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Sample records for alcohol acyltransferase awat

  1. Characterisation of two alcohol acyltransferases from kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) reveals distinct substrate preferences.

    PubMed

    Günther, Catrin S; Chervin, Christian; Marsh, Ken B; Newcomb, Richard D; Souleyre, Edwige J F

    2011-06-01

    Volatile esters are key compounds of kiwifruit flavour and are formed by alcohol acyltransferases that belong to the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen kiwifruit-derived expressed sequence tags with proposed acyltransferase function in order to select ripening-specific sequences and test their involvement in alcohol acylation. The screening criterion was for at least 10-fold increased transcript accumulation in ripe compared with unripe kiwifruit and in response to ethylene. Recombinant expression in yeast revealed alcohol acyltransferase activity for Actinidia-derived AT1, AT16 and the phylogenetically distinct AT9, using various alcohol and acyl-CoA substrates. Functional characterisation of AT16 and AT9 demonstrated striking differences in their substrate preferences and apparent catalytic efficiencies (V'(max)K(m)(-1)). Thus revealing benzoyl-CoA:alcohol O-acyltransferase activity for AT16 and acetyl-CoA:alcohol O-acyltransferase activity for AT9. Both kiwifruit-derived enzymes displayed higher reaction rates with butanol compared with ethanol, even though ethanol is the main alcohol in ripe fruit. Since ethyl acetate and ethyl benzoate are major esters in ripe kiwifruit, we suggest that fruit characteristic volatile profiles result from a combination of substrate availability and specificity of individual alcohol acyltransferases.

  2. Computational study enlightens the structural role of the alcohol acyltransferase DFGWG motif.

    PubMed

    Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) catalyze the esterification reaction of alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. Despite the high divergence between AAT enzymes, two important and conserved motifs are shared: the catalytic HxxxD motif, and the DFGWG motif. The latter is proposed to play a structural role; however, its function remains unclear. The DFGWG motif is located in loop 21 and stabilized by a hydrogen bond between residues Y52 and D381. Also, this motif is distant from the HxxxD motif, and most probably without a direct role in the substrate interaction. To evaluate the role of the DFGWG motif, in silico analysis was performed in the VpAAT1 protein. Three mutants (Y52F, D381A and D381E) were evaluated. Major changes (size and shape) in the solvent channels were found, although no differences were revealed in the entire 3D structure. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies described unfavorable energies for interaction of the mutant proteins with different substrates, as well as unfavored ligand orientations in the solvent channel. Additionally, we examined the contribution of different energetic parameters to the total free energy of protein-ligand complexes by the MM-GBSA method. The complexes differed mainly in their van der Waals contributions and have unfavorable electrostatic interactions. VpAAT1, Y52F and D381A mutants showed a dramatic reduction in the binding capacity to several substrates, which is related to differences in electrostatic potential on the protein surfaces, suggesting that D381 from the DFGWG motif and residue Y52 play a crucial role in maintenance of the adequate solvent channel structure required for catalysis. Graphical abstract Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM-GBSA free energy calculations were employed to obtain quantitative estimates for the binding free energies of wild type Vasconcellea pubescens alcohol acyltransferase (VpAAT1-WT) and the protein mutants. Left VpAAT1

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation and site-directed mutagenesis of alcohol acyltransferase: a proposed mechanism of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Quintana, Luis; Nuñez-Tobar, María Ximena; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-28

    Aroma in Vasconcellea pubescens fruit is determined by esters, which are the products of catalysis by alcohol acyltransferase (VpAAT1). VpAAT1 protein structure displayed the conserved HxxxD motif facing the solvent channel in the center of the structure. To gain insight into the role of these catalytic residues, kinetic and site-directed mutagenesis studies were carried out in VpAAT1 protein. Based on dead-end inhibition studies, the kinetic could be described in terms of a ternary complex mechanism with the H166 residue as the catalytic base. Kinetic results showed the lowest Km value for hexanoyl-CoA. Additionally, the most favorable predicted substrate orientation was observed for hexanoyl-CoA, showing a coincidence between kinetic studies and molecular docking analysis. Substitutions H166A, D170A, D170N, and D170E were evaluated in silico. The solvent channel in all mutant structures was lost, showing large differences with the native structure. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were able to describe unfavored energies for the interaction of the mutant proteins with different alcohols and acyl-CoAs. Additionally, in vitro site-directed mutagenesis of H166 and D170 in VpAAT1 induced a loss of activity, confirming the functional role of both residues for the activity, H166 being directly involved in catalysis.

  4. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels.

  5. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  6. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H.

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  7. Identification of an Arabidopsis Fatty Alcohol:Caffeoyl-Coenzyme A Acyltransferase Required for the Synthesis of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates in Root Waxes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kosma, Dylan K.; Molina, Isabel; Ohlrogge, John B.; Pollard, Mike

    2012-01-01

    While suberin is an insoluble heteropolymer, a number of soluble lipids can be extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots. These extracts include esters of saturated long-chain primary alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Such fatty alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids are also present in suberin. We demonstrate that alkyl coumarates and caffeates, which are the major components of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root waxes, are present primarily in taproots. Previously we identified ALIPHATIC SUBERIN FERULOYL TRANSFERASE (At5g41040), a HXXXD-type acyltransferase (BAHD family), responsible for incorporation of ferulate into aliphatic suberin of Arabidopsis. However, aliphatic suberin feruloyl transferase mutants were unaffected in alkyl hydroxycinnamate ester root wax composition. Here we identify a closely related gene, At5g63560, responsible for the synthesis of a subset of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters, the alkyl caffeates. Transgenic plants harboring PAt5g63560::YFP fusions showed transcriptional activity in suberized tissues. Knockout mutants of At5g63560 were severely reduced in their alkyl caffeate but not alkyl coumarate content. Recombinant At5g63560p had greater acyltransferase activity when presented with caffeoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrate, thus we have named this acyltransferase FATTY ALCOHOL:CAFFEOYL-CoA CAFFEOYL TRANSFERASE. Stress experiments revealed elevated alkyl coumarate content in root waxes of NaCl-treated wild-type and fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-CoA caffeoyl transferase plants. We further demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-CoA REDUCTASEs (FARs) FAR5 (At3g44550), FAR4 (At3g44540), and FAR1 (At5g22500) are required for the synthesis of C18, C20, and C22 alkyl hydroxycinnamates, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple acyltransferases are utilized for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters of Arabidopsis root waxes and that FAR1/4/5 provide the fatty alcohols required for alkyl hydroxycinnamate synthesis. PMID:22797656

  8. Divergence in the enzymatic activities of a tomato and Solanum pennellii alcohol acyltransferase impacts fruit volatile ester composition.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Charles; Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Lam, Nghi B; Richard, Théo; Taylor, Mark G; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including multiple esters. The content of ester volatiles is relatively low in tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and far more abundant in the closely related species Solanum pennellii. There are also qualitative variations in ester content between the two species. We have previously shown that high expression of a non-specific esterase is critical for the low overall ester content of S. lycopersicum fruit relative to S. pennellii fruit. Here, we show that qualitative differences in ester composition are the consequence of divergence in enzymatic activity of a ripening-related alcohol acyltransferase (AAT1). The S. pennellii AAT1 is more efficient than the tomato AAT1 for all the alcohols tested. The two enzymes have differences in their substrate preferences that explain the variations observed in the volatiles. The results illustrate how two related species have evolved to precisely adjust their volatile content by modulating the balance of the synthesis and degradation of esters. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a gene encoding alcohol acyltransferase (MdAAT2) from apple (cv. Golden Delicious).

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Xu, Yunfeng; Xu, Gangming; Gu, Lingkun; Li, Dequan; Shu, Huairui

    2006-04-01

    Volatile esters are major aroma components of apple, and an alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) catalyzes the final step in ester biosynthesis. The gene MdAAT2, which encodes a predicted 51.2 kDa protein containing features of other acyl transferases, was isolated from Malus domestica Borkh. (cv. Golden Delicious). In contrast to other apple varieties, the MdAAT2 gene of Golden Delicious is exclusively expressed in the fruit. The MdAAT2 protein is about 47.9 kDa and mainly localized in the fruit peel, as indicated by immunoblot and immunolocalization analysis. Northern blot and immunoblot analysis showed that the transcription and translation of MdAAT2 have a positive correlation with apple AAT enzyme activity and ester production, except in the later ripening stage, suggesting that MdAAT2 is involved in the regulation of ester biosysthesis and that a post-translation modification may be involved in regulation of AAT enzyme activity. Tissue disk assays of fruit peel revealed that using extraneous alcohols can recover the corresponding ester formation. Transcription and translation of MdAAT2 were both depressed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and subsequent ester production was also prevented. These results suggest that: (1) ester production is mainly regulated by MdAAT2; (2) ethylene is also involved in this regulatory progress and (3) ester compounds rely principally on the availability of substrates.

  10. Synthesis of fruity ethyl esters by acyl coenzyme A: alcohol acyltransferase and reverse esterase activities in Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Costello, P J; Siebert, T E; Solomon, M R; Bartowsky, E J

    2013-03-01

    To assess the abilities of commercial wine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to synthesize potentially flavour active fatty acid ethyl esters and determine mechanisms involved in their production. Oenococcus oeni AWRI B551 produced significant levels of ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate following growth in an ethanolic test medium, and ester formation generally increased with increasing pH (4.5 > 3.5), anaerobiosis and precursor supplementation. Cell-free extracts of commercial O. oeni strains and Lactobacillus plantarum AWRI B740 were also tested for ester-synthesizing capabilities in a phosphate buffer via: (i) acyl coenzyme A: alcohol acyltransferase (AcoAAAT) activity and (ii) reverse esterase activity. For both ester-synthesizing activities, strain-dependent variation was observed, with AcoAAAT activity generally greater than reverse esterase. Reverse esterase in O. oeni AWRI B551 also esterified 1-propanol to produce propyl octanoate, and deuterated substrates ([(2)H(6)]ethanol and [(2)H(15)]octanoic acid) to produce the fully deuterated ester, [(2)H(5)]ethyl [(2)H(15)]octanoate. Wine LAB exhibit ethyl ester-synthesizing capability and possess two different ester-synthesizing activities, one of which is associated with an acyl coenzyme A: alcohol acyltransferase. This study demonstrates that wine LAB exhibit enzyme activities that can augment the ethyl ester content of wine. This knowledge will facilitate greater control over the impacts of malolactic fermentation on the fruity sensory properties and quality of wine. © 2012 Australian Wine Research Institute © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. VpAAT1, a gene encoding an alcohol acyltransferase, is involved in ester biosynthesis during ripening of mountain papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Balbontín, Cristian; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Fuentes, Lida; Figueroa, Carlos R; Herrera, Raúl; Manriquez, Daniel; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Moya-León, María Alejandra

    2010-04-28

    Mountain papaya ( Vasconcellea pubescens ) is a climacteric fruit that develops a strong and characteristic aroma during ripening. Esters are the main volatile compounds produced by the fruit, and most of them are dependent on ethylene. As esters are synthesized through alcohol acyltransferases (AAT), a full-length cDNA (VpAAT1) was isolated that displayed the characteristic motifs of most plant acyltransferases. The full-length cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in yeasts, obtaining a functional enzyme with high AAT activity toward the formation of benzyl acetate. The transcript accumulation pattern provided by qPCR analysis showed that the VpAAT1 gene is expressed exclusively in fruit tissues and that a high level of transcripts is accumulated during ripening. The increase in VpAAT1 transcripts in fruit is coincident with the increase in AAT activity; transcript accumulation is induced by ethylene, and it is avoided by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment. The data indicate that VpAAT1 is involved in aroma formation and that ethylene plays a major role in regulating its expression.

  12. Structural analysis of the alcohol acyltransferase protein family from Cucumis melo shows that enzyme activity depends on an essential solvent channel.

    PubMed

    Galaz, Sebastián; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) play a key role in ester biosynthesis. In Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis, AATs are encoded by a gene family of four members (CmAAT1-4). CmAAT1, CmAAT3 and CmAAT4 are capable of synthesizing esters, with CmAAT1 the most active. CmAAT2 is inactive and has an Ala268 residue instead of a threonine which is present in all other active AATs, although the role of this residue is still unclear. The present work aims to understand the molecular mechanism involved in ester biosynthesis in melon fruit and to clarify the importance of the Ala268 residue. First, structural models for each protein were built by comparative modelling methodology. Afterwards, conformational interaction between the protein and several ligands, alcohols and acyl-CoAs was explored by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis showed that CmAATs share a similar structure. Also, well-defined solvent channels were described in the CmAATs except for CmAAT2 which does not have a proper channel and instead has a small pocket around Ala268. Residues of the catalytic HxxxD motif interact with substrates within the solvent channel, with Ser363 also important. Strong binding interaction energies were described for the best substrate couple of each CmAAT (hexyl-, benzyl- and cinnamyl-acetate for CmAAT1, 3 and 4 respectively). CmAAT1 and CmAAT2 protein surfaces share similar electrostatic potentials; nevertheless the entrance channels for the substrates differ in location and electrostatic character, suggesting that Ala268 might be responsible for that. This could partly explain the major differences in activity reported for these two enzymes.

  13. The transcriptional response of apple alcohol acyltransferase (MdAAT2) to salicylic acid and ethylene is mediated through two apple MYB TFs in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Shao-Wei; Shen, Jin; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Da-Peng; Li, De-Quan; Zheng, Cheng-Chao; Shu, Huai-Rui

    2014-08-01

    Volatile esters are major factors affecting the aroma of apple fruits, and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) are key enzymes involved in the last steps of ester biosynthesis. The expression of apple AAT (MdAAT2) is known to be induced by salicylic acid (SA) or ethylene in apple fruits, although the mechanism of its transcriptional regulation remains elusive. In this study, we reveal that two apple transcription factors (TFs), MdMYB1 and MdMYB6, are involved in MdAAT2 promoter response to SA and ethylene in transgenic tobacco. According to electrophoretic mobility shift assays, MdMYB1 or MdMYB6 can directly bind in vitro to MYB binding sites in the MdAAT2 promoter. In vivo, overexpression of the two MYB TFs can greatly enhance MdAAT2 promoter activity, as demonstrated by dual luciferase reporter assays in transgenic tobacco. In contrast to the promoter of MdMYB1 or MdMYB6, the MdAAT2 promoter cannot be induced by SA or ethephon (ETH) in transgenic tobacco, even in stigmas in which the MdAAT2 promoter can be highly induced under normal conditions. However, the induced MYB TFs can dramatically enhance MdAAT2 promoter activity under SA or ETH treatment. We conclude that MdMYB1 and MdMYB6 function in MdAAT2 responses to SA and ethylene in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that a similar regulation mechanism may exist in apple.

  14. Technical note: Improving the AWAT filter with interpolation schemes for advanced processing of high resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andre; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters with appropriate data filtering yield the most precise and unbiased information for precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). A recently introduced filter scheme for such data is the AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold) filter (Peters et al., 2014). The filter applies an adaptive threshold to separate significant from insignificant mass changes, guaranteeing that P and ET are not overestimated, and uses a step interpolation between the significant mass changes. In this contribution we show that the step interpolation scheme, which reflects the resolution of the measuring system, can lead to unrealistic prediction of P and ET, especially if they are required in high temporal resolution. We introduce linear and spline interpolation schemes to overcome these problems. To guarantee that medium to strong precipitation events abruptly following low or zero fluxes are not smoothed in an unfavourable way, a simple heuristic selection criterion is used, which attributes such precipitations to the step interpolation. The three interpolation schemes (step, linear and spline) are tested and compared using a data set from a grass-reference lysimeter with 1 min resolution, ranging from 1 January to 5 August 2014. The selected output resolutions for P and ET prediction are 1 day, 1 h and 10 min. As expected, the step scheme yielded reasonable flux rates only for a resolution of 1 day, whereas the other two schemes are well able to yield reasonable results for any resolution. The spline scheme returned slightly better results than the linear scheme concerning the differences between filtered values and raw data. Moreover, this scheme allows continuous differentiability of filtered data so that any output resolution for the fluxes is sound. Since computational burden is not problematic for any of the interpolation schemes, we suggest always using the spline scheme.

  15. Bioengineering recombinant diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. At least 115 DGAT sequences are identified from 69 organisms in the GenBank databases. Only a few papers have been published in the last 28 years on the exp...

  16. Glycerophosphate/Acylglycerophosphate Acyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Naoki; Nemoto-Sasaki, Yoko; Oka, Saori; Tanikawa, Takashi; Sugiura, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and acyl-CoA: 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) are involved in the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycerophospholipids. Many enzymes belonging to the GPAT/AGPAT family have recently been identified and their physiological or pathophysiological roles have been proposed. The roles of GPAT/AGPAT in the synthesis of TAG and obesity-related diseases were revealed through the identification of causative genes of these diseases or analyses of genetically manipulated animals. Recent studies have suggested that some isoforms of GPAT/AGPAT family enzymes are involved in the fatty acid remodeling of phospholipids. The enzymology of GPAT/AGPAT and their physiological/pathological roles in the metabolism of glycerolipids have been described and discussed in this review. PMID:25415055

  17. Acyltransferases in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Röttig, Annika

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Long-chain-length hydrophobic acyl residues play a vital role in a multitude of essential biological structures and processes. They build the inner hydrophobic layers of biological membranes, are converted to intracellular storage compounds, and are used to modify protein properties or function as membrane anchors, to name only a few functions. Acyl thioesters are transferred by acyltransferases or transacylases to a variety of different substrates or are polymerized to lipophilic storage compounds. Lipases represent another important enzyme class dealing with fatty acyl chains; however, they cannot be regarded as acyltransferases in the strict sense. This review provides a detailed survey of the wide spectrum of bacterial acyltransferases and compares different enzyme families in regard to their catalytic mechanisms. On the basis of their studied or assumed mechanisms, most of the acyl-transferring enzymes can be divided into two groups. The majority of enzymes discussed in this review employ a conserved acyltransferase motif with an invariant histidine residue, followed by an acidic amino acid residue, and their catalytic mechanism is characterized by a noncovalent transition state. In contrast to that, lipases rely on completely different mechanism which employs a catalytic triad and functions via the formation of covalent intermediates. This is, for example, similar to the mechanism which has been suggested for polyester synthases. Consequently, although the presented enzyme types neither share homology nor have a common three-dimensional structure, and although they deal with greatly varying molecule structures, this variety is not reflected in their mechanisms, all of which rely on a catalytically active histidine residue. PMID:23699259

  18. Sequence analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. DGATs esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG and over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knock...

  19. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2) and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity. PMID:26714272

  20. Synthesis of Novel Lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of an Unspecific Bacterial Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) is the key enzyme in storage lipid accumulation in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1, mediating wax ester, and to a lesser extent, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids. Four genes encoding a DGAT (Dga1p), a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Lro1p) and two acyl-coenzyme A:sterol acyltransferases (ASATs) (Are1p and Are2p) are involved in the final esterification steps in TAG and steryl ester biosynthesis in this yeast. In the quadruple mutant strain S. cerevisiae H1246, the disruption of DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2 leads to an inability to synthesize storage lipids. Heterologous expression of WS/DGAT from A. calcoaceticus ADP1 in S. cerevisiae H1246 restored TAG but not steryl ester biosynthesis, although high levels of ASAT activity could be demonstrated for WS/DGAT expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue in radiometric in vitro assays with cholesterol and ergosterol as substrates. In addition to TAG synthesis, heterologous expression of WS/DGAT in S. cerevisiae H1246 resulted also in the accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters as well as fatty acid isoamyl esters. In vitro studies confirmed that WS/DGAT is capable of utilizing a broad range of alcohols as substrates comprising long-chain fatty alcohols like hexadecanol as well as short-chain alcohols like ethanol or isoamyl alcohol. This study demonstrated the highly unspecific acyltransferase activity of WS/DGAT from A. calcoaceticus ADP1, indicating the broad biocatalytic potential of this enzyme for biotechnological production of a large variety of lipids in vivo in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic expression hosts. PMID:15574908

  1. Expression and purification of diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG and over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to ...

  2. Bioengineering recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding plant oil biosynthesis will help to create new oilseed crops with value-added properties to replace petroleum-based compounds. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are key enzymes catalyzing the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Plants and animals defici...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. A Conserved Histidine Is Essential for Glycerolipid Acyltransferase Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Richard J.; Rock, Charles O.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence analysis of membrane-bound glycerolipid acyltransferases revealed that proteins from the bacterial, plant, and animal kingdoms share a highly conserved domain containing invariant histidine and aspartic acid residues separated by four less conserved residues in an HX4D configuration. We investigated the role of the invariant histidine residue in acyltransferase catalysis by site-directed mutagenesis of two representative members of this family, the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (PlsB) and the bifunctional 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase/acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) of Escherichia coli. Both the PlsB[H306A] and Aas[H36A] mutants lacked acyltransferase activity. However, the Aas[H36A] mutant retained significant acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity, illustrating that the lack of acyltransferase activity was specifically associated with the H36A substitution. The invariant aspartic acid residue in the HX4D pattern was also important. The substitution of aspartic acid 311 with glutamic acid in PlsB resulted in an enzyme with significantly reduced catalytic activity. Substitution of an alanine at this position eliminated acyltransferase activity; however, the PlsB[D311A] mutant protein did not assemble into the membrane, indicating that aspartic acid 311 is also important for the proper folding and membrane insertion of the acyltransferases. These data are consistent with a mechanism for glycerolipid acyltransferase catalysis where the invariant histidine functions as a general base to deprotonate the hydroxyl moiety of the acyl acceptor. PMID:9515909

  7. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  8. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as drug targets for atherosclerosis and for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19141679

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  11. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  12. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  13. Evolutionary view of acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a key enzyme in neutral lipid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerides (TAGs) are a class of neutral lipids that represent the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. DGAT (acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.20) is a transmembrane enzyme that acts in the final and committed step of TAG synthesis, and it has been proposed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in plant storage lipid accumulation. In fact, two different enzymes identified in several eukaryotic species, DGAT1 and DGAT2, are the main enzymes responsible for TAG synthesis. These enzymes do not share high DNA or protein sequence similarities, and it has been suggested that they play non-redundant roles in different tissues and in some species in TAG synthesis. Despite a number of previous studies on the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes, which have emphasized their importance as potential obesity treatment targets to increase triacylglycerol accumulation, little is known about their evolutionary timeline in eukaryotes. The goal of this study was to examine the evolutionary relationship of the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes across eukaryotic organisms in order to infer their origin. Results We have conducted a broad survey of fully sequenced genomes, including representatives of Amoebozoa, yeasts, fungi, algae, musses, plants, vertebrate and invertebrate species, for the presence of DGAT1 and DGAT2 gene homologs. We found that the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes are nearly ubiquitous in eukaryotes and are readily identifiable in all the major eukaryotic groups and genomes examined. Phylogenetic analyses of the DGAT1 and DGAT2 amino acid sequences revealed evolutionary partitioning of the DGAT protein family into two major DGAT1 and DGAT2 clades. Protein secondary structure and hydrophobic-transmembrane analysis also showed differences between these enzymes. The analysis also revealed that the MGAT2 and AWAT genes may have arisen from DGAT2 duplication events. Conclusions In this study, we identified several DGAT1 and DGAT2 homologs in eukaryote taxa

  14. Structural Basis for the Acyltransferase Activity of Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase-like Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Golczak, Marcin; Kiser, Philip D.; Sears, Avery E.; Lodowski, David T.; Blaner, William S.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-10-10

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins, also referred to as HRAS-like tumor suppressors, comprise a vertebrate subfamily of papain-like or NlpC/P60 thiol proteases that function as phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. HRAS-like tumor suppressor 3, a representative member of this group, plays a key role in regulating triglyceride accumulation and energy expenditure in adipocytes and therefore constitutes a novel pharmacological target for treatment of metabolic disorders causing obesity. Here, we delineate a catalytic mechanism common to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins and provide evidence for their alternative robust lipid-dependent acyltransferase enzymatic activity. We also determined high resolution crystal structures of HRAS-like tumor suppressor 2 and 3 to gain insight into their active site architecture. Based on this structural analysis, two conformational states of the catalytic Cys-113 were identified that differ in reactivity and thus could define the catalytic properties of these two proteins. Finally, these structures provide a model for the topology of these enzymes and allow identification of the protein-lipid bilayer interface. This study contributes to the enzymatic and structural understanding of HRAS-like tumor suppressor enzymes.

  15. Does triacylglycerol biosynthesis require diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DAGAT)?

    PubMed

    Fraser, T; Waters, A; Chatrattanakunchai, S; Stobart, K

    2000-12-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) catalyse the conversion of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA to triacylglycerol via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. The formation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid was Mg2+ dependent and in the presence of EDTA phosphatidic acid accumulated. This property was used to generate large quantities of endogenous radioactive phosphatidic acid in the membranes. On addition of Mg2+ the phosphatidic acid was used in triacylglycerol formation. Acyl-CoA had little effect on the label which accumulated in triacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase, therefore, may not play a major role in oil formation as originally envisaged and other enzymes, including diacylglycerol:diacylglycerol transacylase [Stobart, Mancha, Lenman, Dahlqvist and Stymne (1997) Planta 203, 58-66] may have important biosynthetic functions.

  16. Allostery and Conformational Dynamics in cAMP-binding Acyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Siddiqui, Nida; Rebolj, Katja; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Merzel, Franci; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria harbor unique proteins that regulate protein lysine acylation in a cAMP-regulated manner. These lysine acyltransferases from Mycobacterium smegmatis (KATms) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KATmt) show distinctive biochemical properties in terms of cAMP binding affinity to the N-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding domain and allosteric activation of the C-terminal acyltransferase domain. Here we provide evidence for structural features in KATms that account for high affinity cAMP binding and elevated acyltransferase activity in the absence of cAMP. Structure-guided mutational analysis converted KATms from a cAMP-regulated to a cAMP-dependent acyltransferase and identified a unique asparagine residue in the acyltransferase domain of KATms that assists in the enzymatic reaction in the absence of a highly conserved glutamate residue seen in Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase-like acyltransferases. Thus, we have identified mechanisms by which properties of similar proteins have diverged in two species of mycobacteria by modifications in amino acid sequence, which can dramatically alter the abundance of conformational states adopted by a protein. PMID:24748621

  17. Human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Jauhiainen, M.; Stevenson, K.J.; Dolphin, P.J.

    1988-05-15

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which catalyzes the transacylation of the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of lecithin to cholesterol forming lysolecithin and cholesteryl ester. The substrates for and products of this reaction are present within the plasma lipoproteins upon which the enzyme acts to form the majority of cholesteryl ester in human plasma. The authors proposed a covalent catalytic mechanism of action for LCAT in which serine and histidine residues mediate lecithin cleavage and two cysteine residues cholesterol esterification. With the aid of sulfhydryl reactive trivalent organoarsenical compounds which are specific for vicinal thiols they have probed the geometry of the catalytic site. They conclude that the two catalytic cysteine residues of LCAT (Cys/sup 31/ and Cys /sup 184/) are vicinal with a calculated distance between their sulfur atoms of 3.50-3.62 A. The additional residue alkylated by teh bifunctional reagent is within the catalytic site and may represent a previously identified catalytic serine or histidine residue.

  18. Evolution of serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases in the monocots

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T

    2010-01-01

    The serine carboxypeptidases are a large family of proteases. in higher plants some members of this family have diversified and adopted new functions as acyltransferases required for the synthesis of natural products. we recently reported the first serine carboxypeptidase-like (scpl) acyltransferase enzyme to be characterized from monocotyledonous plants.1 This enzyme, AsSCPL1, is required for acylation of antimicrobial terpenes (avenacins) that are produced in the roots of oat (Avena spp.) and that provide protection against soil-borne pathogens. The SCPL acyltransferase enzyme family has undergone substantial expansion following the divergence of monocots and dicots. Here we discuss the evolution of this SCPL enzyme family in monocots, their contribution to metabolic diversity, and the roles of these enzymes in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20173416

  19. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Maxence; Robinson, David S.; ...

    2016-11-21

    achieved for the first time the microbial production of polyamine hydroxycinnamate amides; monolignol, malate and fatty alcohol hydroxycinnamate esters; tropane alkaloids; and benzoate/caffeate alcohol esters. In some instances, the additional expression of Flavobacterium johnsoniae tyrosine ammonia-lyase (FjTAL) allowed the synthesis of p-coumarate conjugates and eliminated the need to supplement the culture media with 4-hydroxycinnamate. In conclusion, we demonstrate in this study the effectiveness of expressing members of the plant BAHD acyltransferase family in yeast for the synthesis of numerous valuable hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates.« less

  20. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Maxence; Robinson, David S.; Benites, Veronica T.; Wang, George; Roux, Lucien; Tsai, Yi -Lin; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Chiu, Tsan -Yu; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Deutsch, Samuel; Loque, Dominique

    2016-11-21

    . Similarly, we achieved for the first time the microbial production of polyamine hydroxycinnamate amides; monolignol, malate and fatty alcohol hydroxycinnamate esters; tropane alkaloids; and benzoate/caffeate alcohol esters. In some instances, the additional expression of Flavobacterium johnsoniae tyrosine ammonia-lyase (FjTAL) allowed the synthesis of p-coumarate conjugates and eliminated the need to supplement the culture media with 4-hydroxycinnamate. In conclusion, we demonstrate in this study the effectiveness of expressing members of the plant BAHD acyltransferase family in yeast for the synthesis of numerous valuable hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates.

  1. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secr...

  2. Expression and purification of membrane protein diacylglycerol acyltransferase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in seeds and other tissues. DGAT knockout mice are resista...

  3. Purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferases from E. coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding plant oil biosynthesis will help to create new oilseed crops with value-added properties to replace petroleum-based compounds. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are key enzymes catalyzing the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Over-expression of DGATs ...

  4. Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT isoforms have nonredundant functions in TAG biosynthesis in species such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii) which contains 80% high-value eleostearic acid in its seed oils. ...

  5. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are responsible for the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Different forms of DGATs have nonredundant functions in TAG biosynthesis in species such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii), which contains approximately 80% high-valu...

  6. Lipoprotein products of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer.

    PubMed

    Rose, H G; Ellerbe, P

    1982-09-14

    High-density lipoprotein substrates and products of human plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase have been labelled with radioisotopic cholesteryl esters in order to facilitate identification. [3H]Cholesteryl esters were formed by endogenous HDL3/VHDL enzyme (d greater than 1.125 g/ml) following incubation with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine, unesterified cholesterol and 3H-labelled unesterified cholesterol. Transfer of labelled esters to acceptor lipoproteins (VLDL+LDL, d less than 1.063 g/ml) was employed to distinguish a hypothetical transfer complex. Separation of labelled HDL3/VHDL was by gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicate that a subpopulation of labelled HDL3/VHDL cholesteryl esters (43-61% of total) were removed by VLDL/LDL during a 3 h transfer period and these derive from the smaller lipoproteins of the spectrum. HDL carrying non-transferable [3H]cholesteryl esters localize to the larger HDL3. Transfer rates were proportional to ratios of acceptor to donor lipoproteins. Net transfer of cholesteryl esters from the smaller HDL3 also occurred, but was smaller in magnitude (about 10.5% of total). Acyltransferase assays indicated that enzyme distribution is skewed to larger-sized HDL3, suggesting that the non-transferable components might be lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-containing parent complexes, while the smaller transfer products contain little acyltransferase. The results fit the hypothesis that a parent HDL3-lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase complex generates a smaller-sized lipoprotein product which is active in cholesteryl ester transport.

  7. Inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase block Sonic Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Elissaveta; Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Glickman, J Fraser; Resh, Marilyn D

    2013-04-01

    Inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is of great clinical interest. Here we exploit Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat)-mediated Shh palmitoylation, a modification critical for Shh signaling, as a new target for Shh pathway inhibition. A target-oriented high-throughput screen was used to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Hhat. In cells, these Hhat inhibitors specifically block Shh palmitoylation and inhibit autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling.

  8. Four Acyltransferases Uniquely Contribute to Phospholipid Heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Oelkers, Peter; Pokhrel, Keshav

    2016-01-01

    Diverse acyl-CoA species and acyltransferase isoenzymes are components of a complex system that synthesizes glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four main acyl-CoA species, two main glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferases (Gat1p, Gat2p), and two main 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases (Lpt1p, Slc1p). The in vivo contribution of these isoenzymes to phospholipid heterogeneity was determined using haploids with compound mutations: gat1Δlpt1Δ, gat2Δlpt1Δ, gat1Δslc1Δ, and gat2Δslc1Δ. All mutations mildly reduced [3H]palmitic acid incorporation into phospholipids relative to triacylglycerol. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified few differences from wild type in gat1Δlpt1Δ, dramatic differences in gat2Δslc1Δ, and intermediate changes in gat2Δlpt1Δ and gat1Δslc1Δ. Yeast expressing Gat1p and Lpt1p had phospholipids enriched with acyl chains that were unsaturated, 18 carbons long, and paired for length. These alterations prevented growth at 18.5°C and in 10% ethanol. Therefore, Gat2p and Slc1p dictate phospholipid acyl chain composition in rich media at 30°C. Slc1p selectively pairs acyl chains of different lengths. PMID:27920551

  9. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Schlossman, D M; Bell, R M

    1978-01-01

    Yeast acyl-coenzyme A:dihydroxyacetone-phosphate O-acyltransferase (DHAP acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.42) was investigated to (i) determine whether its activity and that of acyl-coenzyme A:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (glycerol-P acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.15) represent dual catalytic functions of a single membranous enzyme, (ii) estimate the relative contributions of the glycerol-P and DHAP pathways for yeast glycerolipid synthesis, and (iii) evaluate the suitability of yeast for future genetic investigations of the eucaryotic glycerol-P and DHAP acyltransferase activities. The membranous DHAP acyltransferase activity showed an apparent Km of 0.79 mM for DHAP, with a Vmax of 5.3 nmol/min per mg, whereas the glycerol-P acyltransferase activity showed an apparent Km of 0.05 mM for glycerol-P, with a Vmax of 3.4 nmol/min per mg. Glycerol-P was a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.07 mM) of the DHAP acyltransferase activity, and DHAP was a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.91 mM) of the glycerol-P acyltransferase activity. The two acyltransferase activities exhibited marked similarities in their pH dependence, acyl-coenzyme A chain length preference and substrate concentration dependencies, thermolability, and patterns of inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide, trypsin, and detergents. Thus, the data strongly suggest that yeast glycerol-P and DHAP acyltransferase activities represent dual catalytic functions of a single membrane-bound enzyme. Furthermore, since no acyl-DHAP oxidoreductase activity could be detected in yeast membranes, the DHAP pathway for glycerolipid synthesis may not operate in yeast. PMID:25265

  10. Role of Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Oleaginous Streptomyces sp. Strain G25

    PubMed Central

    Röttig, Annika; Strittmatter, Carl Simon; Schauer, Jennifer; Hiessl, Sebastian; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, we isolated a novel Streptomyces strain which can accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) and consists of 64% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with glucose and 50% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with cellobiose. To identify putative gene products responsible for lipid storage and cellobiose utilization, we analyzed its draft genome sequence. A single gene encoding a wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) was identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme AtfG25 showed acyltransferase activity with C12- or C16-acyl-CoA, C12 to C18 alcohols, or dipalmitoyl glycerol. This acyltransferase exhibits 24% amino acid identity to the model enzyme AtfA from Acinetobacter baylyi but has high sequence similarities to WS/DGATs from other Streptomyces species. To investigate the impact of AtfG25 on lipid accumulation, the respective gene, atfG25, was inactivated in Streptomyces sp. strain G25. However, cells of the insertion mutant still exhibited DGAT activity and were able to store TAG, albeit in lower quantities and at lower rates than the wild-type strain. These findings clearly indicate that AtfG25 has an important, but not exclusive, role in TAG biosynthesis in the novel Streptomyces isolate and suggest the presence of alternative metabolic pathways for lipid accumulation which are discussed in the present study. IMPORTANCE A novel Streptomyces strain was isolated from desert soil, which represents an extreme environment with high temperatures, frequent drought, and nutrient scarcity. We believe that these harsh conditions promoted the development of the capacity for this strain to accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of lipids. In this study, we present the analysis of its draft genome sequence with a special focus on enzymes potentially involved in its lipid storage. Furthermore, the activity and importance of the detected

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  12. Cloning of Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase (GPCAT) from Fungi and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Głąb, Bartosz; Beganovic, Mirela; Anaokar, Sanket; Hao, Meng-Shu; Rasmusson, Allan G.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), the product of the complete deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), was long thought to not be a substrate for reacylation. However, it was recently shown that cell-free extracts from yeast and plants could acylate GPC with acyl groups from acyl-CoA. By screening enzyme activities of extracts derived from a yeast knock-out collection, we were able to identify and clone the yeast gene (GPC1) encoding the enzyme, named glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT). By homology search, we also identified and cloned GPCAT genes from three plant species. All enzymes utilize acyl-CoA to acylate GPC, forming lyso-PC, and they show broad acyl specificities in both yeast and plants. In addition to acyl-CoA, GPCAT efficiently utilizes LPC and lysophosphatidylethanolamine as acyl donors in the acylation of GPC. GPCAT homologues were found in the major eukaryotic organism groups but not in prokaryotes or chordates. The enzyme forms its own protein family and does not contain any of the acyl binding or lipase motifs that are present in other studied acyltransferases and transacylases. In vivo labeling studies confirm a role for Gpc1p in PC biosynthesis in yeast. It is postulated that GPCATs contribute to the maintenance of PC homeostasis and also have specific functions in acyl editing of PC (e.g. in transferring acyl groups modified at the sn-2 position of PC to the sn-1 position of this molecule in plant cells). PMID:27758859

  13. BAT1, a putative acyltransferase, modulates brassinosteroid levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunhwa; Cho, Young-hyun; Kim, Kangmin; Matsui, Minami; Son, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Fujioka, Shozo; Hwang, Ildoo

    2013-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for various aspects of plant development. Cellular BR homeostasis is critical for proper growth and development of plants; however, its regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown. BAT1 (BR-related acyltransferase 1), a gene encoding a putative acyltransferase, was found to be involved in vascular bundle development in a full-length cDNA over-expressor (FOX) screen. Over-expression of BAT1 resulted in typical BR-deficient phenotypes, which were rescued by exogenously applied castasterone and brassinolide. Analyses of BR profiles demonstrated that BAT1 alters levels of several brassinolide biosynthetic intermediates, including 6-deoxotyphasterol, typhasterol and 6-deoxocastasterone. BAT1 is mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAT1 is highly expressed in young tissues and vascular bundles, and its expression is induced by auxin. These data suggest that BAT1 is involved in BR homeostasis, probably by conversion of brassinolide intermediates into acylated BR conjugates. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Polyketide Proofreading by an Acyltransferase-like Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Katja; Niederkrüger, Holger; Zimmermann, Katrin; Vagstad, Anna L.; Moldenhauer, Jana; Brendel, Nicole; Frank, Sarah; Pöplau, Petra; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Townsend, Craig A.; Oldiges, Marco; Hertweck, Christian; Piel, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases (trans-AT PKSs) are an important group of bacterial enzymes producing bioactive polyketides. One difference from textbook PKSs is the presence of one or more free-standing AT-like enzymes. While one homolog loads the PKS with malonyl units, the function of the second copy (AT2) was unknown. We studied the two ATs PedC and PedD involved in pederin biosynthesis in an uncultivated symbiont. PedD displayed malonyl- but not acetyltransferase activity toward various acyl carrier proteins (ACPs). In contrast, the AT2 PedC efficiently hydrolyzed acyl units bound to N-acetylcysteamine or ACP. It accepted substrates with various chain lengths and functionalizations but did not cleave malonyl-ACP. These data are consistent with the role of PedC in PKS proofreading, suggesting a similar function for other AT2 homologs and providing strategies for polyketide titer improvement and biosynthetic investigations. PMID:22444588

  15. Properties of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase from Brassica napus cultures.

    PubMed

    Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara L; Boyle, Riley M; Thomson, Amber L; Sarna, Magdalena A; Weselake, Randall J

    2003-06-01

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT; EC 2.3.1.23) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to produce PC and CoA. LPCAT activity may affect the incorporation of fatty acyl moieties at the sn-2 position of PC where PUFA are formed and may indirectly influence seed TAG composition. LPCAT activity in microsomes prepared from microspore-derived cell suspension cultures of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv Jet Neuf) was assayed using [1-14C]acyl-CoA as the fatty acyl donor. LPCAT activity was optimal at neutral pH and 35 degrees C, and was inhibited by 50% at a BSA concentration of 3 mg mL(-1). At acyl-CoA concentrations above 20 microM, LPCAT activity was more specific for oleoyl (18:1)-CoA than stearoyl (18:0)- and palmitoyl (16:0)-CoA. Lauroyl (12:0)-CoA, however, was not an effective acyl donor. LPC species containing 12:0, 16:0, 18:0, or 18:1 as the fatty acyl moiety all served as effective acyl acceptors for LPCAT, although 12:0-LPC was somewhat less effective as a substrate at lower concentrations. The failure of LPCAT to catalyze the incorporation of a 12:0 moiety from acyl-CoA into PC is consistent with the tendency of acyltransferases to discriminate against incorporation of this fatty acyl moiety at the sn-2 position of TAG from the seed oil of transgenic B. napus expressing a medium-chain thioesterase.

  16. In Vivo and in Vitro Evidence for Biochemical Coupling of Reactions Catalyzed by Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase and Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Guanqun; Kazachkov, Michael; Greer, Michael S.; Caldo, Kristian Mark P.; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed oils of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and many other plant species contain substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major site for PUFA synthesis. The exact mechanisms of how these PUFAs are channeled from PC into triacylglycerol (TAG) needs to be further explored. By using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that the PC deacylation reaction catalyzed by the reverse action of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) can transfer PUFAs on PC directly into the acyl-CoA pool, making these PUFAs available for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-catalyzed reaction for TAG production. Two types of yeast mutants were generated for in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively. Both mutants provide a null background with no endogenous TAG forming capacity and an extremely low LPCAT activity. In vivo experiments showed that co-expressing flax DGAT1-1 and LPCAT1 in the yeast quintuple mutant significantly increased 18-carbon PUFAs in TAG with a concomitant decrease of 18-carbon PUFAs in phospholipid. We further showed that after incubation of sn-2-[14C]acyl-PC, formation of [14C]TAG was only possible with yeast microsomes containing both LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1. Moreover, the specific activity of overall LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1 coupling process exhibited a preference for transferring 14C-labeled linoleoyl or linolenoyl than oleoyl moieties from the sn-2 position of PC to TAG. Together, our data support the hypothesis of biochemical coupling of the LPCAT1-catalyzed reverse reaction with the DGAT1-1-catalyzed reaction for incorporating PUFAs into TAG. This process represents a potential route for enriching TAG in PUFA content during seed development in flax. PMID:26055703

  17. In Vivo and in Vitro Evidence for Biochemical Coupling of Reactions Catalyzed by Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase and Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Guanqun; Kazachkov, Michael; Greer, Michael S; Caldo, Kristian Mark P; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2015-07-17

    Seed oils of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and many other plant species contain substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major site for PUFA synthesis. The exact mechanisms of how these PUFAs are channeled from PC into triacylglycerol (TAG) needs to be further explored. By using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that the PC deacylation reaction catalyzed by the reverse action of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) can transfer PUFAs on PC directly into the acyl-CoA pool, making these PUFAs available for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-catalyzed reaction for TAG production. Two types of yeast mutants were generated for in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively. Both mutants provide a null background with no endogenous TAG forming capacity and an extremely low LPCAT activity. In vivo experiments showed that co-expressing flax DGAT1-1 and LPCAT1 in the yeast quintuple mutant significantly increased 18-carbon PUFAs in TAG with a concomitant decrease of 18-carbon PUFAs in phospholipid. We further showed that after incubation of sn-2-[(14)C]acyl-PC, formation of [(14)C]TAG was only possible with yeast microsomes containing both LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1. Moreover, the specific activity of overall LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1 coupling process exhibited a preference for transferring (14)C-labeled linoleoyl or linolenoyl than oleoyl moieties from the sn-2 position of PC to TAG. Together, our data support the hypothesis of biochemical coupling of the LPCAT1-catalyzed reverse reaction with the DGAT1-1-catalyzed reaction for incorporating PUFAs into TAG. This process represents a potential route for enriching TAG in PUFA content during seed development in flax. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) overexpression in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Francisco; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Wang, Shuli; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Lewin, Tal M; Orntoft, Torben F; Coleman, Rosalind A; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The alteration of the choline metabolite profile is a well-established characteristic of cancer cells. In colorectal cancer (CRC), phosphatidylcholine is the most prominent phospholipid. In the present study, we report that lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1; NM_024830.3), the enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine into phosphatidylcholine, was highly overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas when compared to normal mucosas. Our microarray transcription profiling study showed a significant (p < 10(-8)) transcript overexpression in 168 colorectal adenocarcinomas when compared to ten normal mucosas. Immunohistochemical analysis of colon tumors with a polyclonal antibody to LPCAT1 confirmed the upregulation of the LPCAT1 protein. Overexpression of LPCAT1 in COS7 cells localized the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria and increased LPCAT1 specific activity 38-fold. In cultured cells, overexpressed LPCAT1 enhanced the incorporation of [(14)C]palmitate into phosphatidylcholine. COS7 cells transfected with LPCAT1 showed no growth rate alteration, in contrast to the colon cancer cell line SW480, which significantly (p < 10(-5)) increased its growth rate by 17%. We conclude that LPCAT1 may contribute to total choline metabolite accumulation via phosphatidylcholine remodeling, thereby altering the CRC lipid profile, a characteristic of malignancy.

