16. Association of Blood Pressure and Hypertension with Alcohol Consumption in HIV-Infected White and Nonwhite Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nêmora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Brandão, Ajácio B. M.; Fuchs, Flávio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although alcohol abuse is associated with hypertension in whites and nonwhites, it has been scarcely investigated in HIV-infected patients. Objective. To investigate whether the association of alcohol abuse with hypertension is influenced by skin color in HIV-infected individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected individuals aged 18 years or older. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and HIV infection were investigated. Alcohol abuse was defined as ≥15 (women) and ≥30 g/alcohol/day (men), and binge drinking by the intake of ≥5 drinks on a single occasion. Hypertension was defined by blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure-lowering agents. Results. We studied 1,240 individuals, with 39.1 ± 10 years, 51% males and 57% whites. Age and body mass index were associated with blood pressure, and there was an independent association of alcohol abuse with hypertension in whites (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3) and nonwhites (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.0). Among nonwhite individuals who were alcohol abusers, systolic (9.3 ± 3.2; P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressures (6.4 ± 2.1; P = 0.008) were higher than in nonabusers. Conclusion. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for hypertension in white and nonwhite HIV-infected individuals. The association of ethanol consumption with blood pressure is not explained by AIDS-related conditions. PMID:24235878

  17. 16mm Films on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Abuse. Product Information Supplement No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Prod Rep, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-two films on drug abuse, 33 on smoking abuse, and 28 on alcohol abuse are listed showing title, distributor, suggested grade level, technical information, description of content, cost, and availability. (MLF)

  18. The Use of the Contract in the Treatment of Persons Who Abuse Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabino, Robert A.

    Alcohol abuse is a serious problem affecting not only the individual abuser, but also family, friends and society. The effectiveness of contracts as positive tools in the treatment of alcohol abuse was investigated for 15 current abusers randomly assigned to individual therapy sessions. Each subject completed a Personal History Questionnaire, the…

  19. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  20. Understanding a Need...Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This booklet provides an overview of alcohol and other drug abuse prevention, disability, and the relationship between the two issues. It cites the incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse among people with disabilities. It looks at alcohol and other drug abuse risk factors that are disability related, such as medication use, chronic pain,…

  1. Femininity Issues in Women's Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Alcohol studies, like most psychological studies, have traditionally focused on males. Several psychosocial theories have been used to explain male alcoholism, including dependency, the power drive, and sex role theory. This latter stance may provide a theoretical framework for the etiology of drinking which will apply to both sexes; however,…

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse: An Indexed Bibliography of the Behavioral Science Journal Literature, 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorkey, Clayton T.

    This bibliography contains over 1200 behavioral science journal articles dealing with alcoholism and alcohol abuse. The articles were published between 1970 and 1980 in 116 English language journals. This bibliography is intended for administrators, planners, researchers, counselors, educators and students desiring ready access to recent…

  3. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Register on July 16, 2013, 78 FR 42530. The meeting notice is amended to change the date of the meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism;...

  4. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel; Longitudinal Studies on the Impact of Adolescent Drinking on the Adolescent Brain. Date: April...

  5. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  6. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  7. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  8. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  9. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  10. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR Part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  11. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  12. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the

  13. Alcohol and Cannabinoids Differentially Affect HIV Infection and Function of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells (MDDC)

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, Marisela; Figueroa, Gloria; Yndart, Adriana; Casteleiro, Gianna; Muñoz, Karla; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Atluri, Venkata; Nair, Madhavan P.

    2015-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%), THC (5 and 10 μM), or JWH-015 (5 and 10 μM) for 4–7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV + EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV + JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV + THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection. PMID:26733986

  14. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  15. The Complex Interaction between Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Ryan Colby; Pandhare, Jui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Dash, Chandravanu

    2016-01-01

    The global HIV/AIDS pandemic has claimed the lives of an estimated 35 million people. A significant barrier for combating this global pandemic is substance use since it is associated with HIV transmission, delayed diagnosis/initiation of therapy, and poor adherence to therapy. Clinical studies also suggest a link between substance use and HIV-disease progression/AIDS-associated mortality. Methamphetamine (METH) use is one of the fastest-growing substance use problems in the world. METH use enhances high-risk sexual behaviors, therefore increases the likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition. METH use is also associated with higher viral loads, immune dysfunction, and antiretroviral resistance. Moreover, METH use has also been correlated with rapid progression to AIDS. However, direct effects of METH on HIV-1 disease progression remains poorly understood because use of METH and other illicit drugs is often associated with reduced/non adherence to ART. Nevertheless, in vitro studies demonstrate that METH increases HIV-1 replication in cell cultures and animal models. Thus, it has been proposed that METH’s potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication may in part contribute to the worsening of HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, our recent data demonstrate that METH inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and challenges this paradigm. Thus, the goal of this review is to systematically examine the published literature to better understand the complex interaction between METH abuse and HIV-1 disease progression. PMID:25850893

  16. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions.

  17. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence by Men Abusing and Non-abusing Alcohol in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Gustaw, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is to one of the most of risk factors for intimate partner violence. The aim of this study was to check the difference of demographic characteristics and type of violence between of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N). Data were obtained from the survey conducted in the office of the Association for Violence Prevention in the city of Lublin, Poland. 400 perpetrators and their victims (400 subjects) were examined. To collect information from victims a specially designed questionnaire was used (VQ). Besides, another questionnaire (PQ) and The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure alcohol use in the perpetrators. About 76% of the perpetrators scored 8 and above (AUDIT). 84.8% of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus 9.2% of the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N) committed acts of violence after alcohol consumption. The A-perpetrators were more likely to be younger, have lower education and break law, and less likely to have permanent jobs than the N- perpetrators. The significant difference in the type of violence was found: the A-perpetrators were more likely to commit physical violence (78.2%) than the N-perpetrators (33.2%) and the N-perpetrators were more likely to commit sexual violence (32.2%) than A-perpetrators (9.14%). We would like to conclude that despite similarities among perpetrators, they are not a homogenous group so different therapeutic approach should be considered. PMID:17431319

  19. Mucociliary dysfunction in HIV and smoked substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chinnapaiyan, Srinivasan; Unwalla, Hoshang J.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a hallmark of acquired chronic airway diseases like chronic bronchitis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. This manifests as microbial colonization of the lung consequently leading to recurrent respiratory infections. People living with HIV demonstrate increased incidence of these chronic airway diseases. Bacterial pneumonia continues to be an important comorbidity in people living with HIV even though anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in restoring CD4+ cell counts. People living with HIV demonstrate increased microbial colonization of the lower airways. The microbial flora is similar to that observed in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD suggesting that mucociliary dysfunction could be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of chronic airway diseases in people living with HIV. The three principal components of the MCC apparatus are, a mucus layer, ciliary beating, and a periciliary airway surface liquid (ASL) layer that facilitates ciliary beating. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a pivotal role in regulating the periciliary ASL. HIV proteins can suppress all the components of the MCC apparatus by increasing mucus secretion and suppressing CFTR function. This can decrease ASL height leading to suppressed ciliary beating. The effects of HIV on MCC are exacerbated when combined with other aggravating factors like smoking or inhaled substance abuse, which by themselves can suppress one or more components of the MCC system. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to MCC suppression in people living with HIV who also smoke tobacco or abuse illicit drugs. PMID:26528246

  20. Mucociliary dysfunction in HIV and smoked substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Chinnapaiyan, Srinivasan; Unwalla, Hoshang J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a hallmark of acquired chronic airway diseases like chronic bronchitis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. This manifests as microbial colonization of the lung consequently leading to recurrent respiratory infections. People living with HIV demonstrate increased incidence of these chronic airway diseases. Bacterial pneumonia continues to be an important comorbidity in people living with HIV even though anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in restoring CD4+ cell counts. People living with HIV demonstrate increased microbial colonization of the lower airways. The microbial flora is similar to that observed in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD suggesting that mucociliary dysfunction could be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of chronic airway diseases in people living with HIV. The three principal components of the MCC apparatus are, a mucus layer, ciliary beating, and a periciliary airway surface liquid (ASL) layer that facilitates ciliary beating. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a pivotal role in regulating the periciliary ASL. HIV proteins can suppress all the components of the MCC apparatus by increasing mucus secretion and suppressing CFTR function. This can decrease ASL height leading to suppressed ciliary beating. The effects of HIV on MCC are exacerbated when combined with other aggravating factors like smoking or inhaled substance abuse, which by themselves can suppress one or more components of the MCC system. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to MCC suppression in people living with HIV who also smoke tobacco or abuse illicit drugs. PMID:26528246

  1. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  2. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  3. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections. PMID:27000123

  4. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  5. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  6. Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Spanish Immigrant Populations.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Luis; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Pulido, Jose; Molist, Gemma; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Ruíz-García, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-06-17

    In recent years, the immigrant population has substantially increased in Spain. However, there is a lack of information in the knowledge of alcohol abuse among Spanish immigrants. We describe the epidemiology of alcohol abuse among foreign-born immigrants versus Spanish natives. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the European Survey of Health on the General Population of Spain of 2009. A sample of 22,188 subjects was analyzed (of whom, 3,162 were foreign). Proxies of problematic alcohol consumption were the prevalence of excessive average consumption and the prevalence of excessive episodic consumption (binge drinking). Descriptive analysis of the population, determination of area of origin with major alcohol consumption and related factors for each kind of consumption, separating immigrant and native population, were performed. The immigrant profile was heterogeneous, though predominantly aged between 35 and 54, and were living with their family and working. 3.4% of immigrants and 3.2% of natives were considered excessive drinkers; 8.9% and 10%, respectively, reported binge drinking in the last year. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, and Latin America, Andean countries had significantly a higher report of frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking compared to native. On the contrary, born in Africa was a protective factor. Unemployment was the most relevant related factor, being more important in the immigrant population. The excessive alcohol consumption in immigrants is dissimilar; the interventions must be adapted to their social situation, environments and areas of origin.