  19. High-Density Lipoprotein, Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ossoli, Alice; Pavanello, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data clearly show the existence of a strong inverse correlation between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and the incidence of coronary heart disease. This relation is explained by a number of atheroprotective properties of HDL, first of all the ability to promote macrophage cholesterol transport. HDL are highly heterogeneous and are continuously remodeled in plasma thanks to the action of a number of proteins and enzymes. Among them, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a crucial role, being the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol within lipoproteins. LCAT is synthetized by the liver and it has been thought to play a major role in reverse cholesterol transport and in atheroprotection. However, data from animal studies, as well as human studies, have shown contradictory results. Increased LCAT concentrations are associated with increased HDL-C levels but not necessarily with atheroprotection. On the other side, decreased LCAT concentration and activity are associated with decreased HDL-C levels but not with increased atherosclerosis. These contradictory results confirm that HDL-C levels per se do not represent the functionality of the HDL system. PMID:27302716

  20. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 is essential for normal spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fabiani, Maria B; Montanaro, Mauro A; Stringa, Pablo; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Cattaneo, Elizabeth R; Santana, Marianela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R

    2017-08-30

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in the de novo glycerolipid synthesis. The GPAT2 isoform differs from the other isoforms because its expression is restricted to male germ cells and cancer cells. It has been recently reported that GPAT2 expression in mouse testis fluctuates during sexual maturation and that it is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in combination with vitamin A derivatives. Despite progress made in this field, information about GPAT2 role in the developing male germ cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to confirm the hypothesis that GPAT2 is required for the normal physiology of testes and male germ cell maturation. The gene was silenced in vivo by inoculating lentiviral particles carrying the sequence of a short-hairpin RNA targeting Gpat2 mRNA into mouse testis. Histological and gene expression analysis showed impaired spermatogenesis and arrest at the pachytene stage. Defects in reproductive fitness were also observed, and the analysis of apoptosis-related gene expression demonstrated the activation of apoptosis in Gpat2-silenced germ cells. These findings indicate that GPAT2 protein is necessary for the normal development of male gonocytes, and that its absence triggers apoptotic mechanisms, thereby decreasing the number of dividing germ cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziru; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a member of MBOATs family, is essential for octanoylation of ghrelin, which is required for active ghrelin to bind with and activate its receptor. GOAT is expressed mainly in the stomach, pancreas and hypothalamus. Levels of GOAT are altered by energy status. GOAT contains 11 transmembrane helices and one reentrant loop. Its invariant residue His-338 and conserved Asn-307 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and cytosol respectively. GOAT contributes to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipids homeostasis. Deletion of GOAT blocks the acylation of ghrelin leading to subsequent impairment in energy homeostasis and survival when mice are challenged with high energy diet or severe caloric restriction. GO-CoA-Tat, a peptide GOAT inhibitor, attenuates acyl-ghrelin production and prevents weight gain induced by a medium-chain triglycerides-rich high fat diet. Further, GO-CoA-Tat increases glucose- induced insulin secretion. Overall, inhibition of GOAT is a novel strategy for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  2. Engineering the acyltransferase substrate specificity of assembly line polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Briana J.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide natural products act as a broad range of therapeutics, including antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents. This therapeutic diversity stems from the structural diversity of these small molecules, many of which are produced in an assembly line manner by modular polyketide synthases. The acyltransferase (AT) domains of these megasynthases are responsible for selection and incorporation of simple monomeric building blocks, and are thus responsible for a large amount of the resulting polyketide structural diversity. The substrate specificity of these domains is often targeted for engineering in the generation of novel, therapeutically active natural products. This review outlines recent developments that can be used in the successful engineering of these domains, including AT sequence and structural data, mechanistic insights and the production of a diverse pool of extender units. It also provides an overview of previous AT domain engineering attempts, and concludes with proposed engineering approaches that take advantage of current knowledge. These approaches may lead to successful production of biologically active ‘unnatural’ natural products. PMID:23720536

  3. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase: old friend or foe in atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Kunnen, Sandra; Van Eck, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of free cholesterol in plasma lipoproteins and plays a critical role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Deficiency leads to accumulation of nascent preβ-HDL due to impaired maturation of HDL particles, whereas enhanced expression is associated with the formation of large, apoE-rich HDL1 particles. In addition to its function in HDL metabolism, LCAT was believed to be an important driving force behind macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and, therefore, has been a subject of great interest in cardiovascular research since its discovery in 1962. Although half a century has passed, the importance of LCAT for atheroprotection is still under intense debate. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the insights that have been gained in the past 50 years on the biochemistry of LCAT, the role of LCAT in lipoprotein metabolism and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in animal models, and its impact on cardiovascular disease in humans. PMID:22566575

  4. Polyketide proofreading by an acyltransferase-like enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Katja; Niederkrüger, Holger; Zimmermann, Katrin; Vagstad, Anna L; Moldenhauer, Jana; Brendel, Nicole; Frank, Sarah; Pöplau, Petra; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Townsend, Craig A; Oldiges, Marco; Hertweck, Christian; Piel, Jörn

    2012-03-23

    Trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases (trans-AT PKSs) are an important group of bacterial enzymes producing bioactive polyketides. One difference from textbook PKSs is the presence of one or more free-standing AT-like enzymes. While one homolog loads the PKS with malonyl units, the function of the second copy (AT2) was unknown. We studied the two ATs PedC and PedD involved in pederin biosynthesis in an uncultivated symbiont. PedD displayed malonyl- but not acetyltransferase activity toward various acyl carrier proteins (ACPs). In contrast, the AT2 PedC efficiently hydrolyzed acyl units bound to N-acetylcysteamine or ACP. It accepted substrates with various chain lengths and functionalizations but did not cleave malonyl-ACP. These data are consistent with the role of PedC in PKS proofreading, suggesting a similar function for other AT2 homologs and providing strategies for polyketide titer improvement and biosynthetic investigations.

  5. The acyltransferase LYCAT controls specific phosphoinositides and related membrane traffic

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Leslie N.; Dayam, Roya M.; Lee, Minhyoung; Kono, Nozomu; Fairn, Gregory D.; Arai, Hiroyuki; Botelho, Roberto J.; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are key regulators of membrane traffic and signaling. The interconversion of PIPs by lipid kinases and phosphatases regulates their functionality. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and PIPs have a unique enrichment of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl acyl species; however, the regulation and function of this specific acyl profile remains poorly understood. We examined the role of the PI acyltransferase LYCAT in control of PIPs and PIP-dependent membrane traffic. LYCAT silencing selectively perturbed the levels and localization of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and the membrane traffic dependent on these specific PIPs but was without effect on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate or biosynthetic membrane traffic. The acyl profile of PI(4,5)P2 was selectively altered in LYCAT-deficient cells, whereas LYCAT localized with phosphatidylinositol synthase. We propose that LYCAT remodels the acyl chains of PI, which is then channeled into PI(4,5)P2. Our observations suggest that the PIP acyl chain profile may exert broad control of cell physiology. PMID:28035047

  6. Engineering the acyltransferase substrate specificity of assembly line polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Briana J; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-08-06

    Polyketide natural products act as a broad range of therapeutics, including antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents. This therapeutic diversity stems from the structural diversity of these small molecules, many of which are produced in an assembly line manner by modular polyketide synthases. The acyltransferase (AT) domains of these megasynthases are responsible for selection and incorporation of simple monomeric building blocks, and are thus responsible for a large amount of the resulting polyketide structural diversity. The substrate specificity of these domains is often targeted for engineering in the generation of novel, therapeutically active natural products. This review outlines recent developments that can be used in the successful engineering of these domains, including AT sequence and structural data, mechanistic insights and the production of a diverse pool of extender units. It also provides an overview of previous AT domain engineering attempts, and concludes with proposed engineering approaches that take advantage of current knowledge. These approaches may lead to successful production of biologically active 'unnatural' natural products.

  7. Identification of diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitors from Rosa centifolia petals.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hidehiko; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2011-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, and is considered as a potential target to control hypertriglyceridemia or other metabolic disorders. In this study, we found that the extract of rose petals suppressed TAG synthesis in cultured cells, and that the extract showed DGAT inhibitory action in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionation of the rose extract revealed that the DGAT inhibitory substances in the extract were ellagitannins; among them rugosin B, and D, and eusupinin A inhibited DGAT activity by 96, 82, and 84% respectively, at 10 μM. These substances did not inhibit the activities of other hepatic microsomal enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and HMG-CoA reductase, or pancreatic lipase, suggesting that ellagitannins inhibit DGAT preferentially. In an oral fat load test using mice, postprandial plasma TAG increase was suppressed by rose extract; TAG levels 2 h after the fat load were significantly lower in mice administered a fat emulsion containing rose extract than in control mice (446.3 ± 33.1 vs 345.3 ± 25.0 mg/dL, control vs rose extract group; P < 0.05). These results suggest that rose ellagitannins or rose extract could be beneficial in controlling lipid metabolism and used to improve metabolic disorders.

  8. Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 Is the Key Enzyme for Incorporating Arachidonic Acid into Glycerophospholipids during Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Miki; Shindou, Hideo; Koeberle, Andreas; Harayama, Takeshi; Yanagida, Keisuke; Shimizu, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Cellular membranes contain glycerophospholipids, which have important structural and functional roles in cells. Glycerophospholipids are first formed in the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands’ cycle). Recently, lysophospholipid acyltransferases functioning in Lands’ cycle were identified and characterized. Several enzymes involved in glycerophospholipid biosynthesis have been reported to have important roles in adipocytes. However, the role of Lands’ cycle in adipogenesis has not yet been reported. Using C3H10T1/2, a cell line capable of differentiating to adipocyte-like cells in vitro, changes of lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities were investigated. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT) and lysophosphatidylserine acyltransferase (LPSAT) activities were enhanced, especially with 18:2-CoA and 20:4-CoA as donors. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of LPCAT3, which possesses LPCAT, LPEAT and LPSAT activities with high specificity for 18:2- and 20:4-CoA, was upregulated during adipogenesis. Analysis of acyl-chain compositions of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) showed a change in their profiles between preadipocytes and adipocytes, including an increase in the percentage of arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids. These changes are consistent with the activities of LPCAT3. Therefore, it is possible that enhanced phospholipid remodeling by LPCAT3 may be associated with adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23208369

  9. A close look at a ketosynthase from a trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Darren C.; Gay, Glen; Axelrod, Abram J.; Jenner, Matthew; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Kampa, Annette; Oldham, Neil J.; Piel, Jörn; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The recently discovered trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases catalyze the biosynthesis of a wide range of bioactive natural products in bacteria. Here we report the structure of the second ketosynthase from the bacillaene trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase. This 1.95 Å-resolution structure provides the highest resolution view available of a modular polyketide synthase ketosynthase and reveals a flanking subdomain that is homologous to an ordered linker in cis-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases. The structure of the cysteine-to-serine mutant of the ketosynthase acylated by its natural substrate provides high-resolution details of how a native polyketide intermediate is bound and helps explain the basis of ketosynthase substrate specificity. The substrate range of the ketosynthase was further investigated by mass spectrometry. PMID:24508341

  10. Characterization of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kelly A; Grove, Theresa J; Oldham, Corey A; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2017-02-01

    Hearts of Antarctic icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei, family Channichthyidae) have higher densities of mitochondria, and mitochondria have higher densities of phospholipids, compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. There are four isoforms of GPAT in vertebrates; GPAT1 and GPAT2 are localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, whereas GPAT3 and GPAT4 are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We hypothesized that transcript levels of GPAT1 and/or GPAT2 would mirror densities of mitochondrial phospholipids and be higher in the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus compared to the red-blooded species Notothenia coriiceps. Transcript levels of GPAT1 were quantified in heart ventricles and liver using qRT-PCR. Additionally, GPAT1 cDNA was sequenced in the Antarctic notothenioids, C. aceratus and N. coriiceps, and in the sub-Antarctic notothenioid, Eleginops maclovinus, to identify amino acid substitutions that may maintain GPAT1 function at cold temperature. Transcript levels of GPAT1 were higher in liver compared to heart ventricles but were not significantly different between the two species. In contrast, transcripts of GPAT2 were only detected in ventricle where they were 6.6-fold higher in C. aceratus compared to N. coriiceps. These data suggest GPAT1 may be more important for synthesizing triacylglycerol, whereas GPAT2 may regulate synthesis of phospholipids. GPAT1 amino acid sequences are highly conserved among the three notothenioids with 97.9-98.7% identity. Four amino acid substitutions within the cytosolic region of Antarctic notothenioid GPAT1 may maintain conformational changes necessary for binding and catalysis at cold temperature.

  11. Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Database search has identified at least 59 DGAT1 sequences from 48 organisms, but the expression of any DGAT1 as a full-length protein in E. coli had not been reported because DGAT1s are integral membrane proteins and difficult to express and purify. The objective of this study was to establish a procedure for expressing full-length DGAT1 in E. coli. Results An expression plasmid containing the open reading frame for tung tree (Vernicia fordii) DGAT1 fused to maltose binding protein and poly-histidine affinity tags was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). Immunoblotting showed that the recombinant DGAT1 (rDGAT1) was expressed, but mostly targeted to the membranes and insoluble fractions. Extensive degradation also occurred. Nonetheless, the fusion protein was partially purified from the soluble fraction by Ni-NTA and amylose resin affinity chromatography. Multiple proteins co-purified with DGAT1 fusion protein. These fractions appeared yellow in color and contained fatty acids. The rDGAT1 was solubilized from the insoluble fraction by seven detergents and urea, with SDS and Triton X-100 being the most effective detergents. The solubilized rDGAT1 was partially purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. PreScission protease digestion confirmed the identity of rDGAT1 and showed extensive precipitation following Ni-NTA affinity purification. Conclusions This study reports the first procedure for expressing full-length DGAT1 from any species using a bacterial expression system. The results suggest that recombinant DGAT1 is degraded extensively from the carboxyl terminus and associated with other proteins, lipids, and membranes. PMID:21745386

  12. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-09-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.

  13. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  14. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  15. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences from tung tree and 82 other Organisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase family (DGATs) catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGATs esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Understanding the roles of DGATs will help to create transgenic plants with v...

  16. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences from 70 organisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Understanding the roles of DGATs will help to create transgenic plants with value-added properties and provide clues for therapeutic intervention for obes...

  17. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences for metabolic engineering and drug discovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase families (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secretion. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in plants. Therefore, unde...

  18. Developmental regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase family gene expression in tung tree tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are responsible for the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes, including DGAT1 and DGAT2 of tung tre...

  19. Castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase type1(DGAT1)displays greater activity with diricinolein than Arabidopsis DGAT1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil contains the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleate as a major (90%) component. The diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) carries out the final reaction step in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol, the principal constituent of seed oil, and has been considered to be the step that controls the oil...

  20. Expression of tung seed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) in E. coli and yeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG, resist obesity, and/or lack milk secretion. Over-expression of the DGATs increases TAG content in seeds and other t...

  1. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-11-08

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. Inmore » vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. As a result, this improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants.« less

  2. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. In vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. This improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants. PMID:27688773

  3. [Acylation specificity of midecamycin 3-O-acyltransferase within Streptomyces spiramyceticus F21].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunyan; Wu, Linzhuan; Dai, Jianlu; Zhou, Hongxia; Li, Jingyan; Sun, Xiaochun; Zhang, Kan; Xia, Huanzhang; Wang, Yiguang

    2008-12-01

    Spiramycin and midecamycin are 16-membered macrolide antibiotics with very similar chemical structures. Spiramycin has three components, namely spiramycin I, II and III. Spiramycin II and III are, respectively, the O-acetyl and propionyl derivatives at C3-hydroxyl group of spiramycin I. Midecamycin has four components, and the C3-hydroxyl group of midecamycin is all O-propionylated. The enzyme adding acyl group(s) at the C3-hydroxyl group during the biosynthesis of spiramycin and midecamycin is 3-O-acyltransferase. The 3-O-acyltransferases for spiramycin and midecamycin are also very similar, and presume to function when exchanged. To explore whether the 3-O-acyltransferase for midecamycin biosynthesis hold still the character of selective and efficient propionylation for spiramycin I at its C3-hydroxyl group, we inserted mdmB, the 3-O-acyltransferase gene from Streptomyces mycarofaciens ATCC 21454 for midecamycin biosynthesis, into a mutant strain of S. spiramyceticus F21, in which the 3-O-acyltransferase gene for spiramycin biosynthesis, sspA, was deleted; and the mdmB was integrated exactly into the chromosomal site where the sspA was deleted. We name this "hybrid" strain as SP-mdmB. HPLC analysis of the spiramycin produced by SP-mdmB showed that spiramycin I was still the major component, although the relative proportions of both spiramycin II and III increased significantly. We thus conclude that MdmB from Streptomyces mycarofaciens ATCC 21454 for midecamyicn biosynthesis do not hold the character of selective and efficient propionylation for spiramycin I within S. spiramyceticus F21, and this character is possibly limited in Streptomyces mycarofaciens ATCC 21454 for midecamycin biosynthesis.

  4. Recruiting a New Substrate for Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Plants: The Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Vanhercke, Thomas; Shrestha, Pushkar; El Tahchy, Anna; White, Adam; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Liu, Qing; Mansour, Maged P.; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs) are predominantly associated with lipid absorption and resynthesis in the animal intestine where they catalyse the first step in the monoacylglycerol (MAG) pathway by acylating MAG to form diacylglycerol (DAG). Typical plant triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis routes such as the Kennedy pathway do not include an MGAT step. Rather, DAG and TAG are synthesised de novo from glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) by a series of three subsequent acylation reactions although a complex interplay with membrane lipids exists. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that heterologous expression of a mouse MGAT acyltransferase in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly increases TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues despite the low levels of endogenous MAG substrate available. In addition, DAG produced by this acyltransferase can serve as a substrate for both native and coexpressed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT). Finally, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT4 acyltransferase can produce MAG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using oleoyl-CoA as the acyl-donor. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the concept of a new method of increasing oil content in vegetative tissues by using MAG as a substrate for TAG biosynthesis. Based on in vitro yeast assays and expression results in N. benthamiana, we propose that co-expression of a MAG synthesising enzyme such as A. thaliana GPAT4 and a MGAT or bifunctional M/DGAT can result in DAG and TAG synthesis from G-3-P via a route that is independent and complementary to the endogenous Kennedy pathway and other TAG synthesis routes. PMID:22523576

  5. Functional roles of three cutin biosynthetic acyltransferases in cytokinin responses and skotomorphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhou, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Chun-Guang; Chai, Juan; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Li; Hirnerová, Eva; Mrvková, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant development and growth via a two-component signaling pathway. By forward genetic screening, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant named grow fast on cytokinins 1 (gfc1), whose seedlings grew larger aerial parts on MS medium with CK. gfc1 is allelic to a previously reported cutin mutant defective in cuticular ridges (dcr). GFC1/DCR encodes a soluble BAHD acyltransferase (a name based on the first four enzymes characterized in this family: Benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, Anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase and Deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase) with diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity in vitro and is necessary for normal cuticle formation on epidermis in vivo. Here we show that gfc1 was a CK-insensitive mutant, as revealed by its low regeneration frequency in vitro and resistance to CK in adventitious root formation and dark-grown hypocotyl inhibition assays. In addition, gfc1 had de-etiolated phenotypes in darkness and was therefore defective in skotomorphogenesis. The background expression levels of most type-A Arabidopsis Response Regulator (ARR) genes were higher in the gfc1 mutant. The gfc1-associated phenotypes were also observed in the cutin-deficient glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4/8 (gpat4/8) double mutant [defective in glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) acyltransferase enzymes GPAT4 and GPAT8, which redundantly catalyze the acylation of G3P by hydroxyl fatty acid (OH-FA)], but not in the cutin-deficient mutant cytochrome p450, family 86, subfamily A, polypeptide 2/aberrant induction of type three 1 (cyp86A2/att1), which affects the biosynthesis of some OH-FAs. Our results indicate that some acyltransferases associated with cutin formation are involved in CK responses and skotomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

  6. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  7. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  8. Characterization of mouse lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 3: an enzyme with dual functions in the testis1s⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Koichi; Shindou, Hideo; Hishikawa, Daisuke; Shimizu, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids are structural and functional components of cellular membranes as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. Using acyl-CoAs as donors, glycerophospholipids are formed by the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and modified in the remodeling pathway (Lands' cycle). Various acyltransferases, including two lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs), have been discovered from a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) family. Proteins of this family contain putative acyltransferase motifs, but their biochemical properties and physiological roles are not completely understood. Here, we demonstrated that mouse LPAAT3, previously known as mouse AGPAT3, possesses strong LPAAT activity and modest lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activity with a clear preference for arachidonoyl-CoA as a donor. This enzyme is highly expressed in the testis, where CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 preferring 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidic acid as a substrate is also highly expressed. Since 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species are the main components of phosphatidylinositol, mouse LPAAT3 may function in both the de novo and remodeling pathways and contribute to effective biogenesis of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylinositol in the testis. Additionally, the expression of this enzyme in the testis increases significantly in an age-dependent manner, and β-estradiol may be an important regulator of this enzyme's induction. Our findings identify this acyltransferase as an alternative important enzyme to produce phosphatidylinositol in the testis. PMID:19114731

  9. Modification of seed oil content and acyl composition in the brassicaceae by expression of a yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Zou, J; Katavic, V; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; MacKenzie, S L; Keller, W A; Hu, X; Taylor, D C

    1997-06-01

    A putative yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene (SLC1-1), reportedly a variant acyltransferase that suppresses a genetic defect in sphingolipid long-chain base biosynthesis, has been expressed in a yeast SLC deletion strain. The SLC1-1 gene product was shown in vitro to encode an sn-2 acyltransferase capable of acylating sn-1 oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, using a range of acyl-CoA thioesters, including 18:1-, 22:1-, and 24:0-CoAs. The SLC1-1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis and a high erucic acid-containing Brassica napus cv Hero under the control of a constitutive (tandem cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter. The resulting transgenic plants showed substantial increases of 8 to 48% in seed oil content (expressed on the basis of seed dry weight) and increases in both overall proportions and amounts of very-long-chain fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs). Furthermore, the proportion of very-long-chain fatty acids found at the sn-2 position of TAGs was increased, and homogenates prepared from developing seeds of transformed plants exhibited elevated lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) activity. Thus, the yeast sn-2 acyltransferase has been shown to encode a protein that can exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity and that can be used to change total fatty acid content and composition as well as to alter the stereospecific acyl distribution of fatty acids in seed TAGs.

  10. Modification of seed oil content and acyl composition in the brassicaceae by expression of a yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zou, J; Katavic, V; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; MacKenzie, S L; Keller, W A; Hu, X; Taylor, D C

    1997-01-01

    A putative yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene (SLC1-1), reportedly a variant acyltransferase that suppresses a genetic defect in sphingolipid long-chain base biosynthesis, has been expressed in a yeast SLC deletion strain. The SLC1-1 gene product was shown in vitro to encode an sn-2 acyltransferase capable of acylating sn-1 oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, using a range of acyl-CoA thioesters, including 18:1-, 22:1-, and 24:0-CoAs. The SLC1-1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis and a high erucic acid-containing Brassica napus cv Hero under the control of a constitutive (tandem cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter. The resulting transgenic plants showed substantial increases of 8 to 48% in seed oil content (expressed on the basis of seed dry weight) and increases in both overall proportions and amounts of very-long-chain fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs). Furthermore, the proportion of very-long-chain fatty acids found at the sn-2 position of TAGs was increased, and homogenates prepared from developing seeds of transformed plants exhibited elevated lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) activity. Thus, the yeast sn-2 acyltransferase has been shown to encode a protein that can exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity and that can be used to change total fatty acid content and composition as well as to alter the stereospecific acyl distribution of fatty acids in seed TAGs. PMID:9212466

  11. The Trypanosoma brucei dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase TbDAT is dispensable for normal growth but important for synthesis of ether glycerophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Rachel; Pirani, Karim; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Williams, Tyler A; Chen, Daniel G; Hossain, Md Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids are the most abundant constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle. They are essential cellular components that fulfill various important functions beyond their structural role in biological membranes such as in signal transduction, regulation of membrane trafficking or control of cell cycle progression. Our previous studies have established that the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT is dispensable for growth, viability, and ester lipid biosynthesis suggesting the existence of another initial acyltransferase(s). This work presents the characterization of the alternative, dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase TbDAT, which acylates primarily dihydroxyacetonephosphate and prefers palmitoyl-CoA as an acyl-CoA donor. TbDAT restores the viability of a yeast double null mutant that lacks glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase activities. A conditional null mutant of TbDAT in T. brucei procyclic form was created and characterized. TbDAT was important for survival during stationary phase and synthesis of ether lipids. In contrast, TbDAT was dispensable for normal growth. Our results show that in T. brucei procyclic forms i) TbDAT but not TbGAT is the physiologically relevant initial acyltransferase and ii) ether lipid precursors are primarily made by TbDAT.

  12. The Trypanosoma brucei dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase TbDAT is dispensable for normal growth but important for synthesis of ether glycerophospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Pirani, Karim; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Williams, Tyler A.; Chen, Daniel G.; Hossain, Md. Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids are the most abundant constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle. They are essential cellular components that fulfill various important functions beyond their structural role in biological membranes such as in signal transduction, regulation of membrane trafficking or control of cell cycle progression. Our previous studies have established that the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT is dispensable for growth, viability, and ester lipid biosynthesis suggesting the existence of another initial acyltransferase(s). This work presents the characterization of the alternative, dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase TbDAT, which acylates primarily dihydroxyacetonephosphate and prefers palmitoyl-CoA as an acyl-CoA donor. TbDAT restores the viability of a yeast double null mutant that lacks glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase activities. A conditional null mutant of TbDAT in T. brucei procyclic form was created and characterized. TbDAT was important for survival during stationary phase and synthesis of ether lipids. In contrast, TbDAT was dispensable for normal growth. Our results show that in T. brucei procyclic forms i) TbDAT but not TbGAT is the physiologically relevant initial acyltransferase and ii) ether lipid precursors are primarily made by TbDAT. PMID:28715456

  13. Evolutionarily Distinct BAHD N-Acyltransferases Are Responsible for Natural Variation of Aromatic Amine Conjugates in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Meng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Shen, Shuangqian; Shi, Jian; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Li; Wang, Shouchuang; Wan, Jian; Liu, Xianqing; Gong, Liang; Luo, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Phenolamides (PAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites mainly synthesized by BAHD N-acyltransferases. Here, we report metabolic profiling coupled with association and linkage mapping of 11 PAs in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 22 loci affecting PAs in leaves and 16 loci affecting PAs in seeds. We identified eight BAHD N-acyltransferases located on five chromosomes with diverse specificities, including four aromatic amine N-acyltransferases. We show that genetic variation in PAs is determined, at least in part, by allelic variation in the tissue specificity of expression of the BAHD genes responsible for their biosynthesis. Tryptamine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-THT1/2) and tryptamine benzoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-TBT1/2) were found to be bifunctional tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases. The specificity of Os-THT1 and Os-TBT1 for agmatine involved four tandem arginine residues, which have not been identified as specificity determinants for other plant BAHD transferases, illustrating the versatility of plant BAHD transferases in acquiring new acyl acceptor specificities. With phylogenetic analysis, we identified both divergent and convergent evolution of N-acyltransferases in plants, and we suggest that the BAHD family of tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases evolved conservatively in monocots, especially in Gramineae. Our work demonstrates that omics-assisted gene-to-metabolite analysis provides a useful tool for bulk gene identification and crop genetic improvement. PMID:27354554

  14. Compared with Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, ACAT2 displays the greatest capacity to differentiate cholesterol from sitosterol.

    PubMed

    Temel, Ryan E; Gebre, Abraham K; Parks, John S; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2003-11-28

    The capacity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 2 to differentiate cholesterol from the plant sterol, sitosterol, was compared with that of the sterol esterifying enzymes, ACAT1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Cholesterol-loaded microsomes from transfected cells containing either ACAT1 or ACAT2 exhibited significantly more ACAT activity than their sitosterol-loaded counterparts. In sitosterol-loaded microsomes, both ACAT1 and ACAT2 were able to esterify sitosterol albeit with lower efficiencies than cholesterol. The mass ratios of cholesterol ester to sitosterol ester formed by ACAT1 and ACAT2 were 1.6 and 7.2, respectively. Compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 selectively esterified cholesterol even when sitosterol was loaded into the microsomes. To further characterize the difference in sterol specificity, ACAT1 and ACAT2 were compared in intact cells loaded with either cholesterol or sitosterol. Despite a lower level of ACAT activity, the ACAT1-expressing cells esterified 4-fold more sitosterol than the ACAT2 cells. The data showed that compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 displayed significantly greater selectively for cholesterol compared with sitosterol. The plasma cholesterol esterification enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase was also compared. With recombinant high density lipoprotein particles, the esterification rate of cholesterol by LCAT was only 15% greater than for sitosterol. Thus, LCAT was able to efficiently esterify both cholesterol and sitosterol. In contrast, ACAT2 demonstrated a strong preference for cholesterol rather than sitosterol. This sterol selectivity by ACAT2 may reflect a role in the sorting of dietary sterols during their absorption by the intestine in vivo.

  15. Direct nonchromatographic assay for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekharan, R.; Ray, T.K.; Cronan, J.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase) which catalyzes the acylation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid is generally assayed by the use of a radioactive substrate followed by a time-consuming chromatographic separation of substrate and product. We report a direct and highly sensitive nonchromatographic assay for this enzyme based on the ability of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase to dephosphorylate 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate but not phosphatidic acid. This selective hydrolysis coupled with the use of /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate as substrate permits measurement of the product, /sup 32/P-labeled phosphatidic acid by solvent extraction or precipitation. We also report a series of enzymatic reactions for the efficient conversion of /sup 32/Pi to /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate.

  16. Activation of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase by human apolipoprotein E in discoidal complexes with lipids.

    PubMed

    Zorich, N; Jonas, A; Pownall, H J

    1985-07-25

    In a continued investigation of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase reaction with micellar discoidal complexes of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and various water soluble apolipoproteins, we prepared complexes containing human apo-E by the cholate dialysis method. These complexes were systematically compared to apo-A-I complexes synthesized under the same reaction conditions. Apo-E complexes (134 A in diameter) were slightly larger than apo-A-I complexes (110 A) but were very similar in terms of their protein and lipid content (2.4:0.10:1.0, egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/apolipoprotein, w/w) and in the percentage of apolipoprotein in alpha-helical structure (72-74%). Concentration and temperature-dependence experiments on the velocity of the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase reaction revealed differences in apparent Km values and small differences in apparent Vmax but very similar activation energies (18-20 kcal/mol). These observations suggest that differences in lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activation by apo-A-I and apo-E are primarily a result of different affinities of the enzyme for the particles but that the rate-limiting step of the reaction is comparable for both complexes. Apo-E was found to be 18% as effective as apo-A-I in activating purified human lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. Addition of free apo-A-I to apo-E complexes resulted in the exchange of bound for free apolipoprotein causing a slight increase in the reactivity with the enzyme when the incubation mixture was assayed. When the unbound apolipoproteins were removed by ultracentrifugation reisolated complexes containing both apo-E and apo-A-I demonstrated an even greater increase in reactivity with the enzyme.

  17. Two Acyltransferases Contribute Differently to Linolenic Acid Levels in Seed Oil1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stymne, Sten

    2017-01-01

    Acyltransferases are key contributors to triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and, thus, are of great importance for seed oil quality. The effects of increased or decreased expression of ACYL-COENZYME A:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) or PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) on seed lipid composition were assessed in several Camelina sativa lines. Furthermore, in vitro assays of acyltransferases in microsomal fractions prepared from developing seeds of some of these lines were performed. Decreased expression of DGAT1 led to an increased percentage of 18:3n-3 without any change in total lipid content of the seed. The tri-18:3 TAG increase occurred predominantly in the cotyledon, as determined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry, whereas species with two 18:3n-3 acyl groups were elevated in both cotyledon and embryonal axis. PDAT overexpression led to a relative increase of 18:2n-6 at the expense of 18:3n-3, also without affecting the total lipid content. Differential distributions of TAG species also were observed in different parts of the seed. The microsomal assays revealed that C. sativa seeds have very high activity of diacylglycerol-phosphatidylcholine interconversion. The combination of analytical and biochemical data suggests that the higher 18:2n-6 content in the seed oil of the PDAT overexpressors is due to the channeling of fatty acids from phosphatidylcholine into TAG before being desaturated to 18:3n-3, caused by the high activity of PDAT in general and by PDAT specificity for 18:2n-6. The higher levels of 18:3n-3 in DGAT1-silencing lines are likely due to the compensatory activity of a TAG-synthesizing enzyme with specificity for this acyl group and more desaturation of acyl groups occurring on phosphatidylcholine. PMID:28235891

  18. Involvement of the Phospholipid Sterol Acyltransferase1 in Plant Sterol Homeostasis and Leaf Senescence1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier-Navé, Pierrette; Berna, Anne; Noiriel, Alexandre; Compagnon, Vincent; Carlsson, Anders S.; Banas, Antoni; Stymne, Sten; Schaller, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding sterol ester-forming enzymes were recently identified in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome. One belongs to a family of six members presenting homologies with the mammalian Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferases. The other one belongs to the superfamily of Membrane-Bound O-Acyltransferases. The physiological functions of these genes, Phospholipid Sterol Acyltransferase1 (PSAT1) and Acyl-CoA Sterol Acyltransferase1 (ASAT1), respectively, were investigated using Arabidopsis mutants. Sterol ester content decreased in leaves of all mutants and was strongly reduced in seeds from plants carrying a PSAT1-deficient mutation. The amount of sterol esters in flowers was very close to that of the wild type for all lines studied. This indicated further functional redundancy of sterol acylation in Arabidopsis. We performed feeding experiments in which we supplied sterol precursors to psat1-1, psat1-2, and asat1-1 mutants. This triggered the accumulation of sterol esters (stored in cytosolic lipid droplets) in the wild type and the asat1-1 lines but not in the psat1-1 and psat1-2 lines, indicating a major contribution of the PSAT1 in maintaining free sterol homeostasis in plant cell membranes. A clear biological effect associated with the lack of sterol ester formation in the psat1-1 and psat1-2 mutants was an early leaf senescence phenotype. Double mutants lacking PSAT1 and ASAT1 had identical phenotypes to psat1 mutants. The results presented here suggest that PSAT1 plays a role in lipid catabolism as part of the intracellular processes at play in the maintenance of leaf viability during developmental aging. PMID:19923239

  19. The LINKS motif zippers trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines into a biosynthetic megacomplex

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Darren C.; Wagner, Drew T.; Meinke, Jessica L.; Zogzas, Charles E.; Gay, Glen R.; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.

    2016-01-01

    Polyketides such as the clinically-valuable antibacterial agent mupirocin are constructed by architecturally-sophisticated assembly lines known as trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases. Organelle-sized megacomplexes composed of several copies of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines have been observed by others through transmission electron microscopy to be located at the Bacillus subtilis plasma membrane, where the synthesis and export of the antibacterial polyketide bacillaene takes place. In this work we analyze ten crystal structures of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases ketosynthase domains, seven of which are reported here for the first time, to characterize a motif capable of zippering assembly lines into a megacomplex. While each of the three-helix LINKS (Laterally-INteracting Ketosynthase Sequence) motifs is observed to similarly dock with a spatially-reversed copy of itself through hydrophobic and ionic interactions, the amino acid sequences of this motif are not conserved. Such a code is appropriate for mediating homotypic contacts between assembly lines to ensure the ordered self-assembly of a noncovalent, yet tightly-knit, enzymatic network. LINKS-mediated lateral interactions would also have the effect of bolstering the vertical association of the polypeptides that comprise a polyketide synthase assembly line. PMID:26724270

  20. A fluorescent assay to quantitatively measure in vitro acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Stone, Scot J

    2011-09-01

    Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage form of energy in eukaryotic organisms and are synthesized primarily by acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. In vitro DGAT activity has previously been quantified by measuring the incorporation of either radiolabeled fatty acyl CoA or diacylglycerol (DG) into TG. We developed a modified acyltransferase assay using a fluorescent fatty acyl CoA substrate to accurately quantify in vitro DGAT activity. In the modified assay, radioactive fatty acyl CoA is replaced with fluorescent NBD-palmitoyl CoA, which is used as a substrate by DGAT with DG to produce NBD-TG. After extraction with organic solvents and separation by thin layer chromatography, NBD-TG formation can be detected and accurately quantified using a fluorescent imaging system. We demonstrate that this method can be adapted to detect other acyltransferase activities. Because NBD-palmitoyl CoA is commercially available at a much lower cost compared with radioactive acyl CoA substrates, it is a more economical alternative to radioactive tracers. In addition, the exposure of laboratory personnel to radioactivity is greatly reduced.

  1. Glucose Polyester Biosynthesis. Purification and Characterization of a Glucose Acyltransferase1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alice X.; Eannetta, Nancy; Ghangas, Gurdev S.; Steffens, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of the wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii secrete 2,3,4-O-tri-acyl-glucose (-Glc), which contributes to insect resistance. A Glc acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of diacyl-Glc by disproportionating two equivalents of 1-O-acyl-β-Glc, a high-energy molecule formed by a UDP-Glc dependent reaction. The acyltransferase was purified 4,900-fold from L. pennellii leaves by polyethylene glycol fractionation, diethylaminoethyl chromatography, concanavalin A affinity chromatography, and chromatofocusing. The acyltransferase possesses an isoelectric point of 4.8, a relative molecular mass around 110 kD, and is composed of 34- and 24-kD polypeptides as a heterotetramer. The 34- and 24-kD proteins were partially sequenced. The purified enzyme catalyzes both the disproportionation of 1-O-acyl-β-Glcs to generate 1,2-di-O-acyl-β-Glc and anomeric acyl exchange between 1-O-acyl-β-Glc and Glc. PMID:10517836

  2. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  3. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ... alcohol in it than beer, malt liquor, or wine. These drink sizes have about the same amount ...

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  5. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  6. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Banaś, Walentyna; Sanchez Garcia, Alicia; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-06-01

    The last step in triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis in oil seeds, the acylation of diacylglycerols (DAG), is catalysed by two types of enzymes: the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). The relative contribution of these enzymes in the synthesis of TAG has not yet been defined in any plant tissue. In the presented work, microsomal preparations were obtained from sunflower and safflower seeds at different stages of development and used in DGAT and PDAT enzyme assays. The ratio between PDAT and DGAT activity differed dramatically between the two different species. DGAT activities were measured with two different acyl acceptors and assay methods using two different acyl-CoAs, and in all cases the ratio of PDAT to DGAT activity was significantly higher in safflower than sunflower. The sunflower DGAT, measured by both methods, showed significant higher activity with 18:2-CoA than with 18:1-CoA, whereas the opposite specificity was seen with the safflower enzyme. The specificities of PDAT on the other hand, were similar in both species with 18:2-phosphatidylcholine being a better acyl donor than 18:1-PC and with acyl groups at the sn-2 position utilised about fourfold the rate of the sn-1 position. No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations.

  7. Genome-wide identification and analysis of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhunian; Dou, Yongchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Maoyuan; Tian, Xinmin

    2013-11-01

    Membrane bound O-acyl transferase (MBOAT) family is composed of gene members encoding a variety of acyltransferase enzymes, which play important roles in plant acyl lipid metabolism. Here, we present the first genome-enabled identification and analysis of MBOAT gene models in plants. In total, we identified 136 plant MBOAT sequences from 14 plant species with complete genomes. Phylogenetic relationship analyses suggested the plant MBOAT gene models fell into four major groups, two of which likely encode enzymes of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPLAT), respectively, with one-three copies of paralogs present in each of the most plant species. A group of gene sequences, which are homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol uptake proteins (GUP), was identified in plants; copy numbers were conserved, with only one copy represented in each of the most plant species; analyses showed that residues essential for acyltransferases were more prone to be conserved than vertebrate orthologs. Among four groups, one was inferred to emerge in land plants and experience a rapid expansion in genomes of angiosperms, which suggested their important roles in adaptation of plants in lands. Sequence and phylogeny analyses indicated that genes in all four groups encode enzymes with acyltransferases. Comprehensive sequence identification of MBOAT family members and investigation into classification provide a complete picture of the MBOAT gene family in plants, and could shed light into enzymatic functions of different MBOAT genes in plants.

  8. Defective in cuticular ridges (DCR) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene associated with surface cutin formation, encodes a soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sapa Hima; Krishna, T H Anantha; Saha, Saikat; Negi, Arvind Singh; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2010-12-03

    A key step in the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthetic pathway is the final acylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG acyltransferase. In silico analysis has revealed that the DCR (defective in cuticular ridges) (At5g23940) gene has a typical HX(4)D acyltransferase motif at the N-terminal end and a lipid binding motif VX(2)GF at the middle of the sequence. To understand the biochemical function, the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein was found to acylate DAG specifically in an acyl-CoA-dependent manner. Overexpression of At5g23940 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae quadruple mutant deficient in DAG acyltransferases resulted in TAG accumulation. At5g23940 rescued the growth of this quadruple mutant in the oleate-containing medium, whereas empty vector control did not. Lipid particles were localized in the cytosol of At5g23940-transformed quadruple mutant cells, as observed by oil red O staining. There was an incorporation of 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid into TAG in At5g23940-transformed cells of quadruple mutant. Here we report a soluble acyl-CoA-dependent DAG acyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Taken together, these data suggest that a broad specific DAG acyltransferase may be involved in the cutin as well as in the TAG biosynthesis by supplying hydroxy fatty acid.

  9. A Novel Polyamine Acyltransferase Responsible for the Accumulation of Spermidine Conjugates in Arabidopsis Seed[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Fuell, Christine; Parr, Adrian; Hill, Lionel; Bailey, Paul; Elliott, Katherine; Fairhurst, Shirley A.; Martin, Cathie; Michael, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides are a class of secondary metabolites distributed widely in plants. We have identified two sinapoyl spermidine derivatives, N-((4′-O-glycosyl)-sinapoyl),N′-sinapoylspermidine and N,N′-disinapoylspermidine, which comprise the two major polyamine conjugates that accumulate in Arabidopsis thaliana seed. Using metabolic profiling of knockout mutants to elucidate the functions of members of the BAHD acyltransferase family in Arabidopsis, we have also identified two genes encoding spermidine disinapoyl transferase (SDT) and spermidine dicoumaroyl transferase (SCT) activities. At2g23510, which is expressed mainly in seeds, encodes a spermidine sinapoyl CoA acyltransferase (SDT) that is required for the production of disinapoyl spermidine and its glucoside in Arabidopsis seed. The structurally related BAHD enzyme encoded by At2g25150 is expressed specifically in roots and has spermidine coumaroyl CoA acyltransferase (SCT) activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19168716

  10. CGI-58/ABHD5 is a coenzyme A-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Moran, Gabriela; Caviglia, Jorge M.; McMahon, Derek; Rothenberg, Alexis; Subramanian, Vidya; Xu, Zhi; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Storch, Judith; Carman, George M.; Brasaemle, Dawn L.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in human CGI-58/ABHD5 cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS), characterized by excessive storage of triacylglycerol in tissues. CGI-58 is an α/β-hydrolase fold enzyme expressed in all vertebrates. The carboxyl terminus includes a highly conserved consensus sequence (HXXXXD) for acyltransferase activity. Mouse CGI-58 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with two amino terminal 6-histidine tags. Recombinant CGI-58 displayed acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferase activity to lysophosphatidic acid, but not to other lysophospholipid or neutral glycerolipid acceptors. Production of phosphatidic acid increased with time and increasing concentrations of recombinant CGI-58 and was optimal between pH 7.0 and 8.5. The enzyme showed saturation kinetics with respect to 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid and oleoyl-CoA and preference for arachidonoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA. The enzyme showed slight preference for 1-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid over 1-palmitoyl, 1-stearoyl, or 1-arachidonoyl lysophosphatidic acid. Recombinant CGI-58 showed intrinsic fluorescence for tryptophan that was quenched by the addition of 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, oleoyl-CoA, arachidonoyl-CoA, and palmitoyl-CoA, but not by lysophosphatidyl choline. Expression of CGI-58 in fibroblasts from humans with CDS increased the incorporation of radiolabeled fatty acids released from the lipolysis of stored triacylglycerols into phospholipids. CGI-58 is a CoA-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that channels fatty acids released from the hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerols into phospholipids. PMID:19801371

  11. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ståhl, Ulf; Carlsson, Anders S.; Lenman, Marit; Dahlqvist, Anders; Huang, Bangquan; Banaś, Walentyna; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2004-01-01

    A new pathway for triacylglycerol biosynthesis involving a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) was recently described (Dahlqvist A, Stahl U, Lenman M, Banas A, Lee M, Sandager L, Ronne H, Stymne S, [2000] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 6487–6492). The LRO1 gene that encodes the PDAT was identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and shown to have homology with animal lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. A search of the Arabidopsis genome database identified the protein encoded by the At5g13640 gene as the closest homolog to the yeast PDAT (28% amino acid identity). The cDNA of At5g13640 (AtPDAT gene) was overexpressed in Arabidopsis behind the cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Microsomal preparations of roots and leaves from overexpressers had PDAT activities that correlated with expression levels of the gene, thus demonstrating that this gene encoded PDAT (AtPDAT). The AtPDAT utilized different phospholipids as acyl donor and accepted acyl groups ranging from C10 to C22. The rate of activity was highly dependent on acyl composition with highest activities for acyl groups containing several double bonds, epoxy, or hydroxy groups. The enzyme utilized both sn-positions of phosphatidylcholine but had a 3-fold preference for the sn-2 position. The fatty acid and lipid composition as well as the amounts of lipids per fresh weight in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPDAT were not significantly different from the wild type. Microsomal preparations of roots from a T-DNA insertion mutant in the AtPDAT gene had barely detectable capacity to transfer acyl groups from phospholipids to added diacylglycerols. However, these microsomes were still able to carry out triacylglycerol synthesis by a diacylglycerol:diacylglycerol acyltransferase reaction at the same rate as microsomal preparations from wild type. PMID:15247387

  12. Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Koo, Abraham J K; Molina, Isabel; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2007-11-13

    Cutin and suberin are the two major lipid-based polymers of plants. Cutin is the structural polymer of the epidermal cuticle, the waterproof layer covering primary aerial organs and which is often the structure first encountered by phytopathogens. Suberin contributes to the control of diffusion of water and solutes across internal root tissues and in periderms. The enzymes responsible for assembly of the cutin polymer are largely unknown. We have identified two Arabidopsis acyltransferases essential for cutin biosynthesis, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) 4 and GPAT8. Double knockouts gpat4/gpat8 were strongly reduced in cutin and were less resistant to desiccation and to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. They also showed striking defects in stomata structure including a lack of cuticular ledges between guard cells, highlighting the importance of cutin in stomatal biology. Overexpression of GPAT4 or GPAT8 in Arabidopsis increased the content of C16 and C18 cutin monomers in leaves and stems by 80%. In order to modify cutin composition, the acyltransferase GPAT5 and the cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acyl oxidase CYP86A1, two enzymes associated with suberin biosynthesis, were overexpressed. When both enzymes were overexpressed together the epidermal polyesters accumulated new C20 and C22 omega-hydroxyacids and alpha,omega-diacids typical of suberin, and the fine structure and water-barrier function of the cuticle were altered. These results identify GPATs as partners of fatty acyl oxidases in lipid polyester synthesis and indicate that their cooverexpression provides a strategy to probe the role of cutin composition and quantity in the function of plant cuticles.

  13. Identification of bile acid-CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase in rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Kwakye, J B; Johnson, M R; Barnes, S; Grizzle, W E; Diasio, R B

    1991-01-01

    A novel location of the bile-acid-conjugating enzyme bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAT) has been discovered in the cytosolic fraction of rat kidney. Both taurine and glycine were utilized as substrates. Formation of bile acid N-acyl amidates was verified by h.p.l.c. by comparison with authentic standards and by specific hydrolysis using cholylglycine hydrolase. Immunoblot analysis using a human liver anti-BAT polyclonal antibody indicated that rat kidney BAT has the same molecular mass as rat liver BAT. These findings suggest that the kidney has a role in bile acid metabolism and physiology. Images Fig. 6. PMID:1764044

  14. Discovery of a novel series of benzimidazole derivatives as diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong; Goo, Ja-Il; Jung, Hwa Young; Kim, Minkyoung; Boovanahalli, Shanthaveerappa K; Park, Hye Ran; Kim, Mun-Ock; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sun; Choi, Yongseok

    2012-12-15

    A novel series of benzimidazole derivatives was prepared and evaluated for their diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitory activity using microsome from rat liver. Among the newly synthesized compounds, furfurylamine containing benzimidazole carboxamide 10j showed the most potent DGAT inhibitory effect (IC(50)=4.4 μM) and inhibited triglyceride formation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, compound 10j reduced body weight gain of Institute of Cancer Research mice on a high-fat diet and decreased levels of total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in the blood accompanied with a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol level.

  15. A calcium-dependent acyltransferase that produces N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Parsons, William H; Kamat, Siddhesh S; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-09-01

    More than 30 years ago, a calcium-dependent enzyme activity was described that generates N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs), which are precursors for N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. The identity of this calcium-dependent N-acyltransferase (Ca-NAT) has remained mysterious. Here, we use activity-based protein profiling to identify the poorly characterized serine hydrolase PLA2G4E as a mouse brain Ca-NAT and show that this enzyme generates NAPEs and NAEs in mammalian cells.

  16. A calcium-dependent acyltransferase that produces N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Parsons, William H.; Kamat, Siddhesh S.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, a calcium-dependent enzyme activity was described that generates N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs), which are precursors for N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. The identity of this calcium-dependent N-acyltransferase (Ca-NAT) has remained mysterious. Here, we use activity-based protein profiling to identify the poorly characterized serine hydrolase PLA2G4E as a mouse brain Ca-NAT and show that this enzyme generates NAPEs and NAEs in mammalian cells. PMID:27399000

  17. First identification of xanthone sulfonamides as potent acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honggang; Liao, Hongli; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Weifeng; Yan, Jufang; Yan, Yonghong; Zhao, Qingjie; Zou, Yan; Chai, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shichong; Wu, Qiuye

    2010-05-15

    Inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) would be useful anti-atherogenic agents, since an absence of ACAT affects the absorption and transformation of cholesterol, indirectly resulting in the reduction of cholesteryl ester accumulation in blood vessels. This report discloses xanthone sulfonamides as novel class small molecule inhibitors of ACAT. A series of xanthone sulfonamides were synthesized and evaluated to result in the identification of several potent ACAT inhibitors, among which 2n proved to be more potent than the positive control Sandoz58-35. Moreover, a molecular model for the binding between 2n and the active site of ACAT-2 was provided based computational docking results.

  18. Localization of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase gene to human chromosome 1q25

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.C.Y.; Chang, W.; Chang, T.Y. ); Noll, W.W.; Nutile-McMenemy, N. ); Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. )

    1994-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters from cholesterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. It is believed that ACAT plays a key role in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. Recently the authors' laboratory succeeded in molecular cloning and functional expression of human macrophage ACAT cDNA. They have now mapped the ACAT gene to chromosome 1, band q25 by using fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and by Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrid panels.

  19. Action of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase on model lipoproteins. Preparation and characterization of model nascent high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Van Winkle, W B; Pao, Q; Rohde, M; Gotto, A M

    1982-12-13

    Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of human plasma high density lipoprotein, is the primary activator of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. In vitro, the association of apolipoprotein A-I with physiological phosphatidylcholines can be catalyzed by mixing the protein and lipid with sodium cholate, which is removed by chromatography. The apolipoprotein A-I/phospholipid complex has the physical properties of an HDL, and when cholesterol is present the complex is a highly reactive substrate in the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase-catalyzed reaction. The relative reactivity of this complex compared with a number of other lipid-protein complexes is presented and discussed.

  20. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: molecular biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Lehner, Richard; Stone, Scot J; Weselake, Randall J

    2012-10-01

    Triacylglycerol (TG) is a storage lipid which serves as an energy reservoir and a source of signalling molecules and substrates for membrane biogenesis. TG is essential for many physiological processes and its metabolism is widely conserved in nature. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the final step in the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate pathway leading to TG. DGAT activity resides mainly in two distinct membrane bound polypeptides, known as DGAT1 and DGAT2 which have been identified in numerous organisms. In addition, a few other enzymes also hold DGAT activity, including the DGAT-related acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGAT). Progress on understanding structure/function in DGATs has been limited by the lack of detailed three-dimensional structural information due to the hydrophobic properties of theses enzymes and difficulties associated with purification. This review examines several aspects of DGAT and MGAT genes and enzymes, including current knowledge on their gene structure, expression pattern, biochemical properties, membrane topology, functional motifs and subcellular localization. Recent progress in probing structural and functional aspects of DGAT1 and DGAT2, using a combination of molecular and biochemical techniques, is emphasized. Biotechnological applications involving DGAT enzymes ranging from obesity therapeutics to oilseed engineering are also discussed.

  1. The Pun1 gene for pungency in pepper encodes a putative acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Charles; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Liu, Kede; Mazourek, Michael; Moore, Shanna L; Yoo, Eun Young; Kim, Byung-Dong; Paran, Ilan; Jahn, Molly M

    2005-06-01

    Pungency in Capsicum fruits is due to the accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs. The biosynthesis of capsaicin is restricted to the genus Capsicum and results from the acylation of an aromatic moiety, vanillylamine, by a branched-chain fatty acid. Many of the enzymes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis are not well characterized and the regulation of the pathway is not fully understood. Based on the current pathway model, candidate genes were identified in public databases and the literature, and genetically mapped. A published EST co-localized with the Pun1 locus which is required for the presence of capsaicinoids. This gene, AT3, has been isolated and its nucleotide sequence has been determined in an array of genotypes within the genus. AT3 showed significant similarity to acyltransferases in the BAHD superfamily. The recessive allele at this locus contains a deletion spanning the promoter and first exon of the predicted coding region in every non-pungent accession tested. Transcript and protein expression of AT3 was tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. Virus-induced gene silencing of AT3 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of capsaicinoids, a phenotype consistent with pun1. In conclusion, gene mapping, allele sequence data, expression profile and silencing analysis collectively indicate that the Pun1 locus in pepper encodes a putative acyltransferase, and the pun1 allele, used in pepper breeding for nearly 50 000 years, results from a large deletion at this locus.

  2. Involvement of an octose ketoreductase and two acyltransferases in the biosynthesis of paulomycins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jine; Wang, Min; Ding, Yong; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    C-4 hydroxyethyl branched octoses have been observed in polysaccharides of several genera of gram negative bacteria and in various antibiotics produced by gram positive bacteria. The C-4 hydroxyethyl branch was proposed to be converted from C-4 acetyl branch by an uncharacterized ketoreduction step. Paulomycins (PAUs) are glycosylated antibiotics with potent inhibitory activity against gram positive bacteria and are structurally defined by its unique C-4‧ hydroxyethyl branched paulomycose moiety. A novel aldo-keto-reductase, Pau7 was characterized as the enzyme catalyzing the stereospecific ketoreduction of 7‧-keto of PAU E (1) to give the C-4‧ hydroxyethyl branched paulomycose moiety of PAU F (2). An acyltransferase Pau6 further decorates the C-4‧ hydroxyethyl branch of paulomycose moiety of 2 by attaching various fatty acyl chains to 7‧-OH to generate diverse PAUs. In addition, another acyltransferase Pau24 was proposed to be responsible for the 13-O-acetylation of PAUs.

  3. Chemical mechanism of lysophosphatidylcholine: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase from rabbit lung. pH-dependence of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gil, J; Martín, J; Acebal, C; Arche, R

    1990-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyses two reactions: hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine and transacylation between two molecules of lysophosphatidylcholine to give disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Following the kinetic model previously proposed for this enzyme [Martín, Pérez-Gil, Acebal & Arche (1990) Biochem. J. 266, 47-53], the values of essential pK values in free enzyme and substrate-enzyme complexes have now been determined. The chemical mechanism of catalysis was dependent on the deprotonation of a histidine residue with pK about 5.7. This result was supported by the perturbation of pK values by addition of organic solvent. Very high and exothermic enthalpy of ionization was measured, indicating that a conformational re-arrangement in the enzyme accompanies the ionization of the essential histidine residue. These results, as well as the results from previous studies, enabled the proposal of a chemical mechanism for the enzymic reactions catalysed by lysophosphatidylcholine: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase from rabbit lung. PMID:2241908

  4. Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase Type-1 Synthesizes Retinyl Esters in the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Radu, Roxana A.; Bischoff, Nicholas; Makshanoff, Jacob; Hu, Jane; Lloyd, Marcia; Eddington, Shannan; Bianconi, Tran; Bok, Dean; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl esters represent an insoluble storage form of vitamin A and are substrates for the retinoid isomerase (Rpe65) in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The major retinyl-ester synthase in RPE cells is lecithin:retinol acyl-transferase (LRAT). A second palmitoyl coenzyme A-dependent retinyl-ester synthase activity has been observed in RPE homogenates but the protein responsible has not been identified. Here we show that diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) is expressed in multiple cells of the retina including RPE and Müller glial cells. DGAT1 catalyzes the synthesis of retinyl esters from multiple retinol isomers with similar catalytic efficiencies. Loss of DGAT1 in dgat1 -/- mice has no effect on retinal anatomy or the ultrastructure of photoreceptor outer-segments (OS) and RPE cells. Levels of visual chromophore in dgat1 -/- mice were also normal. However, the normal build-up of all-trans-retinyl esters (all-trans-RE’s) in the RPE during the first hour after a deep photobleach of visual pigments in the retina was not seen in dgat1 -/- mice. Further, total retinyl-ester synthase activity was reduced in both dgat1 -/- retina and RPE. PMID:25974161

  5. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase type-1 synthesizes retinyl esters in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Joanna J; Radu, Roxana A; Bischoff, Nicholas; Makshanoff, Jacob; Hu, Jane; Lloyd, Marcia; Eddington, Shannan; Bianconi, Tran; Bok, Dean; Travis, Gabriel H

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl esters represent an insoluble storage form of vitamin A and are substrates for the retinoid isomerase (Rpe65) in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The major retinyl-ester synthase in RPE cells is lecithin:retinol acyl-transferase (LRAT). A second palmitoyl coenzyme A-dependent retinyl-ester synthase activity has been observed in RPE homogenates but the protein responsible has not been identified. Here we show that diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) is expressed in multiple cells of the retina including RPE and Müller glial cells. DGAT1 catalyzes the synthesis of retinyl esters from multiple retinol isomers with similar catalytic efficiencies. Loss of DGAT1 in dgat1(-/-) mice has no effect on retinal anatomy or the ultrastructure of photoreceptor outer-segments (OS) and RPE cells. Levels of visual chromophore in dgat1(-/-) mice were also normal. However, the normal build-up of all-trans-retinyl esters (all-trans-RE's) in the RPE during the first hour after a deep photobleach of visual pigments in the retina was not seen in dgat1(-/-) mice. Further, total retinyl-ester synthase activity was reduced in both dgat1(-/-) retina and RPE.

  6. Function and Localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT2 Expressed in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Aymé, Laure; Baud, Sébastien; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Joffre, Florent; Chardot, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and only committed step of triacylglycerol synthesis. DGAT activity is rate limiting for triacylglycerol accumulation in mammals, plants and microbes. DGATs belong to three different evolutionary classes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DGAT1, encoded by At2g19450, is the major DGAT enzyme involved in triacylglycerol accumulation in seeds. Until recently, the function of DGAT2 (At3g51520) has remained elusive. Previous attempts to characterize its enzymatic function by heterologous expression in yeast were unsuccessful. In the present report we demonstrate that expression of a codon-optimized version of the DGAT2 gene is able to restore neutral lipid accumulation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain (H1246), which is defective in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of codon-optimized DGAT2 and DGAT1 induced the biogenesis of subcellular lipid droplets containing triacylglycerols and squalene. Both DGAT proteins were found to be associated with these lipid droplets. The fatty acid composition was affected by the nature of the acyltransferase expressed. DGAT2 preferentially incorporated C16:1 fatty acids whereas DGAT1 displayed preference for C16:0, strongly suggesting that these enzymes have contrasting substrate specificities. PMID:24663078

  7. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipB enzyme functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingjun; Zhao, Xin; Nasser Eddine, Ali; Geerlof, Arie; Li, Xinping; Cronan, John E; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2006-06-06

    Lipoic acid is essential for the activation of a number of protein complexes involved in key metabolic processes. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on a pathway in which the lipoate attachment group is synthesized from an endogenously produced octanoic acid moiety. In patients with multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, expression of one gene from this pathway, lipB, encoding for octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-protein acyltransferase is considerably up-regulated, thus making it a potential target in the search for novel antiinfectives against tuberculosis. Here we present the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis LipB protein at atomic resolution, showing an unexpected thioether-linked active-site complex with decanoic acid. We provide evidence that the transferase functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase, in which two invariant residues (Lys-142 and Cys-176) are likely to function as acid/base catalysts. Analysis by MS reveals that the LipB catalytic reaction proceeds by means of an internal thioesteracyl intermediate. Structural comparison of LipB with lipoate protein ligase A indicates that, despite conserved structural and sequence active-site features in the two enzymes, 4'-phosphopantetheine-bound octanoic acid recognition is a specific property of LipB.

  8. Novel LC/MS/MS and High-Throughput Mass Spectrometric Assays for Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jenson; Masucci, John A; Lang, Wensheng; Connelly, Margery A; Caldwell, Gary W; Petrounia, Ioanna; Kirkpatrick, Jennifer; Barnakov, Alexander N; Struble, Geoffrey; Miller, Robyn; Dzordzorine, Keli; Kuo, Gee-Hong; Gaul, Michael; Pocai, Alessandro; Lee, Seunghun

    2017-04-01

    Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (MGAT1, MGAT2, and MGAT3) convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol (DAG). MGAT1 and MGAT2 are both implicated in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Conventional MGAT enzyme assays use radioactive substrates, wherein the product of the MGAT-catalyzed reaction is usually resolved by time-consuming thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. Furthermore, microsomal membrane preparations typically contain endogenous diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) from the host cells, and these DGAT activities can further acylate DAG to form triglyceride (TG). Our mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, or LC/MS/MS) MGAT2 assay measures human recombinant MGAT2-catalyzed formation of didecanoyl-glycerol from 1-decanoyl-rac-glycerol and decanoyl-CoA, to produce predominantly 1,3-didecanoyl-glycerol. Unlike 1,2-DAG, 1,3-didecanoyl-glycerol is proved to be not susceptible to further acylation to TG. 1,3-Didecanoyl-glycerol product can be readily solubilized and directly subjected to high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) without further extraction in a 384-well format. We also have established the LC/MS/MS MGAT activity assay in the intestinal microsomes from various species. Our assay is proved to be highly sensitive, and thus it allows measurement of endogenous MGAT activity in cell lysates and tissue preparations. The implementation of the HTMS MGAT activity assay has facilitated the robust screening and evaluation of MGAT inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  9. Mouse ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) plays a critical role in bile acid reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kihwa; Schmahl, Jennifer; Lee, Jong-Min; Garcia, Karen; Patil, Ketan; Chen, Amelia; Keene, Michelle; Murphy, Andrew; Sleeman, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a unique peptide gut hormone that requires post-translational modification to stimulate both feeding and growth hormone release. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified as a specific acyl-transferase for ghrelin, and recent genetic deletion studies of the Goat gene (Goat(-/-)) uncovered the role of ghrelin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. To further understand the physiological functions of the GOAT/ghrelin system, we have conducted a metabolomic and microarray profile of Goat-null mice, as well as determined Goat expression in different tissues using the lacZ reporter gene. Serum metabolite profile analysis revealed that Goat(-/-) mice exhibited increased secondary bile acids >2.5-fold. This was attributed to increased mRNA and protein expression of the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ISBT) in the intestinal and biliary tract. Increased expression of additional solute carrier proteins, including Slc5a12 (>10-fold) were also detected in the small intestine and bile duct. Goat staining was consistently observed in the pituitary glands, stomach, and intestines, and to a lesser extent in the gallbladder and pancreatic duct. This is the first report that the GOAT/ghrelin system regulates bile acid metabolism, and these findings suggest a novel function of GOAT in the regulation of intestinal bile acid reabsorption..

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase TbGAT is Dispensable for Viability and the Synthesis of Glycerolipids in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A; Zhu, Tongtong; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Chen, Daniel G; Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Glycerolipids are the main constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans. Importantly, they occur as a structural component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor of the abundant cell surface glycoproteins procyclin in procyclic forms and variant surface glycoprotein in bloodstream form, that play crucial roles for the development of the parasite in the insect vector and the mammalian host, respectively. The present work reports the characterization of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT that initiates the biosynthesis of ester glycerolipids. TbGAT restored glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity when expressed in a Leishmania major deletion strain lacking this activity and exhibited preference for medium length, unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. TbGAT localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane with its N-terminal domain facing the cytosol. Despite that a TbGAT null mutant in T. brucei procyclic forms lacked glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity, it remained viable and exhibited similar growth rate as the wild type. TbGAT was dispensable for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and GPI-anchored protein procyclin. However, the null mutant exhibited a slight decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis that was compensated with a modest increase in production of ether phosphatidylcholine. Our data suggest that an alternative initial acyltransferase takes over TbGAT's function in its absence. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  12. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase TbGAT Is Dispensable for Viability and the Synthesis of Glycerolipids in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A.; Zhu, Tongtong; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Chen, Daniel G.; Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Glycerolipids are the main constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans. Importantly, they occur as a structural component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor of the abundant cell surface glycoproteins procyclin in procyclic forms and variant surface glycoprotein in bloodstream form, that play crucial roles for the development of the parasite in the insect vector and the mammalian host, respectively. The present work reports the characterization of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT that initiates the biosynthesis of ester glycerolipids. TbGAT restored glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity when expressed in a Leishmania major deletion strain lacking this activity and exhibited preference for medium length, unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. TbGAT localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane with its N-terminal domain facing the cytosol. Despite that a TbGAT null mutant in T. brucei procyclic forms lacked glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity, it remained viable and exhibited similar growth rate as the wild type. TbGAT was dispensable for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and GPI-anchored protein procyclin. However, the null mutant exhibited a slight decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis that was compensated with a modest increase in production of ether phosphatidylcholine. Our data suggest that an alternative initial acyltransferase takes over TbGAT’s function in its absence. PMID:26909872

  13. Discovery of novel acyl coenzyme a: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitors: pharmacophore-based virtual screening, synthesis and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chhabria, Mahesh T; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik S; Mahajan, Bhushan M; Darji, Urvesh B; Shah, Gaurang B

    2012-07-01

    The present study describes ligand-based pharmacophore modeling of a series of structurally diverse acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitors. Quantitative pharmacophore models were generated using HypoGen module of Discovery Studio 2.1, whereby the best pharmacophore model possessing two hydrophobic, one ring aromatic, and one hydrogen bond acceptor feature for inhibition of acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase showed a very good correlation coefficient (r = 0.942) along with satisfactory cost analysis. Hypo1 was also validated by test set and cross-validation methods. Developed models were found to be predictive as indicated by low error values for test set molecules. Virtual screening against Maybridge database using Hypo1 was performed. The two most potent compounds (47 and 48; predicted IC₅₀ = 1 nM) of the retrieved hits were synthesized and biologically evaluated. These compounds showed 86% and 88% inhibition of acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase (at 10 μg/mL) with IC₅₀ value of 3.6 and 2.5 nM, respectively. As evident from the close proximity of biological data to the predicted values, it can be concluded that the generated model (Hypo1) is a reliable and useful tool for lead optimization of novel acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Plant acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) have different specificities in their forward and reverse reactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles inacyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for se...

  15. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of biodiesel from fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyi; Pan, Hong; Li, Xun

    2015-09-01

    Microbial production of biodiesel from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention. Biodiesel is known to be produced from short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs through the expression of wax ester synthase/fatty acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase that catalyzes the esterification of short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs. Here, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce various fatty alcohol acetate esters, which depend on the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 that catalyzes the esterification of fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA. The fatty acid biosynthetic pathways generate fatty acyl-ACPs, fatty acyl-CoAs, or fatty acids, which can be converted to fatty alcohols by fatty acyl-CoA reductase, fatty acyl-ACP reductase, or carboxylic acid reductase, respectively. This study showed the biosynthesis of biodiesel from three fatty acid biosynthetic pathway intermediates.

  16. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-11-08

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. In vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. As a result, this improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants.

  17. A glimpse into the specialization history of the lipases/acyltransferases family of CpLIP2.

    PubMed

    Jan, Anne-Hélène; Dubreucq, Eric; Drone, Jullien; Subileau, Maeva

    2017-09-01

    Lipases/acyltransferases homologous to CpLIP2 from Candida parapsilosis belong to the α/β hydrolase superfamily as lipase A from Moesziomyces antarcticus (Candida antarctica), and constitute a consistent phylogenetic subgroup with at least 56% identity. Lipases/acyltransferases share the phenotypic characteristic of a high acyltransfer activity even in aqueous media with very high water thermodynamic activity. Previous mutagenesis and evolution strategies have given insights into the role of key residues and protein subdomains in the reaction and substrate specificities of these enzymes. However, multiple mutations are often deleterious for the activity and the identification of all the residues that historically led to the function is complicated. A new complementary approach to elucidate structural determinant was conducted in this study, based on the resurrection of ancestral proteins to understand how the evolution led to the present properties of the biocatalysts. By doing so, the comparison with the extant proteins can lead to the identification of key residues involved in the enzymes' specialization. Using Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction, we have generated a putative ancestral lipases/acyltransferases, PaleoLAc. This enzyme shares a high level of identity with CpLIP2 but has a different catalytic behavior. PaleoLAc allowed the identification of putative key residues involved in acyltransfer ability and supports the hypothesis that this exceptional property within the lipases/acyltransferases family is linked to a cluster of residues in the vicinity of the active site. As a representative of the ancestral origin of the diversity of the catalytic behaviors observed in modern lipases/acyltransferases, PaleoLAc constitutes a powerful tool for further engineering toward targeted specialization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A Cytosolic Acyltransferase Contributes to Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Sucrose-Rescued Arabidopsis Seed Oil Catabolism Mutants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Luisa; Whitehead, Lynne; He, Zhesi; Gazda, Valeria; Gilday, Alison; Kozhevnikova, Ekaterina; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and oil bodies persist in sucrose (Suc)-rescued Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings disrupted in seed oil catabolism. This study set out to establish if TAG levels persist as a metabolically inert pool when downstream catabolism is disrupted, or if other mechanisms, such as fatty acid (FA) recycling into TAG are operating. We show that TAG composition changes significantly in Suc-rescued seedlings compared with that found in dry seeds, with 18:2 and 18:3 accumulating. However, 20:1 FA is not efficiently recycled back into TAG in young seedlings, instead partitioning into the membrane lipid fraction and diacylglycerol. In the lipolysis mutant sugar dependent1and the β-oxidation double mutant acx1acx2 (for acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase), levels of TAG actually increased in seedlings growing on Suc. We performed a transcriptomic study and identified up-regulation of an acyltransferase gene, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE3 (DGAT3), with homology to a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cytosolic acyltransferase. The acyl-Coenzyme A substrate for this acyltransferase accumulates in mutants that are blocked in oil breakdown postlipolysis. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed involvement in TAG synthesis and specificity toward 18:3 and 18:2 FAs. Double-mutant analysis with the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter mutant peroxisomal ABC transporter1 indicated involvement of DGAT3 in the partitioning of 18:3 into TAG in mutant seedlings growing on Suc. Fusion of the DGAT3 protein with green fluorescent protein confirmed localization to the cytosol of N. benthamiana. This work has demonstrated active recycling of 18:2 and 18:3 FAs into TAG when seed oil breakdown is blocked in a process involving a soluble cytosolic acyltransferase. PMID:22760209

  19. A land-plant-specific glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase family in Arabidopsis: substrate specificity, sn-2 preference, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Simpson, Jeffrey P; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John B

    2012-10-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has eight glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) genes that are members of a plant-specific family with three distinct clades. Several of these GPATs are required for the synthesis of cutin or suberin. Unlike GPATs with sn-1 regiospecificity involved in membrane or storage lipid synthesis, GPAT4 and -6 are unique bifunctional enzymes with both sn-2 acyltransferase and phosphatase activity resulting in 2-monoacylglycerol products. We present enzymology, pathway organization, and evolutionary analysis of this GPAT family. Within the cutin-associated clade, GPAT8 is demonstrated as a bifunctional sn-2 acyltransferase/phosphatase. GPAT4, -6, and -8 strongly prefer C16:0 and C18:1 ω-oxidized acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) over unmodified or longer acyl chain substrates. In contrast, suberin-associated GPAT5 can accommodate a broad chain length range of ω-oxidized and unsubstituted acyl-CoAs. These substrate specificities (1) strongly support polyester biosynthetic pathways in which acyl transfer to glycerol occurs after oxidation of the acyl group, (2) implicate GPAT specificities as one major determinant of cutin and suberin composition, and (3) argue against a role of sn-2-GPATs (Enzyme Commission 2.3.1.198) in membrane/storage lipid synthesis. Evidence is presented that GPAT7 is induced by wounding, produces suberin-like monomers when overexpressed, and likely functions in suberin biosynthesis. Within the third clade, we demonstrate that GPAT1 possesses sn-2 acyltransferase but not phosphatase activity and can utilize dicarboxylic acyl-CoA substrates. Thus, sn-2 acyltransferase activity extends to all subbranches of the Arabidopsis GPAT family. Phylogenetic analyses of this family indicate that GPAT4/6/8 arose early in land-plant evolution (bryophytes), whereas the phosphatase-minus GPAT1 to -3 and GPAT5/7 clades diverged later with the appearance of tracheophytes.

  20. Antisense suppression of type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferase adversely affects plant development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Lock, Yee-Ying; Snyder, Crystal L; Zhu, Weiming; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Weselake, Randall J; Shah, Saleh

    2009-09-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form triacylglycerol in the terminal step of seed oil formation. Previous work has suggested that the level of DGAT activity may have a substantial effect on the flow of carbon into triacylglycerol, implying that the enzyme may represent a promising target for seed oil modification through biotechnological approaches. In the current study, Brassica napus DH12075 was transformed with an antisense type 1 DGAT construct, resulting in a reduction in DGAT1 gene expression, total DGAT activity and seed oil content. In addition, reduced seed yield and germination rates were observed along with severe developmental abnormalities. These data suggest that in addition to its critical role in seed oil formation, DGAT1 enzyme may also be important for normal seed development in B. napus, although the underlying mechanism(s) remain to be determined. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2009.

  1. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John JG

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  2. Sequence of the luxD gene encoding acyltransferase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Chao, Y F; Weng, S F; Lin, J W

    1993-04-15

    The nucleotide sequence of luxD (EMBL accession No. X65611), encoding acyltransferase (ACT), of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined, and the amino acid (aa) sequence was deduced. ACT is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex, which is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde that serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reactions. The protein has a calculated M(r) of 34,384 and comprises 305 aa residues. Alignment and comparison of the ACT of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio fischeri ATCC7744, V. harveyi B392 and Xenorhabdus luminescens Hm shows that there is 66%, 59% and 61% aa identity, respectively.

  3. Catalytic center of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase: isolation and sequence of diisopropyl fluorophosphate-labeled peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.B.; Yueksel, U.G.; Gracy, R.W.; Lacko, A.G.

    1987-02-27

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was purified from hog plasma and subsequently reacted with (/sup 3/H)-Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). The labeled enzyme was digested with pepsin and the peptides separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two radioactive peptides were isolated, subjected to automated amino acid sequencing and yielded the following data: A) Ile-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Pro-Trp-Gly-Gly-Ser, and B) Tyr-Ile-Phe-Asp-x-Gly-Phe-Pro-Tyr-x-Asp-Pro-Val. Both of these sequences represent very highly conserved regions of the enzyme when compared to the sequence of human LCAT. Peptide (A) is considered to represent the catalytic center of LCAT based on comparisons with data reported in the literature.

  4. 2-Bromopalmitate analogues as activity-based probes to explore palmitoyl acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Baohui; DeRan, Michael; Li, Xinyan; Liao, Xuebin; Fukata, Masaki; Wu, Xu

    2013-05-15

    Reversible S-palmitoylation is an important post-translational modification that regulates the trafficking, localization, and activity of proteins. Cysteine-rich Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) domain-containing enzymes are evolutionarily conserved protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs). The human genome encodes 23 DHHC-PATs that regulate diverse cellular functions. Although chemical probes and proteomic methods to detect palmitoylated protein substrates have been reported, no probes for direct detection of the activity of PATs are available. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of 2-bromohexadec-15-ynoic acid and 2-bromooctadec-17-ynoic acid, which are analogues of 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), as activity-based probes for PATs as well as other palmitoylating and 2-BP-binding enzymes. These probes will serve as new chemical tools for activity-based protein profiling to explore PATs, to dissect the functions of PATs in cell signaling and diseases, and to facilitate the identification of their inhibitors.

  5. Recombinant human dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyl-transferase characterization as an integral monotopic membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Piano, Valentina; Nenci, Simone; Magnani, Francesca; Aliverti, Alessandro; Mattevi, Andrea

    2016-12-02

    Although the precise functions of ether phospholipids are still poorly understood, significant alterations in their physiological levels are associated either to inherited disorders or to aggressive metastatic cancer. The essential precursor, alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), for all ether phospholipids species is synthetized in two consecutive reactions performed by two enzymes sitting on the inner side of the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we report the characterization of the recombinant human DHAP acyl-transferase, which performs the first step in alkyl-DHAP synthesis. By exploring several expression systems and designing a number of constructs, we were able to purify the enzyme in its active form and we found that it is tightly bound to the membrane through the N-terminal residues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acyl coenzyme A: 6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, P A; Abraham, E P; Baldwin, J E; Fleming, M D; Schofield, C J; Sutherland, J D; Willis, A C

    1990-03-26

    A study of the final stages of the biosynthesis of the penicillins in Penicillium chrysogenum has revealed two types of enzyme. One hydrolyses phenoxymethyl penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The other, also obtained from Aspergillus nidulans, transfers a phenylacetyl group from phenylacetyl CoA to 6-APA. The acyltransferase, purified to apparent homogeneity, had a molecular mass of 40 kDa. It also catalyses the conversion of isopenicillin N (IPN) to benzylpenicillin (Pen G) and hydrolyses IPN to 6-APA. In the presence of SDS it dissociates, with loss of activity, into fragments of ca 30 and 10.5 kDa, but activity is regained when these fragments recombine in the absence of SDS.

  7. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2006-12-27

    Pharmacological inhibition of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) has emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bioassay-guided isolation of CHCl3 extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae), using an in vitro DGAT inhibitory assay, lead to isolation of a new alkamide named (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (2), together with four known alkamides: retrofractamide C (1), pipernonaline (3), piperrolein B (4), and dehydropipernonaline (5). Compounds 2-5 inhibited DGAT with IC50 values of 29.8 (2), 37.2 (3), 20.1 (4), and 21.2 (5) microM, respectively, but the IC50 value for 1 was more than 900 microM. This finding indicates that compounds possessing piperidine groups (2-5) can be potential DGAT inhibitors.

  9. Novel Acylphosphate Mimics that Target PlsY, an Essential Acyltransferase in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Kimberly D.; Lu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Luna, Vicki A.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Carson, Elizabeth I.; Qi, Jianjun; Kudrimoti, Sucheta; Rock, Charles O.

    2009-01-01

    PlsY is a recently discovered acyltransferase that executes an essential step in membrane phospholipid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. Using a bioisosteric replacement approach to generate substrate-based inhibitors of PlsY as potential novel antibacterial agents, a series of stabilized acylphosphate mimetics, including acylphosphonates, acyl αα,-difluoromethyl phosphonates, acyl phosphoramides, reverse amide phosphonates, acylsulfamates and acylsulfamides were designed and synthesized. Several acyl phosphonates, phosphoramides and sulfamates were identified as inhibitors of PlsY from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus anthracis. As anticipated, these inhibitors were competitive inhibitors with respect to the acylphosphate substrate. Antimicrobial testing showed the inhibitors to have generally weak anti Gram-positive activity with the exception of some acyl phosphonates, reverse amide phosphonates, and acylsulfamates that had potent activity against multiple strains of Bacillus anthracis. PMID:19016283

  10. Cloning of Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase (GPCAT) from Fungi and Plants: A NOVEL ENZYME IN PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE SYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Głąb, Bartosz; Beganovic, Mirela; Anaokar, Sanket; Hao, Meng-Shu; Rasmusson, Allan G; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten; Lager, Ida

    2016-11-25

    Glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), the product of the complete deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), was long thought to not be a substrate for reacylation. However, it was recently shown that cell-free extracts from yeast and plants could acylate GPC with acyl groups from acyl-CoA. By screening enzyme activities of extracts derived from a yeast knock-out collection, we were able to identify and clone the yeast gene (GPC1) encoding the enzyme, named glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT). By homology search, we also identified and cloned GPCAT genes from three plant species. All enzymes utilize acyl-CoA to acylate GPC, forming lyso-PC, and they show broad acyl specificities in both yeast and plants. In addition to acyl-CoA, GPCAT efficiently utilizes LPC and lysophosphatidylethanolamine as acyl donors in the acylation of GPC. GPCAT homologues were found in the major eukaryotic organism groups but not in prokaryotes or chordates. The enzyme forms its own protein family and does not contain any of the acyl binding or lipase motifs that are present in other studied acyltransferases and transacylases. In vivo labeling studies confirm a role for Gpc1p in PC biosynthesis in yeast. It is postulated that GPCATs contribute to the maintenance of PC homeostasis and also have specific functions in acyl editing of PC (e.g. in transferring acyl groups modified at the sn-2 position of PC to the sn-1 position of this molecule in plant cells). © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Activity and Crystal Structure of Arabidopsis thalianaUDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Chung, Hak Suk; Raetz, Christian R.H.; Garrett, Teresa A.

    2012-08-31

    The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) acyltransferase, encoded by lpxA, catalyzes the first step of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria, the (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP-dependent acylation of the 3-OH group of UDP-GlcNAc. Recently, we demonstrated that the Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs of six enzymes of the bacterial lipid A pathway produce lipid A precursors with structures similar to those of Escherichia coli lipid A precursors [Li, C., et al. (2011) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11387-11392]. To build upon this finding, we have cloned, purified, and determined the crystal structure of the A. thaliana LpxA ortholog (AtLpxA) to 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The overall structure of AtLpxA is very similar to that of E. coli LpxA (EcLpxA) with an {alpha}-helical-rich C-terminus and characteristic N-terminal left-handed parallel {beta}-helix (L{beta}H). All key catalytic and chain length-determining residues of EcLpxA are conserved in AtLpxA; however, AtLpxA has an additional coil and loop added to the L{beta}H not seen in EcLpxA. Consistent with the similarities between the two structures, purified AtLpxA catalyzes the same reaction as EcLpxA. In addition, A. thaliana lpxA complements an E. coli mutant lacking the chromosomal lpxA and promotes the synthesis of lipid A in vivo similar to the lipid A produced in the presence of E. coli lpxA. This work shows that AtLpxA is a functional UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase that is able to catalyze the same reaction as EcLpxA and supports the hypothesis that lipid A molecules are biosynthesized in Arabidopsis and other plants.

  12. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) promotes autophagy as a putative lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Xu, Dan; Nie, Jia; Han, Ruili; Zhai, Yonggong; Shi, Yuguang

    2014-11-21

    CGI-58 is a lipid droplet-associated protein that, when mutated, causes Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome in humans, which is characterized by excessive storage of triglyceride in various tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the defect remain elusive. CGI-58 was previously reported to catalyze the resynthesis of phosphatidic acid as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. In addition to triglyceride, phosphatidic acid is also used a substrate for the synthesis of various mitochondrial phospholipids. In this report, we investigated the propensity of CGI-58 in the remodeling of various phospholipids. We found that the recombinant CGI-58 overexpressed in mammalian cells or purified from Sf9 insect cells catalyzed efficiently the reacylation of lysophosphatidylglycerol to phosphatidylglycerol (PG), which requires acyl-CoA as the acyl donor. In contrast, the recombinant CGI-58 was devoid of acyltransferase activity toward other lysophospholipids. Accordingly, overexpression and knockdown of CGI-58 adversely affected the endogenous PG level in C2C12 cells. PG is a substrate for the synthesis of cardiolipin, which is required for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitophagy. Consequently, overexpression and knockdown of CGI-58 adversely affected autophagy and mitophagy in C2C12 cells. In support for a key role of CGI-58 in mitophagy, overexpression of CGI-58 significantly stimulated mitochondrial fission and translocation of PINK1 to mitochondria, key steps involved in mitophagy. Furthermore, overexpression of CGI-58 promoted mitophagic initiation through activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and inhibition of mTORC1 mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling, the positive and negative regulators of autophagy, respectively. Together, these findings identified novel molecular mechanisms by which CGI-58 regulates lipid homeostasis, because defective autophagy is implicated in dyslipidemia and fatty liver diseases. © 2014 by The American

  13. Overexpression of a putative Arabidopsis BAHD acyltransferase causes dwarfism that can be rescued by brassinosteroid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjiao; Liu, Xiayan; Wang, Rui; Li, Wanchun; Rodermel, Steve; Yu, Fei

    2012-10-01

    Plant growth and development are ensured through networks of complex regulatory schemes. Genetic approaches have been invaluable in dissecting these regulatory pathways. This study reports the isolation of a semi-dominant dwarf mutant designated abnormal shoot1-1 dominant (abs1-1D) through an Arabidopsis T-DNA activation tagging mutant screen. It was shown that the overexpression of a novel BAHD family acyltransferase gene, ABS1/At4g15400, was the cause of the dwarf phenotype in abs1-1D. Overexpression of ABS1 led to many phenotypic features reminiscent of brassinosteroid (BR) deficient or signalling mutants, and it was shown that exogenously applied BR could effectively rescue the dwarf phenotype of abs1-1D. Furthermore, genetic analyses indicated that abs1-1D interacted, in different ways, with the BR-deficient mutant det2-1, the constitutive BR response mutant bes1-D and the photomorphogenic mutant phyB-1. Moreover, ABS1 expression was activated by BR treatment or in a bes1-D mutant background. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of abs1-1D revealed clear reprogramming of metabolic pathways, and it was demonstrated that BR biosynthesis genes were activated in abs1-1D and that the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was repressed in abs1-1D, as well as in det2-1. This work provides new insights into the possible involvement of BAHD acyltransferase in the regulation of plant growth and development, and indicates a possible role of ABS1 in maintaining BR homeostasis.

  14. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activation by Sulfhydryl-Reactive Small Molecules: Role of Cysteine-31

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Lita A.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Konaklieva, Monika; Kuskovsky, Rostislav; Aponte, Angel; Ossoli, Alice F.; Gordon, Scott M.; Koby, Ross F.; Manthei, Kelly A.; Shen, Min; Vaisman, Boris L.; Shamburek, Robert D.; Jadhav, Ajit; Calabresi, Laura; Gucek, Marjan; Tesmer, John J.G.; Levine, Rodney L.

    2017-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes plasma cholesteryl ester formation and is defective in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (FLD), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by low high-density lipoprotein, anemia, and renal disease. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which compound A [3-(5-(ethylthio)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylthio)pyrazine-2-carbonitrile], a small heterocyclic amine, activates LCAT. The effect of compound A on LCAT was tested in human plasma and with recombinant LCAT. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to determine compound A adduct formation with LCAT. Molecular modeling was performed to gain insight into the effects of compound A on LCAT structure and activity. Compound A increased LCAT activity in a subset (three of nine) of LCAT mutations to levels comparable to FLD heterozygotes. The site-directed mutation LCAT-Cys31Gly prevented activation by compound A. Substitution of Cys31 with charged residues (Glu, Arg, and Lys) decreased LCAT activity, whereas bulky hydrophobic groups (Trp, Leu, Phe, and Met) increased activity up to 3-fold (P < 0.005). Mass spectrometry of a tryptic digestion of LCAT incubated with compound A revealed a +103.017 m/z adduct on Cys31, consistent with the addition of a single hydrophobic cyanopyrazine ring. Molecular modeling identified potential interactions of compound A near Cys31 and structural changes correlating with enhanced activity. Functional groups important for LCAT activation by compound A were identified by testing compound A derivatives. Finally, sulfhydryl-reactive β-lactams were developed as a new class of LCAT activators. In conclusion, compound A activates LCAT, including some FLD mutations, by forming a hydrophobic adduct with Cys31, thus providing a mechanistic rationale for the design of future LCAT activators. PMID:28576974

  15. Zinc Metalloproteinase ProA Directly Activates Legionella pneumophila PlaC Glycerophospholipid:cholesterol Acyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Christina; Rastew, Elena; Hermes, Björn; Siegbrecht, Enrico; Ahrends, Robert; Banerji, Sangeeta; Flieger, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes secreted by Legionella pneumophila, such as phospholipases A (PLAs) and glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferases (GCATs), may target host cell lipids and therefore contribute to the establishment of Legionnaires disease. L. pneumophila possesses three proteins, PlaA, PlaC, and PlaD, belonging to the GDSL family of lipases/acyltransferases. We have shown previously that PlaC is the major GCAT secreted by L. pneumophila and that the zinc metalloproteinase ProA is essential for GCAT activity. Here we characterized the mode of PlaC GCAT activation and determined that ProA directly processes PlaC. We further found that not only cholesterol but also ergosterol present in protozoa was palmitoylated by PlaC. Such ester formations were not induced by either PlaA or PlaD. PlaD was shown here to possess lysophospholipase A activity, and interestingly, all three GDSL enzymes transferred short chain fatty acids to sterols. The three single putative catalytic amino acids (Ser-37, Asp-398, and His-401) proved essential for all PlaC-associated PLA, lysophospholipase A, and GCAT activities. A further four cysteine residues are important for the PLA/GCAT activities as well as their oxidized state, and we therefore conclude that PlaC likely forms at least one disulfide loop. Analysis of cleavage site and loop deletion mutants suggested that for GCAT activation deletion of several amino acids within the loop is necessary rather than cleavage at a single site. Our data therefore suggest a novel enzyme inhibition/activation mechanism where a disulfide loop inhibits PlaC GCAT activity until the protein is exported to the external space where it is ProA-activated. PMID:22582391

  16. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  17. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  18. Bacterial acyltransferases as an alternative for lipase-catalyzed acylation for the production of oleochemicals and fuels.

    PubMed

    Stöveken, Tim; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial acyltransferases are a new class of enzymes, and the first member was identified as WS/DGAT in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Their unspecificity have been used in several biotechnological applications for lipid modification, a field that has been dominated by the use of lipases. Examples are the biosynthesis of jojoba-like wax esters and fatty-acid ethyl esters. In addition, these enzymes are also capable of synthesizing acylthioesters. Acyloxoesters and acylthioesters can thus be produced in vivo by whole-cell fermentations rather than in vitro in an enzyme reactor. In this Minireview, we focus on the biotechnological utilization of acyltransferases for the production of modified lipids from renewable resources.

  19. ATP-binding cassette transporters and sterol O-acyltransferases interact at membrane microdomains to modulate sterol uptake and esterification

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sonia; Balderes, Dina; Kim, Christine; Guo, Zhongmin A.; Wilcox, Lisa; Area-Gomez, Estela; Snider, Jamie; Wolinski, Heimo; Stagljar, Igor; Granato, Juliana T.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Schon, Eric A.; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    A key component of eukaryotic lipid homeostasis is the esterification of sterols with fatty acids by sterol O-acyltransferases (SOATs). The esterification reactions are allosterically activated by their sterol substrates, the majority of which accumulate at the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that in yeast, sterol transport from the plasma membrane to the site of esterification is associated with the physical interaction of the major SOAT, acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-related enzyme (Are)2p, with 2 plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters: Aus1p and Pdr11p. Are2p, Aus1p, and Pdr11p, unlike the minor acyltransferase, Are1p, colocalize to sterol and sphingolipid-enriched, detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs). Deletion of either ABC transporter results in Are2p relocalization to detergent-soluble membrane domains and a significant decrease (53–36%) in esterification of exogenous sterol. Similarly, in murine tissues, the SOAT1/Acat1 enzyme and activity localize to DRMs. This subcellular localization is diminished upon deletion of murine ABC transporters, such as Abcg1, which itself is DRM associated. We propose that the close proximity of sterol esterification and transport proteins to each other combined with their residence in lipid-enriched membrane microdomains facilitates rapid, high-capacity sterol transport and esterification, obviating any requirement for soluble intermediary proteins.—Gulati, S., Balderes, D., Kim, C., Guo, Z. A., Wilcox, L., Area-Gomez, E., Snider, J., Wolinski, H., Stagljar, I., Granato, J. T., Ruggles, K. V., DeGiorgis, J. A., Kohlwein, S. D., Schon, E. A., Sturley, S. L. ATP-binding cassette transporters and sterol O-acyltransferases interact at membrane microdomains to modulate sterol uptake and esterification. PMID:26220175

  20. A novel erythromycin, 6-desmethyl erythromycin D, made by substituting an acyltransferase domain of the erythromycin polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Hrvoje; Lill, Rachel E; Sheridan, Rose M; Wilkinson, Barrie; McCormick, Ellen L; McArthur, Hamish A I; Staunton, James; Leadlay, Peter F; Kendrew, Steven G

    2003-06-01

    The acyltransferase (AT) domain in module 4 of the erythromycin polyketide synthase (PKS) was substituted with an AT domain from the rapamycin PKS module 2 in order to alter the substrate specificity from methylmalonyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. The resulting strain produced 6-desmethyl erythromycin D as the predominant product. This AT domain swap completes the library of malonyl-CoA AT swaps on the erythromycin PKS and reinforces PKS engineering as a robust and generic tool.