  7. Science Notes. Simulating Drug or Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a computer program that, by means of a simple motor task, provides a context that enables students to learn about motor coordination. The effects of alcohol, drugs, or solvents on the motor task can be investigated using a delay in the feedback loop. A description of the hardware and software is included. (KR)

  8. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink alcohol. Previous Index Next Español English Español PDF Version Download "I'm amazed I didn't ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  9. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    PubMed

    Curran, T A; Gawley, E; Casey, P; Gill, M; Crumlish, N

    2009-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  10. Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a “solvent dominant type” of use to a “cannabis dominant type,” that is, from a “Japanese type” to a “Western type,” (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

  11. Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

    2013-12-01

    Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a "solvent dominant type" of use to a "cannabis dominant type," that is, from a "Japanese type" to a "Western type," (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

  12. Substance abuse, adherence with antiretroviral therapy, and clinical outcomes among HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. Substance abuse is an important comorbidity that affects the delivery and outcomes of HIV medical management. In this paper I will review data examining the associations between substance abuse and HIV treatment and potential strategies to improve outcomes in this population that warrant further investigation. Current - but not past - substance abuse adversely affects engagement in care, acceptance of antiretroviral therapy, adherence with therapy, and long-term persistence in care. Substance abuse treatment appears to facilitate engagement in HIV care, and access to evidence-based treatment for substance abuse is central to addressing the HIV epidemic. Strategies that show promise for HIV-infected substance abusers include integrated treatment models, directly observed therapy, and incentive-based interventions. PMID:20888839

  13. Optimizing treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients with substance abuse issues.

    PubMed

    Celentano, David D; Lucas, Greg

    2007-12-15

    Drug abuse is associated with poorer virologic and clinical outcomes for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Limited evidence, primarily from in vitro and animal studies, shows that some abused drugs (e.g., opioids) may have direct effects on HIV pathology and the immune response to infection, but the clinical effects are not known. Clinical data indicate that the primary effect of drug abuse on HIV disease progression is mediated via factors that may limit access and/or adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Drug abuse is associated with reduced adherence to HAART, which is strongly correlated with poorer virologic and clinical outcomes. However, the virologic and clinical effects of HAART are generally equivalent among drug abusers and non-drug abusers who adhere to therapy. These results underscore the importance of integrating medical and substance abuse interventions for HIV-positive drug abusers, to improve adherence to HAART and optimize outcomes of treatment for HIV infection.

  14. DNA damage and neurotoxicity of chronic alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kruman, Inna I; Henderson, George I; Bergeson, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse results in a variety of pathological effects including damage to the brain. The causes of alcohol-induced brain pathology are presently unclear. Several mechanisms of pathogenicity of chronic alcoholism have been proposed, including accumulation of DNA damage in the absence of repair, resulting in genomic instability and death of neurons. Genomic instability is a unified genetic mechanism leading to a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Ethanol also likely interacts with various metabolic pathways, including one-carbon metabolism (OCM). OCM is critical for the synthesis of DNA precursors, essential for DNA repair, and as a methyl donor for various methylation events, including DNA methylation. Both DNA repair and DNA methylation are critical for maintaining genomic stability. In this review, we outline the role of DNA damage and DNA repair dysfunction in chronic alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:22829701

  15. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  16. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  17. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  18. Task Force on Alcohol and Drug Abuse: Productive People, Productive Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Research and Analysis.

    The first part of this report on alcohol and drug abuse summarizes major recommendations from testimony and written statements from a hearing on alcohol and drug abuse. Testimony from these witnesses is included: (1) Reed Bell, Director, Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services; (2) Merita…

  19. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  20. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  1. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  2. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  3. Assessing dietary intake of drug abusing Hispanic adults with and without HIV infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug abuse is an important risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Hispanics in the Northeastern United States and both drug abuse and HIV are associated with nutritional deficiencies. The selection of a dietary assessment method most appropriate for Hispanic adults with/without HIV...

  4. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  5. Chronic cerebral effects of alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Grant, I; Mohns, L

    1975-01-01

    A minority of alcohol abusers develop severe cerebral dysfunction in the form of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There is also evidence to suggest that cerebral dysfunction, particularly impaired abstracting ability, occurs in that larger population of heavy drinkers who do not go on to develop the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There is no consistent evidence that long-term marijuana, hallucinogen, or sedative use causes lasting neuropsychological disturbance. The deficits in abstract thinking reported by some LSD studies are similar to deficits others have reported among alcoholics. Since the LSD studies were not controlled for alcohol use, their interpretation is difficult. It appears that cerebrovascular accidents occur more frequently and at a younger age among amphetamine abusers. There is no reliable information about possible other long-term effects of stimulants on the brain per se (i.e., nonvascular complications). Abuse of intravenous narcotics has been associated with case reports of transverse myelitis and encephalitis. It is not known whether this pathology is a direct or hypersensitivity effect of narcotic drugs, of adulterants, or of infection.

  6. Alcohol increases impulsivity and abuse liability in heavy drinking women.

    PubMed

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R; Evans, Suzette M

    2012-12-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  7. Adolescent Drug Abuse and Alcoholism: Directions for the School and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extent of adolescent drug abuse and alcoholism, psychological factors that lead to drug abuse and drinking, and treatment approaches that have been used with young people. Focuses on drug-abusing family systems and the roles of the school and the community in combatting drug abuse. (Author/GC)

  8. National Institute on Drug Abuse symposium report: drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/HIV-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  10. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  11. Harm Reduction as "Continuum Care" in Alcohol Abuse Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-11-19

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  12. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. PMID:25608962

  13. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  14. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny H; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18-25 (N=268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:25743371

  15. Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Spanish Immigrant Populations.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Luis; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Pulido, Jose; Molist, Gemma; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Ruíz-García, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the immigrant population has substantially increased in Spain. However, there is a lack of information in the knowledge of alcohol abuse among Spanish immigrants. We describe the epidemiology of alcohol abuse among foreign-born immigrants versus Spanish natives. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the European Survey of Health on the General Population of Spain of 2009. A sample of 22,188 subjects was analyzed (of whom, 3,162 were foreign). Proxies of problematic alcohol consumption were the prevalence of excessive average consumption and the prevalence of excessive episodic consumption (binge drinking). Descriptive analysis of the population, determination of area of origin with major alcohol consumption and related factors for each kind of consumption, separating immigrant and native population, were performed. The immigrant profile was heterogeneous, though predominantly aged between 35 and 54, and were living with their family and working. 3.4% of immigrants and 3.2% of natives were considered excessive drinkers; 8.9% and 10%, respectively, reported binge drinking in the last year. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, and Latin America, Andean countries had significantly a higher report of frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking compared to native. On the contrary, born in Africa was a protective factor. Unemployment was the most relevant related factor, being more important in the immigrant population. The excessive alcohol consumption in immigrants is dissimilar; the interventions must be adapted to their social situation, environments and areas of origin. PMID:26132302

  16. The Urgency Of Providing Comprehensive And Integrated Treatment For Substance Abusers With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Montaner, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is linked to many new cases of HIV infection. Barriers such as the myth that drug users cannot adhere to HIV/AIDS treatment block progress in curbing the spread of HIV in that population. In this article we explain the need to aggressively seek out high-risk, hard-to-reach substance abusers and to offer them HIV testing, access to treatment, and the necessary support to remain in treatment—both for HIV and for substance abuse. We summarize evidence showing that injection drug users can successfully undergo HIV treatment; that many substance abusers adhere to antiretroviral therapy as well as do people who don’t inject drugs; and that injection drug users who undergo substance abuse treatment are more likely to obtain and stay in treatment for their HIV infection. This evidence makes a strong case for integrating substance abuse treatment with HIV treatment programs and providing substance abusers with universal access to HIV treatment. But an integrated strategy will require changes in the health care system to overcome lingering obstacles that inhibit the merging of substance abuse treatment with HIV programs. PMID:21821558

  17. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

  18. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  19. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  20. HIV-seroconversion following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2005-10-01

    Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970

  1. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: A Consumer Guide for African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS A Consumer Guide Drugs & Alcohol What do drugs and alcohol have to do with HIV? Drug and alcohol use can ... behavior that can increase your exposure to HIV/AIDS. For example, using or sharing needles or other ...

  2. Osteoarticular infection in intravenous drug abusers: influence of HIV infection and differences with non drug abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Fernández, S; Maciá, M A; Pantoja, L; Cardenal, A; Peña, J M; Martín Mola, E; Balsa, A; Barbado, F J; Vázquez, J J; Gijón Baños, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine (a) the influence of HIV in developing osteoarticular infections in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs) and (b) the differences between the clinical features of osteoarticular infections in IVDAs and a control group of non-IVDAs. METHODS--A comparative study of the clinical features of osteoarticular infections in all HIV positive and HIV negative IVDAs admitted to the departments of rheumatology and internal medicine during a 10 year period was carried out. The joint infections of all IVDAs, irrespective of HIV status, were compared with those of a control group of non-IVDAs lacking risk factors for HIV infection. RESULTS--A total of 482 HIV positive and 85 HIV negative IVDAs was studied, in whom 25 (5%) and six (7%) osteoarticular infections were found respectively. There were no differences in age, sex, joints affected, and causative agents between these two groups. A comparison of the 31 (5.5%) osteoarticular infections in all IVDAs with 21 infections in 616 (3.4%) non-IVDAs showed significant differences in the mean age (27.5 v 54), the frequency of affection of the axial joints (hip, sacroiliac, and sternocostal joints) (64.5% v 16.6%), and in the incidence of Candida albicans (19% v 0%). CONCLUSIONS--(1) HIV may not predispose to osteoarticular infections in IVDAs. (2) The hip, sacroiliac, and sternocostal joints (axial joints) were most commonly affected in IVDAs. (3) In Spain, unlike other countries, Gram positive bacteria and C albicans seem to be predominant agents in osteoarticular infections in IVDAs, with a low incidence of Gram negative bacteria. PMID:8215617

  3. Commentary: Ethical Considerations in Testing Victims of Sexual Abuse for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fost, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Ethical issues in screening of victims of sexual abuse for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are raised in response to Gellert (EC 222 881). It is concluded that widescale HIV testing of child victims of sexual abuse is not justified by the available information. (DB)

  4. The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: Implications for Controlling AIDS/HIV Infection. Background Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper examines evidence for the effectiveness of treatment for drug abuse and evaluates the role of drug abuse treatment as a strategy to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) spread. Because most intravenous (IV) drug users are not in treatment, the study also examines other approaches to HIV prevention. The remainder of the…

  5. Taxonomy of Caribbean Tourism Alcohol Venues: Implications for HIV Transmission*

    PubMed Central

    GUILAMO-RAMOS, Vincent; JACCARD, James; MCCARTHY, Katharine; QUIÑONES, Zahira; LUSHIN, Viktor; SKINNER-DAY, Molly; PADILLA, Mark; MEISTERLIN, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. Methods We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. Results We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g., sex work on site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. Conclusion Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas. PMID:23478154

  6. Considerations in the Development of a Research to Practice Curriculum for Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalisove, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    Most current substance abuse counselor certification education curricula do not include a systematic introduction to alcohol and substance abuse research. I believe that such an introduction would enhance counselor cooperation in research to practice efforts that are currently underway. In this paper I give a brief history of alcoholism and…

  7. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  8. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  9. Adolescent Clients of Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andris, Lydia M.; And Others

    Many adolescent clients of the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse (DASA) in Washington come also with psychiatric problems, are involved with the legal system, live with someone who abuses drugs or alcohol, have poor social support networks, or live in poverty. This report describes a sample of adolescent clients who received treatment and/or…

  10. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  11. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Depression, alcohol abuse, and generational differences in Mazahua women in a rural Mexican village.

    PubMed

    Nance, Douglas C

    2004-01-01

    This first study of depression and alcohol abuse in indigenous women in Mexico focuses on Mazahua women in a rural village. Women between the ages of 15 and 55 were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory, an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse survey, and a socioeconomic survey. Unexpected results showed that although alcohol abuse was absent, these women experience depression a generation earlier than the international and national averages for women, with an overall incidence about twice as great. Depression was associated with spouse's emigration, infidelity, or alcoholism. Sharp intergenerational differences were found in identity and socioeconomic status. PMID:15371136

  14. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  15. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24489525

  16. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community.

    PubMed

    Walt, Lisa C; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A

    2013-06-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  17. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use.

  18. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. PMID:22832324

  19. Some Navajo Indian opinions about alcohol abuse and prohibition: a survey and recommendations for policy.

    PubMed

    May, P A; Smith, M B

    1988-07-01

    In this study a questionnaire was administered to a sample of Navajo Indians in the southwestern region of the reservation to examine (1) their knowledge about the consequences of alcohol abuse and (2) their opinions about alcohol abuse, the etiology of abuse and alcohol legalization. Survey responses indicate that the Navajo surveyed are quite knowledgeable about the various adverse consequences of alcohol abuse. The survey found that 52% of these Navajo adults currently drink at all, and the opinion responses generally characterize alcohol consumption, even in small amounts, as a negative behavior. Sixty-three percent of all Navajos agreed with the popular, but scientifically unsubstantiated, belief that Indians have a physical weakness to alcohol that non-Indians do not have. Alcohol legalization on the reservation is opposed by 81% of the Navajos surveyed. Opinions about alcohol use and policy do not vary greatly even when knowledge of alcohol consequences and current drinking status is considered. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance of positive, solution-oriented public education and debate for entertaining new ideas about alcohol policy and for reducing the sequelae of alcohol abuse among the Navajo. PMID:3172780

  20. Psychopathological Dimensions in Substance Abusers with and without HIV/AIDS and Healthy Matched Group

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Taramian, Sonbol; Kafie, Seyed Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Background Inattention to symptoms of mental disorders and substance abuse in patients with HIV/AIDS and other at-risk groups, may lead to irreversible damages. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychopathological dimensions in substance abusers with and without HIV/AIDS and healthy matched groups. Methods In a cross-sectional and analytical study, selected samples (by available, consecutive, and objective methods) were 43 HIV-positive substance abusers, 49 HIV negative substance abusers under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in the counseling clinic of Behavioral Diseases and Addiction Abandonment, and 45 ordinary individuals. All of them were evaluated by matched confounding variables via Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Findings Results indicated a significant difference between these groups in the Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI), and Positive Symptom Total (PST) (P < 0.001). Two by two the comparison of the three groups from psychopathological dimensions revealed that substance abusers with HIV/AIDS persistently suffer more mental problems in all dimensions compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, in comparison with HIV negative substance abusers, they also suffer more mental problems in other dimensions, including somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobia, and psychoticism (P < 0.05). Yet, the difference in paranoid ideation, hostility, and obsessive-compulsive cases was insignificant. Two by two, the comparison between healthy individuals and substance abusers without HIV/AIDS showed higher levels of depression and psychoticism in substance abusers (P < 0.05), but no difference in other dimensions. Conclusion Comorbidity of substance abuse and HIV diagnosis intensify mental disorder symptoms. Moreover, lack of prevention and implementation of appropriate psychological and psychiatric interventions after substance abuse and HIV lead to extended establishment

  1. Drug abuse and weight loss in HIV-infected Hispanic men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss is an independent risk factor for mortality in HIV, but the role of drug use in HIV-related weight loss is not well described. We conducted this study to determine the role of drug abuse in HIV-related weight loss. Men (n=304), all of whom were Hispanic, were recruited into one of three ...

  2. Substance abuse treatment for HIV infected young people: an open pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Brown, Larry K; Wolff, Jennifer; Xu, Jiahong; Thornton, Sarah; Tidey, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an integrated cognitive behavioral and contingency management (CBT/CM) intervention for young people living with HIV (YPLH) with an alcohol and/or cannabis use disorder in an open pilot trial. Seventeen participants (ages 18-24) were recruited from three HIV community clinics. Assessments were completed at pre-and post-treatment as well as 3 month follow-up. Eighty percent of participants were retained in the study. Results suggest that the CBT/CM intervention was acceptable, feasible, and could be delivered with fidelity. Further, participants reported significant reductions in alcohol use, withdrawal symptoms, dependence symptoms and related problems, as well as co-occurring depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior across assessment periods. A trend was evident for reductions in marijuana use and related problems. Overall, these preliminary results suggest that a substance abuse CBT/CM intervention tailored to YPLH is acceptable, feasible, and holds promise for symptomatic improvement. Further testing of this type of protocol is warranted. PMID:23988190

  3. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436

  4. Estimates of US children exposed to alcohol abuse and dependence in the family.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, B F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to provide direct estimates of the number of US children younger than 18 years who are exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. RESULTS: Approximately 1 in 4 children younger than 18 years in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for approaches that integrate systems of services to enhance the lives of these children. PMID:10630147

  5. Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks.

    PubMed

    El-Bassel, N; Witte, S S; Wada, T; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse by intimate and commercial sexual partners among street-based sex workers and explores correlates of partner abuse by commercial partners using the following factors: sociodemographics, substance abuse, sexual behavior, and physical and sexual childhood abuse. One hundred thirteen street sex workers were recruited from December 1996 through May 1997 while receiving services from the Foundations for Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (FROST'D), a nonprofit organization based in New York City. Partner abuse is a common occurrence among street sex workers. Two of three street prostitutes have experienced lifetime physical or sexual abuse by either an intimate or commercial partner. In addition, one of eight reported physical and sexual abuse by both intimate and commercial partners during her lifetime. Women who were homeless in the last year, those who reported exchanging for drugs and money as their main source of income, used injection drugs in the past year and had sex in crack houses, and who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive were more likely to be report combined physical and sexual abuse. Understanding the relationship between partner violence, victim's substance abuse, and HIV-risk behavior is important for the development of public policies and treatment and prevention strategies to address the constellation of problems that drug-using female street sex workers face.

  6. Criminal homicide in northern Sweden 1970-1981: alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, P

    1986-01-01

    All cases of criminal homicide in northern Sweden between 1970-81 were studied, 71 cases altogether (64 offenders). Homicide was a rare event and more infrequent compared with Sweden as a whole. The offenders were predominantly males, ages 20 to 40. Half of the victims were females. Mutual intoxication was a feature in 44% of the cases and in 34% both participants were sober. The majority of the victims were related by blood or marriage to the offender. Sharp instruments, blunt instruments and use of firearms were, in this order, the most common methods of killing. Almost one-third of the offenders had no former conviction, minor trespasses excluded. Sixty-three percent of the offenders had previously been subjected to psychiatric care, 31% were considered mentally diseased at the trial and another 22% had also a coexisting abuse or personality disorder. Three-quarters of the offenders were transferred to closed psychiatric care. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism were prevalent among 30% of the offenders and another 27% were also mentally diseased or had a personality disorder. The shares of mentally diseased and abusers/alcoholics outnumbered the prevalence of these conditions in the general population as well as in many international studies. Ten subjects committed suicide before trial; these persons were relatively more often sober at the act and fewer were alcoholics. Eight had previously received psychiatric treatment. They were more prone to kill a member of their nuclear family. Only two subjects had a previous criminal record; both concerned convictions of manslaughter. Nineteen offenders were sober at the act; 15 of these were mentally diseased. The sober offenders hardly ever attacked a person outside their family. Their motives were frequently premeditated. The killings were usually by quick, certain methods, such as firearms. No sober offender attacked an intoxicated person. The sober offenders usually had no criminal records and the homicides were often

  7. [Personality variables, psychopathological alterations and personality disorders in alcohol-dependent patients according to Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders is carried out. The sample consisted of 158 alcoholics in treatment (56 Type I alcohol-dependent patients and 102 Type II alcohol-dependent patients). All subjects were assessed with diverse assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). The main findings were that Type II alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking and they displayed more hostility and emotional distress than Type I alcohol-dependent patients. Personality disorders were not so prevalent in the case of Type I alcohol-dependent patients. The most specific personality disorders for Type II alcohol-dependent patients were narcissistic and paranoid. The implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  8. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  9. Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking environments have demonstrated mixed results. Specifically, venue-based social influence models have reduced community-level risk in U.S. gay bars, but these effects have not generalized to gay bars elsewhere or to other populations. Few interventions have sought to alter the structural and physical environments of drinking places for HIV prevention. Uncontrolled program evaluations have reported promising approaches to bar-based structural interventions with gay men and female sex workers. Finally, a small number of studies have examined multilevel approaches that simultaneously intervene at both social and structural levels with encouraging results. Multilevel interventions that take environmental factors into account are needed to guide future HIV prevention efforts delivered within alcohol-serving establishments. PMID:23584060

  10. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  11. Family Support Programs and the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition, Chicago, IL.

    This overview examines underlying precepts and components of family support programs. The role of the family in a child's resistance to alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse is discussed. Comprehensive prevention programs encompassing the family, school, and community have shown more promise in helping children avoid AOD abuse than programs that rely…

  12. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  13. Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The guide presents facts and issues concerning drug and alcohol abuse so that college and university administration and governing boards can make informed decisions about programs, policy, and procedures to minimize their occurrence on campus. Chapter 1 examines issues related to substance abuse on campus: risk factors in the campus community; the…

  14. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue.