  1. Differential phylogenetic expansions in BAHD acyltransferases across five angiosperm taxa and evidence of divergent expression among Populus paralogues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background BAHD acyltransferases are involved in the synthesis and elaboration of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. Previous research has shown that characterized proteins from this family fall broadly into five major clades and contain two conserved protein motifs. Here, we aimed to expand the understanding of BAHD acyltransferase diversity in plants through genome-wide analysis across five angiosperm taxa. We focus particularly on Populus, a woody perennial known to produce an abundance of secondary metabolites. Results Phylogenetic analysis of putative BAHD acyltransferase sequences from Arabidopsis, Medicago, Oryza, Populus, and Vitis, along with previously characterized proteins, supported a refined grouping of eight major clades for this family. Taxon-specific clustering of many BAHD family members appears pervasive in angiosperms. We identified two new multi-clade motifs and numerous clade-specific motifs, several of which have been implicated in BAHD function by previous structural and mutagenesis research. Gene duplication and expression data for Populus-dominated subclades revealed that several paralogous BAHD members in this genus might have already undergone functional divergence. Conclusions Differential, taxon-specific BAHD family expansion via gene duplication could be an evolutionary process contributing to metabolic diversity across plant taxa. Gene expression divergence among some Populus paralogues highlights possible distinctions between their biochemical and physiological functions. The newly discovered motifs, especially the clade-specific motifs, should facilitate future functional study of substrate and donor specificity among BAHD enzymes. PMID:21569431

  2. A two-helix motif positions the active site of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase for catalysis within the membrane bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Rosanna M.; Yao, Jiangwei; Gajewski, Stefan; Kumar, Gyanendra; Martin, Erik W.; Rock, Charles O.; White, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid is the central intermediate in membrane phospholipid synthesis and is generated by two acyltransferases in a pathway conserved in all life forms. The second step in this pathway is catalyzed by 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase, called PlsC in bacteria. The crystal structure of PlsC from Thermotoga maritima reveals an unusual hydrophobic/aromatic N-terminal two-helix motif linked to an acyltransferase αβ domain that contains the catalytic HX4D motif. PlsC dictates the acyl chain composition of the 2-position of phospholipids, and the acyl chain selectivity ‘ruler’ is an appropriately placed and closed hydrophobic tunnel. This was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and membrane composition analysis of Escherichia coli cells expressing the mutated proteins. MD simulations reveal that the two-helix motif represents a novel substructure that firmly anchors the protein to one leaflet of the membrane. This binding mode allows the PlsC active site to acylate lysophospholipids within the membrane bilayer using soluble acyl donors. PMID:28714993

  3. Structure-guided enzymology of the lipid A acyltransferase LpxM reveals a dual activity mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dovala, Dustin; Rath, Christopher M; Hu, Qijun; Sawyer, William S; Shia, Steven; Elling, Robert A; Knapp, Mark S; Metzger, Louis E

    2016-10-11

    Gram-negative bacteria possess a characteristic outer membrane, of which the lipid A constituent elicits a strong host immune response through the Toll-like receptor 4 complex, and acts as a component of the permeability barrier to prevent uptake of bactericidal compounds. Lipid A species comprise the bulk of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane and are produced through a multistep biosynthetic pathway conserved in most Gram-negative bacteria. The final steps in this pathway involve the secondary acylation of lipid A precursors. These are catalyzed by members of a superfamily of enzymes known as lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs), which are present in all domains of life and play important roles in diverse biological processes. To date, characterization of this clinically important class of enzymes has been limited by a lack of structural information and the availability of only low-throughput biochemical assays. In this work, we present the structure of the bacterial LPLAT protein LpxM, and we describe a high-throughput, label-free mass spectrometric assay to characterize acyltransferase enzymatic activity. Using our structure and assay, we identify an LPLAT thioesterase activity, and we provide experimental evidence to support an ordered-binding and "reset" mechanistic model for LpxM function. This work enables the interrogation of other bacterial acyltransferases' structure-mechanism relationships, and the assay described herein provides a foundation for quantitatively characterizing the enzymology of any number of clinically relevant LPLAT proteins.

  4. ATP-binding cassette transporters and sterol O-acyltransferases interact at membrane microdomains to modulate sterol uptake and esterification.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonia; Balderes, Dina; Kim, Christine; Guo, Zhongmin A; Wilcox, Lisa; Area-Gomez, Estela; Snider, Jamie; Wolinski, Heimo; Stagljar, Igor; Granato, Juliana T; Ruggles, Kelly V; DeGiorgis, Joseph A; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Schon, Eric A; Sturley, Stephen L

    2015-11-01

    A key component of eukaryotic lipid homeostasis is the esterification of sterols with fatty acids by sterol O-acyltransferases (SOATs). The esterification reactions are allosterically activated by their sterol substrates, the majority of which accumulate at the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that in yeast, sterol transport from the plasma membrane to the site of esterification is associated with the physical interaction of the major SOAT, acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-related enzyme (Are)2p, with 2 plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters: Aus1p and Pdr11p. Are2p, Aus1p, and Pdr11p, unlike the minor acyltransferase, Are1p, colocalize to sterol and sphingolipid-enriched, detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs). Deletion of either ABC transporter results in Are2p relocalization to detergent-soluble membrane domains and a significant decrease (53-36%) in esterification of exogenous sterol. Similarly, in murine tissues, the SOAT1/Acat1 enzyme and activity localize to DRMs. This subcellular localization is diminished upon deletion of murine ABC transporters, such as Abcg1, which itself is DRM associated. We propose that the close proximity of sterol esterification and transport proteins to each other combined with their residence in lipid-enriched membrane microdomains facilitates rapid, high-capacity sterol transport and esterification, obviating any requirement for soluble intermediary proteins.

  5. A two-helix motif positions the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase active site for catalysis within the membrane bilayer.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Rosanna M; Yao, Jiangwei; Gajewski, Stefan; Kumar, Gyanendra; Martin, Erik W; Rock, Charles O; White, Stephen W

    2017-08-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA), the central intermediate in membrane phospholipid synthesis, is generated by two acyltransferases in a pathway conserved in all life forms. The second step in this pathway is catalyzed by 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, called PlsC in bacteria. Here we present the crystal structure of PlsC from Thermotoga maritima, revealing an unusual hydrophobic/aromatic N-terminal two-helix motif linked to an acyltransferase αβ-domain that contains the catalytic HX4D motif. PlsC dictates the acyl chain composition of the 2-position of phospholipids, and the acyl chain selectivity 'ruler' is an appropriately placed and closed hydrophobic tunnel. We confirmed this by site-directed mutagenesis and membrane composition analysis of Escherichia coli cells that expressed mutant PlsC. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the two-helix motif represents a novel substructure that firmly anchors the protein to one leaflet of the membrane. This binding mode allows the PlsC active site to acylate lysophospholipids within the membrane bilayer by using soluble acyl donors.

  6. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding a Putative Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Seeds of Paeonia rockii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Niu, Li-Xin; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Zhang-Zhen; Duan, Ke; Gao, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2017-06-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) is an excellent woody oil crop, and the cloning and functional analysis of genes related to fatty acid (FA) metabolism from this organism has not been reported. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. This project reports a putative lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase gene PrLPAAT1 isolated from Paeonia rockii. Our data indicated that PrLPAAT1 has 1047 nucleotides and encodes a putative 38.8 kDa protein with 348 amino acid residues. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that PrLPAAT1 contains two transmembrane domains (TMDs). Subcellular localization analysis confirmed that PrLPAAT1 is a plasma membrane protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PrLPAAT1 shared 74.3 and 65.5% amino acid sequence identities with the LPAAT1 sequences from columbine and grape, respectively. PrLPAAT1 belongs to AGPAT family, and may have acyltransferase activity. PrLPAAT1 was ubiquitously expressed in diverse tissues, and PrLPAAT1 expression was higher in the flower and developing seed. PrLPAAT1 is probably an important component in the FA accumulation process, especially during the early stages of seed development. PrLPAAT1 overexpression using a seed-specific promoter increased total FA content and the main FA accumulation in Arabidopsis transgenic plants.

  7. A serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferase is required for synthesis of antimicrobial compounds and disease resistance in oats.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Wegel, Eva; Hughes, Richard K; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi; Melton, Rachel; Philo, Mark; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Goss, Rebecca J M; Osbourn, Anne

    2009-08-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins have recently emerged as a new group of plant acyltransferases. These enzymes share homology with peptidases but lack protease activity and instead are able to acylate natural products. Several SCPL acyltransferases have been characterized to date from dicots, including an enzyme required for the synthesis of glucose polyesters that may contribute to insect resistance in wild tomato (Solanum pennellii) and enzymes required for the synthesis of sinapate esters associated with UV protection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In our earlier genetic analysis, we identified the Saponin-deficient 7 (Sad7) locus as being required for the synthesis of antimicrobial triterpene glycosides (avenacins) and for broad-spectrum disease resistance in diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Here, we report on the cloning of Sad7 and show that this gene encodes a functional SCPL acyltransferase, SCPL1, that is able to catalyze the synthesis of both N-methyl anthraniloyl- and benzoyl-derivatized forms of avenacin. Sad7 forms part of an operon-like gene cluster for avenacin synthesis. Oat SCPL1 (SAD7) is the founder member of a subfamily of monocot-specific SCPL proteins that includes predicted proteins from rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses with potential roles in secondary metabolism and plant defense.

  8. Deficiency in lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 reduces plasma levels of lipids by reducing lipid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Ding, Tingbo; Lou, Caixia; Bui, Hai H; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are structural and functional constituents of cell membranes. The activity of acyltransferase (lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase [LPCAT]) is required for addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the sn-2 position of PCs and is therefore required to maintain cell membrane structure and function. LPCAT3 is the most abundant isoform of LPCAT in the small intestine and liver, which are important sites of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated the effects of Lpcat3 disruption on lipid metabolism in mice. We disrupted the gene Lpcat3 in C57BL/6J mice to create LPCAT3 knockout (KO) mice. Livers and small intestinal tissues were collected from LPCAT3 KO and C57BL/6J parental strain (controls), and levels of LPCAT messenger RNAs and protein were measured. Levels of lipids and lipoproteins were measured in plasma samples. We isolated enterocytes from mice and measured levels of RNAs and proteins involved in lipid uptake by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot assays, respectively. We assessed lipid absorption and PC subspecies in the enterocyte plasma membrane using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectometry. LPCAT3 KO mice survived only 3 weeks after birth. Oil Red O staining showed that the control but not LPCAT3 KO mice accumulated lipids in the small intestine; levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4), which regulate lipid uptake, were greatly reduced in the small intestines of LPCAT3 KO mice. Oral administration of PC and olive oil allowed the LPCAT3 KO mice to survive with the same body weights as controls, but the KO mice had shorter and wider small-intestinal villi and longer and bigger small intestines. Plasma membranes of enterocytes from LPCAT3 KO mice also had significant reductions in the composition of polyunsaturated PCs and reduced levels of NPC1L1, CD36, and FATP4 proteins. These reductions were associated with reduced intestinal uptake of lipid by

  9. Expression Cloning of a Pseudomonas Gene Encoding a Hydroxydecanoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein-Dependent UDP-GlcNAc Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Garry D.; Kaltashov, Igor A.; Cotter, Robert J.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    1998-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-3-O-acyltransferase (UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase) catalyzes the first step of lipid A biosynthesis (M. S. Anderson and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Biol. Chem. 262:5159–5169, 1987). We here report the isolation of the lpxA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a library of Pseudomonas strain PAO1 expressed in Escherichia coli LE392 (J. Lightfoot and J. S. Lam, J. Bacteriol. 173:5624–5630, 1991). Pseudomonas lpxA encodes a 10-carbon-specific UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase, whereas the E. coli transferase is selective for a 14-carbon acyl chain. Recombinant cosmid 1137 enabled production of a 3-hydroxydecanoyl-specific UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase in E. coli. It was identified by assaying lysozyme-EDTA lysates of individual members of the library with 3-hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the substrate. Cosmid 1137 contained a 20-kb insert of P. aeruginosa DNA. The lpxA gene region was localized to a 1.3-kb SalI-PstI fragment. Sequencing revealed that it contains one complete open reading frame (777 bp) encoding a new lpxA homolog. The predicted Pseudomonas LpxA is 258 amino acids long and contains 21 complete hexapeptide repeating units, spaced in approximately the same manner as the 24 repeats of E. coli LpxA. The P. aeruginosa UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase is 54% identical and 67% similar to the E. coli enzyme. A plasmid (pGD3) containing the 1.3-kb SalI-PstI fragment complemented E. coli RO138, a temperature-sensitive mutant harboring lpxA2. LpxA assays of extracts of this construct indicated that it is >1,000-fold more selective for 3-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP than for 3-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP. Mass spectrometry of lipid A isolated from this strain by hydrolysis at pH 4.5 revealed [M-H]− 1,684.5 (versus 1,796.5 for wild-type lipid A), consistent with 3-hydroxydecanoate rather than 3-hydroxymyristate at positions 3 and 3′. PMID:9440522

  10. Characterization of Hedgehog Acyltransferase Inhibitors Identifies a Small Molecule Probe for Hedgehog Signaling by Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ursula R; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Ritzefeld, Markus; Burke, Rosemary; Blagg, Julian; Magee, Anthony I; Tate, Edward W

    2016-12-16

    The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a critical role during embryonic development and cancer progression. N-terminal palmitoylation of Shh by Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is essential for efficient signaling, raising interest in Hhat as a novel drug target. A recently identified series of dihydrothienopyridines has been proposed to function via this mode of action; however, the lead compound in this series (RUSKI-43) was subsequently shown to possess cytotoxic activity unrelated to canonical Shh signaling. To identify a selective chemical probe for cellular studies, we profiled three RUSKI compounds in orthogonal cell-based assays. We found that RUSKI-43 exhibits off-target cytotoxicity, masking its effect on Hhat-dependent signaling, hence results obtained with this compound in cells should be treated with caution. In contrast, RUSKI-201 showed no off-target cytotoxicity, and quantitative whole-proteome palmitoylation profiling with a bioorthogonal alkyne-palmitate reporter demonstrated specific inhibition of Hhat in cells. RUSKI-201 is the first selective Hhat chemical probe in cells and should be used in future studies of Hhat catalytic function.

  11. Palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC21 mediates endothelial dysfunction in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Richard S.; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Meegan, Jamie E.; Overstreet, Jonathan W.; Yang, Clement G.Y.; Elliott, John A.; Reynolds, Jason J.; Cha, Byeong J.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Mitchell, David A.; Wu, Mack H.; Deschenes, Robert J.; Yuan, Sarah Y.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of systemic inflammatory response underlying multiple organ failure. Here we report a novel function of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) in mediating endothelial inflammation. Pharmacological inhibition of PATs attenuates barrier leakage and leucocyte adhesion induced by endothelial junction hyperpermeability and ICAM-1 expression during inflammation. Among 11 DHHCs detected in vascular endothelium, DHHC21 is required for barrier response. Mice with DHHC21 function deficiency (Zdhhc21dep/dep) exhibit marked resistance to injury, characterized by reduced plasma leakage, decreased leucocyte adhesion and ameliorated lung pathology, culminating in improved survival. Endothelial cells from Zdhhc21dep/dep display blunted barrier dysfunction and leucocyte adhesion, whereas leucocytes from these mice did not show altered adhesiveness. Furthermore, inflammation enhances PLCβ1 palmitoylation and signalling activity, effects significantly reduced in Zdhhc21dep/dep and rescued by DHHC21 overexpression. Likewise, overexpression of wild-type, not mutant, PLCβ1 augments barrier dysfunction. Altogether, these data suggest the involvement of DHHC21-mediated PLCβ1 palmitoylation in endothelial inflammation. PMID:27653213

  12. A fluorescence method to detect and quantitate sterol esterification by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Homan, Reynold; Esmaeil, Nadia; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Kato, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    We describe a simple but sensitive fluorescence method to accurately detect the esterification activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). The new assay protocol employs a convenient mix, incubate, and measure scheme. This is possible by using the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE) in place of cholesterol as the LCAT substrate. The assay method is further enhanced by incorporation of an amphiphilic peptide in place of apolipoprotein A-I as the lipid emulsifier and LCAT activator. Specific fluorescence detection of DHE ester synthesis is achieved by employing cholesterol oxidase to selectively render unesterified DHE nonfluorescent. The assay accurately detects LCAT activity in buffer and in plasma that is depleted of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins by selective precipitation. Analysis of LCAT activity in plasmas from control subjects and sickle cell disease (SCD) patients confirms previous reports of reduced LCAT activity in SCD and demonstrates a strong correlation between plasma LCAT activity and LCAT content. The fluorescent assay combines the sensitivity of radiochemical assays with the simplicity of nonradiochemical assays to obtain accurate and robust measurement of LCAT esterification activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in brain: Does oxidative stress influence the 24-hydroxycholesterol esterification?

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Maresca, Bernardetta; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Abrescia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    24-Hydroxycholesterol (24OH-C) is esterified by the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We report here that the level of 24OH-C esters was lower in CSF of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis than in healthy subjects (54% vs 68% of total 24OH-C, p=0.0005; n=8). Similarly, the level of 24OH-C esters in plasma was lower in patients than in controls (62% vs 77% of total 24OH-C; p=0.0076). The enzyme amount in CSF, as measured by densitometry of the protein band revealed by immunoblotting, was about 4-fold higher in patients than in controls (p=0.0085). As differences in the concentration of the LCAT stimulator Apolipoprotein E were not found, we hypothesized that the reduced 24OH-C esterification in CSF of patients might depend on oxidative stress. We actually found that oxidative stress reduced LCAT activity in vitro, and 24OH-C effectively stimulated the enzyme secretion from astrocytoma cells in culture. Enhanced LCAT secretion from astrocytes might represent an adaptive response to the increase of non-esterified 24OH-C percentage, aimed to avoid the accumulation of this neurotoxic compound. The low degree of 24OH-C esterification in CSF or plasma might reflect reduced activity of LCAT during neurodegeneration.

  14. Structural basis for the acyl chain selectivity and mechanism of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Allison H.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2007-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) acyltransferase (LpxA) catalyzes the first step of lipid A biosynthesis, the reversible transfer of the R-3-hydroxyacyl chain from R-3-hydroxyacyl acyl carrier protein to the glucosamine 3-OH group of UDP-GlcNAc. Escherichia coli LpxA is highly selective for R-3-hydroxymyristate. The crystal structure of the E. coli LpxA homotrimer, determined previously in the absence of lipid substrates or products, revealed that LpxA contains an unusual, left-handed parallel β-helix fold. We have now solved the crystal structures of E. coli LpxA with the bound product UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-GlcNAc at a resolution of 1.74 Å and with bound UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxydecanoyl)-GlcNAc at 1.85 Å. The structures of these complexes are consistent with the catalytic mechanism deduced by mutagenesis and with a recent 3.0-Å structure of LpxA with bound UDP-GlcNAc. Our structures show how LpxA selects for 14-carbon R-3-hydroxyacyl chains and reveal two modes of UDP binding. PMID:17698807

  15. Sequence-specific apolipoprotein A-I effects on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Dergunov, Alexander D

    2013-06-01

    Existing kinetic data of cholesteryl ester formation by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in discoidal high-density lipoproteins with 34 mutations of apoA-I that involved all putative helices were grouped by cluster analysis into four noncoincident regions with mutations both without any functional impairment and with profound isolated (V- and K-mutations) or common (VK-mutations) effect on V(max)(app) and K(m)(app). Data were analyzed with a new kinetic model of LCAT activity at interface that exploits the efficiency of LCAT binding to the particle, particle dimensions, and surface concentrations of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. V-mutations with major location in the central part and C-domain affected the second-order rate constant of cholesteryl ester formation at the solvolysis of acyl-enzyme intermediate by cholesterol as nucleophile. The central region in apoA-I sequence is suggested to influence the proper positioning of cholesterol molecule toward LCAT active center with major contribution of arginine residue(s). K-mutations with major location in N-domain may affect binding and stability of enzyme-phosphatidylcholine complex. VK-mutations may possess mixed effects; the independent binding measurement may segregate individual steps.

  16. A type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase accelerates the triacylglycerol biosynthesis in heterokont oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Cen, Shi-Ying; Liu, Yu-Hong; Balamurugan, Srinivasan; Zheng, Xin-Yan; Alimujiang, Adili; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2016-07-10

    Oleaginous microalgae have received a considerable attention as potential biofuel feedstock. However, lack of industry-suitable strain with lipid rich biomass limits its commercial applications. Targeted engineering of lipogenic pathways represents a promising strategy to enhance the efficacy of microalgal oil production. In this study, a type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, was identified and overexpressed in heterokont oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica for the first time. Overexpression of DGAT2 in Nannochloropsis increased the relative transcript abundance by 3.48-fold in engineered microalgae cells. TAG biosynthesis was subsequently accelerated by DGAT2 overexpression and neutral lipid content was significantly elevated by 69% in engineered microalgae. The fatty acid profile determined by GC-MS revealed that fatty acid composition was altered in engineered microalgae. Saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to be increased whereas monounsaturated fatty acids content decreased. Furthermore, DGAT2 overexpression did not show negative impact on algal growth parameters. The present investigation showed that the identified DGAT2 would be a potential candidate for enhancing TAG biosynthesis and might facilitate the development of promising oleaginous strains with industrial potential.

  17. Increased Penicillin Production in Penicillium chrysogenum Production Strains via Balanced Overexpression of Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Stefan S.; Polli, Fabiola; Boer, Rémon; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Intense classical strain improvement has yielded industrial Penicillium chrysogenum strains that produce high titers of penicillin. These strains contain multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthesis cluster encoding the three key enzymes: δ-(l-α-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine synthetase (ACVS), isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), and isopenicillin N acyltransferase (IAT). The phenylacetic acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (PCL) gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid is localized elsewhere in the genome in a single copy. Since the protein level of IAT already saturates at low cluster copy numbers, IAT might catalyze a limiting step in high-yielding strains. Here, we show that penicillin production in high-yielding strains can be further improved by the overexpression of IAT while at very high levels of IAT the precursor 6-aminopenicillic acid (6-APA) accumulates. Overproduction of PCL only marginally stimulates penicillin production. These data demonstrate that in high-yielding strains IAT is the limiting factor and that this limitation can be alleviated by a balanced overproduction of this enzyme. PMID:22865068

  18. Expression of Fungal diacylglycerol acyltransferase2 Genes to Increase Kernel Oil in Maize[OA

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Janette; Brackenridge, Doug; Colletti, Ron; Daley, Maureen; Hawkins, Deborah J.; Xiong, Hui; Mai, Jennifer; Screen, Steve E.; Val, Dale; Lardizabal, Kathryn; Gruys, Ken; Deikman, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) oil has high value but is only about 4% of the grain by weight. To increase kernel oil content, fungal diacylglycerol acyltransferase2 (DGAT2) genes from Umbelopsis (formerly Mortierella) ramanniana and Neurospora crassa were introduced into maize using an embryo-enhanced promoter. The protein encoded by the N. crassa gene was longer than that of U. ramanniana. It included 353 amino acids that aligned to the U. ramanniana DGAT2A protein and a 243-amino acid sequence at the amino terminus that was unique to the N. crassa DGAT2 protein. Two forms of N. crassa DGAT2 were tested: the predicted full-length protein (L-NcDGAT2) and a shorter form (S-NcDGAT2) that encoded just the sequences that share homology with the U. ramanniana protein. Expression of all three transgenes in maize resulted in small but statistically significant increases in kernel oil. S-NcDGAT2 had the biggest impact on kernel oil, with a 26% (relative) increase in oil in kernels of the best events (inbred). Increases in kernel oil were also obtained in both conventional and high-oil hybrids, and grain yield was not affected by expression of these fungal DGAT2 transgenes. PMID:21245192

  19. Selective inhibitors of a PAF biosynthetic enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2[S

    PubMed Central

    Tarui, Megumi; Shindou, Hideo; Kumagai, Kazuo; Morimoto, Ryo; Harayama, Takeshi; Hashidate, Tomomi; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Nagase, Takahide; Shimizu, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid mediator. In response to extracellular stimuli, PAF is rapidly biosynthesized by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAFAT). Previously, we identified two types of lyso-PAFATs: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)1, mostly expressed in the lungs where it produces PAF and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine essential for respiration, and LPCAT2, which biosynthesizes PAF and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the inflammatory cells. Under inflammatory conditions, LPCAT2, but not LPCAT1, is activated and upregulated to produce PAF. Thus, it is important to develop inhibitors specific for LPCAT2 in order to ameliorate PAF-related inflammatory diseases. Here, we report the first identification of LPCAT2-specific inhibitors, N-phenylmaleimide derivatives, selected from a 174,000-compound library using fluorescence-based high-throughput screening followed by the evaluation of the effects on LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 activities, cell viability, and cellular PAF production. Selected compounds competed with acetyl-CoA for the inhibition of LPCAT2 lyso-PAFAT activity and suppressed PAF biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with a calcium ionophore. These compounds had low inhibitory effects on LPCAT1 activity, indicating that adverse effects on respiratory functions may be avoided. The identified compounds and their derivatives will contribute to the development of novel drugs for PAF-related diseases and facilitate the analysis of LPCAT2 functions in phospholipid metabolism in vivo. PMID:24850807

  20. Inversion of Extender Unit Selectivity in the Erythromycin Polyketide Synthase by Acyltransferase Domain Engineering.

    PubMed

    Koryakina, Irina; Kasey, Christian; McArthur, John B; Lowell, Andrew N; Chemler, Joseph A; Li, Shasha; Hansen, Douglas A; Sherman, David H; Williams, Gavin J

    2017-01-20

    Acyltransferase (AT) domains of polyketide synthases (PKSs) select extender units for incorporation into polyketides and dictate large portions of the structures of clinically relevant natural products. Accordingly, there is significant interest in engineering the substrate specificity of PKS ATs in order to site-selectively manipulate polyketide structure. However, previous attempts to engineer ATs have yielded mutant PKSs with relaxed extender unit specificity, rather than an inversion of selectivity from one substrate to another. Here, by directly screening the extender unit selectivity of mutants from active site saturation libraries of an AT from the prototypical PKS, 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase, a set of single amino acid substitutions was discovered that dramatically impact the selectivity of the PKS with only modest reductions of product yields. One particular substitution (Tyr189Arg) inverted the selectivity of the wild-type PKS from its natural substrate toward a non-natural alkynyl-modified extender unit while maintaining more than twice the activity of the wild-type PKS with its natural substrate. The strategy and mutations described herein form a platform for combinatorial biosynthesis of site-selectively modified polyketide analogues that are modified with non-natural and non-native chemical functionality.

  1. Differently Localized Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferases Crucial for Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis in the Oleaginous Alga Nannochloropsis.

    PubMed

    Nobusawa, Takashi; Hori, Koichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-20

    Production of renewable bioenergy will be necessary to meet rising global fossil fuel demands. Members of the marine microalgae genus Nannochloropsis produce large amounts of oils (triacylglycerols; TAGs), and this genus is regarded as one of the most promising for biodiesel production. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies on Nannochloropsis have provided a foundation for understanding its oleaginous trait, but the mechanism underlying oil accumulation remains to be clarified. Here we report Nannochloropsis knockout strains of four extraplastidic lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT1-4), which catalyze a major de novo biosynthetic step of TAGs and membrane lipids. We found that the four LPATs are differently involved in lipid metabolic flow in Nannochloropsis. Double knockouts among the LPATs revealed the pivotal LPATs for TAG biosynthesis, and localization analysis indicated that the stramenopile-specific LPATs (LPAT3 and LPAT4) associated with TAG synthesis reside at the perimeter of lipid droplets. However, no homologous region has been found with other lipid droplet-associated proteins. Lipid droplets are an organelle found in nearly all organisms, and recently they were shown to play important roles in cellular metabolism and signaling. Our results provide direct evidence for the importance of the perimeter of lipid droplet in TAG synthesis in addition to its known role in maintaining TAG stability, and these findings suggest that the oleaginous trait of Nannochloropsis is enabled by acquisition of LPATs at the perimeter of lipid droplets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Homeostasis of brassinosteroids regulated by DRL1, a putative acyltransferase in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjiao; Wang, Haijiao; Fujioka, Shozo; Zhou, Tao; Tian, Hailong; Tian, Weisheng; Wang, Xuelu

    2013-03-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play essential roles in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development and in responding to diverse environmental cues, and their metabolism is an important way to regulate their homeostasis in plants. Here, we identified a dominant mutant, dwarf and round leaf-1 (drl1-D), which exhibits weak BR-deficient or BR-insensitive mutant phenotypes, including short and round leaves, prolonged senescence, dwarfed shape, and altered expression levels of the BR-responsive genes. Hypocotyl length and root inhibition assays suggest that the drl1-D mutant responds to BRs normally, but has decreased BR signaling outputs. The endogenous levels of several BRs, including typhasterol (TY), 6-deoxotyphasterol (6-deoxoTY), and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS), are significantly lower in the drl1-D mutant than in the wild-type. The DRL1 gene encodes an acyltransferase and is widely expressed in leaves, roots, flowers, and siliques. Plants without DRL1 and its homologs are larger with an enhanced BR signaling. The expression of DRL1 was induced by eBL and inhibited by ABA. DRL1 is involved in the BR metabolism likely by catalyzing the BR conjugation through esterification, which plays important roles in regulating the BR homeostasis and responding to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  3. Click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by hedgehog acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Bodakh, George; Konitsiotis, Antonio D; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Rodgers, Ursula R; Owens, Raymond J; Magee, Anthony I; Tate, Edward W

    2015-12-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for correct embryogenesis and tissue development. However, on maturation, signaling is also found to be aberrantly activated in many cancers. Palmitoylation of the secreted signaling protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) by the enzyme hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is required for functional signaling. To quantify this important posttranslational modification, many in vitro Shh palmitoylation assays employ radiolabeled fatty acids, which have limitations in terms of cost and safety. Here we present a click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (click-ELISA) for assessment of Hhat activity through acylation of biotinylated Shh peptide with an alkyne-tagged palmitoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) analogue. Click chemistry functionalization of the alkyne tag with azido-FLAG peptide allows analysis through an ELISA protocol and colorimetric readout. This assay format identified the detergent n-dodecyl β-d-maltopyranoside as an improved solubilizing agent for Hhat activity. Quantification of the potency of RU-SKI small molecule Hhat inhibitors by click-ELISA indicated IC50 values in the low- or sub-micromolar range. A stopped assay format was also employed that allows measurement of Hhat kinetic parameters where saturating substrate concentrations exceed the binding capacity of the streptavidin-coated plate. Therefore, click-ELISA represents a nonradioactive method for assessing protein palmitoylation in vitro that is readily expandable to other classes of protein lipidation.

  4. Structure and mechanism of the trans-acting acyltransferase from the disorazole synthase.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fong T; Jin, Xi; Mathews, Irimpan I; Cane, David E; Khosla, Chaitan

    2011-08-02

    The 1.51 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the trans-acyltransferase (AT) from the "AT-less" disorazole synthase (DSZS) and that of its acetate complex at 1.35 Å resolution are reported. Separately, comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis of one of its acyl carrier protein substrates (ACP1 from DSZS) led to the identification of a conserved Asp45 residue on the ACP, which contributes to the substrate specificity of this unusual enzyme. Together, these experimental findings were used to derive a model for the selective association of the DSZS AT and its ACP substrate. With a goal of structurally characterizing the AT-ACP interface, a strategy was developed for covalently cross-linking the active site Ser → Cys mutant of the DSZS AT to its ACP substrate and for purifying the resulting AT-ACP complex to homogeneity. The S86C DSZS AT mutant was found to be functional, albeit with a transacylation efficiency 200-fold lower than that of its wild-type counterpart. Our findings provide new insights as well as new opportunities for high-resolution analysis of an important protein-protein interface in polyketide synthases.

  5. Targeting modular polyketide synthases with iteratively acting acyltransferases from metagenomes of uncultured bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jörn; Hui, Dequan; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2004-09-01

    Bacterial type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce a wide range of biomedically important secondary metabolites. These enzymes possess a modular structure that can be genetically re-engineered to yield novel drug candidates not found in nature. Recently, we have reported the putative pederin PKS from an uncultured bacterial symbiont of Paederus fuscipes beetles. It belongs to an architecturally unusual PKS group, the members of which contain iteratively acting acyltransferases that are not integrated into the PKS modules but are encoded by isolated genes. As these systems are rare, often contain additional unusual features and are of smaller size than regular PKSs, the development of a method for the targeted isolation of new group members would be of great interest. Here, we present a phylogenetic approach to identify these systems rapidly in highly complex metagenomic DNA samples. To demonstrate its practical value, we located two pederin-type PKS systems putatively involved in the biosynthesis of antitumour polyketides in the metagenomic DNA of beetles, sponges and their uncultivated bacterial symbionts.

  6. Expression pattern of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, an enzyme involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu Lu; de Noyer, Shen Bayon; Hobbs, Douglas H; Kang, Jinling; Wen, Yancheng; Krachtus, Dieter; Hills, Matthew J

    2003-05-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major carbon storage reserve in oilseeds such as Arabidopsis. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the final step of the TAG synthesis pathway. Although TAG is mainly accumulated during seed development, and DGAT has presumably the highest activity in developing seeds, we show here that TAG synthesis is also actively taking place during germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis. The expression pattern of the DGAT1 gene was studied in transgenic plants containing the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused with DNA sequences flanking the DGAT1 coding region. GUS activity was not only detected in developing seeds and pollen, which normally accumulate storage TAG, but also in germinating seeds and seedlings. Western blots showed that DGAT1 protein is present in several tissues, though is most abundant in developing seeds. In seedlings, DGAT1 is expressed in shoot and root apical regions, correlating with rapid cell division and growth. The expression of GUS in seedlings was consistent with the results of RNA gel blot analyses, precursor feeding and DGAT assay. In addition, DGAT1 gene expression is up-regulated by glucose and associated with glucose-induced changes in seedling development.

  7. Cloning and functional analysis of three diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Ruibo; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other stages, whereas AhDGAT3-3 showed higher expression levels at 20 and 50 DAPs. In addition, AhDGAT transcripts were differentially expressed following exposure to abiotic stresses or abscisic acid. The activity of the three AhDGAT genes was confirmed by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant. The recombinant yeasts restored lipid body formation and TAG biosynthesis, and preferentially incorporated unsaturated C18 fatty acids into lipids. The present study provides significant information useful in modifying the oil deposition of peanut through molecular breeding.

  8. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Genes from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other stages, whereas AhDGAT3-3 showed higher expression levels at 20 and 50 DAPs. In addition, AhDGAT transcripts were differentially expressed following exposure to abiotic stresses or abscisic acid. The activity of the three AhDGAT genes was confirmed by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant. The recombinant yeasts restored lipid body formation and TAG biosynthesis, and preferentially incorporated unsaturated C18 fatty acids into lipids. The present study provides significant information useful in modifying the oil deposition of peanut through molecular breeding. PMID:25181516

  9. Characterization of Hedgehog Acyltransferase Inhibitors Identifies a Small Molecule Probe for Hedgehog Signaling by Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a critical role during embryonic development and cancer progression. N-terminal palmitoylation of Shh by Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is essential for efficient signaling, raising interest in Hhat as a novel drug target. A recently identified series of dihydrothienopyridines has been proposed to function via this mode of action; however, the lead compound in this series (RUSKI-43) was subsequently shown to possess cytotoxic activity unrelated to canonical Shh signaling. To identify a selective chemical probe for cellular studies, we profiled three RUSKI compounds in orthogonal cell-based assays. We found that RUSKI-43 exhibits off-target cytotoxicity, masking its effect on Hhat-dependent signaling, hence results obtained with this compound in cells should be treated with caution. In contrast, RUSKI-201 showed no off-target cytotoxicity, and quantitative whole-proteome palmitoylation profiling with a bioorthogonal alkyne-palmitate reporter demonstrated specific inhibition of Hhat in cells. RUSKI-201 is the first selective Hhat chemical probe in cells and should be used in future studies of Hhat catalytic function. PMID:27779865

  10. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase: potential targets for metabolic engineering of microorganism oil.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-01

    Oleaginous microorganism is becoming one of the most promising oil feedstocks for biodiesel production due to its great advantages in triglyceride (TAG) accumulation. Previous studies have shown that de novo TAG biosynthesis can be divided into two parts: the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (the upstream part which generates acyl-CoAs) and the glycerol-3-phosphate acylation pathway (the downstream part in which three acyl groups are sequentially added onto a glycerol backbone). This review mainly focuses on two enzymes in the G3P pathway, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). The former catalyzes a dephosphorylation reaction, and the latter catalyzes a subsequent acylation reaction. Genes, functional motifs, transmembrane domains, action mechanism, and new studies of the two enzymes are discussed in detail. Furthermore, this review also covers diacylglycerol kinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reverse reaction of diacylglycerol formation. In addition, PAP and DGAT are the conjunction points of the G3P pathway, the Kennedy pathway, and the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway (CDP-DAG pathway), and the mutual transformation between TAGs and phospholipids is discussed as well. Given that both the Kennedy and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways are in metabolic interlock (MI) with the G3P pathway, it is suggested that, via metabolic engineering, TAG accumulation can be improved by the two pathways based on the pivotal function of PAP and DGAT.

  11. Fas palmitoylation by the palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC7 regulates Fas stability

    PubMed Central

    Rossin, A; Durivault, J; Chakhtoura-Feghali, T; Lounnas, N; Gagnoux-Palacios, L; Hueber, A-O

    2015-01-01

    The death receptor Fas undergoes a variety of post-translational modifications including S-palmitoylation. This protein acylation has been reported essential for an optimal cell death signaling by allowing both a proper Fas localization in cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched membrane nanodomains, as well as Fas high-molecular weight complexes. In human, S-palmitoylation is controlled by 23 members of the DHHC family through their palmitoyl acyltransferase activity. In order to better understand the role of this post-translational modification in the regulation of the Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway, we performed a screen that allowed the identification of DHHC7 as a Fas-palmitoylating enzyme. Indeed, modifying DHHC7 expression by specific silencing or overexpression, respectively, reduces or enhances Fas palmitoylation and DHHC7 co-immunoprecipitates with Fas. At a functional level, DHHC7-mediated palmitoylation of Fas allows a proper Fas expression level by preventing its degradation through the lysosomes. Indeed, the decrease of Fas expression obtained upon loss of Fas palmitoylation can be restored by inhibiting the lysosomal degradation pathway. We describe the modification of Fas by palmitoylation as a novel mechanism for the regulation of Fas expression through its ability to circumvent its degradation by lysosomal proteolysis. PMID:25301068

  12. Ghrelin-ghrelin O-acyltransferase system in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Ren; Fan, Xiao-Ming

    2015-03-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered as the most common liver disease in Western countries, and is rapidly becoming a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. The ghrelin-ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) system has recently been found to play a crucial role in both the development of steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a 28-amino acid peptide possessing a unique acylation on the serine in position 3 catalyzed by GOAT. The ghrelin-GOAT system is involved in insulin resistance, lipid metabolism dysfunction, and inflammation, all of which play important roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. A better understanding of ghrelin-GOAT system biology led to the identification of its potential roles in NAFLD. Molecular targets modulating ghrelin-GOAT levels and the biologic effects are being studied, which provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This review probes into the possible relationship between the ghrelin-GOAT system and NAFLD, and considers the potential mechanisms by which the ghrelin-GOAT system brings about insulin resistance and other aspects concerning NAFLD.

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging and Spectroscopy of Fluorescently Coupled Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase in Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malak, H.; Mahtani, H.; Herman, P.; Vecer, J.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Richmond, Robert C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A high-performance hyperspectral imaging module with high throughput of light suitable for low-intensity fluorescence microscopic imaging and subsequent analysis, including single-pixel-defined emission spectroscopy, was tested on Sf21 insect cells expressing green fluorescence associated with recombinant green fluorescent protein linked or not with the membrane protein acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. The imager utilized the phenomenon of optical activity as a new technique providing information over a spectral range of 220-1400 nm, and was inserted between the microscope and an 8-bit CCD video-rate camera. The resulting fluorescence image did not introduce observable image aberrations. The images provided parallel acquisition of well resolved concurrent spatial and spectral information such that fluorescence associated with green fluorescent protein alone was demonstrated to be diffuse within the Sf21 insect cell, and that green fluorescence associated with the membrane protein was shown to be specifically concentrated within regions of the cell cytoplasm. Emission spectra analyzed from different regions of the fluorescence image showed blue shift specific for the regions of concentration associated with the membrane protein.

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging and Spectroscopy of Fluorescently Coupled Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase in Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malak, H.; Mahtani, H.; Herman, P.; Vecer, J.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Richmond, Robert C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A high-performance hyperspectral imaging module with high throughput of light suitable for low-intensity fluorescence microscopic imaging and subsequent analysis, including single-pixel-defined emission spectroscopy, was tested on Sf21 insect cells expressing green fluorescence associated with recombinant green fluorescent protein linked or not with the membrane protein acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. The imager utilized the phenomenon of optical activity as a new technique providing information over a spectral range of 220-1400 nm, and was inserted between the microscope and an 8-bit CCD video-rate camera. The resulting fluorescence image did not introduce observable image aberrations. The images provided parallel acquisition of well resolved concurrent spatial and spectral information such that fluorescence associated with green fluorescent protein alone was demonstrated to be diffuse within the Sf21 insect cell, and that green fluorescence associated with the membrane protein was shown to be specifically concentrated within regions of the cell cytoplasm. Emission spectra analyzed from different regions of the fluorescence image showed blue shift specific for the regions of concentration associated with the membrane protein.

  15. Diversity and evolution of plant diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGATs) unveiled by phylogenetic, gene structure and expression analyses

    PubMed Central

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Christoff, Ana Paula; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the first diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) gene was characterized in plants, a number of studies have focused on understanding the role of DGAT activity in plant triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. DGAT enzyme is essential in controlling TAGs synthesis and is encoded by different genes. DGAT1 and DGAT2 are the two major types of DGATs and have been well characterized in many plants. On the other hand, the DGAT3 and WS/DGAT have received less attention. In this study, we present the first general view of the presence of putative DGAT3 and WS/DGAT in several plant species and report on the diversity and evolution of these genes and its relationships with the two main DGAT genes (DGAT1 and DGAT2). According to our analyses DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT are very divergent genes and may have distinct origin in plants. They also present divergent expression patterns in different organs and tissues. The maintenance of several types of genes encoding DGAT enzymes in plants demonstrates the importance of DGAT activity for TAG biosynthesis. Evolutionary history studies of DGATs coupled with their expression patterns help us to decipher their functional role in plants, helping to drive future biotechnological studies. PMID:27706370

  16. Click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by hedgehog acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Bodakh, George; Konitsiotis, Antonio D.; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Rodgers, Ursula R.; Owens, Raymond J.; Magee, Anthony I.; Tate, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for correct embryogenesis and tissue development. However, on maturation, signaling is also found to be aberrantly activated in many cancers. Palmitoylation of the secreted signaling protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) by the enzyme hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is required for functional signaling. To quantify this important posttranslational modification, many in vitro Shh palmitoylation assays employ radiolabeled fatty acids, which have limitations in terms of cost and safety. Here we present a click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (click–ELISA) for assessment of Hhat activity through acylation of biotinylated Shh peptide with an alkyne-tagged palmitoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) analogue. Click chemistry functionalization of the alkyne tag with azido-FLAG peptide allows analysis through an ELISA protocol and colorimetric readout. This assay format identified the detergent n-dodecyl β-d-maltopyranoside as an improved solubilizing agent for Hhat activity. Quantification of the potency of RU-SKI small molecule Hhat inhibitors by click–ELISA indicated IC50 values in the low- or sub-micromolar range. A stopped assay format was also employed that allows measurement of Hhat kinetic parameters where saturating substrate concentrations exceed the binding capacity of the streptavidin-coated plate. Therefore, click–ELISA represents a nonradioactive method for assessing protein palmitoylation in vitro that is readily expandable to other classes of protein lipidation. PMID:26334609

  17. Putative DHHC-Cysteine-Rich Domain S-Acyltransferase in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Qi, Baoxiu; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-01-01

    Protein S-acyltransferases (PATs) containing Asp-His-His-Cys within a Cys-rich domain (DHHC-CRD) are polytopic transmembrane proteins that are found in eukaryotic cells and mediate the S-acylation of target proteins. S-acylation is an important secondary and reversible modification that regulates the membrane association, trafficking and function of target proteins. However, little is known about the characteristics of PATs in plants. Here, we identified 804 PATs from 31 species with complete genomes. The analysis of the phylogenetic relationships suggested that all of the PATs fell into 8 groups. In addition, we analysed the phylogeny, genomic organization, chromosome localisation and expression pattern of PATs in Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max. The microarray data revealed that PATs genes were expressed in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of the ZmPATs in specific tissues and the response of Zea mays to treatments with phytohormones and abiotic stress demonstrated that the PATs play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of the members of this protein family. PMID:24155879

  18. The last step in cocaine biosynthesis is catalyzed by a BAHD acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregor Wolfgang; Jirschitzka, Jan; Porta, Tiffany; Reichelt, Michael; Luck, Katrin; Torre, José Carlos Pardo; Dolke, Franziska; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D'Auria, John Charles

    2015-01-01

    The esterification of methylecgonine (2-carbomethoxy-3β-tropine) with benzoic acid is the final step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of cocaine in Erythoxylum coca. Here we report the identification of a member of the BAHD family of plant acyltransferases as cocaine synthase. The enzyme is capable of producing both cocaine and cinnamoylcocaine via the activated benzoyl- or cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A thioesters, respectively. Cocaine synthase activity is highest in young developing leaves, especially in the palisade parenchyma and spongy mesophyll. These data correlate well with the tissue distribution pattern of cocaine as visualized with antibodies. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectral imaging revealed that cocaine and cinnamoylcocaine are differently distributed on the upper versus lower leaf surfaces. Our findings provide further evidence that tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in the Erythroxylaceae occurs in the above-ground portions of the plant in contrast with the Solanaceae, in which tropane alkaloid biosynthesis occurs in the roots. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Enhanced antitumor activity of xanthohumol, a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiko; Asai, Tomohiro; Hara, Shuntaro; Namatame, Ichiji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Ikemoto, Mamoru; Oku, Naoto

    2005-03-10

    Cancer chemotherapy for hypoxic tumor cells is thought to be an important issue, since hypoxia is related to tumor growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, the bioactivities of xanthohumol (XN), a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, against hypoxic cells were investigated. At first, the inhibitory effects of XN on the formation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm were evaluated in hypoxia. Hypoxia upregulated the synthesis of triglyceride and promoted the formation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, however, the treatment of XN downregulated the triglyceride synthesis and completely canceled the appearance of lipid droplets. Second, the effects of XN on the proliferation and the motility of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma were investigated. The proliferation of HT-1080 was significantly suppressed in the presence of XN only in hypoxic condition but not in normoxic condition. XN also suppressed the motility of HT-1080 that was enhanced by hypoxia. Since, most cells in solid tumor were thought to be in hypoxic condition and acquired malignancy in response to hypoxia, these data suggest that XN may have potent and specific activities against cancerous cells. Furthermore, these data suggested that lipid metabolism may play an important role for hypoxic tumor cells and proposed a new therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Poly specific trans-acyltransferase machinery revealed via engineered acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Koryakina, Irina; McArthur, John; Randall, Shan; Draelos, Matthew M; Musiol, Ewa M; Muddiman, David C; Weber, Tilmann; Williams, Gavin J

    2013-01-18

    Polyketide synthases construct polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities via the condensation of extender units and acyl thioesters. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that polyketide synthases might be tolerant to non-natural extender units, in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at probing and utilizing polyketide synthase specificity are severely limited to only a small number of extender units, owing to the lack of synthetic routes to a broad variety of acyl-CoA extender units. Here, we report the construction of promiscuous malonyl-CoA synthetase variants that can be used to synthesize a broad range of malonyl-CoA extender units substituted at the C2-position, several of which contain handles for chemoselective ligation and are not found in natural biosynthetic systems. We highlighted utility of these enzymes by probing the acyl-CoA specificity of several trans-acyltransferases, leading to the unprecedented discovery of poly specificity toward non-natural extender units, several of which are not found in naturally occurring biosynthetic pathways. These results reveal that polyketide biosynthetic machinery might be more tolerant to non-natural substrates than previously established, and that mutant synthetases are valuable tools for probing the specificity of biosynthetic machinery. Our data suggest new synthetic biology strategies for harnessing this promiscuity and enabling the regioselective modification of polyketides.