  15. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue. PMID:25920984

  16. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history of CSA and the development of risky behavior. In addition, trajectories for physical and emotional abuse, but not neglect or witnessed violence, contributed to risky behavior over and above the role of CSA. Child gender did not moderate the findings. Findings highlight the signficance of CSA histories, as well as the broader context of maltreatment, for better understanding the development of risk behaviors in both girls and boys. PMID:20706919

  17. Substance Abuse and the HIV Situation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Darshan; Chawarski, Marek C; Schottenfeld, Richard; Vicknasingam, Balasingam

    2013-12-01

    males to females. There are 37,306 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are eligible for treatment, and 14,002 PLHIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2011. The decreasing trend of heroin users who have been detected and arrested could be due to the introduction of medical treatments and harm reduction approaches for drug users, resulting in fewer drug users being arrested. However, we are unable to say with certainty why there has been an increase in heroin seizures in the country. There has been an increasing trend in both ATS users and seizures. A new trend of co-occurring opiate dependence and ATS underscores the need to develop and implement effective treatments for ATS, co-occurring opiate and ATS, and polysubstance abuse disorders. The low numbers of NSEP clients being tested for HIV underscores our caution in interpreting the decline of HIV infections among drug users and the importance of focusing on providing education, prevention, treatment, and outreach to those who are not in treatment. PMID:25278737

  18. Substance Abuse and the HIV Situation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Darshan; Chawarski, Marek C; Schottenfeld, Richard; Vicknasingam, Balasingam

    2013-12-01

    males to females. There are 37,306 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are eligible for treatment, and 14,002 PLHIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2011. The decreasing trend of heroin users who have been detected and arrested could be due to the introduction of medical treatments and harm reduction approaches for drug users, resulting in fewer drug users being arrested. However, we are unable to say with certainty why there has been an increase in heroin seizures in the country. There has been an increasing trend in both ATS users and seizures. A new trend of co-occurring opiate dependence and ATS underscores the need to develop and implement effective treatments for ATS, co-occurring opiate and ATS, and polysubstance abuse disorders. The low numbers of NSEP clients being tested for HIV underscores our caution in interpreting the decline of HIV infections among drug users and the importance of focusing on providing education, prevention, treatment, and outreach to those who are not in treatment.

  19. Behavioral, metabolic, and immune consequences of chronic alcohol or cannabinoids on HIV/AIDs: Studies in the Non-Human Primate SIV model

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Patricia E.; Amedee, Angela M.; Winsauer, Peter; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory; Simon, Liz

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated mortality has been significantly reduced with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and HIV infection has become a chronic disease that frequently coexists with many disorders, including substance abuse (Azar et al. 2010; Phillips et al. 2001). Alcohol and drugs of abuse may modify host-pathogen interactions at various levels including behavioral, metabolic, and immune consequences of HIV infection, as well as the ability of the virus to integrate into the genome and replicate in host cells. Identifying mechanisms responsible for these interactions is complicated by many factors, such as the tissue specific responses to viral infection, multiple cellular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses, neuroendocrine and localized responses to infection, and kinetics of viral replication. An integrated physiological analysis of the biomedical consequences of chronic alcohol and drug use or abuse on disease progression is possible using rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a relevant model of HIV infection. This review will provide an overview of the data gathered using this model to show that chronic administration of two of the most commonly abused substances, alcohol and cannabinoids (Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), affect host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25795088

  20. [Association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among students from Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Dallos Bareño, Carlos Manuel; González Rueda, Silvia Juliana; Sánchez Herrera, Zayda Marcela; Díaz-Martínez, Luis Alfonso; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have reported an important association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse. However, the topic had not been investigated in Colombian students. This study focused on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among high school students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was answered by 560 15-19-year-olds. The survey included the Zung Self-Reported Depression Scale, CAGE Questionnaire for Alcohol Use, and VESPA questionnaire (Epidemiological Surveillance of Psychoactive Drugs). Logistic regression was used to establish associations. Prevalence was 5.7% for alcohol dependence and 39.5% for depressive symptoms. Associations were found between alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.41-7.83), poor self-perceived academic achievement (PR = 2.59; 95%CI: 1.16-5.37), and smoking (PR = 2.47; 95%CI: 1.13-5.40). The authors conclude that there is a strong association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse in Colombian high school students. Preventive programs are needed to identify early depressive disorders and alcohol abuse. PMID:16158145

  1. 76 FR 47597 - Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Memorandum of Agreement Between U.S. Department of Health and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Indian Alcohol and Substance.... Department of the Interior (DOI), and U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental... Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA),...

  2. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  3. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement. PMID:18173103

  4. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  5. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  6. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  7. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24997776

  8. HIV/AIDS Outreach and Substance Abuse Treatment for Hard-To-Reach Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six articles of this special section focus on HIV/AIDS outreach efforts with: (1) African-American drug users; (2) homeless substance abusers; (3) women at high risk; (4) Latinos at high risk; and (5) African Americans at high risk. All the programs were part of a federally funded outreach effort aimed at HIV/AIDS prevention. (SLD)

  9. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  10. Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with HIV/AIDS. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CDM Group, Inc.

    The role of substance abuse in the transmission of HIV and AIDS is clear, and the current trend in the pandemic shows that a disproportionate number of minorities in inner cities are affected or are at risk for contracting HIV. The recommendations and guidelines in this TIP support the creation of a comprehensive, integrated system of care for…

  11. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex offenders for…

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology and alcohol use among HIV-seropositive adults in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Attonito, Jennifer M; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Gaston, Stéphanie; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    Psychological trauma resulting from natural disasters can negatively affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This study examined relationships of alcohol use and exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention study. Baseline data were collected from male and female PLWH, 19-56 years old on: alcohol consumption and related harms; anxiety; and coping strategies used to deal with HIV. Two to three months postearthquake, data were collected from 104 of the study participants on PTSD and earthquake-related impacts. Most participants had less than a secondary education (66%) and very low income (92% ≤ H$10,000 or ≤ US$1250/year). Over two-thirds of participants felt at some point that they should cut down on drinking. Fifty-two (50.5%) met criteria for PTSD. More than 83% lost their belongings and 64% had someone close to them hurt or killed during the earthquake. Bivariate analysis showed that women, younger participants, those who lost all belongings, and those with greater overall alcohol impact were more likely to report PTSD symptoms. In the multivariate model, participants more likely to meet PTSD criteria (p<0.05) were those who reported feeling a need to cut down on drinking (OR = 3.14, [CI = 1.16, 8.49]) and participants who used behavioral disengagement as a coping mechanism (OR = 1.49, [CI = 1.15, 1.92]). Following a natural disaster, it is important to address trauma-related mental health needs of PLWH - particularly women and individuals who abuse alcohol.

  13. Blue Bay: A Tribal Approach to Fighting Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Our Way of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    The best means for fighting alcohol abuse in a Native American community is one that has been developed by the community itself. The Blue Bay Healing Center of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana) is an example of two tribes taking responsibility for alcoholism and its control. In designing and…

  14. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  15. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  16. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael W., Jr.; Braucht, G. Nicholas

    Homeless people with alcohol and other drug problems present the traditional substance abuse services delivery provider with special challenges. This paper discusses the optimal designs of comprehensive treatment services for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. Most importantly, the homeless must have immediate access to a safe…

  17. Ethical issues in a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral therapy feasibility study and trial to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J; Meslin, Eric M; Sidle, John E

    2012-07-01

    Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multinational collaboration, the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership. We discuss relevant ethical considerations and how we addressed them. PMID:22850141

  18. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Dick B. S.; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer. PMID:27721531

  19. Family history of mental illness or alcohol abuse and the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, James R.; Locke, G. Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have observed that many patients with IBS drink very little alcohol, and postulated this may reflect membership in families affected by alcoholism and mental illness. We aimed to evaluate whether a family history of substance or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric illness, is associated with IBS. Methods A valid GI questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected population-based cohort to identify IBS and healthy controls. The electronic medical record was reviewed to record the subjects’ self-reported personal and family health histories. Results 2300 subjects responded (response rate 55%; IBS 13% n=287). 230 subjects with IBS and 318 controls were eligible. Family history of alcohol/substance abuse was reported by 33% of cases and 25% of controls (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.1, p=0.06). Family history of psychiatric illness was reported by 37% of cases and 22% of controls (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–2.9, p<0.001). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, a family history of alcohol/substance abuse was predictive of IBS status (OR adjusted for age and gender 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.3, p=0.05). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, reporting both a family history of alcohol/substance abuse and anxiety/depression/mental illness was clearly predictive of IBS status (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.5; p<0.005). Substance abuse as a child was associated with an increased risk of IBS (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8; p<0.03). Conclusion IBS is independently associated with a family history of psychiatric illness and may be linked to a family history of alcohol/substance abuse. PMID:25582802

  20. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students. PMID:26990389

  1. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  2. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  3. HIV/AIDS, Drug Abuse Treatment, and the Correctional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses in-prison prevalence and transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Focuses on epidemiology in prison settings, the role of ethnicity and gender in transmission, screening for HIV, segregating the HIV-positive inmate, condom distribution, medical treatment for HIV-positive inmates, HIV education and prevention, and tuberculosis…

  4. Adding fuel to the fire: alcohol's effect on the HIV epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Judith A; Woolf-King, Sarah E; Muyindike, Winnie

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol consumption adds fuel to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA has the highest prevalence of HIV infection and heavy episodic drinking in the world. Alcohol consumption is associated with behaviors such as unprotected sex and poor medication adherence, and biological factors such as increased susceptibility to infection, comorbid conditions, and infectiousness, which may synergistically increase HIV acquisition and onward transmission. Few interventions to decrease alcohol consumption and alcohol-related sexual risk behaviors have been developed or implemented in SSA, and few HIV or health policies or services in SSA address alcohol consumption. Structural interventions, such as regulating the availability, price, and advertising of alcohol, are challenging to implement due to the preponderance of homemade alcohol and beverage industry resistance. This article reviews the current knowledge on how alcohol impacts the HIV epidemic in SSA, summarizes current interventions and policies, and identifies areas for increased research and development. PMID:21713433

  5. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  6. Racial/ethnic disparities in the HIV and substance abuse epidemics: communities responding to the need.

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, H.; Raj, A.; Vega, R. R.; Mangione, T. W.; Perez, L. N.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, community leaders prompted members of the Black and Hispanic Congressional Caucuses to urge President Clinton to declare HIV/AIDS a crisis in the African American and Latino communities; their advocacy resulted in the formation of the Minority AIDS Initiative. As part of this initiative, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency funded the Substance Abuse and HIV Prevention Youth and Women of Color Initiative (CSAP Initiative). The CSAP Initiative is the first major federal effort to develop community-based integrated HIV and substance abuse prevention approaches targeting racial/ethnic populations that have been disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. This article describes the current state of HIV prevention research involving racial/ethnic minority populations and the current status of the CSAP Initiative. The data collected through the CSAP Initiative, implemented by 47 community organizations, will help to fill the existing knowledge gap about how to best prevent HIV in these communities. This data collection effort is an unparalleled opportunity to learn about risk and protective factors, including contextual factors, that are critical to the prevention of HIV/AIDS in African American, Latino, and other racial/ethnic minority communities but that are often not investigated. PMID:12042608

  7. Risk behaviour associated with HIV infection among drug abusers seen at the general Hospital, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Suarn, S; Nor Adam, M

    1993-06-01

    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed.

  8. Risk behaviour associated with HIV infection among drug abusers seen at the general Hospital, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Suarn, S; Nor Adam, M

    1993-06-01

    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed. PMID:8350785

  9. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  10. Drug Abuse and Hepatitis C Infection as Comorbid Features of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Features

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse and co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV) are two highly relevant determinants of neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities associated with HIV. Substance abuse and HCV are common in the HIV population and there is increasing evidence that the CNS is directly compromised by these comorbid conditions via additive or synergistic processes. In this article we review the current literature regarding mechanisms of neuronal injury as well as the neuropsychological and neuroimaging signatures associated with substance abuse and HCV status among HIV patients. We discuss specific methodological challenges and threats to validity associated with studies of HIV and comorbid substance use disorders or HCV and review potential strategies for minimizing their confounding effects. Efforts to understand the interactions between HIV, substance abuse and HCV co-infection will lead to more complete models of neuropathogenesis of HIV and a greater understanding of the variability in neuropsychological expression of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. PMID:19468837

  11. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maubert, Monique E.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T.; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:26793168

  12. Thalamic volume deficit contributes to procedural and explicit memory impairment in HIV infection with primary alcoholism comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2014-12-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes.

  13. Thalamic Volume Deficit Contributes to Procedural and Explicit Memory Impairment in HIV Infection with Primary Alcoholism Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2014-01-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes. PMID:24421067

  14. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  15. Alcohol abuse-duration dependent decrease in plasma testosterone and antioxidants in males.

    PubMed

    Maneesh, M; Dutta, Sanjiba; Chakrabarti, Amit; Vasudevan, D M

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is a testicular toxin and it causes fertility abnormalities with low sperm count and impaired sperm motility in men. The present study was designed to investigate plasma testosterone level and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis function in alcoholic men and also effect of ethanol on systemic oxidative stress. Forty six male alcohol abusers in the age group 20-40 years were selected. Fifty five, males in the same age group served as control. Alcohol abusers had significantly low plasma testosterone with low luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition they had significantly high thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, and low glutathione, ascorbic acid, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, serum testosterone level in alcoholics negatively correlated with duration of alcohol abuse, and TBARS. Duration dependent decreased serum testosterone level in alcohol abusers might be due to 1) increased oxidative stress which can damage Leydig and supporting Sertoli cells and 2) impaired HPG axis.

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behavior among HIV-Positive Adults with a Sexual Abuse History in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Meade, Christina S.; Kochman, Arlene; Fox, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Although many psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among HIV-positive persons have been identified, studies predicting continued risk among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA are limited. This cross-sectional study identified variables predictive of sexual transmission risk behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 256 HIV-positive adults (women and men who have sex with men; MSM) with CSA histories. Participants were assessed for trauma symptoms, shame related to HIV and sexual trauma, substance use, coping style, and sexual risk behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of unprotected sexual behavior in the past 4 months. Unprotected sex was significantly associated with substance use and trauma-related behavioral difficulties among women and men, and less spiritual coping among men. Unprotected sex with HIV negative or serostatus unknown partners was significantly associated with greater trauma-related behavioral difficulties, more HIV-related shame, and fewer active coping strategies. Thus, trauma symptoms, shame, coping style, and substance use were significantly associated with sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA, with models of prediction differing by gender and partner serostatus. HIV prevention intervention for persons with HIV and CSA histories should address trauma-related behavioral difficulties and enhance coping skills to reduce sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:17999171

  17. Polysubstance abuse: alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines require coordinated engagement by society, patients, and physicians.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.

  18. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. PMID:27034406

  19. Effects of Trauma Intervention on HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Women with Co-Occurring Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…

  20. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  1. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  2. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders.

  3. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, P P; Kawamura, T; Chen, J; Koob, G F; Roberts, A J; Vendruscolo, L F; Repunte-Canonigo, V

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new and more effective treatments for alcohol abuse remains a priority. Alcohol intake activates glucocorticoids, which have a key role in alcohol's reinforcing properties. Glucocorticoid effects are modulated in part by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) acting as pre-receptors. Here, we tested the effects on alcohol intake of the 11β-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate), which has been extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer and is active on both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoforms. We observed that CBX reduces both baseline and excessive drinking in rats and mice. The CBX diastereomer 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate (αCBX), which we found to be selective for 11β-HSD2, was also effective in reducing alcohol drinking in mice. Thus, 11β-HSD inhibitors may be a promising new class of candidate alcohol abuse medications, and existing 11β-HSD inhibitor drugs may be potentially re-purposed for alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:26978742

  4. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  5. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…

  6. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for sobriety (alcohol/drug abuse-free life style). (x) Opportunities for learning, testing, and... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials incorporated by reference are available for...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42...

  7. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse. PMID:18207099

  8. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract....

  9. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  10. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  11. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guide for Psychiatry Faculty. Medicine 2. Health Professions Education Curriculum Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Donald S.

    This guide, one of a series of publications written for medical school faculty to use in designing substance abuse instruction, focuses on curriculum content for drug and alcohol abuse instruction. Following a brief introduction, discussions of positive attitude development toward substance abuse patients, and the psychological, cultural, and…

  12. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  13. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  14. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  15. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  16. [Effectiveness of the brief intervention for the use of abusive alcohol in primary care: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Odete; Anginoni, Bárbara Marques; Ferreira, Natany da Costa; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; de Vargas, Divane; Colvero, Luciana de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The research identified clinical studies on the brief interventions for the abusive use of alcohol and analyzed the effectiveness of professional advises proposed to alcohol consumers. The systematic bibliographical study was based on articles published during the period of 1997 to 2010. Brief intervention strategy is effective in the reduction on the frequency and amount of alcohol use, with better results when the strategy is applied to the primary attention situations. All professionals obtained good results using this therapy. It was not possible to determine if the strategy is most effective when applied to harmful drinkers or to chronic drinkers, since the intervention also depends on the patient's availability of motivational resources and on changes in attitude regarding the abusive use of alcohol. PMID:23887793

  17. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  18. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.

    PubMed Central

    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century was the nation's largest old-age home, it appears that alcohol's social ramifications were more important than its pathological or physiological manifestations in late 19th-century America. Drinking habits among aging Civil War veterans varied considerably: moderate consumption was acceptable; too much of a good thing caused problems. PMID:8472039

  19. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers. PMID:12940500

  20. Contribution of substance abuse and HIV infection to psychiatric distress in an inner-city African-American population.

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, C. U.; Better, W.; Tate, K.; Herning, R. I.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2002-01-01

    We used Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL90-R) to investigate psychiatric symptom severity in African-American drug-abusing individuals. Three hundred and seventeen African-American volunteers (52 control subjects; 265 drug users) were recruited, 19.2% of whom were HIV-positive. The impact of drug of choice or HIV status on mental distress was assessed. Symptomatic HIV-positive participants were excluded. The intake SCL90-R, Addiction Severity Index, and demographic data were subjected to regression analyses. Drug-abusing African Americans reported increased global distress, a finding that remained robust after we adjusted for HIV status, gender, age, and education. Drug of choice had no influence on the severity of global mental distress in our sample. Asymptomatic HIV-positive African Americans who abused drugs reported more distress than the HIV-negative drug users. Levels of global distress were similar in the HIV-negative and the HIV-positive controls. Subscales of the SCL90-R showed more symptom severity among drug-using, compared with nonusing, African Americans. Except for paranoia, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive subscales, other symptom dimensions were significantly elevated in HIV-positive, compared with HIV-negative, drug abusers. When taken together, these findings suggest that drug abuse can exacerbate the severity of mental distress in HIV-positive patients. Treatment of these patients may be more successful if both sets of needs are addressed with matched interventions. PMID:12069213

  1. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  2. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  3. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  4. Interaction of drugs of abuse and microRNA with HIV: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Nair, Madhavan P. N.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, play key roles in modulating many cellular processes. The changes in the expression profiles of several specific miRNAs affect the interactions between miRNA and their targets in various illnesses, including addiction, HIV, cancer etc. The presence of anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (which regulate the level of infectivity of HIV-1) have been validated in the cells which are the primary targets of HIV infection. Drugs of abuse impair the intracellular innate anti-HIV mechanism(s) in monocytes, contributing to cell susceptibility to HIV infection. Emerging evidence has implicated miRNAs are differentially expressed in response to chronic morphine treatment. Activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR) by morphine is shown to down regulate the expression of anti-HIV miRNAs. In this review, we summarize the results which demonstrate that several drugs of abuse related miRNAs have roles in the mechanisms that define addiction, and how they interact with HIV. PMID:26483757

  5. Alcohol Use and Abuse in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello-Linden, Mary Frances

    Student responses were elicited in classroom discussions about alcohol use in their own rural community. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires and interviews concerning various aspects of alcohol consumption as part of the local lifestyle. Students gave reasons for drinking such as ethnic and religious acceptance in the local community,…

  6. Women's Softball Players' Attitudes toward Alcohol Use & Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Shirley A.; Schell, Robert E.

    In some communities, alcohol becomes a part of socialization early in life. In one such community, softball for women has become a popular pastime. Twenty-seven of 48 teams in the community were sponsored by local taverns, bars, or restaurants where alcohol was served. Teams sponsored by taverns were encouraged to meet at the taverns before or…

  7. Attitudes toward Alcohol Use and Abuse in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden, Mary Frances

    This study examined patterns of alcohol consumption by students in a rural Texas high school. Questionnaires and interviews were conducted with students, teachers, and parents. Discussions were conducted and taped during a planned "Alcohol Awareness Week." Teacher and parent responses were sought to questions directed at their feelings about the…

  8. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  9. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  10. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse/dependence with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Le Fauve, Charlene E; Litten, Raye Z; Randall, Carrie L; Moak, Darlene H; Salloum, Ihsan M; Green, Alan I

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting RSA in Fort Lauderdale, FL. It was organized and cochaired by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Carrie L. Randall. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Raye Z. Litten; (2) Treatment of co-occurring alcohol use and anxiety disorders, by Carrie L. Randall and Sarah W. Book; (3) Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependent patients with comorbid depression, by Darlene H. Moak; (4) Efficacy of valproate in bipolar alcoholics: a double blind, placebo-controlled study, by Ihsan M. Salloum, Jack R. Cornelius, Dennis C. Daley, Levent Kirisci, Johnathan Himmelhoch, and Michael E. Thase; (5) Alcoholism and schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotics, by Alan I. Green, Robert E. Drake, Suzannah V. Zimmet, Rael D. Strous, Melinda Salomon, and Mark Brenner; and (6) Conclusions, by Charlene E. Le Fauve; discussant, Raye Z. Litten. Alcohol-dependent individuals have exceptionally high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Although this population is more likely to seek alcoholism treatment than noncomorbid alcoholics, the prognosis for treatment is often poor, particularly among patients with more severe psychiatric illnesses. Development of effective interventions to treat this population is in the early stages of research. Although the interaction between the psychiatric condition and alcoholism is complex, progress has been made. The NIAAA has supported a number of state-of-the-art pharmacological and behavioral trials in a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Some of these trials have been completed and are presented here. The symposium presented some new research findings from clinical studies with the aim of facilitating the development of treatments that improve alcohol and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with alcohol-use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. The panel focused on social anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and

  11. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  12. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  13. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  15. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  16. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  17. Catalog of Selected Federal Publications on Illegal Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A concise collection of federal publications in the area of illegal drug and alcohol abuse, this catalog begins with a listing of seven federal clearinghouse, with information on services, user audience, and a contact provided for each. The main part of the document provides briefly annotated information on federal publications organized into the…

  18. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  19. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  1. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  2. Training Needs of Rehabilitation Counselors concerning Alcohol and Other Drugs Abuse Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Lee Za; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih Chin

    2007-01-01

    Forty-two rehabilitation counselors participated in a study regarding perceived training needs concerning alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) treatment and assessment. Participants reported that 85% of consumers with whom they worked had AODA issues, yet over half rated their graduate training in AODA treatment and assessment as poor, and their…

  3. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... immediately from performing safety-sensitive functions, and the process in 49 CFR part 40, subpart O. (x) The... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  4. Television and Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Rand Paper Series No. P-562l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This article examines the contribution of television and other mass media to alcohol consumption and its abuse. The author notes that there is no scientific evidence available that addresses this point directly, and the importance of such an issue is not recognized in the scientific literature. The absence of this information interferes with the…

  5. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Preventing Crime...