  1. Structural and functional analysis of the loading acyltransferase from avermectin modular polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Yanjie; Ji, Junjie; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Jingkai; Zhu, Hua; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Lixin; Zheng, Jianting

    2015-04-17

    The loading acyltransferase (AT) domains of modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) control the choice of starter units incorporated into polyketides and are therefore attractive targets for the engineering of modular PKSs. Here, we report the structural and biochemical characterizations of the loading AT from avermectin modular PKS, which accepts more than 40 carboxylic acids as alternative starter units for the biosynthesis of a series of congeners. This first structural analysis of loading ATs from modular PKSs revealed the molecular basis for the relaxed substrate specificity. Residues important for substrate binding and discrimination were predicted by modeling a substrate into the active site. A mutant with altered specificity toward a panel of synthetic substrate mimics was generated by site-directed mutagenesis of the active site residues. The hydrolysis of the N-acetylcysteamine thioesters of racemic 2-methylbutyric acid confirmed the stereospecificity of the avermectin loading AT for an S configuration at the C-2 position of the substrate. Together, these results set the stage for region-specific modification of polyketides through active site engineering of loading AT domains of modular PKSs.

  2. Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2 Contributes to the Yolk Cholesterol Trafficking during Zebrafish Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yen-Hua; HuangFu, Wei-Chun

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate whether Sterol O-acyltransferase (Soat) mediates the absorption and transportation of yolk lipids to the developing embryo, zebrafish soat1 and soat2 were cloned and studied. In the adult zebrafish, soat1 was detected ubiquitously while soat2 mRNA was detected specifically in the liver, intestine, brain and testis. Whole mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that both soat1 and soat2 expressed in the yolk syncytial layer, hatching gland and developing cardiovascular as well as digestive systems, suggesting that Soats may play important roles in the lipid trafficking and utilization during embryonic development. The enzymatic activity of zebrafish Soat2 was confirmed by Oil Red O staining in the HEK293 cells overexpressing this gene, and could be quenched by Soat2 inhibitor Pyripyropene A (PPPA). The zebrafish embryos injected with PPPA or morpholino oligo against soat2 in the yolk showed significantly larger yolk when compared with wild-type embryos, especially at 72 hpf, indicating a slower rate of yolk consumption. Our result indicated that zebrafish Soat2 is catalytically active in synthesizing cholesteryl esters and contributes to the yolk cholesterol trafficking during zebrafish embryogenesis. PMID:27936201

  3. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase: From Biochemistry to Role in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rousset, Xavier; Vaisman, Boris; Amar, Marcelo; Sethi, Amar A.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review We discuss the latest findings on the biochemistry of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the effect of LCAT on atherosclerosis, clinical features of LCAT deficiency, and the impact of LCAT on cardiovascular disease from human studies. Recent findings Although there has been much recent progress in the biochemistry of LCAT and its effect on HDL metabolism, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still not fully understood. Studies from various animal models have revealed a complex interaction between LCAT and atherosclerosis that may be modified by diet and by other proteins that modify lipoproteins. Furthermore, the ability of LCAT to lower apoB appears to be the best way to predict its effect on atherosclerosis in animal models. Recent studies on patients with LCAT deficiency have shown a modest but significant increase incidence of cardiovascular disease consistent with a beneficial effect of LCAT on atherosclerosis. The role of LCAT in the general population, however, have not revealed a consistent association with cardiovascular disease. Summary Recent research findings from animal and humans studies have revealed a potential beneficial role of LCAT in reducing atherosclerosis but additional studies are necessary to better establish the linkage between LCAT and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19306528

  4. The Last Step in Cocaine Biosynthesis Is Catalyzed by a BAHD Acyltransferase[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Gregor Wolfgang; Porta, Tiffany; Reichelt, Michael; Luck, Katrin; Torre, José Carlos Pardo; Dolke, Franziska; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The esterification of methylecgonine (2-carbomethoxy-3β-tropine) with benzoic acid is the final step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of cocaine in Erythoxylum coca. Here we report the identification of a member of the BAHD family of plant acyltransferases as cocaine synthase. The enzyme is capable of producing both cocaine and cinnamoylcocaine via the activated benzoyl- or cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A thioesters, respectively. Cocaine synthase activity is highest in young developing leaves, especially in the palisade parenchyma and spongy mesophyll. These data correlate well with the tissue distribution pattern of cocaine as visualized with antibodies. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectral imaging revealed that cocaine and cinnamoylcocaine are differently distributed on the upper versus lower leaf surfaces. Our findings provide further evidence that tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in the Erythroxylaceae occurs in the above-ground portions of the plant in contrast with the Solanaceae, in which tropane alkaloid biosynthesis occurs in the roots. PMID:25406120

  5. Current status of the research and development of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeVita, Robert J; Pinto, Shirly

    2013-12-27

    Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has recently become a highly interesting target for metabolic disorders as well as for hepatitis C virus (HCV). DGAT1 processes diacylglycerol to triglycerides in the final step of resynthesis for the absorption of fat across the intestine. Pharmaceutical companies have developed many novel inhibitors of DGAT1, several of which have reached the clinic. Proof of target engagement was achieved with the observation of reduced triglycerides upon treatment of humans with DGAT1 inhibitors; however, there were gastrointestinal adverse events such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. These adverse events have been reported with multiple compounds and are possibly linked to the target because of the recent identification of a human cohort deficient in DGAT1. Clinical studies are continuing in a trial to treat patients with an orphan indication for familial chylomicronemia. The full potential of DGAT1 as a therapeutic target will need to overcome observed clinical adverse events, which are possibly mechanism based. The widespread use of DGAT1 inhibitors will ultimately depend upon a better understanding of how to improve the GI tolerability of these agents.

  6. Increased penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum production strains via balanced overexpression of isopenicillin N acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan S; Polli, Fabiola; Boer, Rémon; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-10-01

    Intense classical strain improvement has yielded industrial Penicillium chrysogenum strains that produce high titers of penicillin. These strains contain multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthesis cluster encoding the three key enzymes: δ-(l-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS), isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), and isopenicillin N acyltransferase (IAT). The phenylacetic acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (PCL) gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid is localized elsewhere in the genome in a single copy. Since the protein level of IAT already saturates at low cluster copy numbers, IAT might catalyze a limiting step in high-yielding strains. Here, we show that penicillin production in high-yielding strains can be further improved by the overexpression of IAT while at very high levels of IAT the precursor 6-aminopenicillic acid (6-APA) accumulates. Overproduction of PCL only marginally stimulates penicillin production. These data demonstrate that in high-yielding strains IAT is the limiting factor and that this limitation can be alleviated by a balanced overproduction of this enzyme.

  7. Acute sterol o-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) knockdown rapidly mobilizes hepatic cholesterol for fecal excretion.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephanie M; Gromovsky, Anthony D; Kelley, Kathryn L; Davis, Matthew A; Wilson, Martha D; Lee, Richard G; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Rudel, Lawrence L; Brown, J Mark; Temel, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD), the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼ 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion.

  8. Structural and Functional Studies of a trans-Acyltransferase Polyketide Assembly Line Enzyme that Catalyzes Stereoselective α- and β-Ketoreduction

    PubMed Central

    Piasecki, Shawn K.; Zheng, Jianting; Axelrod, Abram J.; Detelich, Madeline; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.

    2014-01-01

    While the cis-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthase assembly lines have largely been structurally dissected, enzymes from within the recently discovered trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines are just starting to be observed crystallographically. Here we examine the ketoreductase from the first polyketide synthase module of the bacillaene nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase at 2.35-Å resolution. This ketoreductase naturally reduces both α- and β-keto groups and is the only ketoreductase known to do so during the biosynthesis of a polyketide. The isolated ketoreductase not only reduced an N-acetylcysteamine-bound β-keto substrate to a D-β-hydroxy product, but also an N-acetylcysteamine- bound α-keto substrate to an L-α-hydroxy product. That the substrates must enter the active site from opposite directions to generate these stereochemistries suggests that the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety is capable of accessing very different conformations despite being anchored to a serine residue of a docked acyl carrier protein. The features enabling stereocontrolled α-ketoreduction may not be extensive since a β-ketoreductase from a cis-acyltransferase polyketide synthase was identified that performs a completely stereoselective reduction of the same α-keto substrate to generate the D-α-hydroxy product. A sequence analysis of trans-acyltransferase ketoreductases reveals that a single residue, rather than a three-residue motif found in cis-acyltransferase ketoreductases, is predictive of the orientation of the resulting β-hydroxyl group. PMID:24634061

  9. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  10. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24099 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  13. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    DOE PAGES

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; ...

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-likemore » subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.« less

  14. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.

  15. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  16. A novel lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase enzyme (LPAAT4) with a possible role for incorporating docosahexaenoic acid into brain glycerophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Eto, Miki; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2014-01-10

    Glycerophospholipids are important components of cellular membranes, required for constructing structural barriers, and for providing precursors of bioactive lipid mediators. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) are enzymes known to function in the de novo glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway (Kennedy pathway), using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acyl-CoA to form phosphatidic acid (PA). Until now, three LPAATs (LPAAT1, 2, and 3) have been reported from the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) family. In this study, we identified a fourth LPAAT enzyme, LPAAT4, previously known as an uncharacterized enzyme AGPAT4 (LPAATδ), from the AGPAT family. Although LPAAT4 was known to contain AGPAT motifs essential for acyltransferase activities, detailed biochemical properties were unknown. Here, we found that mouse LPAAT4 (mLPAAT4) possesses LPAAT activity with high acyl-CoA specificity for polyunsaturated fatty acyl-CoA, especially docosahexaenoyl-CoA (22:6-CoA, DHA-CoA). mLPAAT4 was distributed in many tissues, with relatively high expression in the brain, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6). mLPAAT4 siRNA in a neuronal cell line, Neuro 2A, caused a decrease in LPAAT activity with 22:6-CoA, suggesting that mLPAAT4 functions endogenously. siRNA in Neuro 2A cells caused a decrease in 18:0-22:6 PC, whereas mLPAAT4 overexpression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells caused an increase in this species. Although DHA is considered to have many important functions for the brain, the mechanism of its incorporation into glycerophospholipids is unknown. LPAAT4 might have a significant role for maintaining DHA in neural membranes. Identification of LPAAT4 will possibly contribute to understanding the regulation and the biological roles of DHA-containing glycerophospholipids in the brain. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Grapevine Anthocyanin Acyltransferase, Transcriptionally Regulated by VvMYBA, Can Produce Most Acylated Anthocyanins Present in Grape Skins.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Amy R; Cavallini, Erika; Jia, Yong; Moss, Sarah M A; McDavid, Debra A J; Hooper, Lauren C; Robinson, Simon P; Tornielli, Giovanni B; Zenoni, Sara; Ford, Christopher M; Boss, Paul K; Walker, Amanda R

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds responsible for red/purple colors in the leaves, fruit, and flowers of many plant species. They are produced through a multistep pathway that is controlled by MYB transcription factors. VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 activate anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and are nonfunctional in white grapevine cultivars. In this study, transgenic grapevines with altered VvMYBA gene expression were developed, and transcript analysis was carried out on berries using a microarray technique. The results showed that VvMYBA is a positive regulator of the later stages of anthocyanin synthesis, modification, and transport in cv Shiraz. One up-regulated gene, ANTHOCYANIN 3-O-GLUCOSIDE-6″-O-ACYLTRANSFERASE (Vv3AT), encodes a BAHD acyltransferase protein (named after the first letter of the first four characterized proteins: BEAT [for acetyl CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase], AHCT [for anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase], HCBT [for anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase], and DAT [for deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase]), belonging to a clade separate from most anthocyanin acyltransferases. Functional studies (in planta and in vitro) show that Vv3AT has a broad anthocyanin substrate specificity and can also utilize both aliphatic and aromatic acyl donors, a novel activity for this enzyme family found in nature. In cv Pinot Noir, a red-berried grapevine mutant lacking acylated anthocyanins, Vv3AT contains a nonsense mutation encoding a truncated protein that lacks two motifs required for BAHD protein activity. Promoter activation assays confirm that Vv3AT transcription is activated by VvMYBA1, which adds to the current understanding of the regulation of the BAHD gene family. The flexibility of Vv3AT to use both classes of acyl donors will be useful in the engineering of anthocyanins in planta or in vitro. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Generation of N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamine by Members of the Phospholipase A/Acyltransferase (PLA/AT) Family*

    PubMed Central

    Uyama, Toru; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Inoue, Manami; Shinohara, Naoki; Jin, Xing-Hua; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Tonai, Takeharu; Tokumura, Akira; Ueda, Natsuo

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), including N-palmitoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine, and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), are formed from membrane glycerophospholipids in animal tissues. The pathway is initiated by N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to form N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE). Despite the physiological importance of this reaction, the enzyme responsible, N-acyltransferase, remains molecularly uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that all five members of the HRAS-like suppressor tumor family are phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes with N-acyltransferase activity and are renamed HRASLS1–5 as phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT)-1–5. However, it was poorly understood whether these proteins were involved in the formation of NAPE in living cells. In the present studies, we first show that COS-7 cells transiently expressing recombinant PLA/AT-1, -2, -4, or -5, and HEK293 cells stably expressing PLA/AT-2 generated significant amounts of [14C]NAPE and [14C]NAE when cells were metabolically labeled with [14C]ethanolamine. Second, as analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the stable expression of PLA/AT-2 in cells remarkably increased endogenous levels of NAPEs and NAEs with various N-acyl species. Third, when NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D was additionally expressed in PLA/AT-2-expressing cells, accumulating NAPE was efficiently converted to NAE. We also found that PLA/AT-2 was partly responsible for NAPE formation in HeLa cells that endogenously express PLA/AT-2. These results suggest that PLA/AT family proteins may produce NAPEs serving as precursors of bioactive NAEs in vivo. PMID:22825852

  19. A Grapevine Anthocyanin Acyltransferase, Transcriptionally Regulated by VvMYBA, Can Produce Most Acylated Anthocyanins Present in Grape Skins1

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldo, Amy R.; Cavallini, Erika; Jia, Yong; Moss, Sarah M.A.; McDavid, Debra A.J.; Hooper, Lauren C.; Robinson, Simon P.; Tornielli, Giovanni B.; Zenoni, Sara; Ford, Christopher M.; Boss, Paul K.; Walker, Amanda R.

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds responsible for red/purple colors in the leaves, fruit, and flowers of many plant species. They are produced through a multistep pathway that is controlled by MYB transcription factors. VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 activate anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and are nonfunctional in white grapevine cultivars. In this study, transgenic grapevines with altered VvMYBA gene expression were developed, and transcript analysis was carried out on berries using a microarray technique. The results showed that VvMYBA is a positive regulator of the later stages of anthocyanin synthesis, modification, and transport in cv Shiraz. One up-regulated gene, ANTHOCYANIN 3-O-GLUCOSIDE-6″-O-ACYLTRANSFERASE (Vv3AT), encodes a BAHD acyltransferase protein (named after the first letter of the first four characterized proteins: BEAT [for acetyl CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase], AHCT [for anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase], HCBT [for anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase], and DAT [for deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase]), belonging to a clade separate from most anthocyanin acyltransferases. Functional studies (in planta and in vitro) show that Vv3AT has a broad anthocyanin substrate specificity and can also utilize both aliphatic and aromatic acyl donors, a novel activity for this enzyme family found in nature. In cv Pinot Noir, a red-berried grapevine mutant lacking acylated anthocyanins, Vv3AT contains a nonsense mutation encoding a truncated protein that lacks two motifs required for BAHD protein activity. Promoter activation assays confirm that Vv3AT transcription is activated by VvMYBA1, which adds to the current understanding of the regulation of the BAHD gene family. The flexibility of Vv3AT to use both classes of acyl donors will be useful in the engineering of anthocyanins in planta or in vitro. PMID:26395841

  20. Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limin; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2005-12-02

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the esterification of retinol (vitamin A) in the liver and in some extrahepatic tissues, including the lung. We produced an LRAT gene knock-out mouse strain and assessed whether LRAT-/- mice were more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency than wild type (WT) mice. After maintenance on a vitamin A-deficient diet for 6 weeks, the serum retinol level was 1.34 +/- 0.32 microM in WT mice versus 0.13 +/- 0.06 microM in LRAT-/- mice (p < 0.05). In liver, lung, eye, kidney, brain, tongue, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, the retinol levels ranged from 0.05 pmol/mg (muscle and tongue) to 17.35 +/- 2.66 pmol/mg (liver) in WT mice. In contrast, retinol was not detectable (<0.007 pmol/mg) in most tissues from LRAT-/- mice after maintenance on a vitamin A-deficient diet for 6 weeks. Cyp26A1 mRNA was not detected in hepatic tissue samples from LRAT-/- mice but was detected in WT mice fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. These data indicate that LRAT-/- mice are much more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency and should be an excellent animal model of vitamin A deficiency. In addition, the retinol levels in serum rapidly increased in the LRAT-/- mice upon re-addition of vitamin A to the diet, indicating that serum retinol levels in LRAT-/- mice can be conveniently modulated by the quantitative manipulation of dietary retinol.

  1. Lipid oxidation in carriers of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Holleboom, Adriaan G; Daniil, Georgios; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Hovingh, G Kees; Schimmel, Alinda W; Kastelein, John J P; Stroes, Erik S G; Witztum, Joseph L; Hutten, Barbara A; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hazen, Stanley L; Chroni, Angeliki; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2012-12-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has been shown to play a role in the depletion of lipid oxidation products, but this has so far not been studied in humans. In this study, we investigated processes and parameters relevant to lipid oxidation in carriers of functional LCAT mutations. In 4 carriers of 2 mutant LCAT alleles, 63 heterozygotes, and 63 family controls, we measured activities of LCAT, paraoxonase 1, and platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase; levels of lysophosphatidylcholine molecular species, arachidonic and linoleic acids, and their oxidized derivatives; immunodetectable oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing and apo(a)-containing lipoproteins; IgM and IgG autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-low-density lipoprotein and IgG and IgM apoB-immune complexes; and the antioxidant capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In individuals with LCAT mutations, plasma LCAT activity, HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, arachidonic acid, and its oxidized derivatives, oxidized phospholipids on apo(a)-containing lipoproteins, HDL-associated platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, and the antioxidative capacity of HDL were gene-dose-dependently decreased. Oxidized phospholipids on apoB-containing lipoproteins was increased in heterozygotes (17%; P<0.001) but not in carriers of 2 defective LCAT alleles. Carriers of LCAT mutations present with significant reductions in LCAT activity, HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, and antioxidative potential of HDL, but this is not associated with parameters of increased lipid peroxidation; we did not observe significant changes in the oxidation products of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, immunoreactive oxidized phospholipids on apo(a)-containing lipoproteins, and IgM and IgG autoantibodies against malondialdehyde-low-density lipoprotein. These data indicate that plasma LCAT activity, HDL-associated platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity

  2. A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress*

    PubMed Central

    Pszenny, Viviana; Ehrenman, Karen; Romano, Julia D.; Kennard, Andrea; Schultz, Aric; Roos, David S.; Grigg, Michael E.; Carruthers, Vern B.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mammalian cells, where it scavenges cholesterol. When cholesterol is present in excess in its environment, the parasite expulses this lipid into the PV or esterifies it for storage in lipid bodies. Here, we characterized a unique T. gondii homologue of mammalian lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters via transfer of acyl groups from phospholipids to the 3-OH of free cholesterol, leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from tissues. TgLCAT contains a motif characteristic of serine lipases “AHSLG” and the catalytic triad consisting of serine, aspartate, and histidine (SDH) from LCAT enzymes. TgLCAT is secreted by the parasite, but unlike other LCAT enzymes it is cleaved into two proteolytic fragments that share the residues of the catalytic triad and need to be reassembled to reconstitute enzymatic activity. TgLCAT uses phosphatidylcholine as substrate to form lysophosphatidylcholine that has the potential to disrupt membranes. The released fatty acid is transferred to cholesterol, but with a lower transesterification activity than mammalian LCAT. TgLCAT is stored in a subpopulation of dense granule secretory organelles, and following secretion, it localizes to the PV and parasite plasma membrane. LCAT-null parasites have impaired growth in vitro, reduced virulence in animals, and exhibit delays in egress from host cells. Parasites overexpressing LCAT show increased virulence and faster egress. These observations demonstrate that TgLCAT influences the outcome of an infection, presumably by facilitating replication and egress depending on the developmental stage of the parasite. PMID:26694607

  3. Immunolocalization of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Khelef, N; Buton, X; Beatini, N; Wang, H; Meiner, V; Chang, T Y; Farese, R V; Maxfield, F R; Tabas, I

    1998-05-01

    Macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl-fatty acyl esters ("foam cell" formation) through the intracellular esterification of cholesterol by acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT). In this study, we sought to determine the subcellular localization of ACAT in macrophages. Using mouse peritoneal macrophages and immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that a major portion of ACAT was in a dense reticular cytoplasmic network and in the nuclear membrane that colocalized with the luminal endoplasmic reticulum marker protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and that was in a similar distribution as the membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum marker ribophorin. Remarkably, another portion of the macrophage ACAT pattern did not overlap with PDI or ribophorin, but was found in as yet unidentified cytoplasmic structures that were juxtaposed to the nucleus. Compartments containing labeled beta-very low density lipoprotein, an atherogenic lipoprotein, did not overlap with the ACAT label, but rather were embedded in the dense reticular network of ACAT. Furthermore, cell-surface biotinylation experiments revealed that freshly harvested, non-attached macrophages, but not those attached to tissue culture dishes, contained approximately 10-15% of ACAT on the cell surface. In summary, ACAT was found in several sites in macrophages: a cytoplasmic reticular/nuclear membrane site that overlaps with PDI and ribophorin and has the characteristics of the endoplasmic reticulum, a perinuclear cytoplasmic site that does not overlap with PDI or ribophorin and may be another cytoplasmic structure or possibly a unique subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum, and a cell-surface site in non-attached macrophages. Understanding possible physiological differences of ACAT in these locations may reveal an important component of ACAT regulation and macrophage foam cell formation.

  4. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  5. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  6. Loss of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 leads to photoreceptor degeneration in rd11 mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, James S.; Chang, Bo; Krauth, Daniel S.; Lopez, Irma; Waseem, Naushin H.; Hurd, Ron E.; Feathers, Kecia L.; Branham, Kari E.; Shaw, Manessa; Thomas, George E.; Brooks, Matthew J.; Liu, Chunqiao; Bakeri, Hirva A.; Campos, Maria M.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Webster, Andrew R.; Rodriguez, Ignacio R.; Thompson, Debra A.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Heckenlively, John R.; Swaroop, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis, are a leading cause of untreatable blindness with substantive impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and their families. Mouse mutants with retinal dystrophies have provided a valuable resource to discover human disease genes and helped uncover pathways critical for photoreceptor function. Here we show that the rd11 mouse mutant and its allelic strain, B6-JR2845, exhibit rapid photoreceptor dysfunction, followed by degeneration of both rods and cones. Using linkage analysis, we mapped the rd11 locus to mouse chromosome 13. We then identified a one-nucleotide insertion (c.420–421insG) in exon 3 of the Lpcat1 gene. Subsequent screening of this gene in the B6-JR2845 strain revealed a seven-nucleotide deletion (c.14–20delGCCGCGG) in exon 1. Both sequence changes are predicted to result in a frame-shift, leading to premature truncation of the lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-1 (LPCAT1) protein. LPCAT1 (also called AYTL2) is a phospholipid biosynthesis/remodeling enzyme that facilitates the conversion of palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The analysis of retinal lipids from rd11 and B6-JR2845 mice showed substantially reduced DPPC levels compared with C57BL/6J control mice, suggesting a causal link to photoreceptor dysfunction. A follow-up screening of LPCAT1 in retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis patients did not reveal any obvious disease-causing mutations. Previously, LPCAT1 has been suggested to be critical for the production of lung surfactant phospholipids and biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in noninflammatory remodeling pathway. Our studies add another dimension to an essential role for LPCAT1 in retinal photoreceptor homeostasis. PMID:20713727

  7. Plasma lipoproteins in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency: lipid composition and reactivity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glomset, John A.; Norum, Kaare R.; King, Weiling

    1970-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins from patients with familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency have been fractioned by preparative ultra-centrifugation and gel filtration and their lipid content and reactivity studied. All of the lipoproteins are abnormal with respect to lipid concentration or relative lipid content. The low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to react normally with partially purified LCAT from normal plasma. Also, the lipids of the very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and LDL, like those of the corresponding lipoproteins of normal plasma, are indirectly altered by the action of LCAT on normal HDL. Thus, during incubation in vitro VLDL cholesteryl ester is increased and VLDL triglyceride is decreased, as described by others for VLDL from hyperlipemic plasma, and both the unesterified cholesterol and lecithin of the VLDL and LDL are decreased. The patients' VLDL and LDL are abnormal, however, in that they lose unesterified cholesterol and lecithin to normal HDL in the absence of LCAT. Also, the patients' HDL lose these lipids to erythrocyte membranes in the absence of the enzyme. Our results provide further evidence that the abnormal cholesterol and phospholipid composition of the patients' lipoproteins is caused by the LCAT deficiency. They support the postulate that an excess of unesterified cholesterol and lecithin develops as VLDL are converted to LDL and HDL and suggest that in the absence of LCAT this excess lipid distributes among plasma lipoproteins and plasma membranes. They further suggest that LCAT normally reduces this excess lipid through a combination of direct and indirect effects. PMID:5456796

  8. Acyltransferase domain substitutions in erythromycin polyketide synthase yield novel erythromycin derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, X; Pereda, A; Stassi, D L; Zeidner, D; Summers, R G; Jackson, M; Shivakumar, A; Kakavas, S; Staver, M J; Donadio, S; Katz, L

    1997-01-01

    The methylmalonyl coenzyme A (methylmalonyl-CoA)-specific acyltransferase (AT) domains of modules 1 and 2 of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS1) of Saccharopolyspora erythraea ER720 were replaced with three heterologous AT domains that are believed, based on sequence comparisons, to be specific for malonyl-CoA. The three substituted AT domains were "Hyg" AT2 from module 2 of a type I polyketide synthase (PKS)-like gene cluster isolated from the rapamycin producer Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 29253, "Ven" AT isolated from a PKS-like gene cluster of the pikromycin producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, and RAPS AT14 from module 14 of the rapamycin PKS gene cluster of S. hygroscopicus ATCC 29253. These changes led to the production of novel erythromycin derivatives by the engineered strains of S. erythraea ER720. Specifically, 12-desmethyl-12-deoxyerythromycin A, which lacks the methyl group at C-12 of the macrolactone ring, was produced by the strains in which the resident AT1 domain was replaced, and 10-desmethylerythromycin A and 10-desmethyl-12-deoxyerythromycin A, both of which lack the methyl group at C-10 of the macrolactone ring, were produced by the recombinant strains in which the resident AT2 domain was replaced. All of the novel erythromycin derivatives exhibited antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The production of the erythromycin derivatives through AT replacements confirms the computer predicted substrate specificities of "Hyg" AT2 and "Ven" AT and the substrate specificity of RAPS AT14 deduced from the structure of rapamycin. Moreover, these experiments demonstrate that at least some AT domains of the complete 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase of S. erythraea can be replaced by functionally related domains from different organisms to make novel, bioactive compounds. PMID:9335291

  9. Targeting Palmitoyl acyltransferase ZDHHC21 Improves Gut Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Resulting from Burn Induced Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ricci J; Wang, Chunyan; Yang, Clement Gy; Eitnier, Rebecca A; Wang, Fang; Wu, Mack H

    2017-08-24

    Clinical studies in burn patients demonstrate a close association between leaky guts and increased incidence or severity of sepsis and other complications. Severe thermal injury triggers intestinal inflammation that contributes to intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability, which exacerbates systemic response leading to multiple organ failure and sepsis. In this study, we identified a significant function of a particular palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT), ZDHHC21, in mediating signaling events required for gut hyperpermeability induced by inflammation. Using qPCR, we show that ZDHHC21 mRNA, production was enhanced by two-fold when intestinal epithelial cells were treated with TNFα/IFNγ in vitro. In addition, pharmacological targeting of PATs with 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) showed significant improvement in TNFα/IFNγ mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction by using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) assays, as well as FITC-dextran permeability assays. Using the ABE assay and click chemistry, we show that TNFα/IFNγ treatment of intestinal epithelial cells results in enhanced detection of total palmitoylated proteins, and this response is inhibited by 2-BP. Using ZDHHC21 deficient mice or wild-type mice treated with 2-BP, we showed that mice with impaired ZDHHC21 expression or pharmacological inhibition resulted in attenuated intestinal barrier dysfunction caused by thermal injury. Moreover, H&E staining of small intestine, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showed mice with genetic interruption of ZDHHC21 had attenuated villus structure disorganization associated with thermal injury induced intestinal barrier damage. Taken together, these results suggest an important role of ZDHHC21 in mediating gut hyperpermeability resulting from thermal injury. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

  10. Identification and localization of a lipase-like acyltransferase in phenylpropanoid metabolism of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Teutschbein, Jenny; Gross, Wiltrud; Nimtz, Manfred; Milkowski, Carsten; Hause, Bettina; Strack, Dieter

    2010-12-03

    We have isolated an enzyme classified as chlorogenate: glucarate caffeoyltransferase (CGT) from seedlings of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that catalyzes the formation of caffeoylglucarate and caffeoylgalactarate using chlorogenate (5-O-caffeoylquinate) as acyl donor. Peptide sequences obtained by trypsin digestion and spectrometric sequencing were used to isolate the SlCGT cDNA encoding a protein of 380 amino acids with a putative targeting signal of 24 amino acids indicating an entry of the SlCGT into the secretory pathway. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed the localization of the enzyme in the apoplastic space of tomato leaves. Southern blot analysis of genomic cDNA suggests that SlCGT is encoded by a single-copy gene. The SlCGT cDNA was functionally expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and proved to confer chlorogenate-dependent caffeoyltransferase activity in the presence of glucarate. Sequence comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence identified the protein unexpectedly as a GDSL lipase-like protein, representing a new member of the SGNH protein superfamily. Lipases of this family employ a catalytic triad of Ser-Asp-His with Ser as nucleophile of the GDSL motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of each residue of the assumed respective SlCGT catalytic triad, however, indicated that the catalytic triad of the GDSL lipase is not essential for SlCGT enzymatic activity. SlCGT is therefore the first example of a GDSL lipase-like protein that lost hydrolytic activity and has acquired a completely new function in plant metabolism, functioning in secondary metabolism as acyltransferase in synthesis of hydroxycinnamate esters by employing amino acid residues different from the lipase catalytic triad.

  11. Inhibiting Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities but Not Inflammation and Injury in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Nisreen; Hall, Angela M.; Chen, Zhouji; Yoshino, Jun; Collier, Sara L.; Mathews, James C.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Albert, Carolyn J.; Graham, Mark J.; Ford, David A.; Finck, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin action are believed to play a critical role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) enzymes convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol, which is the penultimate step in one pathway for triacylglycerol synthesis. Hepatic expression of Mogat1, which encodes an MGAT enzyme, is increased in the livers of mice with hepatic steatosis, and knocking down Mogat1 improves glucose metabolism and hepatic insulin signaling, but whether increased MGAT activity plays a role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is unclear. To examine this issue, mice were placed on a diet containing high levels of trans fatty acids, fructose, and cholesterol (HTF-C diet) or a low fat control diet for 4 weeks. Mice were injected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to knockdown Mogat1 or a scrambled ASO control for 12 weeks while remaining on diet. The HTF-C diet caused glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and induced hepatic gene expression markers of inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and stellate cell activation. Mogat1 ASO treatment, which suppressed Mogat1 expression in liver and adipose tissue, attenuated weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, improved hepatic insulin signaling, and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol content compared with control ASO-treated mice on HTF-C chow. However, Mogat1 ASO treatment did not reduce hepatic diacylglycerol, cholesterol, or free fatty acid content; improve histologic measures of liver injury; or reduce expression of markers of stellate cell activation, liver inflammation, and injury. In conclusion, inhibition of hepatic Mogat1 in HTF-C diet-fed mice improves hepatic metabolic abnormalities without attenuating liver inflammation and injury. PMID:25213859

  12. Developmental Regulation of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Family Gene Expression in Tung Tree Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Shockey, Jay M.; Klasson, K. Thomas; Chapital, Dorselyn C.; Mason, Catherine B.; Scheffler, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes. We previously cloned DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes of tung tree (Vernicia fordii), whose novel seed TAGs are useful in a wide range of industrial applications. The objective of this study was to understand the developmental regulation of DGAT family gene expression in tung tree. To this end, we first cloned a tung tree gene encoding DGAT3, a putatively soluble form of DGAT that possesses 11 completely conserved amino acid residues shared among 27 DGAT3s from 19 plant species. Unlike DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, DGAT3 is absent from animals. We then used TaqMan and SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR, along with northern and western blotting, to study the expression patterns of the three DGAT genes in tung tree tissues. Expression results demonstrate that 1) all three isoforms of DGAT genes are expressed in developing seeds, leaves and flowers; 2) DGAT2 is the major DGAT mRNA in tung seeds, whose expression profile is well-coordinated with the oil profile in developing tung seeds; and 3) DGAT3 is the major form of DGAT mRNA in tung leaves, flowers and immature seeds prior to active tung oil biosynthesis. These results suggest that DGAT2 is probably the major TAG biosynthetic isoform in tung seeds and that DGAT3 gene likely plays a significant role in TAG metabolism in other tissues. Therefore, DGAT2 should be a primary target for tung oil engineering in transgenic organisms. PMID:24146944

  13. A Single Amino Acid Change Is Responsible for Evolution of Acyltransferase Specificity in Bacterial Methionine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zubieta, C.; Arkus, K.A.J.; Cahoon, R.E.; Jez, J.M.

    2009-05-28

    Bacteria and yeast rely on either homoserine transsuccinylase (HTS, metA) or homoserine transacetylase (HTA; met2) for the biosynthesis of methionine. Although HTS and HTA catalyze similar chemical reactions, these proteins are typically unrelated in both sequence and three-dimensional structure. Here we present the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution x-ray crystal structure of the Bacillus cereus metA protein in complex with homoserine, which provides the first view of a ligand bound to either HTA or HTS. Surprisingly, functional analysis of the B. cereus metA protein shows that it does not use succinyl-CoA as a substrate. Instead, the protein catalyzes the transacetylation of homoserine using acetyl-CoA. Therefore, the B. cereus metA protein functions as an HTA despite greater than 50% sequence identity with bona fide HTS proteins. This result emphasizes the need for functional confirmation of annotations of enzyme function based on either sequence or structural comparisons. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants reveals that the B. cereus metA protein and the E. coli HTS share a common catalytic mechanism. Structural and functional examination of the B. cereus metA protein reveals that a single amino acid in the active site determines acetyl-CoA (Glu-111) versus succinyl-CoA (Gly-111) specificity in the metA-like of acyltransferases. Switching of this residue provides a mechanism for evolving substrate specificity in bacterial methionine biosynthesis. Within this enzyme family, HTS and HTA activity likely arises from divergent evolution in a common structural scaffold with conserved catalytic machinery and homoserine binding sites.

  14. A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, Viviana; Ehrenman, Karen; Romano, Julia D; Kennard, Andrea; Schultz, Aric; Roos, David S; Grigg, Michael E; Carruthers, Vern B; Coppens, Isabelle

    2016-02-19

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mammalian cells, where it scavenges cholesterol. When cholesterol is present in excess in its environment, the parasite expulses this lipid into the PV or esterifies it for storage in lipid bodies. Here, we characterized a unique T. gondii homologue of mammalian lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters via transfer of acyl groups from phospholipids to the 3-OH of free cholesterol, leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from tissues. TgLCAT contains a motif characteristic of serine lipases "AHSLG" and the catalytic triad consisting of serine, aspartate, and histidine (SDH) from LCAT enzymes. TgLCAT is secreted by the parasite, but unlike other LCAT enzymes it is cleaved into two proteolytic fragments that share the residues of the catalytic triad and need to be reassembled to reconstitute enzymatic activity. TgLCAT uses phosphatidylcholine as substrate to form lysophosphatidylcholine that has the potential to disrupt membranes. The released fatty acid is transferred to cholesterol, but with a lower transesterification activity than mammalian LCAT. TgLCAT is stored in a subpopulation of dense granule secretory organelles, and following secretion, it localizes to the PV and parasite plasma membrane. LCAT-null parasites have impaired growth in vitro, reduced virulence in animals, and exhibit delays in egress from host cells. Parasites overexpressing LCAT show increased virulence and faster egress. These observations demonstrate that TgLCAT influences the outcome of an infection, presumably by facilitating replication and egress depending on the developmental stage of the parasite.

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226.

  16. ACAT-2, a second mammalian acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. Its cloning, expression, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Cases, S; Novak, S; Zheng, Y W; Myers, H M; Lear, S R; Sande, E; Welch, C B; Lusis, A J; Spencer, T A; Krause, B R; Erickson, S K; Farese, R V

    1998-10-09

    The synthesis of cholesterol esters by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, EC 2.3.1.26) is an important component of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol ester formation also is hypothesized to be important in several physiologic processes, including intestinal cholesterol absorption, hepatic lipoprotein production, and macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. Mouse tissue expression studies and the disruption of the mouse ACAT gene (Acact) have indicated that more than one ACAT exists in mammals and specifically that another enzyme is important in mouse liver and intestine. We now describe a second mammalian ACAT enzyme, designated ACAT-2, that is 44% identical to the first cloned mouse ACAT (henceforth designated ACAT-1). Infection of H5 insect cells with an ACAT-2 recombinant baculovirus resulted in expression of a approximately 46-kDa protein in cell membranes that was associated with high levels of cholesterol esterification activity. Both ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 also catalyzed the esterification of the 3beta-hydroxyl group of a variety of oxysterols. Cholesterol esterification activities for ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 exhibited different IC50 values when assayed in the presence of several ACAT-specific inhibitors, demonstrating that ACAT inhibitors can selectively target specific forms of ACAT. ACAT-2 was expressed primarily in mouse liver and small intestine, supporting the hypothesis that ACAT-2 contributes to cholesterol esterification in these tissues. The mouse ACAT-2 gene (Acact2) maps to chromosome 15 in a region containing a quantitative trait locus influencing plasma cholesterol levels. The identification and cloning of ACAT-2 will facilitate molecular approaches to understanding the role of ACAT enzymes in mammalian biology.

  17. Metabolic tracing of monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jenson; Lang, Wensheng; Connelly, Margery A; Du, Fuyong; Liang, Yin; Caldwell, Gary W; Martin, Tonya; Hansen, Michael K; Kuo, Gee-Hong; Gaul, Michael D; Pocai, Alessandro; Lee, Seunghun

    2017-05-01

    Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DAG) from free fatty acids (FFA) and sn-monoacylglycerol (MG), the two major hydrolysis products of dietary fat. To demonstrate MGAT2-mediated cellular activity of triglyceride (TG) synthesis, we utilized 1-oleoyl-glycerol-d5 as a substrate to trace MGAT2-driven 1-oleoyl-glycerol-d5 incorporation into TG in HEK293 cells stably expressing human MGAT2. The oleoyl-glycerol-d5 incorporated major TG species were then quantified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) in a 96-well format. Conventional MGAT2 target-engagement in vivo assays measure the elevation of total plasma TG by orally dosing a bolus of TG oil. We developed a novel LC/ESI/MS/MS-based fat absorption assay to assess the ability of MGAT2 inhibitors to inhibit fat absorption in CD1 mice by a meal tolerance test consisting of a mixture of liquid Boost plus(®) and 0.59 g/kg (U13)C-TG oil. The newly resynthesized plasma heavy TGs containing three (13)C in the glycerol backbone and two (U13)C-acyl-chains, which represented the digested, absorbed and resynthesized TGs, were then quantitated by LC/ESI/MS/MS. With this assay, we identified a potent MGAT2 inhibitor that blocked MGAT2-mediated activity in vitro and in vivo. The use of 1-oleoyl-glycerol-d5 and (U13)C-TG oil followed by LC/ESI/MS/MS detection of stable-isotopic labeled DAG, TG, or glycerol provides a wide range of applications to study pathophysiological regulation of the monoacylglycerol pathway and MGAT2 activity.

  18. Interaction of Phospholipase A/Acyltransferase-3 with Pex19p

    PubMed Central

    Uyama, Toru; Kawai, Katsuhisa; Kono, Nozomu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Inoue, Tomohito; Araki, Nobukazu; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Natsuo

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT)-3 (also known as H-rev107 or AdPLA) was originally isolated as a tumor suppressor and was later shown to have phospholipase A1/A2 activity. We have also found that the overexpression of PLA/AT-3 in mammalian cells results in specific disappearance of peroxisomes. However, its molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study, we first established a HEK293 cell line, which stably expresses a fluorescent peroxisome marker protein (DsRed2-Peroxi) and expresses PLA/AT-3 in a tetracycline-dependent manner. The treatment with tetracycline, as expected, caused disappearance of peroxisomes within 24 h, as revealed by diffuse signals of DsRed2-Peroxi and a remarkable decrease in a peroxisomal membrane protein, PMP70. A time-dependent decrease in ether-type lipid levels was also seen. Because the activation of LC3, a marker of autophagy, was not observed, the involvement of autophagy was unlikely. Among various peroxins responsible for peroxisome biogenesis, Pex19p functions as a chaperone protein for the transportation of peroxisomal membrane proteins. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PLA/AT-3 binds to Pex19p through its N-terminal proline-rich and C-terminal hydrophobic domains. The protein level and enzyme activity of PLA/AT-3 were increased by its coexpression with Pex19p. Moreover, PLA/AT-3 inhibited the binding of Pex19 to peroxisomal membrane proteins, such as Pex3p and Pex11βp. A catalytically inactive point mutant of PLA/AT-3 could bind to Pex19p but did not inhibit the chaperone activity of Pex19p. Altogether, these results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for peroxisome biogenesis through the interaction between Pex19p and PLA/AT-3. PMID:26018079

  19. The Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Remodeling Enzyme Lysocardiolipin Acyltransferase Is a Novel Target in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long Shuang; Mathew, Biji; Zhao, Yutong; Noth, Imre; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Harijith, Anantha; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Kaminski, Naftali; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanmin; Rehman, Jalees; Kotha, Sainath R.; Gurney, Travis O.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Lussier, Yves A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Lysocardiolipin acyltransferase (LYCAT), a cardiolipin-remodeling enzyme regulating the 18:2 linoleic acid pattern of mammalian mitochondrial cardiolipin, is necessary for maintaining normal mitochondrial function and vascular development. We hypothesized that modulation of LYCAT expression in lung epithelium regulates development of pulmonary fibrosis. Objectives: To define a role for LYCAT in human and murine models of pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: We analyzed the correlation of LYCAT expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the outcomes of pulmonary functions and overall survival, and used the murine models to establish the role of LYCAT in fibrogenesis. We studied the LYCAT action on cardiolipin remodeling, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells under bleomycin challenge. Measurements and Main Results: LYCAT expression was significantly altered in PBMCs and lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which was confirmed in two preclinical murine models of IPF, bleomycin- and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. LYCAT mRNA expression in PBMCs directly and significantly correlated with carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, pulmonary function outcomes, and overall survival. In both bleomycin- and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis murine models, hLYCAT overexpression reduced several indices of lung fibrosis, whereas down-regulation of native LYCAT expression by siRNA accentuated fibrogenesis. In vitro studies demonstrated that LYCAT modulated bleomycin-induced cardiolipin remodeling, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, potential mechanisms of LYCAT-mediated lung protection. Conclusions: This study is the first to identify modulation of LYCAT expression in fibrotic lungs and offers a novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID

  20. Coexpressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase with Sterculia foetida Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase enhances cyclopropane fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Prakash, Richa Rawat; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2014-01-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPAs) are desirable as renewable chemical feedstocks for the production of paints, plastics, and lubricants. Toward our goal of creating a CPA-accumulating crop, we expressed nine higher plant cyclopropane synthase (CPS) enzymes in the seeds of fad2fae1 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and observed accumulation of less than 1% CPA. Surprisingly, expression of the Escherichia coli CPS gene resulted in the accumulation of up to 9.1% CPA in the seed. Coexpression of a Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT) increases CPA accumulation up to 35% in individual T1 seeds. However, seeds with more than 9% CPA exhibit wrinkled seed morphology and reduced size and oil accumulation. Seeds with more than 11% CPA exhibit strongly decreased seed germination and establishment, and no seeds with CPA more than 15% germinated. That previous reports suggest that plant CPS prefers the stereospecific numbering (sn)-1 position whereas E. coli CPS acts on sn-2 of phospholipids prompted us to investigate the preferred positions of CPS on phosphatidylcholine (PC) and triacylglycerol. Unexpectedly, in planta, E. coli CPS acts primarily on the sn-1 position of PC; coexpression of SfLPAT results in the incorporation of CPA at the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid. This enables a cycle that enriches CPA at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of PC and results in increased accumulation of CPA. These data provide proof of principle that CPA can accumulate to high levels in transgenic seeds and sets the stage for the identification of factors that will facilitate the movement of CPA from PC into triacylglycerol to produce viable seeds with additional CPA accumulation.

  1. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N.; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E.; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouseTM platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 Å LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  2. Lipoprotein subfractions highly associated with renal damage in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masayuki; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Stroes, Erik S G; Asada, Sakiyo; Aoyagi, Yasuyuki; Kamata, Kouju; Yamashita, Shizuya; Ishibashi, Shun; Saito, Yasushi; Bujo, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD), deposition of abnormal lipoproteins in the renal stroma ultimately leads to renal failure. However, fish-eye disease (FED) does not lead to renal damage although the causative mutations for both FLD and FED lie within the same LCAT gene. This study was performed to identify the lipoproteins important for the development of renal failure in genetically diagnosed FLD in comparison with FED, using high-performance liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column. Lipoprotein profiles of 9 patients with LCAT deficiency were examined. Four lipoprotein fractions specific to both FLD and FED were identified: (1) large lipoproteins (>80 nm), (2) lipoproteins corresponding to large low-density lipoprotein (LDL), (3) lipoproteins corresponding to small LDL to large high-density lipoprotein, and (4) to small high-density lipoprotein. Contents of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride of the large LDL in FLD (below detection limit and 45.8±3.8%) and FED (20.7±6.4% and 28.0±6.5%) were significantly different, respectively. On in vitro incubation with recombinant LCAT, content of cholesteryl ester in the large LDL in FLD, but not in FED, was significantly increased (to 4.2±1.4%), whereas dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein was diminished in both FLD and FED. Our novel analytic approach using high-performance liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column identified large LDL and high-density lipoprotein with a composition specific to FLD, but not to FED. The abnormal lipoproteins were sensitive to treatment with recombinant LCAT and thus may play a causal role in the renal pathology of FLD. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase knockout mice show resistance to obesity when fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Ito, Takahito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Nanchi, Isamu; Notoya, Mitsuru; Oka, Shogo; Yukioka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone secreted from stomach. Since the discovery that acylation of the serine-3 residue by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its functions, GOAT has been regarded as an therapeutic target for attenuating appetite, and thus for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, contrary to the expectations, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have not shown meaningful body weight reduction, under high-fat diet. Here, in this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism with a focus on dietary sucrose, because macronutrient composition of diet is important for appetite regulation. We found that peripherally administered acylated-ghrelin, but not unacylated one, stimulated sucrose consumption in a two-bottle-drinking test. The role of acylated-ghrelin in sucrose preference was further supported by the finding that GOAT KO mice consumed less sucrose solution compared with WT littermates. Then, we investigated the effect of dietary composition of sucrose on food intake and body weight in GOAT KO and WT mice. As a result, when fed on high-fat diet, food intake and body weight were similar between GOAT KO and WT mice. However, when fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet, GOAT KO mice showed significantly reduced food intake and marked resistance to obesity, leading to amelioration of glucose metabolism. These results suggest that blockade of acylated-ghrelin production offers therapeutic potential for obesity and metabolic disorders caused by overeating of palatable food. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Mutations in MBOAT7, Encoding Lysophosphatidylinositol Acyltransferase I, Lead to Intellectual Disability Accompanied by Epilepsy and Autistic Features.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anide; Rosti, Rasim O; Musaev, Damir; Sticca, Evan; Harripaul, Ricardo; Zaki, Maha; Çağlayan, Ahmet Okay; Azam, Matloob; Sultan, Tipu; Froukh, Tawfiq; Reis, André; Popp, Bernt; Ahmed, Iltaf; John, Peter; Ayub, Muhammad; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Vincent, John B; Gleeson, Joseph G; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2016-10-06

    The risk of epilepsy among individuals with intellectual disability (ID) is approximately ten times that of the general population. From a cohort of >5,000 families affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, we identified six consanguineous families harboring homozygous inactivating variants in MBOAT7, encoding lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase (LPIAT1). Subjects presented with ID frequently accompanied by epilepsy and autistic features. LPIAT1 is a membrane-bound phospholipid-remodeling enzyme that transfers arachidonic acid (AA) to lysophosphatidylinositol to produce AA-containing phosphatidylinositol. This study suggests a role for AA-containing phosphatidylinositols in the development of ID accompanied by epilepsy and autistic features. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Familial lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency complicated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and peripheral neuropathy. The first reported cases in the Far East.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, A; Naito, C; Teramoto, T; Kato, H; Kako, M; Kariya, T; Shimizu, T; Oka, H; Oda, T

    1978-01-01

    Three Japanese patients with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, the offspring of a consanguineous marriage, are described. In addition to the characteristic clinical and laboratory findings of the disease, our patients had hitherto unreported manifestations, namely unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, peripheral neuropathy and marked hypocholesterolemia. Although the mechanism of the unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is not clear, the role of impaired hepatic bilirubin uridine-diphosphate-glucuronyl transferase activity combined with another unknown factor(s) was postulated. Non-random assortment was observed between LCAT deficiency and haptoglobin types, as previously reported. The discovery of Japanese patients with LCAT deficiency indicates that the distribution of this hereditary metabolic disorder is not confined to the Western hemisphere.

  6. The initial step of the glycerolipid pathway: identification of glycerol 3-phosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate dual substrate acyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z; Zou, J

    2001-11-09

    The initial step of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast is carried out through the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G-3-P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate by stereospecific sn-1 acyltransferases. Here we report the identification of two key fatty acyltransferases of the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Disruption of the open reading frame YBL011w, corresponding to a gene previously identified as a choline transporter suppressor (SCT1), resulted in a substantial decrease of total cellular G-3-P acyltransferase activity. A yeast strain disrupted at the open reading frame YKR067w, which encodes a protein closely related to Sct1p, also exhibited a dramatic reduction in G-3-P acyltransferase activity. Molecular characterizations of the genes revealed that a missense mutation in YKR067w accounted for a defect in the activities of the G-3-P acyltransferase in the yeast mutant strain TTA1. Heterologous expression of YKR067w in Escherichia coli further confirmed its enzyme activity. These results indicate that YKR067w and YBL011w, designated herein as GAT1 and GAT2(SCT1), respectively, are yeast G-3-P acyltransferase genes. Furthermore, biochemical results are presented to show that both Gat1p and Gat2p(Sct1p) are G-3-P/dihydroxyacetone phosphate dual substrate-specific sn-1 acyltransferases. The fatty acyl specificity of Gat1p is similar to that of the mammalian microsomal G-3-P acyltransferase, as it can effectively utilize a broad range of fatty acids as acyl donors. In contrast, Gat2p(Sct1p) displayed preference toward 16-carbon fatty acids. The most notable of the altered phospholipid compositions of the gat1Delta and gat2(sct1)Delta strains are a decreased phosphatidic acid pool and an increased phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol ratio. This did not appear to affect the mutants as no growth defect was found. However, null mutations of both GAT1 and GAT2(SCT1) are synthetically lethal to yeast.

  7. Alcohol Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your drinks The rate and amount of alcohol consumption Your tolerance level Complications Severe complications can result ... pressure and fast heart rate. Seizures. Your blood sugar level may drop low enough to cause seizures. ...

  8. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  9. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  10. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcoholic hepatitis include: Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites) Confusion and behavior changes due to a buildup ... is life-threatening and requires immediate medical care. Ascites. Fluid that accumulates in the abdomen might become ...

  11. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear liquid commonly used as a germ killer (antiseptic). This article discusses poisoning from swallowing propyl alcohol. ... Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation),and ventilator (breathing machine) Blood and urine ...

  12. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    PubMed

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  13. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  14. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 is essential for the normal development of reproductive organs and the embryo in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Chen, Guanqun; Truksa, Martin; Snyder, Crystal L; Shah, Saleh; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-08-01

    The enzyme sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (GPAT4) is involved in the biosynthesis of plant lipid poly-esters. The present study further characterizes the enzymatic activities of three endoplasmic reticulum-bound GPAT4 isoforms of Brassica napus and examines their roles in the development of reproductive organs and the embryo. All three BnGPAT4 isoforms exhibited sn-2 acyltransferase and phosphatase activities with dicarboxylic acid-CoA as acyl donor. When non-substituted acyl-CoA was used as acyl donor, the rate of acylation was considerably lower and phosphatase activity was not manifested. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of all GPAT4 homologues in B. napus under the control of the napin promoter caused abnormal development of several reproductive organs and reduced seed set. Microscopic examination and reciprocal crosses revealed that both pollen grains and developing embryo sacs of the B. napus gpat4 lines were affected. The gpat4 mature embryos showed decreased cutin content and altered monomer composition. The defective embryo development further affected the oil body morphology, oil content, and fatty acid composition in gpat4 seeds. These results suggest that GPAT4 has a critical role in the development of reproductive organs and the seed of B. napus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 is essential for the normal development of reproductive organs and the embryo in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Chen, Guanqun; Truksa, Martin; Snyder, Crystal L.; Shah, Saleh; Weselake, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (GPAT4) is involved in the biosynthesis of plant lipid poly-esters. The present study further characterizes the enzymatic activities of three endoplasmic reticulum-bound GPAT4 isoforms of Brassica napus and examines their roles in the development of reproductive organs and the embryo. All three BnGPAT4 isoforms exhibited sn-2 acyltransferase and phosphatase activities with dicarboxylic acid-CoA as acyl donor. When non-substituted acyl-CoA was used as acyl donor, the rate of acylation was considerably lower and phosphatase activity was not manifested. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of all GPAT4 homologues in B. napus under the control of the napin promoter caused abnormal development of several reproductive organs and reduced seed set. Microscopic examination and reciprocal crosses revealed that both pollen grains and developing embryo sacs of the B. napus gpat4 lines were affected. The gpat4 mature embryos showed decreased cutin content and altered monomer composition. The defective embryo development further affected the oil body morphology, oil content, and fatty acid composition in gpat4 seeds. These results suggest that GPAT4 has a critical role in the development of reproductive organs and the seed of B. napus. PMID:24821955

  16. Castor Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Facilitates Efficient Metabolism of Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Bates, Philip D.; Burgal, Julie; Shockey, Jay; Browse, John

    2011-01-01

    Producing unusual fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants has been a long-standing goal of green chemistry. However, expression of the enzymes that catalyze the primary synthesis of these unusual FAs in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of the desired FA. For example, seed-specific expression of castor (Ricinus communis) fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in only 17% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) in the seed oil. In order to increase HFA levels, we investigated castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). We cloned cDNAs encoding three putative PDAT enzymes from a castor seed cDNA library and coexpressed them with RcFAH12. One isoform, RcPDAT1A, increased HFA levels to 27%. Analysis of HFA-triacylglycerol molecular species and regiochemistry, along with analysis of the HFA content of phosphatidylcholine, indicates that RcPDAT1A functions as a PDAT in vivo. Expression of RcFAH12 alone leads to a significant decrease in FA content of seeds. Coexpression of RcPDAT1A and RcDGAT2 (for diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2) with RcFAH12 restored FA levels to nearly wild-type levels, and this was accompanied by a major increase in the mass of HFAs accumulating in the seeds. We show the usefulness of RcPDAT1A for engineering plants with high levels of HFAs and alleviating bottlenecks due to the production of unusual FAs in transgenic oilseeds. PMID:21173026

  17. Kinetic characterization of the inhibition of acyl coenzyme A: steroid acyltransferases by tributyltin in the eastern mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta).

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robin M; LeBlanc, Gerald A

    2006-06-30

    Exposure to tributyltin (TBT) has been causally associated with the global occurrence of a pseudohermaphroditic condition called imposex in neogastropod species. TBT elevates free testosterone levels in these organisms, and this upsurge in testosterone may be involved in the development of imposex. We investigated the ability of TBT to inhibit acyl coenzyme A:testosterone acyltransferase (ATAT) activity as well as microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:17beta-estradiol acyltransferase (AEAT) in a neogastropod, the eastern mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta as a mechanism by which TBT elevates free testosterone. TBT significantly inhibited both ATAT and AEAT activities in vitro at toxicologically relevant in vivo concentrations. Kinetic analyses revealed that TBT is a competitive inhibitor of ATAT (K(i)= approximately 9microM) and is a weaker, noncompetitive inhibitor of AEAT (K(i)= approximately 31microM). ATAT and AEAT activities associated with different microsome preparations were significantly correlated, and 17beta-estradiol competitively inhibited the fatty acid esterification of testosterone suggesting that one enzyme is responsible for biotransforming both testosterone and 17beta-estradiol to their corresponding fatty acid esters. Overall, the results of this study supply the much-needed mechanistic support for the hypothesis that TBT elevates free testosterone in neogastropods by inhibiting their major regulatory process for maintaining free testosterone homeostasis-the fatty acid esterification of testosterone.

  18. Featured Article: Alterations of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity and apolipoprotein A-I functionality in human sickle blood

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Mark S; Borda, Mauricio; Larkin, Sandra K; Kuypers, Frans A

    2016-01-01

    In sickle cell disease (SCD) cholesterol metabolism appears dysfunctional as evidenced by abnormal plasma cholesterol content in a subpopulation of SCD patients. Specific activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enzyme, which catalyzes esterification of cholesterol, and generates lysoPC (LPC) was significantly lower in sickle plasma compared to normal. Inhibitory amounts of LPC were present in sickle plasma, and the red blood cell (RBC) lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), essential for the removal of LPC, displayed a broad range of activity. The functionality of sickle HDL appeared to be altered as evidenced by a decreased HDL–Apolipoprotein A-I exchange in sickle plasma as compared to control. Increased levels of oxidized proteins including ApoA-I were detected in sickle plasma. In vitro incubation of sickle plasma with washed erythrocytes affected the ApoA-I-exchange supporting the view that the RBC blood compartment can affect cholesterol metabolism in plasma. HDL functionality appeared to decrease during acute vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle patients and was associated with an increase of secretory PLA2, a marker for increased inflammation. Simvastatin treatment to improve the anti-inflammatory function of HDL did not ameliorate HDL–ApoA-I exchange in sickle patients. Thus, the cumulative effect of an inflammatory and highly oxidative environment in sickle blood contributes to a decrease in cholesterol esterification and HDL function, related to hypocholesterolemia in SCD. PMID:27354333

  19. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl–CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl–CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  20. Structure-guided enzymology of the lipid A acyltransferase LpxM reveals a dual activity mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dovala, Dustin; Rath, Christopher M.; Hu, Qijun; Sawyer, William S.; Shia, Steven; Elling, Robert A.; Knapp, Mark S.; Metzger, Louis E.

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria possess a characteristic outer membrane, of which the lipid A constituent elicits a strong host immune response through the Toll-like receptor 4 complex, and acts as a component of the permeability barrier to prevent uptake of bactericidal compounds. Lipid A species comprise the bulk of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane and are produced through a multistep biosynthetic pathway conserved in most Gram-negative bacteria. The final steps in this pathway involve the secondary acylation of lipid A precursors. These are catalyzed by members of a superfamily of enzymes known as lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs), which are present in all domains of life and play important roles in diverse biological processes. To date, characterization of this clinically important class of enzymes has been limited by a lack of structural information and the availability of only low-throughput biochemical assays. In this work, we present the structure of the bacterial LPLAT protein LpxM, and we describe a high-throughput, label-free mass spectrometric assay to characterize acyltransferase enzymatic activity. Using our structure and assay, we identify an LPLAT thioesterase activity, and we provide experimental evidence to support an ordered-binding and “reset” mechanistic model for LpxM function. This work enables the interrogation of other bacterial acyltransferases’ structure–mechanism relationships, and the assay described herein provides a foundation for quantitatively characterizing the enzymology of any number of clinically relevant LPLAT proteins. PMID:27681620

  1. Featured Article: Alterations of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity and apolipoprotein A-I functionality in human sickle blood.

    PubMed

    Soupene, Eric; Borja, Mark S; Borda, Mauricio; Larkin, Sandra K; Kuypers, Frans A

    2016-11-01

    In sickle cell disease (SCD) cholesterol metabolism appears dysfunctional as evidenced by abnormal plasma cholesterol content in a subpopulation of SCD patients. Specific activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enzyme, which catalyzes esterification of cholesterol, and generates lysoPC (LPC) was significantly lower in sickle plasma compared to normal. Inhibitory amounts of LPC were present in sickle plasma, and the red blood cell (RBC) lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), essential for the removal of LPC, displayed a broad range of activity. The functionality of sickle HDL appeared to be altered as evidenced by a decreased HDL-Apolipoprotein A-I exchange in sickle plasma as compared to control. Increased levels of oxidized proteins including ApoA-I were detected in sickle plasma. In vitro incubation of sickle plasma with washed erythrocytes affected the ApoA-I-exchange supporting the view that the RBC blood compartment can affect cholesterol metabolism in plasma. HDL functionality appeared to decrease during acute vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle patients and was associated with an increase of secretory PLA2, a marker for increased inflammation. Simvastatin treatment to improve the anti-inflammatory function of HDL did not ameliorate HDL-ApoA-I exchange in sickle patients. Thus, the cumulative effect of an inflammatory and highly oxidative environment in sickle blood contributes to a decrease in cholesterol esterification and HDL function, related to hypocholesterolemia in SCD. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Candida albicans acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase, a potential target of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Young; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Jung-Ho; Yang, Hongyuan; Han, Dong-Min; Paik, Young-Ki

    2004-07-02

    To determine whether Candida albicans acyl CoA:sterol acyltransferase (ASAT) can be a potential target enzyme for the protoberberine derivative (HWY-289), we have isolated a gene encoding Ca-ASAT and examined inhibitory effects of HWY-289 on the overexpressed Ca-ASAT. HWY-289 specifically inhibits Ca-ASAT in a non-competitive manner in vitro (IC(50) [9.2microM], K(i) [5.15microM]). The cloned CaARE2 gene (1830 nucleotides [nt]) encodes active Ca-ASAT protein that exhibits a calculated molecular mass of 71.3kDa. The amino acid sequence of CaAre2p is 33.4% and 35.1% identical to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScAre1p and ScAre2p homologues, respectively. Recombinant and endogenous Ca-ASAT displayed identical patterns of inhibition upon exposure to HWY-289 and a preference for cholesterol and oleoyl-CoA as substrates. Northern blot analysis showed that CaARE2 was activated by HWY-289, but not by CI-976 (a human acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor), in a dose-dependent manner (up to 5mg/L), suggesting different selectivities of action between HWY-289 and CI-976 on Ca-ASAT activity.

  3. The N-Terminal Domain and Glycosomal Localization of Leishmania Initial Acyltransferase LmDAT Are Important for Lipophosphoglycan Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ani, Gada K.; Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A.; Zhu, Tongtong; Dhalladoo, Subbhalakshmi; Zufferey, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Ether glycerolipids of Leishmania major are important membrane components as well as building blocks of various virulence factors. In L. major, the first enzyme of the ether glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, LmDAT, is an unusual, glycosomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase important for parasite's growth and survival during the stationary phase, synthesis of ether lipids, and virulence. The present work extends our knowledge of this important biosynthetic enzyme in parasite biology. Site-directed mutagenesis of LmDAT demonstrated that an active enzyme was critical for normal growth and survival during the stationary phase. Deletion analyses showed that the large N-terminal extension of this initial acyltransferase may be important for its stability or activity. Further, abrogation of the C-terminal glycosomal targeting signal sequence of LmDAT led to extraglycosomal localization, did not impair its enzymatic activity but affected synthesis of the ether glycerolipid-based virulence factor lipophosphoglycan. In addition, expression of this recombinant form of LmDAT in a null mutant of LmDAT did not restore normal growth and survival during the stationary phase. These results emphasize the importance of this enzyme's compartmentalization in the glycosome for the generation of lipophosphoglycan and parasite's biology. PMID:22114698

  4. Three Acyltransferases and Nitrogen-responsive Regulator Are Implicated in Nitrogen Starvation-induced Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Chlamydomonas*

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Nanette R.; Page, Mark Dudley; Liu, Bensheng; Blaby, Ian K.; Casero, David; Kropat, Janette; Cokus, Shawn J.; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Shaw, Johnathan; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Gallaher, Sean D.; Johnson, Shannon; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Grossman, Arthur; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2012-01-01

    Algae have recently gained attention as a potential source for biodiesel; however, much is still unknown about the biological triggers that cause the production of triacylglycerols. We used RNA-Seq as a tool for discovering genes responsible for triacylglycerol (TAG) production in Chlamydomonas and for the regulatory components that activate the pathway. Three genes encoding acyltransferases, DGAT1, DGTT1, and PDAT1, are induced by nitrogen starvation and are likely to have a role in TAG accumulation based on their patterns of expression. DGAT1 and DGTT1 also show increased mRNA abundance in other TAG-accumulating conditions (minus sulfur, minus phosphorus, minus zinc, and minus iron). Insertional mutants, pdat1-1 and pdat1-2, accumulate 25% less TAG compared with the parent strain, CC-4425, which demonstrates the relevance of the trans-acylation pathway in Chlamydomonas. The biochemical functions of DGTT1 and PDAT1 were validated by rescue of oleic acid sensitivity and restoration of TAG accumulation in a yeast strain lacking all acyltransferase activity. Time course analyses suggest than a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein domain transcription factor, whose mRNA increases precede that of lipid biosynthesis genes like DGAT1, is a candidate regulator of the nitrogen deficiency responses. An insertional mutant, nrr1-1, accumulates only 50% of the TAG compared with the parental strain in nitrogen-starvation conditions and is unaffected by other nutrient stresses, suggesting the specificity of this regulator for nitrogen-deprivation conditions. PMID:22403401

  5. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibition enhances intestinal fatty acid oxidation and reduces energy intake in rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Gudrun; Arnold, Myrtha; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K.; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and is highly expressed in the small intestine. Because DGAT-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we investigated the acute effects of intragastric (IG) infusion of a small molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibitor (DGAT-1i) on eating, circulating fat metabolites, indirect calorimetry, and hepatic and intestinal expression of key fat catabolism enzymes in male rats adapted to an 8 h feeding-16 h deprivation schedule. Also, the DGAT-1i effect on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was investigated in enterocyte cell culture models. IG DGAT-1i infusions reduced energy intake compared with vehicle in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, but scarcely in chow-fed rats. IG DGAT-1i also blunted the postprandial increase in serum TAG and increased β-hydroxybutyrate levels only in HFD-fed rats, in which it lowered the respiratory quotient and increased intestinal, but not hepatic, protein levels of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and of mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. Finally, the DGAT-1i enhanced FAO in CaCo2 (EC50 = 0.3494) and HuTu80 (EC50 = 0.00762) cells. Thus, pharmacological DGAT-1 inhibition leads to an increase in intestinal FAO and ketogenesis when dietary fat is available. This may contribute to the observed eating-inhibitory effect. PMID:23449193

  6. Functionally Divergent Alleles and Duplicated Loci Encoding an Acyltransferase Contribute to Acylsugar Metabolite Diversity in Solanum Trichomes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Fan, Pengxiang; Ghosh, Banibrata; Ning, Jing; Jones, A. Daniel; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other species in the Solanaceae produce and secrete a mixture of O-acylsugars (aliphatic esters of sucrose and glucose) that contribute to insect defense. Despite their phylogenetic distribution and diversity, relatively little is known about how these specialized metabolites are synthesized. Mass spectrometric profiling of acylsugars in the S. lycopersicum x Solanum pennellii introgression lines identified a chromosome 11 locus containing a cluster of BAHD acyltransferases with one gene (named Sl-ASAT3) expressed in tip cells of type I trichomes where acylsugars are made. Sl-ASAT3 was shown to encode an acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of short (four to five carbons) branched acyl chains to the furanose ring of di-acylsucrose acceptors to produce tri-acylsucroses, which can be further acetylated by Sl-ASAT4 (previously Sl-AT2). Among the wild tomatoes, diversity in furanose ring acyl chains on acylsucroses was most striking in Solanum habrochaites. S. habrochaites accessions from Ecuador and northern Peru produced acylsucroses with short (≤C5) or no acyl chains on the furanose ring. Accessions from central and southern Peru had the ability to add short or long (up to C12) acyl chains to the furanose ring. Multiple ASAT3-like sequences were found in most accessions, and their in vitro activities correlated with observed geographical diversity in acylsugar profiles. PMID:25862303

  7. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  8. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  9. Thio Wax Ester Biosynthesis Utilizing the Unspecific Bifunctional Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase of Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1

    PubMed Central

    Uthoff, Stefan; Stöveken, Tim; Weber, Nikolaus; Vosmann, Klaus; Klein, Erika; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 (formerly Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1) mediating the biosyntheses of wax esters and triacylglycerols was used for the in vivo and in vitro biosynthesis of thio wax esters and dithio wax esters. For in vitro biosynthesis, 5′His6WS/DGAT comprising an N-terminal His6 tag was purified from the soluble protein fraction of Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS (pET23a::5′His6atf). By employing SP-Sepharose high-pressure and Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid fast-protein liquid chromatographies, a 19-fold enrichment with a final specific activity of 165.2 nmol mg of protein−1 min−1 was achieved by using 1-hexadecanol and palmitoyl-CoA as substrates. Incubation of purified 5′His6WS/DGAT with 1-hexadecanethiol and palmitoyl-CoA as substrates resulted in the formation of palmitic acid hexadecyl thio ester (10.4% relative specific activity of a 1-hexadecanol control). Utilization of 1,8-octanedithiol and palmitoyl-CoA as substrates led to the formation of 1-S-monopalmitoyloctanedithiol and minor amounts of 1,8-S-dipalmitoyloctanedithiol (59.3% relative specific activity of a 1-hexadecanol control). The latter dithio wax ester was efficiently produced when 1-S-monopalmitoyloctanedithiol and palmitoyl-CoA were used as substrates (13.4% specific activity relative to that of a 1-hexadecanol control). For the in vivo biosynthesis of thio wax esters, the knockout mutant Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1acr1ΩKm, which is unable to produce fatty alcohols, was used. Cultivation of Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1acr1ΩKm in the presence of gluconate, 1-hexadecanethiol, and oleic acid in nitrogen-limited mineral salts medium resulted in the accumulation of unusual thio wax esters that accounted for around 1.19% (wt/wt) of the cellular dry weight and consisted mainly of oleic acid hexadecyl thioester as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  10. Lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase modulates diet-induced hepatic deposition of triglycerides in mice.

    PubMed

    Karavia, Eleni A; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Kotsikogianni, Ioanna; Triantafyllidou, Irene-Eva; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2013-03-01

    Lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is responsible for the esterification of the free cholesterol of plasma lipoproteins. Here, we investigated the involvement of LCAT in mechanisms associated with diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation in mice. LCAT-deficient (LCAT(-/-)) and control C57BL/6 mice were placed on a Western-type diet (17.3% protein, 48.5% carbohydrate, 21.2% fat, 0.2% cholesterol, 4.5kcal/g) for 24weeks, then histopathological and biochemical analyses were performed. We report that, in our experimental setup, male LCAT(-/-) mice are characterized by increased diet-induced hepatic triglyceride deposition and impaired hepatic histology and architecture. Mechanistic analyses indicated that LCAT deficiency was associated with enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary triglycerides (3.6±0.5mg/dl per minute for LCAT(-/-) vs. 2.0±0.7mg/dl per minute for C57BL/6 mice; P<.05), accelerated clearance of postprandial triglycerides and a reduced rate of hepatic very low density lipoprotein triglyceride secretion (9.8±1.1mg/dl per minute for LCAT(-/-) vs. 12.5±1.3mg/dl per minute for C57BL/6 mice, P<.05). No statistical difference in the average daily food consumption between mouse strains was observed. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of LCAT in LCAT(-/-) mice that were fed a Western-type diet for 12weeks resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic triglyceride content (121.2±5.9mg/g for control infected mice vs. 95.1±5.8mg/g for mice infected with Ad-LCAT, P<.05) and a great improvement of hepatic histology and architecture. Our data extend the current knowledge on the functions of LCAT, indicating that LCAT activity is an important modulator of processes associated with diet-induced hepatic lipid deposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of the active diacylglycerol acyltransferase variant transforms Saccharomyces cerevisiae into an oleaginous yeast.

    PubMed

    Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu

    2013-08-01

    Lipid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was improved by overexpression of the yeast diacylglycerol acyltransferase Dga1p lacking the N-terminal 29 amino acids (Dga1∆Np), which was previously found to be an active form in the ∆snf2 mutant. Overexpression of Dga1∆Np in the ∆snf2 mutant, however, did not increase lipid content as expected, which prompted us to search for a more suitable strain in which to study the role of Dga1∆Np in lipid accumulation. We found that the overexpression of Dga1∆Np in the ∆dga1 mutant effectively increased the lipid content up to about 45 % in the medium containing 10 % glucose. The high lipid content of the transformant was dependent on glucose concentration, nitrogen limitation, and active leucine biosynthesis. To better understand the effect of dga1 disruption on the ability of Dga1∆Np to stimulate lipid accumulation, the ∆dga1-1 mutant, in which the 3'-terminal 36 bp of the dga1 open reading frame (ORF) remained, and the ∆dga1-2 mutant, in which the 3'-terminal 36 bp were also deleted, were prepared with URA3 disruption cassettes. Surprisingly, the overexpression of Dga1∆Np in the ∆dga1-1 mutant had a lower lipid content than the original ∆dga1 mutant, whereas overexpression in the ∆dga1-2 mutant led to a high lipid content of about 45 %. These results indicated that deletion of the 3' terminal region of the dga1 ORF, rather than abrogation of genomic Dga1p expression, was crucial for the effect of Dga1∆Np on lipid accumulation. To investigate whether dga1 disruption affected gene expression adjacent to DGA1, we found that the overexpression of Esa1p together with Dga1∆Np in the ∆dga1 mutant reverted the lipid content to the level of the wild-type strain overexpressing Dga1∆Np. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that ESA1 mRNA expression in the ∆dga1 mutant was decreased compared to the wild-type strain at the early stages of culture, suggesting that lowered Esa1p expression is

  12. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.

    PubMed Central

    Little, D; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J

    1994-01-01

    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity from MD embryos was stimulated 2-3-fold by fluoride salts and 1.4-fold by NaCl, whereas iodide salts caused substantial inhibition of enzyme activity. The effect of the various 1:1 electrolytes on enzyme activity appeared to be related more to their differential effects on solution structure rather than ionic strength. DGAT was solubilized from membranes of MD embryos and the cell suspension culture by about 80 and 50% respectively, using 2 M NaCl in 1% (w/v) octanoyl-N-methyl-glucamide (MEGA-8) (pH 8.0 buffer) at a detergent to protein ratio of 2:1. The specific activity of solubilized DGAT was about 2-fold greater than that of the particulate enzyme. The mechanism of solubilization appeared to be related to the lowering of the critical micellar concentration of MEGA-8 in the presence of NaCl. DGAT, solubilized from MD embryos, eluted with an M(r) of about 2 x 10(6) during gel-filtration chromatography on a Superose 6 column equilibrated in buffer containing 0.1% (w/v) MEGA-8. The solubilized enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7. At concentrations above 2 microM acyl-CoA, the specificity of solubilized DGAT for oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA was considerably greater than for stearoyl-CoA. Images Figure 5 PMID:7818502

  14. Nannochloropsis, a rich source of diacylglycerol acyltransferases for engineering of triacylglycerol content in different hosts

    DOE PAGES

    Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Poliner, Eric; ...

    2017-01-03

    Photosynthetic microalgae are considered a viable and sustainable resource for biofuel feedstocks, because they can produce higher biomass per land area than plants and can be grown on non-arable land. Among many microalgae considered for biofuel production, Nannochloropsis oceanica (CCMP1779) is particularly promising, because following nutrient deprivation it produces very high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG). The committed step in TAG synthesis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). Remarkably, a total of 13 putative DGAT-encoding genes have been previously identified in CCMP1779 but most have not yet been studied in detail. We chose six out of 12 type-2 DGAT-encoding genes (NoDGTT1-NoDGTT6),more » based on their expression profile, for their possible role in TAG biosynthesis and the respective cDNAs were expressed in a TAG synthesis-deficient mutant of yeast. Yeast expressing NoDGTT5 accumulated TAG to the highest level. Over-expression of NoDGTT5 in CCMP1779 grown in N-replete medium resulted in levels of TAG normally observed only after N deprivation. Reduced growth rates accompanied NoDGTT5 over-expression in CCMP1779. Constitutive expression of NoDGTT5 in Arabidopsis thaliana was accompanied by increased TAG content in seeds and leaves. A broad substrate specificity for NoDGTT5 was revealed, with preference for unsaturated acyl groups. Furthermore, NoDGTT5 was able to successfully rescue the Arabidopsis tag1-1 mutant by restoring the TAG content in seeds. Taken together, these results identified NoDGTT5 as the most promising gene for the engineering of TAG synthesis in multiple hosts among the 13 DGAT-encoding genes of N. oceanica CCMP1779. Consequently, this study demonstrates the potential of NoDGTT5 as a tool for enhancing the energy density in biomass by increasing TAG content in transgenic crops used for biofuel production.« less

  15. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  16. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  17. Alcohol exposure in utero perturbs retinoid homeostasis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Zuccaro, Michael V.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol exposure and adult alcohol intake have been shown to perturb the metabolism of various micro- and macro-nutrients, including vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the well-known detrimental consequences of alcohol consumption may be due to deregulations of the metabolism of such nutrients rather than to a direct effect of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in utero also has long-term harmful consequences on the health of the offspring with mechanisms that have not been fully clarified. Disruption of tissue retinoid homeostasis has been linked not only to abnormal embryonic development, but also to various adult pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic disorders and abnormal lung function. We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure may permanently perturb tissue retinoid metabolism, predisposing the offspring to adult chronic diseases. Methods Serum and tissues (liver, lung and prostate from males; liver and lung from females) were collected from 60-75 day-old sprague dawley rats born from dams that were: (I) fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 and 21; or (II) pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet during the same gestational window; or (III) fed ad libitum with regular rat chow diet throughout pregnancy. Serum and tissue retinoid levels were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by western blot analysis, and liver, lung and prostate mRNA levels of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were measured by qPCR. Results Retinyl ester levels were significantly reduced in the lung of both males and females, as well as in the liver and ventral prostate of males born from alcohol-fed dams. Tissue LRAT mRNA levels remained unchanged upon maternal alcohol treatment. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure in rats affects retinoid metabolism in adult life, in a tissue- and sex

  18. A Land-Plant-Specific Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Family in Arabidopsis: Substrate Specificity, sn-2 Preference, and Evolution1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weili; Simpson, Jeffrey P.; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has eight glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) genes that are members of a plant-specific family with three distinct clades. Several of these GPATs are required for the synthesis of cutin or suberin. Unlike GPATs with sn-1 regiospecificity involved in membrane or storage lipid synthesis, GPAT4 and -6 are unique bifunctional enzymes with both sn-2 acyltransferase and phosphatase activity resulting in 2-monoacylglycerol products. We present enzymology, pathway organization, and evolutionary analysis of this GPAT family. Within the cutin-associated clade, GPAT8 is demonstrated as a bifunctional sn-2 acyltransferase/phosphatase. GPAT4, -6, and -8 strongly prefer C16:0 and C18:1 ω-oxidized acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) over unmodified or longer acyl chain substrates. In contrast, suberin-associated GPAT5 can accommodate a broad chain length range of ω-oxidized and unsubstituted acyl-CoAs. These substrate specificities (1) strongly support polyester biosynthetic pathways in which acyl transfer to glycerol occurs after oxidation of the acyl group, (2) implicate GPAT specificities as one major determinant of cutin and suberin composition, and (3) argue against a role of sn-2-GPATs (Enzyme Commission 2.3.1.198) in membrane/storage lipid synthesis. Evidence is presented that GPAT7 is induced by wounding, produces suberin-like monomers when overexpressed, and likely functions in suberin biosynthesis. Within the third clade, we demonstrate that GPAT1 possesses sn-2 acyltransferase but not phosphatase activity and can utilize dicarboxylic acyl-CoA substrates. Thus, sn-2 acyltransferase activity extends to all subbranches of the Arabidopsis GPAT family. Phylogenetic analyses of this family indicate that GPAT4/6/8 arose early in land-plant evolution (bryophytes), whereas the phosphatase-minus GPAT1 to -3 and GPAT5/7 clades diverged later with the appearance of tracheophytes. PMID:22864585

  19. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  20. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  1. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be triggered by ...

  2. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  5. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  6. Altering small and medium alcohol selectivity in the wax ester synthase.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Ohlert, Janet M; Timler, Jacobe G; Lijewski, Amelia M

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT or wax ester synthase) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the bacterial wax ester biosynthetic pathway, utilizing a range of alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. The wild-type wax ester synthase Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 exhibits a preference for longer fatty alcohols, while applications with smaller alcohols would yield products with desired biotechnological properties. Small and medium chain length alcohol substrates are much poorer substrates for the native enzyme, which may hinder broad application of the wax ester synthase in many proposed biosynthetic schemes. Developing approaches to improve enzyme activity toward specific smaller alcohol substrates first requires a clear understanding of which amino acids of the primary sequences of these enzymes contribute to substrate specificity in the native enzyme. In this report, we surveyed a range of potential residues and identified the leucine at position 356 and methionine at position 405 in Maqu_0168 as residues that affected selectivity toward small, branched, and aromatic alcohols when substituted with different amino acids. This analysis provides evidence of residues that line the binding site for wax ester synthase, which will aid rational approaches to improve this enzyme with specific substrates.

  7. Reaction of discoidal complexes of apolipoprotein A-I and various phosphatidylcholines with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. Interfacial effects.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A; Zorich, N L; Kézdy, K E; Trick, W E

    1987-03-25

    Complexes of phospholipids-apolipoprotein A-I-cholesterol, containing various bulk phosphatidylcholines or a matrix of the ether analog of 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine including test phosphatidylcholines were used as substrates for human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. The enzymatic reaction rates for both series of complexes were determined as a function of temperature, particle concentration, neutral salt concentration, and the type of anion present in solution. The kinetic results support the hypothesis that phospholipids, in discoidal complexes, modulate the reaction rates by molecular effects at the active site, but also by interfacial effects on the interaction of the enzyme with the particles. The relevant interfacial parameters are the lipid packing at the interface and the structure of apolipoprotein A-I.

  8. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A.; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself). PMID:27401954

  9. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a specific enzyme that modifies ghrelin with a medium-chain fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masayasu; Hamamoto, Akie; Sato, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    In the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin, serine 3 (threonine 3 in frogs) is modified, primarily by n-octanoic acid; this modification is essential for ghrelin's activity. The enzyme that transfers n-octanoic acid to Ser3 of ghrelin is ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). GOAT, the only enzyme known to catalyze acyl modification of ghrelin, specifically modifies serine (or threonine) at the third position and does not modify other serine residues in ghrelin peptides. GOAT prefers n-hexanoyl-CoA over n-octanoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, although in the stomach the n-octanoyl form is the predominant form of acyl-modified ghrelin. GOAT is a promising target for drug development to treat metabolic diseases and eating disorders.

  10. Human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and its potential as a target for pharmaceutical intervention against atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catherine; Dong, Ruhong; Miyazaki, Akira; Sakashita, Naomi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jay; Guo, Michael; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2006-03-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the formation of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and long-chain fatty-acyl-coenzyme A. At the single-cell level, ACAT serves as a regulator of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. In addition, ACAT supplies cholesteryl esters for lipoprotein assembly in the liver and small intestine. Under pathological conditions, the accumulation of cholesteryl esters produced by ACAT in macrophages contributes to foam cell formation, a hallmark of the early stage of atherosclerosis. Several reviews addressing various aspects of ACAT and ACAT inhibitors are available. This review briefly outlines the current knowledge on the biochemical properties of human ACATs, and then focuses on discussing the merit of ACAT as a drug target for pharmaceutical interventions against atherosclerosis.

  11. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ.

    PubMed

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-07-12

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself).

  12. Amino acid sequence around the active-site serine residue in the acyltransferase domain of goat mammary fatty acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, J; Højrup, P; Rasmussen, M M; Roepstorff, P; Knudsen, J

    1985-01-01

    Goat mammary fatty acid synthetase was labelled in the acyltransferase domain by formation of O-ester intermediates by incubation with [1-14C]acetyl-CoA and [2-14C]malonyl-CoA. Tryptic-digest and CNBr-cleavage peptides were isolated and purified by high-performance reverse-phase and ion-exchange liquid chromatography. The sequences of the malonyl- and acetyl-labelled peptides were shown to be identical. The results confirm the hypothesis that both acetyl and malonyl groups are transferred to the mammalian fatty acid synthetase complex by the same transferase. The sequence is compared with those of other fatty acid synthetase transferases. PMID:3922356

  13. A Class of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Inhibitors Identified by a Combination of Phenotypic High-throughput Screening, Genomics, and Genetics.

    PubMed

    Tschapalda, Kirsten; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Liu, Li; Golovnina, Kseniya; Schlemper, Thomas; Eichmann, Thomas O; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Sreenivasan, Urmila; McLenithan, John; Ziegler, Slava; Sztalryd, Carole; Lass, Achim; Auld, Douglas; Oliver, Brian; Waldmann, Herbert; Li, Zhuyin; Shen, Min; Boxer, Matthew B; Beller, Mathias

    2016-06-01

    Excess lipid storage is an epidemic problem in human populations. Thus, the identification of small molecules to treat or prevent lipid storage-related metabolic complications is of great interest. Here we screened >320.000 compounds for their ability to prevent a cellular lipid accumulation phenotype. We used fly cells because the multifarious tools available for this organism should facilitate unraveling the mechanism-of-action of active small molecules. Of the several hundred lipid storage inhibitors identified in the primary screen we concentrated on three structurally diverse and potent compound classes active in cells of multiple species (including human) and negligible cytotoxicity. Together with Drosophila in vivo epistasis experiments, RNA-Seq expression profiles suggested that the target of one of the small molecules was diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), a key enzyme in the production of triacylglycerols and prominent human drug target. We confirmed this prediction by biochemical and enzymatic activity tests.

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  15. Silencing an N-Acyltransferase-Like Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata Dramatically Alters Herbivory-Induced Phenolamide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Galis, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    In a transcriptomic screen of Manduca sexta-induced N-acyltransferases in leaves of Nicotiana attenuata, we identified an N-acyltransferase gene sharing a high similarity with the tobacco lignin-biosynthetic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) gene whose expression is controlled by MYB8, a transcription factor that regulates the production of phenylpropanoid polyamine conjugates (phenolamides, PAs). To evaluate the involvement of this HCT-like gene in lignin production as well as the resulting crosstalk with PA metabolism during insect herbivory, we transiently silenced (by VIGs) the expression of this gene and performed non-targeted (UHPLC-ESI/TOF-MS) metabolomics analyses. In agreement with a conserved function of N. attenuata HCT-like in lignin biogenesis, HCT-silenced plants developed weak, soft stems with greatly reduced lignin contents. Metabolic profiling demonstrated large shifts (up to 12% deregulation in total extracted ions in insect-attacked leaves) due to a large diversion of activated coumaric acid units into the production of developmentally and herbivory-induced coumaroyl-containing PAs (N′,N′′-dicoumaroylspermidine, N′,N′′-coumaroylputrescine, etc) and to minor increases in the most abundant free phenolics (chlorogenic and cryptochlorogenic acids), all without altering the production of well characterized herbivory-responsive caffeoyl- and feruloyl-based putrescine and spermidine PAs. These data are consistent with a strong metabolic tension, exacerbated during herbivory, over the allocation of coumaroyl-CoA units among lignin and unusual coumaroyl-containing PAs, and rule out a role for HCT-LIKE in tuning the herbivory-induced accumulation of other PAs. Additionally, these results are consistent with a role for lignification as an induced anti-herbivore defense. PMID:23704878

  16. Essential Role of Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 in the Induction of Macrophage Polarization in PMA-Treated U937 Cells.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kosuke; Hikiji, Hisako; Okinaga, Toshinori; Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Shindou, Hideo; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Shimizu, Takao; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2015-12-01

    Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) regulate the diversification of fatty acid composition in biological membranes. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) are members of the LPLATs that play a role in inflammatory responses. M1 macrophages differentiate in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and are pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 macrophages, which differentiate in response to interleukin-4 (IL-4), are anti-inflammatory and involved in homeostasis and wound healing. In the present study, we showed that LPCATs play an important role in M1/M2-macrophage polarization. LPS changed the shape of PMA-treated U937 cells from rounded to spindle shaped and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of the M1 macrophage markers CXCL10, TNF-α, and IL-1β. IL-4 had no effect on the shape of PMA-treated U937 cells and upregulated the M2 macrophage markers CD206, IL-1ra, and TGF-β in PMA-treated U937 cells. These results suggest that LPS and IL-4 promote the differentiation of PMA-treated U937 cells into M1- and M2-polarized macrophages, respectively. LPS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of LPCAT3, one of four LPCAT isoforms, and suppressed its enzymatic activity toward linoleoyl-CoA and arachidonoyl-CoA in PMA-treated U937 cells. LPCAT3 knockdown induced a spindle-shaped morphology typical of M1-polarized macrophages, and increased the secretion of CXCL10 and decreased the levels of CD206 in IL-4-activated U937 cells. This indicates that knockdown of LPCAT3 shifts the differentiation of PMA-treated U937 cells to M1-polarized macrophages. Our findings suggest that LPCAT3 plays an important role in M1/M2-macrophage polarization, providing novel potential therapeutic targets for the regulation of immune and inflammatory disorders.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferases in Opisthokonts Reveals Unexpected Ancestral Complexity and Novel Modern Biosynthetic Components

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Heather C.; Mast, Fred D.; Chilije, Maxwell F. J.; Tavassoli, Marjan; Dacks, Joel B.; Zaremberg, Vanina

    2014-01-01

    Glycerolipid synthesis represents a central metabolic process of all forms of life. In the last decade multiple genes coding for enzymes responsible for the first step of the pathway, catalyzed by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), have been described, and characterized primarily in model organisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mice. Notoriously, the fungal enzymes share low sequence identity with their known animal counterparts, and the nature of their homology is unclear. Furthermore, two mitochondrial GPAT isoforms have been described in animal cells, while no such enzymes have been identified in Fungi. In order to determine if the yeast and mammalian GPATs are representative of the set of enzymes present in their respective groups, and to test the hypothesis that metazoan orthologues are indeed absent from the fungal clade, a comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis was performed including organisms spanning the breadth of the Opisthokonta supergroup. Surprisingly, our study unveiled the presence of ‘fungal’ orthologs in the basal taxa of the holozoa and ‘animal’ orthologues in the basal holomycetes. This includes a novel clade of fungal homologues, with putative peroxisomal targeting signals, of the mitochondrial/peroxisomal acyltransferases in Metazoa, thus potentially representing an undescribed metabolic capacity in the Fungi. The overall distribution of GPAT homologues is suggestive of high relative complexity in the ancestors of the opisthokont clade, followed by loss and sculpting of the complement in the descendent lineages. Divergence from a general versatile metabolic model, present in ancestrally deduced GPAT complements, points to distinctive contributions of each GPAT isoform to lipid metabolism and homeostasis in contemporary organisms like humans and their fungal pathogens. PMID:25340523

  18. The Arabidopsis DCR encoding a soluble BAHD acyltransferase is required for cutin polyester formation and seed hydration properties.