  6. 24 CFR 5.857 - When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers? 5.857 Section 5.857 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Preventing Crime in...

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Truancy among Spanish Adolescents: A Count-Data Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…

  8. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  9. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  10. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  11. Quality Assurance for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towery, O. B.; And Others

    This is a comprehensive bibliography for all those in the alcohol, drug abuse and mental health fields who are developing and implementing programs for assuring quality in the services they provide. A major problem is the newness of the language and the unfamilarity with procedures required by the government and others seeking accountability from…

  12. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  13. Handicapped Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use/Abuse: Some Causes for Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dennis

    The paper examines the literature concerning drug and alcohol abuse among handicapped adolescents. An introductory section noting the relative lack of research on this problem is followed by a review of adolescent drug research identifying longitudinal studies involving more than 70,000 subjects, studies of associated personality variables, and…

  14. Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Teaching in U.S. Medical and Osteopathic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Alex; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a national survey show that required teaching activities during all four years of medical school averaged 25.7 hours, with a range from 0 to 126. Schools differed widely in the number and type of electives offered in drug abuse and alcoholism, as well as in the number of clinical assignments available. (Author/LBH)

  15. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Chersich, Matthew F; Rees, Helen V; Scorgie, Fiona; Martin, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care), must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission. PMID:19919703

  16. HIV/Hepatitis Prevention in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs: Guidance From Research

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James L.; Masson, Carmen L.; Perlman, David C.

    2002-01-01

    A large body of research examines the relationship between HIV and drug dependence, but considerably less information is available on viral hepatitis and drug dependence. This article summarizes research indicating what drug abuse treatment programs can do to prevent their patients from acquiring HIV or hepatitis infection and to limit the consequences for patients who are already infected. Drug treatment programs can play a pivotal role in preventing, detecting, and treating HIV and hepatitis. Some activities can be accomplished by providers’ simply becoming aware of the issues; others will require significant infusion of leadership, education, and fiscal support. PMID:18567957

  17. Preventing alcohol abuse in the gay community: toward a theory and model.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, J E; Ziebold, T O

    1982-01-01

    Urban gay communities present unique populations for a comprehensive prevention program. They are well defined, bounded communities with rapid internal communication, can be considered "at risk" for alcoholism, and are traditionally "underserved" for prevention and treatment. Models of alcoholism epidemiology elucidate critical factors relevant to the urban gay population, and indigenous gay organizations afford effective means of implementing a program. The model presented in this paper is based upon current research about successful prevention programs and uses accepted strategies tailored to the specific characteristics of the urban gay community. The basic premise of the model is that community self help is the most effective approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention. PMID:7130692

  18. Commentary on the interactions of HIV and alcohol in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan P; Agudelo, Marisela

    2014-03-01

    This commentary is to highlight the relevance and public interest of the review published by Silverstein and Kumar, which focuses on the mechanisms by which alcohol and HIV-1 infection cause increased in central nervous system (CNS) damage. The overall review is based on previous literature with cell culture systems and animal models that have demonstrated that exposure to alcohol and HIV infection or HIV viral proteins result in synergistic up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. The authors discuss the effects of alcohol on cells in the CNS, followed by a brief discussion on the impact of HIV-1 and HIV proteins on the CNS, and the final section focuses on the combined effects of HIV and alcohol on the CNS as determined by in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies.

  19. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  20. Reducing HIV Risks in the Places Where People Drink: Prevention Interventions in Alcohol Venues.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244

  1. Emotional, Behavioral, and HIV Risks Associated with Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholow, Bradford N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that sexual abuse in childhood was significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk behavior, and risk of…

  2. Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

  3. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  4. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  5. Meconium Indicators of Maternal Alcohol Abuse during Pregnancy and Association with Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Goecke, Tamme W.; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A.; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Pragst, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. Methods. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. Results. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P < 0.01). This association was inverse in cases with EtG value above 120 ng/g. These values indicate women with most severe alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Conclusion. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established. PMID:24800249

  6. Resilience Moderates the Association Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Depressive Symptoms Among Women with and At-Risk for HIV.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV-, 87 % African American) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

  7. The effects of housing costs on polydrug abuse patterns: a comparison of heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated how price of housing affects hypothetical purchasing decisions. Participants (26 heroin, 28 cocaine, and 15 alcohol abusers, and 25 controls) were exposed to 4 conditions in which they "purchased" drugs, food, housing, and entertainment. Whereas income remained constant, housing prices varied across conditions. Except for 23% of heroin abusers, participants purchased housing regardless of cost, so that income increased as housing cost decreased. Demand for food was income inelastic, whereas demand for entertainment was income elastic. Each group showed income elastic demand for their drug of choice. Hypothetical choices were reliable; drug choices were correlated with urinalysis results, and willingness to forgo housing in the simulation was correlated with time spent homeless in real life. This study shows that changes in housing prices may affect choices for drug and nondrug reinforcers. PMID:11519635

  8. HIV-related risk behaviors and seropositivity among homeless drug-abusing women in Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Metsch, L R; McCoy, C B; McCoy, H V; Shultz, J M; Lai, S; Weatherby, N L; McAnany, H; Correa, R; Anwyl, R S

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the multifaceted interactions among homelessness, HIV, substance abuse, and gender. Data were collected on 1,366 chronic drug users using a nationally standardized validated instrument within the Miami CARES project of a multisite federally funded program. HIV testing accompanied by pretest and posttest counseling was conducted on-site by certified phlebotomists and counselors. In addition to descriptive analyses and corresponding tests of significance, logistic regression analyses were used to clarify the complex associations between the outcome variables of homelessness and HIV, recognizing difficulties of determining temporal sequence. HIV infection was found to be 2.35 times more prevalent among homeless women than homeless men and significantly higher for homeless women. The findings indicate that among women, homelessness and HIV have a highly interactive effect increasing the vulnerability of this population and thus rendering them an extremely important priority population on which to focus public health efforts and programs. PMID:8788698

  9. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  10. Substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS (SAVA) syndemic effects on viral suppression among HIV positive women of color.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristen A; Messer, Lynne C; Quinlivan, E Byrd

    2015-01-01

    The combined epidemics of substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS, known as the SAVA syndemic, contribute to the disproportionate burden of disease among people of color in the US. To examine the association between HIV viral load suppression and SAVA syndemic variables, we used baseline data from 563 HIV+ women of color treated at nine HIV medical and ancillary care sites participating in HRSA's Special Project of National Significance Women of Color (WOC) Initiative. Just under half the women (n=260) were virally suppressed. Five psychosocial factors contributing to the SAVA syndemic were examined in this study: substance abuse, binge drinking, intimate partner violence, poor mental health, and sexual risk taking. Associations among the psychosocial factors were assessed and clustering confirmed. A SAVA score was created by summing the dichotomous (present/absent) psychosocial measures. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to account for site-level clustering and individual-covariates, a higher SAVA score (0 to 5) was associated with reduced viral suppression; OR (adjusted)=0.81, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99. The syndemic approach represents a viable framework for understanding viral suppression among HIV positive WOC, and suggests the need for comprehensive interventions that address the social/environmental contexts of patients' lives.

  11. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  12. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  13. Use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.

    PubMed

    Guly, Hr

    2013-03-01

    During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, there was much discussion on the role of alcohol. The explorers expected to be able to consume alcohol, and the expeditions were supported by companies producing alcoholic beverages that used the Antarctic connection in their advertising. On the other side, it was said (incorrectly) than Fridjof Nansen, perhaps the most famous of the Arctic explorers, had taken no alcohol and this was used in the arguments against alcohol by the temperance movement. In general, alcohol consumption was low but it was felt that alcohol played an important role in maintaining the psychological welfare of the participants. A number of them had alcohol problems, and participation in an expedition was thought to be of benefit in that it would remove the temptation to consume alcohol. However, there were episodes of drunkenness on the ships and in the Antarctic. Cocaine was taken as one of a number of tonics but only one explorer is thought to have abused drugs, though another is said to have done so. PMID:24572800

  14. Rodent models of genetic contributions to motivation to abuse alcohol.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C

    2014-01-01

    In summary, there are remarkably few studies focused on the genetic contributions to alcohol's reinforcing values. Almost all such studies examine the two-bottle preference test. Despite the deficiencies I have raised in its interpretation, a rodent genotype's willingness to drink ethanol when water is freely available offers a reasonable aggregate estimate of alcohol's reinforcing value relative to other genotypes (Green and Grahame 2008). As indicated above, however, preference drinking studies will likely never avoid the confounding role of taste preferences and most often yield intake levels not sufficient to yield a pharmacologically significant BAL. Thus, the quest for improved measures of reinforcing value continues. Of the potential motivational factors considered by McClearn in his seminal review in this series, we can safely conclude that rodent alcohol drinking is not primarily directed at obtaining calories. The role of taste (and odor) remains a challenge. McClearn appears to have been correct that especially those genotypes that avoid alcohol are probably doing so based on preingestive sensory cues; however, postingestive consequences are also important. Cunningham's intragastric model shows the role of both preingestional and postingestional modulating factors for the best known examples, the usually nearly absolutely alcohol-avoiding DBA/2J and HAP-2 mice. Much subsequent data reinforce McClearn's earlier conclusion that C57BL/6J mice, at least, do not regulate their intake around a given self-administered dose of alcohol by adjusting their intake. This leaves us with the puzzle of why nearly all genotypes, even those directionally selectively bred for high voluntary intake for many generations, fail to self-administer intoxicating amounts of alcohol. Since McClearn's review, many ingenious assays to index alcohol's motivational effects have been used extensively, and new methods for inducing dependence have supplanted the older ones prevalent in

  15. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  16. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despite this obvious epidemiological relevance, very few experimental studies have focused on the interaction of pneumococci with the immune system of a host acutely or chronically exposed to alcohol. Understanding these host-pathogen interactions is imperative for designing effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for such populations. Recent advances in pneumococcal research have greatly improved our understanding of pneumococcal pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms. Additionally, a large body of data is available on the effect of alcohol on the physiology of the lungs and the innate and adaptive immune system of the host. The purpose of this review is to integrate the available knowledge in these diverse areas of for a better understanding of the how the compromised immune system derived from alcohol exposure responds to pneumococcal infections. PMID:21827928

  17. [Women in outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics].

    PubMed

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative and descriptive study aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. Data were collected from medical records of women with alcohol-related disorders who were treated at a psychiatric outpatient service We performed a reading and descriptive analysis of such data. The sample was composed of 27 medical records, the average age of women was 50 years, mostly married (59.6%), not working (70.4%) with incomplete primary education (70.4%), with an alcoholic family (81.5%) and other psychiatric diagnoses (70.3%). Losses physical, social and emotional was the most common symptoms resulting from alcohol withdrawal syndrome (66.7%), family conflicts (72%) and "sadness" (79.2%). Family violence was recorded in 11 records (40.7%). There was low education, unemployment, psychiatric comorbidities and the presence of other family members with alcohol abuse as common characteristics. We emphasize the importance of professional knowledge about the peculiarities of female alcoholism for health activities more effective. PMID:24015467

  18. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  19. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  20. Interactions of HIV and drugs of abuse: the importance of glia, neural progenitors, and host genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2014-01-01

    Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individuals to HIV and to drug abuse can vary tremendously. Host-genetic variability is important in determining viral tropism, neuropathogenesis, drug responses, and addictive behavior. However, genetic differences alone cannot account for individual variability in the brain "connectome." Environment and experience are critical determinants in the evolution of synaptic circuitry throughout life. Neurons and glia both exercise control over determinants of synaptic plasticity that are disrupted by HIV and drug abuse. Perivascular macrophages, microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia can harbor the infection. Uninfected bystanders, especially astroglia, propagate and amplify inflammatory signals. Drug abuse by itself derails neuronal and glial function, and the outcome of chronic exposure is maladaptive plasticity. The negative consequences of coexposure to HIV and drug abuse are determined by numerous factors including genetics, sex, age, and multidrug exposure. Glia and some neurons are generated throughout life, and their progenitors appear to be targets of HIV and opiates/psychostimulants. The chronic nature of HIV and drug abuse appears to result in sustained alterations in the maturation and fate of neural progenitors, which may affect the balance of glial populations within multiple brain regions.

  1. Epigenetic modulation of brain gene networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Harris, Robert A; Ponomarev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) events (ChIP-Seq) revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B/DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7/VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction. PMID:26041984

  2. Epigenetic modulation of brain gene networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sean P.; Harris, Robert A.; Ponomarev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) events (ChIP-Seq) revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B/DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7/VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction. PMID:26041984

  3. Cocaine enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis: implications in disease progression in cocaine-abusing HIV-1 patients.

    PubMed

    Pandhare, Jui; Addai, Amma B; Mantri, Chinmay K; Hager, Cynthia; Smith, Rita M; Barnett, Louis; Villalta, Fernando; Kalams, Spyros A; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-04-01

    Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1-associated CD4(+) T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4(+) T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4(+) T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1-infected drug abusers.

  4. The Impact of Alcohol Use and Related Disorders on the HIV Continuum of Care: a Systematic Review : Alcohol and the HIV Continuum of Care.

    PubMed

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Azar, Marwan M; Copenhaver, Michael M; Springer, Sandra A; Molina, Patricia E; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is highly prevalent globally with numerous negative consequences to human health, including HIV progression, in people living with HIV (PLH). The HIV continuum of care, or treatment cascade, represents a sequence of targets for intervention that can result in viral suppression, which ultimately benefits individuals and society. The extent to which alcohol impacts each step in the cascade, however, has not been systematically examined. International targets for HIV treatment as prevention aim for 90 % of PLH to be diagnosed, 90 % of them to be prescribed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90 % to achieve viral suppression; currently, only 20 % of PLH are virally suppressed. This systematic review, from 2010 through May 2015, found 53 clinical research papers examining the impact of alcohol use on each step of the HIV treatment cascade. These studies were mostly cross-sectional or cohort studies and from all income settings. Most (77 %) found a negative association between alcohol consumption on one or more stages of the treatment cascade. Lack of consistency in measurement, however, reduced the ability to draw consistent conclusions. Nonetheless, the strong negative correlations suggest that problematic alcohol consumption should be targeted, preferably using evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological interventions, to indirectly increase the proportion of PLH achieving viral suppression, to achieve treatment as prevention mandates, and to reduce HIV transmission.

  5. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  6. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  7. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  8. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  9. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  10. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  11. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    .... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for... Panel; Review of Collaborative Minority Alcohol Research Development (U54). Date: April 6, 2010. Time:...

  12. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol National Research Service Awards...

  13. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Panel, Review of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Date: March 28-29... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards...

  14. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  15. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  17. Let’s talk about sex: helping substance abuse counsellors address HIV prevention with men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577

  18. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  19. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  20. Human rights abuses and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: the experiences of Burmese women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Karen; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Tamm, Ingrid; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2006-01-01

    We investigated human rights concerns related to migration, living and working conditions, and access to HIV/AIDS services and reproductive health services for Burmese women in Thailand. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS for Burmese women stemmed from abuses they experienced: gender and ethnic discrimination, including violence; unsafe migration and trafficking; labor and sexual exploitation; and denial of health care. Despite having bound itself to human rights laws, the Thai government is failing to fulfill its obligations to Burmese women, with particularly devastating impacts for their well-being, including the risk of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, as our documentation shows, this failure to incorporate human rights concerns into its national response to the epidemic virtually guarantees that HIV/AIDS will continue to be a problem in Thailand. PMID:17265756

  1. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036

  2. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss caused by alcohol abuse and heroin sniffing.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Stavros; Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Kanakaki, Sofia; Dona, Athina; Spiliopoulou, Christina; Giannoulis, Grigoris

    2012-06-01

    Objective. Acute or chronic heroin abuse has been associated with various central neurologic pathologies and, occasionally, with peripheral nervous system damage. The effect of heroin on hearing has not been adequately documented, although several cases with sudden hearing loss owed to heroin abuse have been reported. We present a young male with bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, following heroin sniffing and alcohol consumption. Methods. Our patient underwent a detailed clinical and audiological evaluation, including auditory brainstem responses and otoacoustic emission. Routine laboratory blood tests and imaging studies were performed. Results. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and magnesium, resulting in complete restoration of hearing after one month. Conclusion. Sudden hearing loss owed to heroin abuse is usually curable, following adequate treatment.

  3. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  4. The Relationship among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Alcoholism, Family Environment and Suicidal Behavior in Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yama, Mark F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among childhood sexual abuse and parental alcoholism, retrospective reports of family functioning, and having had a history of either suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Subjects (n=420) were drawn from a sample of undergraduate college women. Results indicate the experiences of childhood sexual abuse and parental…

  5. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  6. Substance abuse treatment in persons with HIV/AIDS: challenges in managing triple diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R

    2014-01-01

    Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.

  7. A Long-Term Longitudinal Examination of the Effect of Early Onset of Alcohol and Drug Use on Later Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Finan, Laura J.; Schulz, Jessica; Hesselbrock, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Early onset of alcohol use has been linked to later alcohol problems in adulthood. Currently, it is not clear whether early onset of marijuana and tobacco use similarly predicts alcohol problems. Moreover, most studies examining the effect of early substance use onset on later problems only have followed youth into their early 20s. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to examine whether early onset of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use predicts alcohol problems beyond the transition to adulthood. Methods The sample included 225 15-19 year old youth (60% girls; 62% Caucasian) who were surveyed in 1993-1998 (Time 1), 1998–2003 (Time 2), and 2003-2007 (Time 3). Participants reported their age of onset for regular drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. At each time of measurement, they also completed surveys relating to their alcohol use and abuse. Results Participants with an earlier age of onset of drinking regularly scored higher on the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and drank more frequently to get high and drunk throughout their twenties. Tobacco use onset and marijuana use onset were not associated with later alcohol use or abuse. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that the relationship between the onset of substance use and later substance abuse may be substance specific. Of note, early onset of regular drinking was associated with alcohol problems during adulthood, underscoring the importance of delaying the onset of regular alcohol use among youth. PMID:25671782

  8. Development of an adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale: Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Winters, K C

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale is summarized. The Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) is intended to meet the need for a quick, psychometrically adequate adolescent screening tool to measure the need for a comprehensive assessment. The development of the questionnaire's problem severity scale and evidence related to its reliability (internal consistency) and validity are described. PMID:1332434

  9. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Sullivan, Tami P; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication non-adherence among women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse enrolled in a coping intervention. This secondary analysis included a sample of 85 women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse and being prescribed antiretroviral medication who completed measures on anxiety, depression, and medication adherence. Results from a logistic regression analysis suggest that distinct components of anxiety may be related to medication nonadherence among this population. Targeted mental health interventions for this population may increase adherence to antiretroviral medication.

  10. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Tiara C.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication nonadherence among women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse enrolled in a coping intervention. This secondary analysis included a sample of 85 women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse and being prescribed antiretroviral medication who completed measures on anxiety, depression, and medication adherence. Results from a logistic regression analysis suggest that distinct components of anxiety may be related to medication nonadherence among this population. Targeted mental health interventions for this population may increase adherence to antiretroviral medication. PMID:26010763

  11. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  12. Treat Jail Detainees' Drug Abuse to Lower HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Amphetamines Bath Salts Brain and Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants ...

  13. The Association of Physical and Sexual Abuse with HIV Risk Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Implications for Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Renee M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews conducted with 602 youths at public health clinics revealed that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape was related to engaging in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. (Author/JDD)

  14. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  15. Vitamin D receptor and epigenetics in HIV infection and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Nirupama; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2015-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse is highly prevalent and serves as a powerful co-factor for HIV exacerbation. Epigenetic alterations in drug abuse and HIV infection determine expression of several critical genes such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), which participates in proliferation, differentiation, cell death under both physiological and pathological conditions. On that account, active vitamin D, the ligand of VDR, is used as an adjuvant therapy to control infection, slow down progression of chronic kidney diseases, and cancer chemotherapy. Interestingly, vitamin D may not be able to augment VDR expression optimally in several instances where epigenetic contributes to down regulation of VDR; however, reversal of epigenetic corruption either by demethylating agents (DACs) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors would be able to maximize expression of VDR in these instances. PMID:26347716

  16. Vitamin D receptor and epigenetics in HIV infection and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Nirupama; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2015-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse is highly prevalent and serves as a powerful co-factor for HIV exacerbation. Epigenetic alterations in drug abuse and HIV infection determine expression of several critical genes such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), which participates in proliferation, differentiation, cell death under both physiological and pathological conditions. On that account, active vitamin D, the ligand of VDR, is used as an adjuvant therapy to control infection, slow down progression of chronic kidney diseases, and cancer chemotherapy. Interestingly, vitamin D may not be able to augment VDR expression optimally in several instances where epigenetic contributes to down regulation of VDR; however, reversal of epigenetic corruption either by demethylating agents (DACs) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors would be able to maximize expression of VDR in these instances.