    PubMed

    Panikashvili, David; Shi, Jian Xin; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2009-12-01

    The cuticle covering every plant aerial organ is largely made of cutin that consists of fatty acids, glycerol, and aromatic monomers. Despite the huge importance of the cuticle to plant development and fitness, our knowledge regarding the assembly of the cutin polymer and its integration in the complete cuticle structure is limited. Cutin composition implies the action of acyltransferase-type enzymes that mediate polymer construction through ester bond formation. Here, we show that a member of the BAHD family of acyltransferases (DEFECTIVE IN CUTICULAR RIDGES [DCR]) is required for incorporation of the most abundant monomer into the polymeric structure of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) flower cutin. DCR-deficient plants display phenotypes that are typically associated with a defective cuticle, including altered epidermal cell differentiation and postgenital organ fusion. Moreover, levels of the major cutin monomer in flowers, 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, decreased to an almost undetectable amount in the mutants. Interestingly, dcr mutants exhibit changes in the decoration of petal conical cells and mucilage extrusion in the seed coat, both phenotypes formerly not associated with cutin polymer assembly. Excessive root branching displayed by dcr mutants and the DCR expression pattern in roots pointed to the function of DCR belowground, in shaping root architecture by influencing lateral root emergence and growth. In addition, the dcr mutants were more susceptible to salinity, osmotic, and water deprivation stress conditions. Finally, the analysis of DCR protein localization suggested that cutin polymerization, possibly the oligomerization step, is partially carried out in the cytoplasmic space. Therefore, this study extends our knowledge regarding the functionality of the cuticular layer and the formation of its major constituent the polymer cutin.

  19. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  20. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  1. Construction of 4"-isovalerylspiramycin-I-producing strain by in-frame partial deletion of 3-O-acyltransferase gene in Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-1, the bitespiramycin producer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunyan; Zhou, Hongxia; Li, Jingyan; Dai, Jianlu; He, Weiqing; Wang, Hongyuan; Wu, Linzhuan; Wang, Yiguang

    2011-01-01

    Bitespiramycin (BT), a multi-component antibiotic consisted mainly of 4"-isovalerylspiramycin I, II and III, is produced by Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-1, a recombinant spiramycin-production strain that harbored the 4"-O-acyltransferase gene (ist) from Streptomyces mycarofaciens 1748, which could isovalerylate the 4"-OH of spiramycin. To eliminate the production of components 4"-isovalerylspiramycin II and III, therefore reducing the component complexity of BT, inactivation of the sspA gene, which encodes the 3-O-acyltransferase responsible for the acylation of spiramycin I to spiramycin II and III, was performed in Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-1, by in-frame partial deletion. The resulting strain, Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-2, is a 4"-isovalerylspiramycin-I-producing strain as expected.

  2. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders with similar signs and symptoms. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders The range of consequences from drinking alcohol during pregnancy are collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, as not all signs and symptoms are ...

  4. Identification of an arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase from Drosophila melanogaster that catalyzes the formation of long-chain N-acylserotonins

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Daniel R.; Jeffries, Kristen A.; Anderson, Ryan L.; Carpenter, Anne-Marie; Ospina, Santiago Rodriguez; Merkler, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase-like 22 (AANATL2) from Drosophila melanogaster was expressed and shown to catalyze the formation of long-chain N-acylserotonins and N-acydopamines. Subsequent identification of endogenous amounts of N-acylserotonins and colocalization of these fatty acid amides and AANATL2 transcripts gives supporting evidence that AANATL2 has a role in the biosynthetic formation of these important cell signalling lipids. PMID:24444601

  5. iso-Migrastatin, Migrastatin, and Dorrigocin Production in Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993 Is Governed by a Single Biosynthetic Machinery Featuring an Acyltransferase-less Type I Polyketide Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Si-Kyu; Ju, Jianhua; Zazopoulos, Emmanuel; Jiang, Hui; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Chen, Yihua; Feng, Zhiyang; Rajski, Scott R.; Farnet, Chris M.; Shen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    iso-Migrastatin and related glutarimide-containing polyketides are potent inhibitors of tumor cell migration and their implied potential as antimetastatic agents for human cancers has garnered significant attention. Genome scanning of Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993 unveiled two candidate gene clusters (088D and mgs); each encodes acyltransferase-less type I polyketide synthases commensurate with iso-migrastatin biosynthesis. Both clusters were inactivated by λ-RED-mediated PCR-targeting mutagenesis in S. platensis; iso-migrastatin production was completely abolished in the ΔmgsF mutant SB11012 strain, whereas inactivation of 088D-orf7 yielded the SB11006 strain that exhibited no discernible change in iso-migrastatin biosynthesis. These data indicate that iso-migrastatin production is governed by the mgs cluster. Systematic gene inactivation allowed determination of the precise boundaries of the mgs cluster and the essentiality of the genes within the mgs cluster in iso-migrastatin production. The mgs cluster consists of 11 open reading frames that encode three acyltransferase-less type I polyketide synthases (MgsEFG), one discrete acyltransferase (MgsH), a type II thioesterase (MgsB), three post-PKS tailoring enzymes (MgsIJK), two glutarimide biosynthesis enzymes (MgsCD), and one regulatory protein (MgsA). A model for iso-migrastatin biosynthesis is proposed based on functional assignments derived from bioinformatics and is further supported by the results of in vivo gene inactivation experiments. PMID:19726666

  6. Monoacylglycerols Are Components of Root Waxes and Can Be Produced in the Aerial Cuticle by Ectopic Expression of a Suberin-Associated Acyltransferase1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The interface between plants and the environment is provided for aerial organs by epicuticular waxes that have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about the nature, biosynthesis, and role of waxes at the root-rhizosphere interface. Waxes isolated by rapid immersion of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots in organic solvents were rich in saturated C18-C22 alkyl esters of p-hydroxycinnamic acids, but also contained significant amounts of both α- and β-isomers of monoacylglycerols with C22 and C24 saturated acyl groups and the corresponding free fatty acids. Production of these compounds in root waxes was positively correlated to the expression of sn-glycerol-3-P acyltransferase5 (GPAT5), a gene encoding an acyltransferase previously shown to be involved in aliphatic suberin synthesis. This suggests a direct metabolic relationship between suberin and some root waxes. Furthermore, when ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, GPAT5 produced very-long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids as novel components of cuticular waxes. The crystal morphology of stem waxes was altered and the load of total stem wax compounds was doubled, although the major components typical of the waxes found on wild-type plants decreased. These results strongly suggest that GPAT5 functions in vivo as an acyltransferase to a glycerol-containing acceptor and has access to the same pool of acyl intermediates and/or may be targeted to the same membrane domain as that of wax synthesis in aerial organs. PMID:17496107

  7. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in rat adipose tissue. I. Properties and distribution of glycerophosphate acyltransferase and effect of divalent cations on neutral lipid formation.

    PubMed

    Jamdar, S C; Fallon, H J

    1973-09-01

    A sensitive radioactive assay of acyl CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.15) was developed to study the properties and subcellular distribution of this enzyme in rat epididymal adipose tissue. The esterification of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate was measured in the presence of palmitoyl CoA or palmitate, ATP, CoA, and Mg(2+) at pH 7.5. The presence of glycerophosphate acyltransferase was detected in both mitochondria and microsomes. The product of this reaction was identified as phosphatidate by thin-layer chromatography and dual isotope incorporation studies. Several divalent cations reduced the activity of this enzyme. Although Mg(2+) was not required for the activity of glycerophosphate acyltransferase, its addition to the incubation mixture resulted in an increased formation of neutral lipids at the expense of phosphatidate. This result is explained by an activation of microsomal phosphatidate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4). The effect of Mg(2+) was completely abolished by Ni(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+). These studies suggest that the balance between Mg(2+) and several other divalent ions may be important in the regulation of neutral lipid synthesis in adipose tissue.

  8. A Serine Carboxypeptidase-Like Acyltransferase Is Required for Synthesis of Antimicrobial Compounds and Disease Resistance in Oats[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T.; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Wegel, Eva; Hughes, Richard K.; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi; Melton, Rachel; Philo, Mark; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P.; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Goss, Rebecca J.M.; Osbourn, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins have recently emerged as a new group of plant acyltransferases. These enzymes share homology with peptidases but lack protease activity and instead are able to acylate natural products. Several SCPL acyltransferases have been characterized to date from dicots, including an enzyme required for the synthesis of glucose polyesters that may contribute to insect resistance in wild tomato (Solanum pennellii) and enzymes required for the synthesis of sinapate esters associated with UV protection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In our earlier genetic analysis, we identified the Saponin-deficient 7 (Sad7) locus as being required for the synthesis of antimicrobial triterpene glycosides (avenacins) and for broad-spectrum disease resistance in diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Here, we report on the cloning of Sad7 and show that this gene encodes a functional SCPL acyltransferase, SCPL1, that is able to catalyze the synthesis of both N-methyl anthraniloyl- and benzoyl-derivatized forms of avenacin. Sad7 forms part of an operon-like gene cluster for avenacin synthesis. Oat SCPL1 (SAD7) is the founder member of a subfamily of monocot-specific SCPL proteins that includes predicted proteins from rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses with potential roles in secondary metabolism and plant defense. PMID:19684243

  9. Cloning and molecular characterization of a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) gene from Echium (Boraginaceae) involved in the biosynthesis of cutin polyesters.

    PubMed

    Mañas-Fernández, Aurora; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-09-01

    The glycerol-based lipid polyester called cutin is a main component of cuticle, the protective interface of aerial plant organs also controlling compound exchange with the environment. Though recent progress towards understanding of cutin biosynthesis has been made in Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known in other plants. One key step in this process is the acyl transfer reaction to the glycerol backbone. Here we report the cloning and molecular characterization of EpGPAT1, a gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) from Echium pitardii (Boraginaceae) with high similarity to the AtGPAT4/AtGPAT8 of Arabidopsis. Quantitative analysis by qRT-PCR showed highest expression of EpGPAT1 in seeds, roots, young leaves and flowers. Acyltransferase activity of EpGPAT1 was evidenced by heterologous expression in yeast. Ectopic expression in leaves of tobacco plants lead to an increase of C16 and C18 hydroxyacids and alpha,omega-diacids in the cell wall fraction, indicating a role in the biosynthesis of polyesters. Analysis of the genomic organization in Echium revealed the presence of EpGPAT2, a closely related gene which was found to be mostly expressed in developing leaves and flowers. The presence of a conserved HAD-like domain at the N-terminal moiety of GPATs from Echium, Arabidopsis and other plant species suggests a possible phosphohydrolase activity in addition to the reported acyltransferase activity. Evolutive implications of this finding are discussed.

  10. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin ... Cortisol also has a role in cognition, including learning and memory. In particular, it has been found ...

  11. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  13. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  14. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  15. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  16. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  18. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of plastidial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; E.C. 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first step of glycerolipid assembly within the stroma of the chloroplast. In the present study, the sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) stromal GPAT was cloned, sequenced and characterized. We identified a single ORF of 1344base pairs that encoded a GPAT sharing strong sequence homology with the plastidial GPAT from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATS1, At1g32200). Gene expression studies showed that the highest transcript levels occurred in green tissues in which chloroplasts are abundant. The corresponding mature protein was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and biochemical characterization. In vitro assays using radiolabelled acyl-ACPs and glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates revealed a strong preference for oleic versus palmitic acid, and weak activity towards stearic acid. The positional fatty acid composition of relevant chloroplast phospholipids from sunflower leaves did not reflect the in vitro GPAT specificity, suggesting a more complex scenario with mixed substrates at different concentrations, competition with other acyl-ACP consuming enzymatic reactions, etc. In summary, this study has confirmed the affinity of this enzyme which would partly explain the resistance to cold temperatures observed in sunflower plants.

  20. Cloning, characterization and functional analysis of two type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT1s) from Tetraena mongolica.

    PubMed

    Li, Minchun; Zhao, Mingming; Wu, Hanying; Wu, Wang; Xu, Yinong

    2013-06-01

    Two cDNAs encoding putative type 1 acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT1, EC 2.3.1.20), were cloned from Tetraena mongolica, an extreme xerophyte with high oil content in the stems. The 1 488-bp and 1 485-bp of the open reading frame (ORF) of the two cDNAs, designated as TmDGAT1a and TmDGAT1b, were both predicted to encode proteins of 495 and 494 amino acids, respectively. Southern blot analysis revealed that TmDGAT1a and TmDGAT1b both had low copy numbers in the T. mongolica genome. In addition to ubiquitous expression with different intensity in different tissues, including stems, leaves and roots, TmDGAT1a and TmDGAT1b, were found to be strongly induced by high salinity, drought and osmotic stress, resulting in a remarkable increase of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in T. mongolica plantlets. TmDGAT1a and TmDGAT1b activities were confirmed in the yeast H1246 quadruple mutant (DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2) by restoring DGAT activity of the mutant host to produce TAG. Overexpression of TmDGAT1a and TmDGAT1b in soybean hairy roots as well as in T. mongolica calli both resulted in an increase in oil content (ranging from 37% to 108%), accompanied by altered fatty acid profiles. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Expression of Soluble Forms of Yeast Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 That Integrate a Broad Range of Saturated Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Haïli, Nawel; Louap, Julien; Canonge, Michel; Jagic, Franjo; Louis-Mondésir, Christelle; Chardot, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y. lipolytica Dga1p as fusion proteins: the first one lacking the N-terminal hydrophilic segment (Dga1pΔ19), the second one also devoid of the N-terminal putative transmembrane domain (Dga1pΔ85). Most DGAT assays are performed on membrane fractions or microsomes, using radiolabeled substrates. We implemented a fluorescent assay in order to decipher the substrate specificity of purified Dga1p enzymes. Both enzyme versions prefer acyl-CoA saturated substrates to unsaturated ones. Dga1pΔ85 preferentially uses long-chain saturated substrates. Dga1p activities are inhibited by niacin, a specific DGAT2 inhibitor. The N-terminal transmembrane domain appears important, but not essential, for TG biosynthesis. The soluble and active proteins described here could be useful tools for future functional and structural studies in order to better understand and optimize DGAT enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:27780240

  2. Acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase influences fertility by regulating lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biogenesis in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wenfeng; Shen, Ying; Hao, Juan; Wu, Jianyong; Ke, Liping; Wu, Caiyun; Huang, Kai; Luo, Binglun; Xu, Mingfeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xueping; Sun, Jie; Xing, Chaozhu; Sun, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important economic crop and there is obvious heterosis in cotton, fertility has played an important role in this heterosis. However, the genes that exhibit critical roles in anther development and fertility are not well understood. Here, we report an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase (EC2.3; GhACNAT) that plays a key role in anther development and fertility. Suppression of GhACNAT by virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic cotton (G. hirsutum L. cv. C312) resulted in indehiscent anthers that were full of pollen, diminished filaments and stamens, and plant sterility. We found GhACNAT was involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The genes differentially expressed in GhACNAT-silenced plants and C312 were mainly involved in catalytic activity and transcription regulator activity in lipid metabolism. In GhACNAT-silenced plants, the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biosynthesis were significantly changed, the amount of JA in leaves and reproductive organs was significantly decreased compared with the amounts in C312. Treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate rescued anther dehiscence and pollen release in GhACNAT-silenced plants and caused self-fertility. The GhACNAT gene may play an important role in controlling cotton fertility by regulating the pathways of lipid synthesis and JA biogenesis. PMID:26134787

  3. Knockdown of lecithin retinol acyltransferase increases all-trans retinoic acid levels and restores retinoid sensitivity in malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Czaja, Katharina; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Rühl, Ralph; Skazik, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Marquardt, Yvonne; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens M

    2014-11-01

    Retinoids such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) influence cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis and may play decisive roles in tumor development and progression. An essential retinoid-metabolizing enzyme known as lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is expressed in melanoma cells but not in melanocytes catalysing the esterification of all-trans retinol (ATRol). In this study, we show that a stable LRAT knockdown (KD) in the human melanoma cell line SkMel23 leads to significantly increased levels of the substrate ATRol and biologically active ATRA. LRAT KD restored cellular sensitivity to retinoids analysed in cell culture assays and melanoma 3D skin models. Furthermore, ATRA-induced gene regulatory mechanisms drive depletion of added ATRol in LRAT KD cells. PCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation of retinoid-regulated genes such as CYP26A1 and STRA6 in LRAT KD cells, suggesting their possible involvement in mediating retinoid resistance in melanoma cells. In conclusion, LRAT seems to be important for melanoma progression. We propose that reduction in ATRol levels in melanoma cells by LRAT leads to a disturbance in cellular retinoid level. Balanced LRAT expression and activity may provide protection against melanoma development and progression. Pharmacological inhibition of LRAT activity could be a promising strategy for overcoming retinoid insensitivity in human melanoma cells.

  4. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase is critical for cellular uptake of vitamin A from serum retinol-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Amengual, Jaume; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2012-07-13

    Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be adequately distributed within the mammalian body to produce visual chromophore in the eyes and all-trans-retinoic acid in other tissues. Vitamin A is transported in the blood bound to retinol-binding protein (holo-RBP), and its target cells express an RBP receptor encoded by the Stra6 (stimulated by retinoic acid 6) gene. Here we show in mice that cellular uptake of vitamin A from holo-RBP depends on functional coupling of STRA6 with intracellular lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). Thus, vitamin A uptake from recombinant holo-RBP exhibited by wild type mice was impaired in Lrat(-/-) mice. We further provide evidence that vitamin A uptake is regulated by all-trans-retinoic acid in non-ocular tissues of mice. When in excess, vitamin A was rapidly taken up and converted to its inert ester form in peripheral tissues, such as lung, whereas in vitamin A deficiency, ocular retinoid uptake was favored. Finally, we show that the drug fenretinide, used clinically to presumably lower blood RBP levels and thus decrease circulating retinol, targets the functional coupling of STRA6 and LRAT to increase cellular vitamin A uptake in peripheral tissues. These studies provide mechanistic insights into how vitamin A is distributed to peripheral tissues in a regulated manner and identify LRAT as a critical component of this process.

  5. Directed evolution of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: development and characterization of Brassica napus DGAT1 mutagenized libraries.

    PubMed

    Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Truksa, Martin; Brownfield, Disa; Good, Allen G; Weselake, Randall J

    2009-06-01

    Metabolic flux to triacylglycerol (TAG) may be limited by the level of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) activity. In some species, this enzyme also appears to play a role in the channeling of specific fatty acyl moieties into TAG. The objective of this work is to implement a directed evolution approach to enhance the catalytic efficiency of type-1 DGAT from Brassica napus (BnDGAT1). We generated randomly mutagenized libraries of BnDGAT1 in a yeast expression vector using error-prone PCR. The mutagenized libraries were used to transform a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain devoid of neutral lipid biosynthesis and analyzed using a high-throughput screening (HTS) system. The HTS, recently developed for this purpose, consisted of a positive selection of clones expressing active DGAT mutants followed by quantification of DGAT activity by fluorescence detection of TAG in yeast cells. The initial results indicated that the positive selection system efficiently eliminated DGAT mutants lacking enzyme activity. Screening of 1528 selected mutants revealed that some DGAT clones had enhanced ability to synthesize TAG in yeast. This was confirmed by analysis of individual clones that could carry mutations resulting in an increased catalytic efficiency. The directed evolution approach could lead to the development of an improved plant DGAT1 for increasing seed oil content in oleaginous crops.

  6. Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2-Driven Cholesterol Esterification Opposes Liver X Receptor-Stimulated Fecal Neutral Sterol Loss

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Bura, Kanwardeep; Kelley, Kathryn; Wilson, Martha D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Brown, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Statin drugs have proven a successful and relatively safe therapy for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even with the substantial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering achieved with statin treatment, CVD remains the top cause of death in developed countries. Selective inhibitors of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol-O acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) hold great promise as effective CVD therapeutics. In mouse models, previous work has demonstrated that either antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) or small molecule inhibitors of SOAT2 can effectively reduce CVD progression, and even promote regression of established CVD. Although it is well known that SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can alter both the packaging and retention of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins, here we set out to determine whether SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can also impact basal and liver X receptor (LXR)-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss. These studies demonstrate that SOAT2 is a negative regulator of LXR-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss in mice. PMID:26729489

  7. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Ouyang, Chao; Kou, Shanglong; Wang, Shenghua; Yao, Yunyi; Peng, Tong; Xu, Ying; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) was obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The 1524-bp open reading frame of this cDNA, designated as HaDGAT1, encodes a protein of 507 amino acids with a molecular mass of 58.5 kDa showing high homology to DGAT1 enzymes of other plants. The protein characters, such as a predicted structure with a long N-terminal hydrophilic domain followed by 9 transmembrane domains, acyl-CoA-binding signature, diacylglycerol (DAG)-binding and putative endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motifs (ER-DIR), also indicated that HaDGAT belongs to the DGAT1 family. HaDGAT1 is expressed in all plant tissues especially in developing seeds. Expression of recombinant HaDGAT1 in yeast showed an 1.76-fold increase of total fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (enhanced by 86.6%) and oleic acid (enhanced by 81.6%).

  8. Increased mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase protein and enzyme activity in rat epididymal fat upon cessation of wheel running.

    PubMed

    Kump, David S; Laye, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2006-03-01

    Triacylglycerol synthesis in rat epididymal fat overshoots sedentary levels at 10, 29, and 53 h of physical inactivity after 21 days of wheel running. The purposes of the present study were to determine 1) whether this effect is also observed after an acute bout of physical activity and 2) what enzymatic changes might contribute to this effect. We show that more than one bout of physical activity, such as that which occurs with 21 days of wheel running, is necessary for palmitic acid incorporation into triacylglyceride (triglyceride synthesis) to overshoot sedentary values, which suggests that pretranslational mechanisms may be responsible for this overshoot effect. Ten hours after 21 days of wheel running, activity of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (mtGPAT1) isoform, a key regulator of triacylglycerol synthesis, overshot sedentary values by 48% and remained higher than sedentary values at 29 and 53 h of reduced physical activity. The overshoot in mtGPAT1 activity was accompanied by an increase in mtGPAT protein level. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-binding protein level was higher in sedentary 29 h after 21 days of wheel running. AMP kinase-alpha Thr(172) phosphorylation was increased immediately after treadmill running, but decreased to sedentary values by 5 h after activity. Casein kinase-2alpha protein level and activity were unchanged. We conclude that an increase in mtGPAT protein might contribute to the overshoot in triacylglycerol synthesis.

  9. Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase is required for PBAN-induced sex pheromone biosynthesis in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengfang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Xiaoming; Yin, Xinming; Han, Shuangyin; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2015-01-29

    Female moths employ their own pheromone blends as a communicational medium in mating behavior. The biosynthesis and release of sex pheromone in female moths are regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the corresponding action of PBAN has been well elucidated in Bombyx mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism regarding the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor. In this study, quantitative proteomics was utilized to comprehensively elucidate the expression dynamics of pheromone glands (PGs) during development. Proteomic analysis revealed a serial of differentially expressed sex pheromone biosynthesis-associated proteins at the different time points of B. mori development. Most interestingly B. mori glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (BmGPAT) was found to be expressed during the key periods of sex pheromone biosynthesis. RNAi knockdown of BmGPAT confirmed the important function of this protein in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, triacylglcerol (TAG), and subsequently PBAN-induced production of sex pheromone, bombykol. Behavioral analysis showed that RNAi knockdown of GPAT significantly impaired the ability of females to attract males. Our findings indicate that GPAT acts to regulate the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, TAG, thus influencing PBAN-induced sex pheromone production and subsequent mating behavior.

  10. Characterization and partial purification of acyl-CoA:glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-López, Noemí; Garcés, Rafael; Harwood, John L; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) microsomes has been characterised and partially purified. The in vitro determination of activity was optimized, and the maximum value for GPAT activity identified between 15 and 20 days after flowering. The apparent Michaelis-Menten K(m) for the glycerol 3-phosphate was 354 muM. The preferred substrates were palmitoyl-CoA = linoleoyl-CoA > oleoyl-CoA with the lowest activity using stearoyl-CoA. High solubilisation was achieved using 0.75% Tween80 and the solubilised GPAT was partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography using a Hi-Trap DEAE FF column, followed by gel filtration chromatography using a Superose 12 HR column. The fraction containing the GPAT activity was analysed by SDS-PAGE and contained a major band of 60.1 kDa. Finally, evidence is provided which shows the role of GPAT in the asymmetrical distribution, between positions sn-1 and sn-3, of saturated fatty acids in highly saturated sunflower triacylglycerols. This work provides background information on the sunflower endoplasmic reticulum GPAT which may prove valuable for future modification of oil deposition in this important crop.

  11. The dihydrolipoyl acyltransferase gene BCE2 participates in basal resistance against Phytophthora infestans in potato and Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyang; Sun, Chunlian; Jiang, Rui; He, Qin; Yang, Yu; Tian, Zhejuan; Tian, Zhendong; Xie, Conghua

    2014-07-01

    Dihydrolipoyl acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.12), a branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase E2 subunit (BCE2), catalyzes the transfer of the acyl group from the lipoyl moiety to coenzyme A. However, the role of BCE2 responding to biotic stress in plant is not clear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a BCE2 gene from potato, namely StBCE2, which was previously suggested to be involved in Phytophthora infestans-potato interaction. We found that the expression of StBCE2 was strongly induced by both P. infestans isolate HB09-14-2 and salicylic acid. Besides, when the homolog of StBCE2 in Nicotiana benthamiana named NbBCE2 was silenced, plants showed increased susceptibility to P. infestans and reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Furthermore, we found that a marker gene NbrbohB involved in the production of reactive oxygen species, was also suppressed in NbBCE2-silenced plants. However, silencing of NbBCE2 had no significant effect on the hypersensitive responses trigged by INF1, R3a-AVR3a(KI) pair or Rpi-vnt1.1-AVR-vnt1.1 pair. Our results suggest that BCE2 is associated with the basal resistance to P. infestans by regulating H2O2 production.

  12. Biosynthesis of Rhizobium meliloti lipooligosaccharide Nod factors: NodA is required for an N-acyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, E.M.; Long, S.R. ); Palcic, M.M.; Hindsgaul, O. )

    1994-08-30

    Rhizobium bacteria synthesize N-acylated [beta]-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine lipooligosaccharides, called Nod factors, which act as morphogenic signal molecules to legume roots during development of nitrogen-fixing nodules. The biosynthesis of Nod factors is genetically dependent upon the nodulation (nod) genes, including the common nod genes nodABC. We used the Rhizobium meliloti NodH sulfotransferase to prepare [sup 35]S-labeled oligosaccharides which served as metabolic tracers for Nod enzyme activities. This approach provides a general method for following chitooligosaccharide modifications. We found nodAB-dependent conversion of N-acetylchitotetraose (chitotetraose) monosulfate into hydrophobic compounds which by chromatographic and chemical tests were equivalent to acylated Nod factors. Sequential incubation of labeled intermediates with Escherichia coli containing either NodA or NodB showed that NodB was required before NodA during Nod factor biosynthesis. The acylation activity was sensitive to oligosaccharide chain length, with chitotetraose serving as a better substrate than chitobiose or chitotriose. We constructed a putative Nod factor intermediate, GlcN-[beta]1,4-(GlcNac)[sub 3], by enzymatic synthesis and labeled it by NodH-mediated sulfation to create a specific metabolic probe. Acylation of this oligosaccharide required only NodA. These results confirm previous reports that NodB is an N-deacetylase and suggest that NodA is an N-acyltransferase. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

    1995-01-01

    In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids. PMID:7784510

  14. Acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase influences fertility by regulating lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biogenesis in cotton.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenfeng; Shen, Ying; Hao, Juan; Wu, Jianyong; Ke, Liping; Wu, Caiyun; Huang, Kai; Luo, Binglun; Xu, Mingfeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xueping; Sun, Jie; Xing, Chaozhu; Sun, Yuqiang

    2015-07-02

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important economic crop and there is obvious heterosis in cotton, fertility has played an important role in this heterosis. However, the genes that exhibit critical roles in anther development and fertility are not well understood. Here, we report an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase (EC2.3; GhACNAT) that plays a key role in anther development and fertility. Suppression of GhACNAT by virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic cotton (G. hirsutum L. cv. C312) resulted in indehiscent anthers that were full of pollen, diminished filaments and stamens, and plant sterility. We found GhACNAT was involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The genes differentially expressed in GhACNAT-silenced plants and C312 were mainly involved in catalytic activity and transcription regulator activity in lipid metabolism. In GhACNAT-silenced plants, the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biosynthesis were significantly changed, the amount of JA in leaves and reproductive organs was significantly decreased compared with the amounts in C312. Treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate rescued anther dehiscence and pollen release in GhACNAT-silenced plants and caused self-fertility. The GhACNAT gene may play an important role in controlling cotton fertility by regulating the pathways of lipid synthesis and JA biogenesis.

  15. Expression of Soluble Forms of Yeast Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 That Integrate a Broad Range of Saturated Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Haïli, Nawel; Louap, Julien; Canonge, Michel; Jagic, Franjo; Louis-Mondésir, Christelle; Chardot, Thierry; Briozzo, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y. lipolytica Dga1p as fusion proteins: the first one lacking the N-terminal hydrophilic segment (Dga1pΔ19), the second one also devoid of the N-terminal putative transmembrane domain (Dga1pΔ85). Most DGAT assays are performed on membrane fractions or microsomes, using radiolabeled substrates. We implemented a fluorescent assay in order to decipher the substrate specificity of purified Dga1p enzymes. Both enzyme versions prefer acyl-CoA saturated substrates to unsaturated ones. Dga1pΔ85 preferentially uses long-chain saturated substrates. Dga1p activities are inhibited by niacin, a specific DGAT2 inhibitor. The N-terminal transmembrane domain appears important, but not essential, for TG biosynthesis. The soluble and active proteins described here could be useful tools for future functional and structural studies in order to better understand and optimize DGAT enzymes for biotechnological applications.

  16. Small Intestine but Not Liver Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) Deficiency Has a Dominant Effect on Plasma Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Inamul; Li, Zhiqiang; Bui, Hai H; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Gao, Guangping; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) is involved in phosphatidylcholine remodeling in the small intestine and liver. We investigated lipid metabolism in inducible intestine-specific and liver-specificLpcat3gene knock-out mice. We producedLpcat3-Flox/villin-Cre-ER(T2)mice, which were treated with tamoxifen (at days 1, 3, 5, and 7), to deleteLpcat3specifically in the small intestine. At day 9 after the treatment, we found that Lpcat3 deficiency in enterocytes significantly reduced polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines in the enterocyte plasma membrane and reduced Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), CD36, ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), and ABCG8 levels on the membrane, thus significantly reducing lipid absorption, cholesterol secretion through apoB-dependent and apoB-independent pathways, and plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels, as well as body weight. Moreover, Lpcat3 deficiency does not cause significant lipid accumulation in the small intestine. We also utilized adenovirus-associated virus-Cre to depleteLpcat3in the liver. We found that liver deficiency only reduces plasma triglyceride levels but not other lipid levels. Furthermore, there is no significant lipid accumulation in the liver. Importantly, small intestine Lpcat3 deficiency has a much bigger effect on plasma lipid levels than that of liver deficiency. Thus, inhibition of small intestine Lpcat3 might constitute a novel approach for treating hyperlipidemia.

  17. Characterization of late acyltransferase genes of Yersinia pestis and their role in temperature-dependent lipid A variation.

    PubMed

    Rebeil, Roberto; Ernst, Robert K; Jarrett, Clayton O; Adams, Kristin N; Miller, Samuel I; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2006-02-01

    Yersinia pestis is an important human pathogen that is maintained in flea-rodent enzootic cycles in many parts of the world. During its life cycle, Y. pestis senses host-specific environmental cues such as temperature and regulates gene expression appropriately to adapt to the insect or mammalian host. For example, Y. pestis synthesizes different forms of lipid A when grown at temperatures corresponding to the in vivo environments of the mammalian host and the flea vector. At 37 degrees C, tetra-acylated lipid A is the major form; but at 26 degrees C or below, hexa-acylated lipid A predominates. In this study, we show that the Y. pestis msbB (lpxM) and lpxP homologs encode the acyltransferases that add C12 and C(16:1) groups, respectively, to lipid IV(A) to generate the hexa-acylated form, and that their expression is upregulated at 21 degrees C in vitro and in the flea midgut. A Y. pestis deltamsbB deltalpxP double mutant that did not produce hexa-acylated lipid A was more sensitive to cecropin A, but not to polymyxin B. This mutant was able to infect and block fleas as well as the parental wild-type strain, indicating that the low-temperature-dependent change to hexa-acylated lipid A synthesis is not required for survival in the flea gut.

  18. Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2-Driven Cholesterol Esterification Opposes Liver X Receptor-Stimulated Fecal Neutral Sterol Loss.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Bura, Kanwardeep; Kelley, Kathryn; Wilson, Martha D; Rudel, Lawrence L; Brown, J Mark

    2016-02-01

    Statin drugs have proven a successful and relatively safe therapy for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even with the substantial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering achieved with statin treatment, CVD remains the top cause of death in developed countries. Selective inhibitors of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol-O acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) hold great promise as effective CVD therapeutics. In mouse models, previous work has demonstrated that either antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) or small molecule inhibitors of SOAT2 can effectively reduce CVD progression, and even promote regression of established CVD. Although it is well known that SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can alter both the packaging and retention of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins, here we set out to determine whether SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can also impact basal and liver X receptor (LXR)-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss. These studies demonstrate that SOAT2 is a negative regulator of LXR-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss in mice.

  19. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase is responsible for amidation of retinylamine, a potent inhibitor of the retinoid cycle.

    PubMed

    Golczak, Marcin; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Kuksa, Vladimir; Maeda, Tadao; Kubota, Ryo; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2005-12-23

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine to all-trans-retinol (vitamin A) and plays an essential role in the regeneration of visual chromophore as well as in the metabolism of vitamin A. Here we demonstrate that retinylamine (Ret-NH2), a potent and selective inhibitor of 11-cis-retinal biosynthesis (Golczak, M., Kuksa, V., Maeda, T., Moise, A. R., and Palczewski, K. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 8162-8167), is a substrate for LRAT. LRAT catalyzes the transfer of the acyl group onto Ret-NH2 leading to the formation of N-retinylpalmitamide, N-retinylstearamide, and N-retinylmyristamide with a ratio of 15:6:2, respectively. The presence of N-retinylamides was detected in vivo in mice supplemented with Ret-NH2. N-Retinylamides are thus the main metabolites of Ret-NH2 in the liver and the eye and can be mobilized by hydrolysis/deamidation back to Ret-NH2. Using two-photon microscopy and the intrinsic fluorescence of N-retinylamides, we showed that newly formed amides colocalize with the retinyl ester storage particles (retinosomes) in the retinal pigment epithelium. These observations provide new information concerning the substrate specificity of LRAT and explain the prolonged effect of Ret-NH2 on the rate of 11-cis-retinal recovery in vivo.

  20. Mouse lysocardiolipin acyltransferase controls the development of hematopoietic and endothelial lineages during in vitro embryonic stem-cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengyan; Faloon, Patrick W.; Tan, Zhijia; Lv, Yaxin; Zhang, Pengbo; Ge, Yu; Deng, Hongkui

    2007-01-01

    The blast colony-forming cell (BL-CFC) was identified as an equivalent to the hemangioblast during in vitro embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of the BL-CFC remain largely unknown. Here we report the isolation of mouse lysocardiolipin acyltransferase (Lycat) based on homology to zebrafish lycat, a candidate gene for the cloche locus. Mouse Lycat is expressed in hematopoietic organs and is enriched in the Lin−C-Kit+Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow and in the Flk1+/hCD4+(Scl+) hemangioblast population in embryoid bodies. The forced Lycat transgene leads to increased messenger RNA expression of hematopoietic and endothelial genes as well as increased blast colonies and their progenies, endothelial and hematopoietic lineages. The Lycat small interfering RNA transgene leads to a decrease expression of hematopoietic and endothelial genes. An unbiased genomewide microarray analysis further substantiates that the forced Lycat transgene specifically up-regulates a set of genes related to hemangioblasts and hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Therefore, mouse Lycat plays an important role in the early specification of hematopoietic and endothelial cells, probably acting at the level of the hemangioblast. PMID:17675553

  1. Biodiesel production from crude jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joana; Perrier, Véronique; Lecomte, Jérôme; Dubreucq, Eric; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-10-01

    The lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis (CpLIP2) immobilized on two synthetic resins (Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600) was used as catalyst for the production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) by transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol, in a lipid/aqueous system. The oil was dispersed in a buffer solution (pH 6.5) containing methanol in excess (2M in the biphasic system; molar ratio methanol/acyl chains 2:1). Transesterification was carried out at 30°C, under magnetic stirring, using 10% (w/w) of immobilized enzyme in relation to oil. The maximum FAME yields were attained after 8h reaction time: 80.5% and 93.8%, when CpLIP2 immobilized on Accurel MP 1000 or on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were used, respectively. CpLIP2 on both Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600 showed high operational stability along 5 consecutive 8h batches.

  2. Deficiency of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 decreases triacylglycerol storage and induces fatty acid oxidation in insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Ramos, Isabela B; De Paula, Iron F; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect. RhoprGPAT1 contributes 15% of the total GPAT activity in anterior midgut, 50% in posterior midgut and fat body, and 70% in the ovary. The RhoprGpat1 gene is the predominant transcript in the midgut and fat body. To evaluate the physiological relevance of RhoprGPAT1, we generate RhoprGPAT1-deficient insects. The knockdown of RhoprGpat1 results in 50% and 65% decrease in TAG content in the posterior midgut and fat body, respectively. RhoprGpat1-deficient insects also exhibits impaired lipid droplet expansion and a 2-fold increase in fatty acid β-oxidation rates in the fat body. We propose that the RhoprGPAT1 mitochondrial-like isoform is required to channel fatty acyl chains towards TAG synthesis and away from β-oxidation. Such a process is crucial for the insect lipid homeostasis.

  3. Altered chloroplast structure and function in a mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in plastid glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kunst, L.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. )

    1989-07-01

    Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in plastid glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity have altered chloroplast membrane lipid composition. This caused an increase in the number of regions of appressed membrane per chloroplast and a decrease in the average number of thylakoid membranes in the appressed regions. The net effect was a significant decrease in the ratio of appressed to nonappressed membranes. A comparison of 77 K fluorescence emission spectra of thylakoid membranes from the mutant and wild type indicated that the ultrastructural changes were associated with an altered distribution of excitation energy transfer from antenna chlorophyll to photosystem II and photosystem I in the mutant. The changes in leaf lipid composition did not significantly affect growth or development of the mutant under standard conditions. However, at temperatures above 28{degree}C the mutant grew slightly more rapidly than the wild type, and measurements of temperature-induced fluorescence yield enhancement suggested an increased thermal stability of the photosynthetic apparatus of the mutant. These effects are consistent with other evidence suggesting that membrane lipid composition is an important determinant of chloroplast structure but has relatively minor direct effects on the function of the membrane proteins associated with photosynthetic electron transport.

  4. Plant Acyl-CoA:Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferases (LPCATs) Have Different Specificities in Their Forward and Reverse Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Lager, Ida; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Jasieniecka, Katarzyna; Kazachkov, Michael; Wang, Peng; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall; Smith, Mark A.; Bayon, Shen; Dyer, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Heinz, Ernst; Green, Allan; Banas, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles in acyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for seven LPCATs from five different species, including species accumulating hydroxylated acyl groups in their seed oil, with a preference for C18-unsaturated acyl-CoA and low activity with palmitoyl-CoA and ricinoleoyl (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoyl)-CoA. We showed that Arabidopsis LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 enzymes catalyzed the acylation and de-acylation of both sn positions of PC, with a preference for the sn-2 position. When acyl specificities of the Arabidopsis LPCATs were measured in the reverse reaction, sn-2-bound oleoyl, linoleoyl, and linolenoyl groups from PC were transferred to acyl-CoA to a similar extent. However, a ricinoleoyl group at the sn-2-position of PC was removed 4–6-fold faster than an oleoyl group in the reverse reaction, despite poor utilization in the forward reaction. The data presented, taken together with earlier published reports on in vivo lipid metabolism, support the hypothesis that plant LPCAT enzymes play an important role in regulating the acyl-CoA composition in plant cells by transferring polyunsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids produced on PC directly to the acyl-CoA pool for further metabolism or catabolism. PMID:24189065

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis growth depends on eukaryotic cholesterol esterification and is affected by Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jan; Byrne, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is auxotrophic for a variety of essential metabolites. Inhibitors that interrupt host cell catabolism may inhibit chlamydial growth and reveal Chlamydia metabolite requirements. We used the known indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-inhibitor 4-phenyl imidazole (4-PI) to reverse Interferon (IFN)-γ-induced chlamydial growth inhibition. However, at elevated inhibitor concentrations chlamydial growth was arrested even in the absence of IFN-γ. Since 4-PI is known to interfere with cholesterol metabolism, the effect of cholesterol add-back was tested. Chlamydia growth was restored in the presence of cholesterol in serum-containing, but not serum-free medium suggesting that cholesterol and other serum components are required for growth recovery. When serum factors were tested, either cholesteryl linoleate or the combination of cholesterol and linoleic acid restored chlamydial growth. However, growth was not restored when either cholesterol or linoleic acid were added alone, suggesting that the production of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and fatty acids was affected by 4-PI treatment. In eukaryotic cells, the enzyme Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the production of cholesteryl esters. When HeLa cells were treated with the ACAT-specific inhibitor 4-hydroxycinnamicacid amide C. trachomatis growth was interrupted, but was restored by the addition of cholesteryl linoleate, suggesting that ACAT activity is necessary for intracellular Chlamydia growth. PMID:25883118

  6. Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase is required for PBAN-induced sex pheromone biosynthesis in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengfang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Xiaoming; Yin, Xinming; Han, Shuangyin; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2015-01-01

    Female moths employ their own pheromone blends as a communicational medium in mating behavior. The biosynthesis and release of sex pheromone in female moths are regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the corresponding action of PBAN has been well elucidated in Bombyx mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism regarding the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor. In this study, quantitative proteomics was utilized to comprehensively elucidate the expression dynamics of pheromone glands (PGs) during development. Proteomic analysis revealed a serial of differentially expressed sex pheromone biosynthesis-associated proteins at the different time points of B. mori development. Most interestingly B. mori glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (BmGPAT) was found to be expressed during the key periods of sex pheromone biosynthesis. RNAi knockdown of BmGPAT confirmed the important function of this protein in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, triacylglcerol (TAG), and subsequently PBAN-induced production of sex pheromone, bombykol. Behavioral analysis showed that RNAi knockdown of GPAT significantly impaired the ability of females to attract males. Our findings indicate that GPAT acts to regulate the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, TAG, thus influencing PBAN-induced sex pheromone production and subsequent mating behavior. PMID:25630665

  7. Characterization of protein acyltransferase function of recombinant purified GlnA1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a moon lighting property.

    PubMed

    Baghel, Anil S; Tandon, Rashmi; Gupta, Garima; Kumar, Ajit; Sharma, Raman K; Aggarwal, Neha; Kathuria, Abha; Saini, Neeraj K; Bose, Mridula; Prasad, Ashok K; Sharma, Sunil K; Nath, Mahendra; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2011-12-20

    The protein acetyltransferase (MTAase) function of glutamine synthetase of Mycobacterium smegmatis was established earlier. In this paper, studies were undertaken to examine MTAase function of recombinant glutamine synthetase (rGlnA1) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which showed >80% similarity with M. smegmatis GlnA. The specificity of MTAase to several acyl derivative of coumarins was examined. The results clearly indicated that MTAase exhibited differential specificities to several acyloxycoumarins. Further, MTAase was also found capable of transferring propionyl and butyryl groups from propoxy and butoxy derivatives of 4-methylcoumarin. These observations characterized MTAase in general as a protein acyltransferase. MTAase catalyzed acetylation of GST by 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC), a model acetoxy coumarin was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as western blot analysis using acetylated lysine polyclonal antibody. In order to validate the active site of rGlnA1 for TAase activity, effect of DAMC and L-methionine-S-sulfoximine (MSO) on GS and TAase activity of rGlnA1 were studied. The results indicated that the active sites of GS and TAase were found different. Acetyl CoA, a universal biological acetyl group donor, was also found to be a substrate for MTAase. These results appropriately characterize glutamine synthetase of Mtb exhibiting transacylase action as a moonlighting protein.