  17. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  18. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  19. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  20. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-II<14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  1. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, S; Feingold, L; Laufer, D; Velentgas, P; Kantrowitz-Gordon, I; Mayer, K

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic description of long-term adverse health effects of childhood sexual abuse is lacking, despite estimates that perhaps 30 percent of adults have experienced sexual assault in childhood. METHODS: In an adult cohort enrolled to investigate causes of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, we identified current behaviors affecting risk of infection that were associated with a history of early sexual abuse. One hundred and eighty-six individuals provided information on the occurrence of abuse and subsequent sexual and drug using activities. RESULTS: Approximately half of the women and one-fifth of the men reported a history of rape during childhood or adulthood. Twenty-eight percent of the women and 15 percent of the men recalled that they had been sexually assaulted during childhood. People who reported childhood rape compared with people who did not were four times more likely to be working as prostitutes (90 percent confidence interval = 2.0, 8.0). Women were nearly three times more likely to become pregnant before the age of 18 (90% CI = 1.6, 4.1). Men who reported a history of sexual abuse had a twofold increase in prevalence of HIV infection relative to unabused men (90% CI = 1.0, 3.9). CONCLUSIONS: The disturbing prevalence of early sexual abuse and its possible health-related consequences call for prompt and routine investigation of sexual abuse histories. Identification of sexual victimization may be an important component for management of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:2014856

  2. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  3. Abuse and resilience in relation to HAART medication adherence and HIV viral load among women with HIV in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn; Brody, Leslie

    2014-03-01

    Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (≥95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (≥20 vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200 vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ≥95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ≥95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression.

  4. Culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban Native youth.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Solis; Plasencia, Ana Vanesa

    2005-09-01

    This article will examine HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention for urban Native youth in Oakland, California. It will highlight the Native American Health Center's Youth Services programs. These programs incorporate solutions based on a traditional value system rooted in Native culture and consisting of youth empowerment, leadership training, prevention activities, traditional cultural activities and wellness and life skills education. They aim to reduce HIV/AIDS and substance abuse risk for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth through structured, community-based interventions. The Youth Services Program's events, such as the Seventh Native American Generation and the Gathering of Native Americans, offer effective and culturally relevant ways of teaching youth about American Indian/Alaska Native history, intergenerational trauma, and traditional Native culture. Satisfaction surveys gathered from these youth provide invaluable data on the positive effects of these prevention efforts. The need for culturally relevant and culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is apparent. These prevention efforts must be creatively integrated into the multidimensional and complex social structures of Native American youth.

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse: The Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Neuropsychological Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert J.; Monnig, Mollie A.; Lysne, Per A.; Ruhl, David A.; Pommy, Jessica A.; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Methods Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12–18), recruited in three groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day, percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. Results More drinks per drinking day predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana use was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. Conclusions In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to Visuospatial Ability. PMID:20958330

  6. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention. PMID:26610535

  7. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker in persons suspected of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Sondermann, Rolf; Reich, Susanne E; Wiese, Andreas

    2004-06-15

    The coherence of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker of alcohol abuse was investigated with 15 conventional laboratory parameters, with the self-reported medical history and with clinical findings, all previously reported to be associated with chronic alcohol intake. In total, 100 male persons who were at least suspected of abusing alcohol were assessed. Medical history, clinical picture and physical examination were taken, and laboratory parameters regarding blood count, liver enzymes, serum lipids, iron balance, Ig A and uric acid were determined. These data were correlated with the CDT values, the daily ethanol intakes reported, and several findings from medical history and clinical examination. The mean CDT level (mean+/-S.D.) of the entire group was 29.4+/-19.7 U/l. Eighty-one patients admitted a daily ethanol intake of 60 g or more. The ratio AST/ALT (de Ritis ratio) appeared as the best conventional parameter correlated with both CDT and ethanol intake. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, AST and red blood cell count also correlated significantly with CDT. CDT, AST and ferritin correlated significantly with the reported daily ethanol intake. It is concluded that CDT provides a reliable estimate of long-term alcohol intake.

  8. Attitudinal and Social Normative Factors as Predictors of Intended Alcohol Abuse among Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, F. Betty

    1982-01-01

    Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)

  9. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  10. Mixed Abuse of Alcohol and Drugs in Teenagers in Sweden vs. a Group from the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1995-01-01

    Examined the subsequent life and development of teenagers under probation who abused alcohol and drugs. Suggests that regardless of the social environment in which they grow up, children, both boys and girls, are in a risk zone if they use alcohol and drugs, and there is an enormous gap in their social adjustment compared with children that do…

  11. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicable provisions of the NFPA 101 (incorporated by reference, see § 17.1) and the other publications... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... an existing capability to furnish the following: (i) A supervised, alcohol and drug free...

  12. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicable provisions of the NFPA 101 (incorporated by reference, see § 17.1) and the other publications... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... an existing capability to furnish the following: (i) A supervised, alcohol and drug free...

  13. The impact of Federal Alcohol and Drug Abuse block grants on state and local government substance abuse program expenditures: the role of federal oversight.

    PubMed

    Gamkhar, S; Sim, S C

    2001-12-01

    Are the federal Alcohol and Drug Abuse (ADA) block grant funds substituting for or supplementing state and local government spending on substance abuse? Using panel data on state and local government substance abuse programs, this study explores the fiscal effects of the ADA block grant money and the increased enforcement (after 1989) of federal restrictions on state spending of ADA block grants. The findings here reveal that for the current period, the federal ADA grant has no statistically significant effect on state and local government substance abuse spending both before and after 1989, and the increased enforcement of federal restrictions on the ADA grants after 1989 does not change this result. An additional finding is that lagged ADA grants have had a large effect on substance abuse spending both before and after 1989--a feature of the program not considered in previous studies. PMID:11831580

  14. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress. Images PMID:1871131

  15. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  16. Spiritual self-schema therapy, drug abuse, and HIV.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, David; Avants, S Kelly; Margolin, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This case report describes the use of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy in the treatment of an HIV-positive inner-city drug user maintained on methadone and referred for additional treatment due to unremitting cocaine use. 3-S therapy is a manual-guided intervention based on cognitive self-schema theory. Its goal is to help the patient create, elaborate, and make accessible a cognitive schema--the "spiritual" self-schema-that is incompatible with drug use and other HIV risk behaviors. 3-S therapy facilitates a cognitive shift from the habitual activation of the "addict" self-schema, with its drug-related cognitions, scripts and action plans, to the "spiritual" self-schema, with its associated repertoire of harm reduction beliefs and behaviors.

  17. HIV-1 gp120 and drugs of abuse: interactions in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Peter S; Shah, Ankit; Weemhoff, James; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, D P; Kumar, Anil

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 infection is a global public health problem with more than 34 million people living with HIV infection. Although great strides have been made in treating this epidemic with therapeutic agents, the increase in patient life span has been coincident with an increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND is thought to result from the neurotoxic effects of viral proteins that are shed from HIV-infected microglial cells. One of the primary neurotoxins responsible for this effect is the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. Exposure of neurons to gp120 has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in neurons, as well as numerous indirect effects such as an increase in inflammatory cytokines, an increase in oxidative stress, and an increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. In many patients, the use of drugs of abuse (DOA) exacerbates the neurotoxic effects of gp120. Cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine are three DOAs that are commonly used by those infected with HIV-1. All three of these DOAs have been demonstrated to increase oxidative stress in the CNS as well as to increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Numerous model systems have demonstrated that these DOAs have the capability of exacerbating the neurotoxic effects of gp120. This review will summarize the neurotoxic effects of gp120, the deleterious effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine on the CNS, and the combined effects of gp120 in the context of these drugs.

  18. HIV-1 gp120 and Drugs of Abuse: Interactions in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Peter S.; Shah, Ankit; Weemhoff, James; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, D.P.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is a global public health problem with more than 34 million people living with HIV infection. Although great strides have been made in treating this epidemic with therapeutic agents, the increase in patient life span has been coincident with an increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND is thought to result from the neurotoxic effects of viral proteins that are shed from HIV-infected microglial cells. One of the primary neurotoxins responsible for this effect is the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. Exposure of neurons to gp120 has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in neurons, as well as numerous indirect effects such as an increase in inflammatory cytokines, an increase in oxidative stress, and an increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. In many patients, the use of drugs of abuse (DOA) exacerbates the neurotoxic effects of gp120. Cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine are three DOAs that are commonly used by those infected with HIV-1. All three of these DOAs have been demonstrated to increase oxidative stress in the CNS as well as to increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Numerous model systems have demonstrated that these DOAs have the capability of exacerbating the neurotoxic effects of gp120. This review will summarize the neurotoxic effects of gp120, the deleterious effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine on the CNS, and the combined effects of gp120 in the context of these drugs. PMID:22591361

  19. HIV-1 gp120 and drugs of abuse: interactions in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Peter S; Shah, Ankit; Weemhoff, James; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, D P; Kumar, Anil

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 infection is a global public health problem with more than 34 million people living with HIV infection. Although great strides have been made in treating this epidemic with therapeutic agents, the increase in patient life span has been coincident with an increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND is thought to result from the neurotoxic effects of viral proteins that are shed from HIV-infected microglial cells. One of the primary neurotoxins responsible for this effect is the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. Exposure of neurons to gp120 has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in neurons, as well as numerous indirect effects such as an increase in inflammatory cytokines, an increase in oxidative stress, and an increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. In many patients, the use of drugs of abuse (DOA) exacerbates the neurotoxic effects of gp120. Cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine are three DOAs that are commonly used by those infected with HIV-1. All three of these DOAs have been demonstrated to increase oxidative stress in the CNS as well as to increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Numerous model systems have demonstrated that these DOAs have the capability of exacerbating the neurotoxic effects of gp120. This review will summarize the neurotoxic effects of gp120, the deleterious effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine on the CNS, and the combined effects of gp120 in the context of these drugs. PMID:22591361

  20. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.