  8. Structure-based analysis of the molecular interactions between acyltransferase and acyl carrier protein in vicenistatin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Iwasawa, Shohei; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Acyltransferases (ATs) are key determinants of building block specificity in polyketide biosynthesis. Despite the importance of protein–protein interactions between AT and acyl carrier protein (ACP) during the acyltransfer reaction, the mechanism of ACP recognition by AT is not understood in detail. Herein, we report the crystal structure of AT VinK, which transfers a dipeptide group between two ACPs, VinL and VinP1LdACP, in vicenistatin biosynthesis. The isolated VinK structure showed a unique substrate-binding pocket for the dipeptide group linked to ACP. To gain greater insight into the mechanism of ACP recognition, we attempted to crystallize the VinK–ACP complexes. Because transient enzyme–ACP complexes are difficult to crystallize, we developed a covalent cross-linking strategy using a bifunctional maleimide reagent to trap the VinK–ACP complexes, allowing the determination of the crystal structure of the VinK–VinL complex. In the complex structure, Arg-153, Met-206, and Arg-299 of VinK interact with the negatively charged helix II region of VinL. The VinK–VinL complex structure allows, to our knowledge, the first visualization of the interaction between AT and ACP and provides detailed mechanistic insights into ACP recognition by AT. PMID:26831085

  9. Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor Avasimibe affect survival and proliferation of glioma tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bemlih, Sana; Poirier, Marie-Denise; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar

    2010-06-15

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and one of its hallmarks is resistance to apoptosis. Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular membrane-bound enzyme that uses cholesterol and long chain fatty acyl-CoA as substrates to produce cholesteryl esters. The presence of cholesteryl esters in glioblastoma may be related to vascular and/or cell neoplastic proliferation in the tumor mass, two prerequisites for tumor cell growth. ACAT activity has been detected in glioblastoma cell homogenates. The present study is the first report on the effect of Avasimibe, a specific inhibitor of ACAT, on glioma cell lines (U87, A172 and GL261). Our results showed that Avasimibe inhibited ACAT-1 expression and cholesterol ester synthesis in glioma cell lines. Moreover, Avasimibe inhibited the growth of the cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis as a result of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Also, Our findings provide proof of principle that targeting ACAT-1 with the inhibitor Avasimibe could be an efficient therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  10. Localization of human acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) in macrophages and in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, N; Miyazaki, A; Takeya, M; Horiuchi, S; Chang, C C; Chang, T Y; Takahashi, K

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) in various human tissues, we examined tissues of autopsy cases immunohistochemically. ACAT-1 was demonstrated in macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, steroid hormone-producing cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, mesothelial cells, epithelial cells of the urinary tracts, thyroid follicles, renal tubules, pituitary, prostatic, and bronchial glands, alveolar and intestinal epithelial cells, pancreatic acinar cells, and hepatocytes. These findings showed that ACAT-1 is present in a variety of human tissues examined. The immunoreactivities are particularly prominent in the macrophages, steroid hormone-producing cells, followed by hepatocytes, and intestinal epithelia. In cultured human macrophages, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ACAT-1 was located mainly in the tubular rough endoplasmic reticulum; immunoblot analysis showed that the ACAT-1 protein content did not change with or without cholesterol loading; however, on cholesterol loading, about 30 to 40% of the total immunoreactivity appeared in small-sized vesicles. These vesicles were also enriched in 78-kd glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), a specific marker for the endoplasmic reticulum. Immunofluorescent microscopy demonstrated extensive colocalization of ACAT-1 and GRP 78 signals in both the tubular and vesicular endoplasmic reticulum before and after cholesterol loading. These results raise the possibility that foam cell formation may activate an endoplasmic reticulum vesiculation process, producing vesicles enriched in the ACAT-1 protein.

  11. Identification and characterization of the mouse cDNA encoding acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ofman, R; Hogenhout, E M; Wanders, R J

    1999-07-09

    We used the amino acid sequence of human acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) as bait to screen the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST) and identified several partial mouse cDNA clones showing high identity. Primers were selected based on the dbEST sequences and used for amplification of this transcript from cDNA prepared from mouse skin fibroblasts. The complete nucleotide sequence was then determined and revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 2034 bp encoding a protein consisting of 678 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 76870. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity (80%) with that of human DHAPAT and also revealed a typical peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) at its extreme carboxy-terminus (alanine-lysine-leucine, AKL). Definitive evidence that this cDNA indeed codes for DHAPAT was obtained by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Northern blot analysis revealed high expression of DHAPAT especially in mouse heart, liver and testis.

  12. Phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase contributes to the conversion of membrane lipids into triacylglycerol in Myrmecia incisa during the nitrogen starvation stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Ouyang, Long-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the Kennedy pathway for de novo biosynthesis, triacylglycerol (TAG), the most important stock for microalgae-based biodiesel production, can be synthesized by phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that transfers an acyl group from phospholipids (PLs) to diacylglycerol (DAG). This study presents a novel gene that encodes PDAT from the green microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl H4301 (designated MiPDAT ). MiPDAT is localized on the plasma membrane (PM) via the agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves with a green fluorescent protein-fused construct. MiPDAT synthesizes TAG based on functional complementary experiments in the mutant yeast strain H1246 and the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) is preferentially used as substrates as revealed by in vitro enzyme activity assay. The gradually increased transcription levels of MiPDAT in M. incisa during the cultivation under nitrogen starvation conditions is proposed to be responsible for the decrease and increase of the PC and TAG levels, respectively, as detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after 4 d of nitrogen starvation. In addition, the mechanism by which MiPDAT in this microalga uses PC to yield TAG is discussed. Accordingly, it is concluded that this PM-located PDAT contributes to the conversion of membrane lipids into TAG in M. incisa during the nitrogen starvation stress. PMID:27216435

  13. Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Contributes to Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis, Lipid Droplet Formation, and Host Invasion in Metarhizium robertsii

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Huang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes involved in the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis have been well studied in the model organisms of yeasts and animals. Among these, the isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) redundantly catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in glycerolipid synthesis. Here, we report the functions of mrGAT, a GPAT ortholog, in an insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii. Unlike in yeasts and animals, a single copy of the mrGAT gene is present in the fungal genome and the gene deletion mutant is viable. Compared to the wild type and the gene-rescued mutant, the ΔmrGAT mutant demonstrated reduced abilities to produce conidia and synthesize TAG, glycerol, and total lipids. More importantly, we found that mrGAT is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and directly linked to the formation of lipid droplets (LDs) in fungal cells. Insect bioassay results showed that mrGAT is required for full fungal virulence by aiding fungal penetration of host cuticles. Data from this study not only advance our understanding of GPAT functions in fungi but also suggest that filamentous fungi such as M. robertsii can serve as a good model to elucidate the role of the glycerol phosphate pathway in fungal physiology, particularly to determine the mechanistic connection of GPAT to LD formation. PMID:24077712

  14. In silico characterization of 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase and lysophospha-tidylcholine acyltransferase genes in Glycine max L. Merrill.

    PubMed

    Sousa, C S; Barros, B A; Barh, D; Ghosh, P; Azevedo, V; Barros, E G; Moreira, M A

    2016-08-26

    The enzymes 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotrans-ferase (CPT) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) are important in lipid metabolism in soybean seeds. Thus, understand-ing the genes that encode these enzymes may enable their modification and aid the improvement of soybean oil quality. In soybean, the genes encoding these enzymes have not been completely described; there-fore, this study aimed to identify, characterize, and analyze the in silico expression of these genes in soybean. We identified two gene models encoding CPT and two gene models encoding LPCAT, one of which presented an alternative transcript. The sequences were positioned on the physical map of soybean and the promoter regions were analyzed. Cis-elements responsible for seed-specific expression and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses were identified. Virtual expression analysis of the gene models for CPT and LPCAT indicated that these genes are expressed under different stress conditions, in somatic embryos during differentiation, in immature seeds, root tissues, and calli. Putative ami-no acid sequences revealed the presence of transmembrane domains, and analysis of the cellular localization of these enzymes revealed they are located in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  16. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  17. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  18. The biochemistry of alcohol and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T N

    1989-01-01

    The vast majority of the adult population of most societies consume alcohol to some degree. In the U.K., although average alcohol consumption is moderate, it is not generally appreciated that the per capita consumption varies markedly within the population: approximately one-twentieth of the adult population accounts for half of the total alcohol consumed. Alcohol abuse is consequently a major health problem affecting 1-1.5 million people in this country. The most obvious effects of excessive alcohol consumption are on the central nervous system and on social behaviour. However, alcohol is metabolized predominantly in the liver and it can impair and impede the liver's capacity to metabolize other substances including nutrients, steroids, vitamins, and certain organic compounds foreign to the body (referred to as xenobiotics). It is possible therefore, from the biochemical perspective, to explain many of the effects of alcohol on the body on the basis of its interaction with essential liver metabolism. What remains obscure is the mechanism whereby chronic alcohol abuse leads to permanent damage to the liver and other organs. Recent research suggests that acetaldehyde (a metabolite of alcohol) may play a key role in this process.

  19. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  20. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  1. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  3. Genetic Evidence for the Reduction of Brassinosteroid Levels by a BAHD Acyltransferase-Like Protein in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyungmin; Jeong, Cheol Woong; Fujioka, Shozo; Kim, Youn Kyung; Lee, Sookjin; Ahn, Ji Hoon; Do Choi, Yang; Lee, Jong Seob

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroidal hormones involved in plant development. Although the BR biosynthesis pathways are well characterized, the BR inactivation process, which contributes to BR homeostasis, is less understood. Here, we show that a member of the BAHD (for benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, and deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase) acyltransferase family may play a role in BR homeostasis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We isolated two gain-of-function mutants, brassinosteroid inactivator1-1Dominant (bia1-1D) and bia1-2D, in which a novel BAHD acyltransferase-like protein was transcriptionally activated. Both mutants exhibited dwarfism, reduced male fertility, and deetiolation in darkness, which are typical phenotypes of plants defective in BR biosynthesis. Exogenous BR treatment rescued the phenotypes of the bia1-1D mutant. Endogenous levels of BRs were reduced in the bia1-1D mutant, demonstrating that BIA1 regulates endogenous BR levels. When grown in darkness, the bia1 loss-of-function mutant showed a longer hypocotyl phenotype and was more responsive to exogenous BR treatment than the wild-type plant. BIA1 expression was predominantly observed in the root, where low levels of BRs were detected. These results indicate that the BAHD acyltransferase family member encoded by BIA1 plays a role in controlling BR levels, particularly in the root and hypocotyl in darkness. Taken together, our study provides new insights into a mechanism that maintains BR homeostasis in Arabidopsis, likely via acyl conjugation of BRs. PMID:22544867

  4. LPT1 encodes a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase involved in the acylation of lysophospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hisanori; Shimada, Atsushi; Ito, Yoshihiro; Ohya, Mihoko; Takase, Juri; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Reiko; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2007-11-23

    Phospholipids are major components of cellular membranes that participate in a range of cellular processes. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key molecule in the phospholipid biosynthetic pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SLC1 has been identified as the gene encoding lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, which catalyzes PA synthesis. However, despite the importance of PA, disruption of SLC1 does not affect cell viability (Nagiec, M. M., Wells, G. B., Lester, R. L., and Dickson, R. C. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 22156-22163). We originally aimed to identify the acetyl-CoA:lyso platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase (lysoPAF AT) gene in yeast. Screening of a complete set of yeast deletion clones (4741 homozygous diploid clones) revealed a single mutant strain, YOR175c, with a defect in lysoPAF AT activity. YOR175c has been predicted to be a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase superfamily, and we designated the gene LPT1. An Lpt1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. Other than lysoPAF AT activity, Lpt1 catalyzed acyltransferase activity with a wide variety of lysophospholipids as acceptors, including lysophosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylinositol, and lysophosphatidylserine. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine accumulated in the Deltalpt1 mutant strain. Although the Deltalpt1 mutant strain did not show other detectable defects, the Deltalpt1 Deltaslc1 double mutant strain had a synthetic lethal phenotype. These results indicate that, in concert with Slc1, Lpt1 plays a central role in PA biosynthesis, which is essential for cell viability.

  5. Vitamin A metabolism in benign and malignant melanocytic skin cells: importance of lecithin/retinol acyltransferase and RPE65.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Luo, Chonglin; Owen, Robert W; Hofmann, Claudia; Freudenberger, Muriel; Schadendorf, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2012-02-01

    Disturbance in vitamin A metabolism seems to be an important attribute of cancer cells. Retinoids, particularly retinoic acid, have critical regulatory functions and appear to modulate tumor development and progression. The key step of vitamin A metabolism is the esterification of all-trans retinol, catalyzed by lecithin/retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). In this work, we show that malignant melanoma cells are able to esterify all-trans retinol and subsequently isomerize all-trans retinyl esters (RE) into 11-cis retinol, whereas their benign counterparts-melanocytes are not able to catalyze these reactions. Besides, melanoma cell lines express lecithin/retinol acyltranseferase both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, melanocytes do not express this enzyme at the protein level, but mRNA of lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase could still be present at mRNA level. RPE65 is expressed in both melanocytic counterparts, and could be involved in the subsequent isomerization of RE produced by lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase to 11-cis retinol. Cellular retinol-binding protein 2 does not appear to be involved in the regulation of all-trans retinol esterification in these cells. Expression of LRAT and RPE65 can be modulated by retinoids. We propose that the post-transcriptional regulation of lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase could be involved in the differential expression of this enzyme. Besides, activities of LRAT and RPE65 may be important for removal of all-trans retinal which is the substrate for retinoic acid production in skin cells. Consequently, the decreasing cellular amount of retinoic acid and its precursor molecules could result in a change of gene regulation.

  6. Altered lipid composition and enhanced lipid production in green microalga by introduction of brassica diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Irshad; Sharma, Anil K.; Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Higher lipid biosynthesis and accumulation are important to achieve economic viability of biofuel production via microalgae. To enhance lipid content, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was genetically engineered with a key enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (BnDGAT2) from Brassica napus, responsible for neutral lipid biosynthesis. The transformed colonies harbouring aph7 gene, screened on hygromycin-supplemented medium, achieved transformation frequency of ~120 ± 10 colonies/1 × 106 cells. Transgene integration and expression were confirmed by PCR, Southern blots, staining lipid droplets, proteins and spectro-fluorometric analysis of Nile red-stained cells. The neutral lipid is a major class (over 80% of total lipids) and most significant requirement for biodiesel production; this was remarkably higher in the transformed alga than the untransformed control. The levels of saturated fatty acids in the transformed alga decreased to about 7% while unsaturated fatty acids increased proportionately when compared to wild type cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, were enhanced up to 12% in the transformed line. Nile red staining confirmed formation of a large number of lipid globules in the transformed alga. Evaluation of long-term stability and vitality of the transgenic alga revealed that cryopreservation produced significantly higher quantity of lipid than those maintained continuously over 128 generations on solid medium. The overexpression of BnDGAT2 significantly altered the fatty acids profile in the transformed alga. Results of this study offer a valuable strategy of genetic manipulation for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acids and neutral lipids for biofuel production in algae. PMID:25403771

  7. Palmitoyl acyltransferase, Zdhhc13, facilitates bone mass acquisition by regulating postnatal epiphyseal development and endochondral ossification: a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Song, I-Wen; Li, Wei-Ru; Chen, Li-Ying; Shen, Li-Fen; Liu, Kai-Ming; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yu-Ju; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lee, M T Michael; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    ZDHHC13 is a member of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) family of enzymes. It functions by post-translationally adding 16-carbon palmitate to proteins through a thioester linkage. We have previously shown that mice carrying a recessive Zdhhc13 nonsense mutation causing a Zdhcc13 deficiency develop alopecia, amyloidosis and osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis in the context of this mutation in mice. Body size, skeletal structure and trabecular bone were similar in Zdhhc13 WT and mutant mice at birth. Growth retardation and delayed secondary ossification center formation were first observed at day 10 and at 4 weeks of age, disorganization in growth plate structure and osteoporosis became evident in mutant mice. Serial microCT from 4-20 week-olds revealed that Zdhhc13 mutant mice had reduced bone mineral density. Through co-immunoprecipitation and acyl-biotin exchange, MT1-MMP was identified as a direct substrate of ZDHHC13. In cells, reduction of MT1-MMP palmitoylation affected its subcellular distribution and was associated with decreased VEGF and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In Zdhhc13 mutant mice epiphysis where MT1-MMP was under palmitoylated, VEGF in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin at the cartilage-bone interface were reduced based on immunohistochemical analyses. Our results suggest that Zdhhc13 is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal development and bone mass acquisition. To our knowledge, these are the first data to suggest that ZDHHC13-mediated MT1-MMP palmitoylation is a key modulator of bone homeostasis. These data may provide novel insights into the role of palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of human osteoporosis.

  8. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) Deficiency Promotes Differentiation of Satellite Cells to Brown Adipocytes in a Cholesterol-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Koh, Deborah; Bashiri, Amir; Abdin, Rawand; Ng, Dominic S

    2015-12-18

    Our laboratory previously reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and LDL receptor double knock-out mice (Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(-/-) or DKO) spontaneously develop functioning ectopic brown adipose tissue (BAT) in skeletal muscle, putatively contributing to protection from the diet-induced obesity phenotype. Here we further investigated their developmental origin and the mechanistic role of LCAT deficiency. Gene profiling of skeletal muscle in DKO newborns and adults revealed a classical lineage. Primary quiescent satellite cells (SC) from chow-fed DKO mice, not in Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(+/+) single-knock-out (SKO) or C57BL/6 wild type, were found to (i) express exclusively classical BAT-selective genes, (ii) be primed to express key functional BAT genes, and (iii) exhibit markedly increased ex vivo adipogenic differentiation into brown adipocytes. This gene priming effect was abrogated upon feeding the mice a 2% high cholesterol diet in association with accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. Ex vivo cholesterol loading of chow-fed DKO SC recapitulated the effect, indicating that cellular cholesterol is a key regulator of SC-to-BAT differentiation. Comparing adipogenicity of Ldlr(+/+)xLcat(-/-) (LCAT-KO) SC with DKO SC identified a role for LCAT deficiency in priming SC to express BAT genes. Additionally, we found that reduced cellular cholesterol is important for adipogenic differentiation, evidenced by increased induction of adipogenesis in cholesterol-depleted SC from both LCAT-KO and SKO mice. Taken together, we conclude that ectopic BAT in DKO mice is classical in origin, and its development begins in utero. We further showed complementary roles of LCAT deficiency and cellular cholesterol reduction in the SC-to-BAT adipogenesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Altered lipid composition and enhanced lipid production in green microalga by introduction of brassica diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irshad; Sharma, Anil K; Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi

    2015-05-01

    Higher lipid biosynthesis and accumulation are important to achieve economic viability of biofuel production via microalgae. To enhance lipid content, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was genetically engineered with a key enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (BnDGAT2) from Brassica napus, responsible for neutral lipid biosynthesis. The transformed colonies harbouring aph7 gene, screened on hygromycin-supplemented medium, achieved transformation frequency of ~120 ± 10 colonies/1 × 10(6) cells. Transgene integration and expression were confirmed by PCR, Southern blots, staining lipid droplets, proteins and spectro-fluorometric analysis of Nile red-stained cells. The neutral lipid is a major class (over 80% of total lipids) and most significant requirement for biodiesel production; this was remarkably higher in the transformed alga than the untransformed control. The levels of saturated fatty acids in the transformed alga decreased to about 7% while unsaturated fatty acids increased proportionately when compared to wild type cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, were enhanced up to 12% in the transformed line. Nile red staining confirmed formation of a large number of lipid globules in the transformed alga. Evaluation of long-term stability and vitality of the transgenic alga revealed that cryopreservation produced significantly higher quantity of lipid than those maintained continuously over 128 generations on solid medium. The overexpression of BnDGAT2 significantly altered the fatty acids profile in the transformed alga. Results of this study offer a valuable strategy of genetic manipulation for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acids and neutral lipids for biofuel production in algae. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The D519G Polymorphism of Glyceronephosphate O-Acyltransferase Is a Risk Factor for Familial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Colin P.; Overbey, Jessica R.; Naik, Hetanshi; Nance, Danielle; McLaren, Gordon D.; McLaren, Christine E.; Zhou, Luming; Desnick, Robert J.; Parker, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Both familial and sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) are iron dependent diseases. Symptoms of PCT resolve when iron stores are depleted by phlebotomy, and a sequence variant of HFE (C282Y, c.843G>A, rs1800562) that enhances iron aborption by reducing hepcidin expression is a risk factor for PCT. Recently, a polymorphic variant (D519G, c.1556A>G, rs11558492) of glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) was shown to be enriched in male patients with type I hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE C282Y homozygotes) who presented with a high iron phenotype, suggesting that GNPAT D519G, like HFE C282Y, is a modifier of iron homeostasis that favors iron absorption. To challenge this hypothesis, we investigated the frequency of GNPAT D519G in patients with both familial and sporadic PCT. Patients were screened for GNPAT D519G and allelic variants of HFE (both C282Y and H63D). Nucleotide sequencing of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) identified mutant alleles. Patients with low erythrocyte URO-D activity or a damaging URO-D variant were classified as familial PCT (fPCT) and those with wild-type URO-D were classified as sporadic PCT (sPCT). GNPAT D519G was significantly enriched in the fPCT patient population (p = 0.0014) but not in the sPCT population (p = 0.4477). Both HFE C282Y and H63D (c.187C>G, rs1799945) were enriched in both PCT patient populations (p<0.0001) but showed no greater association with fPCT than with sPCT. Conclusion: GNPAT D519G is a risk factor for fPCT, but not for sPCT. PMID:27661980

  11. Carboxy-terminal mutations of bile acid CoA:N-acyltransferase alter activity and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Styles, Nathan A; Shonsey, Erin M; Falany, Josie L; Guidry, Amber L; Barnes, Stephen; Falany, Charles N

    2016-07-01

    Bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) is the terminal enzyme in the synthesis of bile salts from cholesterol and catalyzes the conjugation of taurine or glycine to bile acid CoA thioesters to form bile acid N-acylamidates. BAAT has a dual localization to the cytosol and peroxisomes, possibly due to an inefficient carboxy-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS), -serine-glutamine-leucine (-SQL). Mutational analysis was used to define the role of the carboxy terminus in peroxisomal localization and kinetic activity. Amidation activity of BAAT and BAAT lacking the final two amino acids (AAs) (BAAT-S) were similar, whereas the activity of BAAT with a canonical PTS sequence (BAAT-SKL) was increased >2.5-fold. Kinetic analysis of BAAT and BAAT-SKL showed that BAAT-SKL had a lower Km for taurine and glycine as well as a greater Vmax There was no difference in the affinity for cholyl-CoA. In contrast to BAAT, BAAT-SKL forms bile acid N-acylamidates with β-alanine. BAAT-S immunoprecipitated when incubated with peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5 (Pex5) and rabbit anti-Pex5 antibodies; however, deleting the final 12 AAs prevented coimmunoprecipitation with Pex5, indicating the Pex5 interaction involves more than the -SQL sequence. These results indicate that even small changes in the carboxy terminus of BAAT can have significant effects on activity and substrate specificity. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 3 tunes the membrane status of germ cells by incorporating docosahexaenoic acid during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iizuka-Hishikawa, Yoshiko; Hishikawa, Daisuke; Sasaki, Junko; Takubo, Keiyo; Goto, Motohito; Nagata, Katsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Shindou, Hideo; Okamura, Tadashi; Ito, Chizuru; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Sasaki, Takehiko; Shimizu, Takao

    2017-07-21

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the essential ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with a wide range of physiological roles important for human health. For example, DHA renders cell membranes more flexible and is therefore important for cellular function, but information on the mechanisms that control DHA levels in membranes is limited. Specifically, it is unclear which factors determine DHA incorporation into cell membranes and how DHA exerts biological effects. We found that lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 3 (LPAAT3) is required for producing DHA-containing phospholipids in various tissues, such as the testes and retina. In this study, we report that LPAAT3-KO mice display severe male infertility with abnormal sperm morphology. During germ cell differentiation, the expression of LPAAT3 was induced, and germ cells obtained more DHA-containing phospholipids. Loss of LPAAT3 caused drastic reduction of DHA-containing phospholipids in spermatids that led to excess cytoplasm around its head, which is normally removed by surrounding Sertoli cells via endocytosis at the final stage of spermatogenesis. In vitro liposome filtration assay raised the possibility that DHA in phospholipids promotes membrane deformation that is required for the rapid endocytosis. These data suggest that decreased membrane flexibility in LPAAT3-KO sperm impaired the efficient removal of sperm content through endocytosis. We conclude that LPAAT3-mediated enrichment of cell membranes with DHA-containing phospholipids endows these membranes with physicochemical properties needed for normal cellular processes, as exemplified by spermatogenesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Mutations in Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) perturb Hedgehog signaling, resulting in severe acrania-holoprosencephaly-agnathia craniofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jennifer F; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Iulianella, Angelo; Pace, Jennifer; Thomas, Nancy; Beckham, Sharon; Williams, Trevor; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a failure of the forebrain to bifurcate and is the most common structural malformation of the embryonic brain. Mutations in SHH underlie most familial (17%) cases of HPE; and, consistent with this, Shh is expressed in midline embryonic cells and tissues and their derivatives that are affected in HPE. It has long been recognized that a graded series of facial anomalies occurs within the clinical spectrum of HPE, as HPE is often found in patients together with other malformations such as acrania, anencephaly, and agnathia. However, it is not known if these phenotypes arise through a common etiology and pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate for the first time using mouse models that Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) loss-of-function leads to holoprosencephaly together with acrania and agnathia, which mimics the severe condition observed in humans. Hhat is required for post-translational palmitoylation of Hedgehog (Hh) proteins; and, in the absence of Hhat, Hh secretion from producing cells is diminished. We show through downregulation of the Hh receptor Ptch1 that loss of Hhat perturbs long-range Hh signaling, which in turn disrupts Fgf, Bmp and Erk signaling. Collectively, this leads to abnormal patterning and extensive apoptosis within the craniofacial primordial, together with defects in cartilage and bone differentiation. Therefore our work shows that Hhat loss-of-function underscrores HPE; but more importantly it provides a mechanism for the co-occurrence of acrania, holoprosencephaly, and agnathia. Future genetic studies should include HHAT as a potential candidate in the etiology and pathogenesis of HPE and its associated disorders.

  14. Pharmacological Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 2 Improves Hyperlipidemia, Obesity, and Diabetes by Change in Intestinal Fat Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Take, Kazumi; Mochida, Taisuke; Maki, Toshiyuki; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Nakakariya, Masanori; Amano, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Ryutaro; Sato, Kenjiro; Kitazaki, Tomoyuki; Takekawa, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DG), a triacylglycerol precursor and potential peripheral target for novel anti-obesity therapeutics. High-throughput screening identified lead compounds with MGAT2 inhibitory activity. Through structural modification, a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MGAT2 inhibitor, compound A (compA), was discovered. CompA dose-dependently inhibited postprandial increases in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that compA inhibited triglyceride/diacylglycerol resynthesis in the small intestine and increased free fatty acid and acyl-carnitine with shorter acyl chains than originally labelled fatty acid. CompA decreased high-fat diet (HFD) intake in C57BL/6J mice. MGAT2-null mice showed a similar phenotype as compA-treated mice and compA did not suppress a food intake in MGAT2 KO mice, indicating that the anorectic effects were dependent on MGAT2 inhibition. Chronic administration of compA significantly prevented body weight gain and fat accumulation in mice fed HFD. MGAT2 inhibition by CompA under severe diabetes ameliorated hyperglycemia and fatty liver in HFD-streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that compA treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity. The proximal half of the small intestine displayed weight gain following compA treatment. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-treated animals and some studies have reported that this intestinal remodeling is essential to the anti-diabetic effects of bariatric surgery. These results clearly demonstrated that MGAT2 inhibition improved dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, suggesting that compA is an effective therapeutic for obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:26938273

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Substrate Specificity of trans- versus cis-Acyltransferases of Assembly Line Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Due to their pivotal role in extender unit selection during polyketide biosynthesis, acyltransferase (AT) domains are important engineering targets. A subset of assembly line polyketide synthases (PKSs) are serviced by discrete, trans-acting ATs. Theoretically, these trans-ATs can complement an inactivated cis-AT, promoting introduction of a noncognate extender unit. This approach requires a better understanding of the substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of naturally occurring trans-ATs. We kinetically analyzed trans-ATs from the disorazole and kirromycin synthases and compared them to a representative cis-AT from the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS). During transacylation, the disorazole AT favored malonyl-CoA over methylmalonyl-CoA by >40000-fold, whereas the kirromycin AT favored ethylmalonyl-CoA over methylmalonyl-CoA by 20-fold. Conversely, the disorazole AT had broader specificity than its kirromycin counterpart for acyl carrier protein (ACP) substrates. The presence of the ACP had little effect on the specificity (kcat/KM) of the cis-AT domain for carboxyacyl-CoA substrates but had a marked influence on the corresponding specificity parameters for the trans-ATs, suggesting that these enzymes do not act strictly by a canonical ping-pong mechanism. To investigate the relevance of the kinetic analysis of isolated ATs in the context of intact PKSs, we complemented an in vitro AT-null DEBS assembly line with either trans-AT. Whereas the disorazole AT efficiently complemented the mutant PKS at substoichiometric protein ratios, the kirromycin AT was considerably less effective. Our findings suggest that knowledge of both carboxyacyl-CoA and ACP specificity is critical to the choice of a trans-AT in combination with a mutant PKS to generate novel polyketides. PMID:24871074

  16. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency increases atherosclerosis in the low density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Furbee, James W; Sawyer, Janet K; Parks, John S

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency would accelerate atherosclerosis development in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLr-/-) and apoE (apoE-/-) knockout mice. After 16 weeks of atherogenic diet (0.1% cholesterol, 10% calories from palm oil) consumption, LDLr-/- LCAT-/- double knockout mice, compared with LDLr-/- mice, had similar plasma concentrations of free (FC), esterified (EC), and apoB lipoprotein cholesterol, increased plasma concentrations of phospholipid and triglyceride, decreased HDL cholesterol, and 2-fold more aortic FC (142 +/- 28 versus 61 +/- 20 mg/g protein) and EC (102 +/- 27 versus 61+/- 27 mg/g). ApoE-/- LCAT-/- mice fed the atherogenic diet, compared with apoE-/- mice, had higher concentrations of plasma FC, EC, apoB lipoprotein cholesterol, and phospholipid, and significantly more aortic FC (149 +/- 62 versus 109 +/- 33 mg/g) and EC (101 +/- 23 versus 69 +/- 20 mg/g) than did the apoE-/- mice. LCAT deficiency resulted in a 12-fold increase in the ratio of saturated + monounsaturated to polyunsaturated cholesteryl esters in apoB lipoproteins in LDLr-/- mice and a 3-fold increase in the apoE-/- mice compared with their counterparts with active LCAT. We conclude that LCAT deficiency in LDLr-/- and apoE-/- mice fed an atherogenic diet resulted in increased aortic cholesterol deposition, likely due to a reduction in plasma HDL, an increased saturation of cholesteryl esters in apoB lipoproteins and, in the apoE-/- background, an increased plasma concentration of apoB lipoproteins.

  17. Molecular characterization of PS-341 (bortezomib) resistance: implications for overcoming resistance using lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT)-beta inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hideshima, Teru; Chauhan, Dharminder; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Yasui, Hiroshi; Raje, Noopur; Kumar, Shaji; Podar, Klaus; Mitsiades, Constantine; Hideshima, Hiromasa; Bonham, Lynn; Munshi, Nikhil C; Richardson, Paul G; Singer, Jack W; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2005-04-28

    PS-341 (bortezomib, Velcadetrade mark) is a promising novel agent for treatment of advanced multiple myeloma (MM); however, 65% of patients with relapsed refractory disease in a phase II study do not respond to PS-341. We have previously shown that lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT)-beta inhibitor CT-32615 triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis, and can overcome resistance to conventional therapeutics (i.e., dexamethasone, doxorubicin, melphalan) in MM cells. In this study, we therefore determined whether CT-32615 could also overcome resistance to PS-341. We first characterized molecular mechanisms of resistance to PS-341 in DHL-4 cells. DHL-4 cells express low levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8; furthermore, no cleavage in caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), or DNA fragmentation factor 45 was triggered by PS-341 treatment. We have previously shown that PS-341 treatment triggers phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), which subsequently induces caspase-dependent apoptosis; conversely, JNK inhibition blocks PS-341-induced apoptosis. We here show that phosphorylation of SEK-1, JNK, and c-Jun are not induced by PS-341 treatment, suggesting that PS-341 does not trigger a stress response in DHL-4 cells. Importantly, CT-32615 inhibits growth of DHL-4 cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion: a transient G2/M cell cycle arrest induced by CT-32615 is mediated via downregulation of cdc25c and cdc2. CT-32615 triggered swelling and lysis of DHL-4 cells, without caspase/PARP cleavage or TUNEL-positivity, suggesting a necrotic response. Our studies therefore demonstrate that LPAAT-beta inhibitor CT-32615 triggers necrosis, even in PS-341-resistant DHL-4 cells, providing the framework for its evaluation to overcome clinical PS-341 resistance and improve patient outcome.

  18. Transcriptional and biochemical responses of monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-mediated oil synthesis and associated senescence-like responses in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Divi, Uday K.; El Tahchy, Anna; Vanhercke, Thomas; Petrie, James R.; Robles-Martinez, Jose A.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulates in plant seeds as a major renewable source of carbon for food, fuel and industrial feedstock. Approaches to enhance TAG content by altering lipid pathways and genes in vegetative parts have gained significant attention for biofuel and other applications. However, consequences of these modifications are not always studied in detail. In an attempt to increase TAG levels in leaves we previously demonstrated that a novel substrate, monoacylglycerol (MAG), can be used for the biosynthesis of diacylglycerol (DAG) and TAG. Transient expression of the Mus musculus monoacylglycerol acyltransferases MGAT1 and 2 in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana increased TAG levels at 5 days post-infiltration (dpi). Here we show that increased TAG and DAG levels can be achieved as early as 2 dpi. In addition, the MGAT1 infiltrated areas showed senescence-like symptoms from 3 dpi onwards. To unravel underlying molecular mechanisms, Illumina deep sequencing was carried out (a) for de-novo assembling and annotation of N. benthamiana leaf transcripts and (b) to characterize MGAT1-responsive transcriptome. We found that MGAT1-responsive genes are involved in several processes including TAG biosynthesis, photosynthesis, cell-wall, cutin, suberin, wax and mucilage biosynthesis, lipid and hormone metabolism. Comparative analysis with transcript profiles from other senescence studies identified characteristic gene expression changes involved in senescence induction. We confirmed that increased TAG and observed senescence-symptoms are due to the MAG depletion caused by MGAT1 activity and suggest a mechanism for MGAT1 induced TAG increase and senescence-like symptoms. The data generated will serve as a valuable resource for oil and senescence related studies and for future N. benthamiana transcriptome studies. PMID:24904604

  19. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  20. Two types of soybean diacylglycerol acyltransferases are differentially involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and response to environmental stresses and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, BeiBei; Wang, Junejie; Zhang, Gaoyang; Liu, Jiaqi; Manan, Sehrish; Hu, Honghong; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) play a key role in plant triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Two type 1 and 2 DGATs from soybean were characterized for their functions in TAG biosynthesis and physiological roles. GmDGAT1A is highly expressed in seeds while GmDGAT2D is mainly expressed in flower tissues. They showed different expression patterns in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. GmDGAT2D was up-regulated by cold and heat stress and ABA signaling, and repressed by insect biting and jasmonate, whereas GmDGAT1A show fewer responses. Both GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT2D were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and complemented the TAG deficiency of a yeast mutant H1246. GmDGAT2D-transgenic hairy roots synthesized more 18:2- or 18:1-TAG, whereas GmDGAT1A prefers to use 18:3-acyl CoA for TAG synthesis. Overexpression of both GmDGATs in Arabidopsis seeds enhanced the TAG production; GmDGAT2D promoted 18:2-TAG in wild-type but enhanced 18:1-TAG production in rod1 mutant seeds, with a decreased 18:3-TAG. However, GmDGAT1A enhanced 18:3-TAG and reduced 20:1-TAG contents. The different substrate preferences of two DGATs may confer diverse fatty acid profiles in soybean oils. While GmDGAT1A may play a role in usual seed TAG production and GmDGAT2D is also involved in usual TAG biosynthesis in other tissues in responses to environmental and hormonal cues. PMID:27345221

  1. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-P acyltransferase 1 is most active in outer mitochondrial membrane but not in mitochondrial associated vesicles (MAV).

    PubMed

    Pellon-Maison, Magalí; Montanaro, Mauro A; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gonzalez-Baró, María R

    2007-07-01

    Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1), catalyzes the committed step in phospholipid and triacylglycerol synthesis. Because both GPAT1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1 are located on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) it has been suggested that their reciprocal regulation controls acyl-CoA metabolism at the OMM. To determine whether GPAT1, like carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1, is enriched in both mitochondrial contact sites and OMM, and to correlate protein location and enzymatic function, we used Percoll and sucrose gradient fractionation of rat liver to obtain submitochondrial fractions. Most GPAT1 protein was present in a vesicular membrane fraction associated with mitochondria (MAV) but GPAT specific activity in this fraction was low. In contrast, highest GPAT1 specific activity was present in purified mitochondria. Contact sites from crude mitochondria, which contained markers for both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, also showed high expression of GPAT1 protein but low specific activity, whereas contact sites isolated from purified mitochondria lacked ER markers and expressed highly active GPAT1. To determine how GPAT1 is targeted to mitochondria, recombinant protein was synthesized in vitro and its incorporation into crude and purified mitochondria was assayed. GPAT1 was rapidly incorporated into mitochondria, but not into microsomes. Incorporation was ATP-driven, and lack of GPAT1 removal by alkali and a chaotropic agent showed that GPAT1 had become an integral membrane protein after incorporation. These results demonstrate that two pools of GPAT1 are present in rat liver mitochondria: an active one, located in OMM and a less active one, located in membranes (ER-contact sites and mitochondrial associated vesicles) associated with both mitochondria and ER.

  2. Probing the chemical mechanism and critical regulatory amino acid residues of Drosophila melanogaster arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Daniel R; Carpenter, Anne-Marie; Ospina, Santiago Rodriguez; Merkler, David J

    2015-11-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2 (AANATL2) catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides from the corresponding acyl-CoA and arylalkylamine. The N-acylation of biogenic amines in Drosophila melanogaster is a critical step for the inactivation of neurotransmitters, cuticle sclerotization, and melatonin biosynthesis. In addition, D. melanogaster has been used as a model system to evaluate the biosynthesis of fatty acid amides: a family of potent cell signaling lipids. We have previously showed that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylakylamides, including long-chain N-acylserotonins and N-acyldopamines. Herein, we define the kinetic mechanism for AANATL2 as an ordered sequential mechanism with acetyl-CoA binding first followed by tyramine to generate the ternary complex prior to catalysis. Bell shaped kcat,app - acetyl-CoA and (kcat/Km)app - acetyl-CoA pH-rate profiles identified two apparent pKa,app values of ∼7.4 and ∼8.9 that are critical to catalysis, suggesting the AANATL2-catalyzed formation of N-acetyltyramine occurs through an acid/base chemical mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved glutamate that corresponds to the catalytic base for other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes did not produce a substantial depression in the kcat,app value nor did it abolish the pKa,app value attributed to the general base in catalysis (pKa ∼7.4). These data suggest that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides using either different catalytic residues or a different chemical mechanism relative to other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes. In addition, we constructed other site-directed mutants of AANATL2 to help define the role of targeted amino acids in substrate binding and/or enzyme catalysis.

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 2 Improves Hyperlipidemia, Obesity, and Diabetes by Change in Intestinal Fat Utilization.

    PubMed

    Take, Kazumi; Mochida, Taisuke; Maki, Toshiyuki; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Nakakariya, Masanori; Amano, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Ryutaro; Sato, Kenjiro; Kitazaki, Tomoyuki; Takekawa, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DG), a triacylglycerol precursor and potential peripheral target for novel anti-obesity therapeutics. High-throughput screening identified lead compounds with MGAT2 inhibitory activity. Through structural modification, a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MGAT2 inhibitor, compound A (compA), was discovered. CompA dose-dependently inhibited postprandial increases in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that compA inhibited triglyceride/diacylglycerol resynthesis in the small intestine and increased free fatty acid and acyl-carnitine with shorter acyl chains than originally labelled fatty acid. CompA decreased high-fat diet (HFD) intake in C57BL/6J mice. MGAT2-null mice showed a similar phenotype as compA-treated mice and compA did not suppress a food intake in MGAT2 KO mice, indicating that the anorectic effects were dependent on MGAT2 inhibition. Chronic administration of compA significantly prevented body weight gain and fat accumulation in mice fed HFD. MGAT2 inhibition by CompA under severe diabetes ameliorated hyperglycemia and fatty liver in HFD-streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that compA treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity. The proximal half of the small intestine displayed weight gain following compA treatment. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-treated animals and some studies have reported that this intestinal remodeling is essential to the anti-diabetic effects of bariatric surgery. These results clearly demonstrated that MGAT2 inhibition improved dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, suggesting that compA is an effective therapeutic for obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  4. Differential effects of fenofibrate or simvastatin treatment of rats on hepatic microsomal overt and latent diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Ian J; Zammit, Victor A

    2002-06-01

    Hepatic triacylglycerol secretion is elevated in insulin-resistant states. Microsomal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction in the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). We have previously described two DGAT activities in rat liver microsomes, one overt (cytosol-facing) and one latent (endoplasmic reticulum lumen-facing) (Owen MR, Corstorphine CG, Zammit VA: Overt and latent activities of diacylglycerol acytransferase in rat liver microsomes: possible roles in very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion. Biochem J 323:17-21, 1977). It was suggested that they are involved in the synthesis of TAG for the cytosolic droplet and VLDL lipidation, respectively. In the present study, we measured the overt and latent DGAT activities in rats fed diets containing one of two hypolipidemic drugs: fenofibrate (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha [PPARalpha] agonist) and simvastatin (a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl [HMG]-CoA reductase inhibitor). We found that the activities of the two DGATs could be varied independently by these treatments. Fenofibrate raised overt DGAT activity but lowered that of latent DGAT. In contrast, simvastatin markedly lowered overt DGAT activity without affecting that of latent DGAT. The increase in overt DGAT activity induced by fenofibrate could not be mimicked by feeding a diet enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which lowered overt DGAT activity but did not affect latent DGAT, suggesting that n-3 PUFA act through a mechanism independent of PPARalpha activation. The fibrate-induced increase in overt DGAT activity and the inhibition of latent DGAT may provide a mechanism through which acyl moieties are retained within the liver for oxidation through the pathways concomitantly upregulated by PPARalpha activation.

  5. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Francis P.; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M.; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E.; Peterson, Jonathan M.; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A.; Townsend, Craig A.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2011-01-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:21490364

  6. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Francis P; Aja, Susan; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E; Peterson, Jonathan M; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A; Townsend, Craig A; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2011-07-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities.

  7. AAV-Mediated Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 1 (Lpcat1) Gene Replacement Therapy Rescues Retinal Degeneration in rd11 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Han, Juanjuan; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Xiang, Lue; Lv, Jineng; Li, Jie; Deng, Wen-Tao; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.; Pang, Ji-jing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The retinal degeneration 11 (rd11) mouse is a newly discovered, naturally occurring animal model with early photoreceptor dysfunction and rapid rod photoreceptor degeneration followed by cone degeneration. The rd11 mice carry a spontaneous mutation in the lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (Lpcat1) gene. Here, we evaluate whether gene replacement therapy using the fast-acting tyrosine-capsid mutant AAV8 (Y733F) can arrest retinal degeneration and restore retinal function in this model. Methods. The AAV8 (Y733F)-smCBA-Lpcat1 was delivered subretinally to postnatal day 14 (P14) rd11 mice in one eye only. At 10 weeks after injection, treated rd11 mice were examined by visually-guided behavior, electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and then killed for morphologic and biochemical examination. Results. Substantial scotopic and photopic ERG signals were maintained in treated rd11 eyes, whereas untreated eyes in the same animals showed extinguished signals. The SD-OCT (in vivo) and light microscopy (in vitro) showed a substantial preservation of the outer nuclear layer in most parts of the treated retina only. Almost wild-type LPCAT1 expression in photoreceptors with strong rod rhodopsin and M/S cone opsin staining, and normal visually-guided water maze behavioral performances were observed in treated rd11 mice. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that the tyrosine-capsid mutant AAV8 (Y733F) vector is effective for treating rapidly degenerating models of retinal degeneration and, moreover, is more therapeutically effective than AAV2 (Y444, 500, 730F) vector with the same promoter-cDNA payload. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of phenotypic rescue by gene therapy in an animal model of retinal degeneration caused by Lpcat1 mutation. PMID:24557352

  8. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Klotz, Elliott T; Stevens, Robyn L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nazarenus, Tara J; Pereira, Suzette L; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45-50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.

  9. Interleukin-1 as an Injury Signal Mobilizes Retinyl Esters in Hepatic Stellate Cells through Down Regulation of Lecithin Retinol Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Yujiro; Xia, Zanxian; Zheng, Sujun; Mordwinkin, Nicholas M.; Louie, Stan G.; Zheng, Song Guo; Feng, Min; Shi, Hongbo; Duan, Zhongping; Han, Yuan-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are mostly stored as retinyl esters in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through esterification of retinol and fatty acid, catalyzed by lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). This study is designated to address how retinyl esters are mobilized in liver injury for tissue repair and wound healing. Initially, we speculated that acute inflammatory cytokines may act as injury signal to mobilize retinyl esters by down-regulation of LRAT in HSCs. By examining a panel of cytokines we found interleukin-1 (IL-1) can potently down-regulate mRNA and protein levels of LRAT, resulting in mobilization of retinyl esters in primary rat HSCs. To simulate the microenvironment in the space of Disse, HSCs were embedded in three-dimensional extracellular matrix, by which HSCs retaine quiescent phenotypes, indicated by up-regulation of LRAT and accumulation of lipid droplets. Upon IL-1 stimulation, LRAT expression went down together with mobilization of lipid droplets. Secreted factors from Kupffer cells were able to suppress LRAT expression in HSCs, which was neutralized by IL-1 receptor antagonist. To explore the underlying mechanism we noted that the stability of LRAT protein is not significantly regulated by IL-1, indicating the regulation is likely at transcriptional level. Indeed, we found that IL-1 failed to down-regulate recombinant LRAT protein expressed in HSCs by adenovirus, while transcription of endogenous LRAT was promptly decreased. Following liver damage, IL-1 was promptly elevated in a close pace with down-regulation of LRAT transcription, implying their causative relationship. After administration of IL-1, retinyl ester levels in the liver, as measured by LC/MS/MS, decreased in association with down-regulation of LRAT. Likewise, IL-1 receptor knockout mice were protected from injury-induced down-regulation of LRAT. In summary, we identified IL-1 as an injury signal to mobilize retinyl ester in HSCs through down-regulation of LRAT, implying a mechanism governing

  10. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase GPAT6 from Tomato Plays a Central Role in Fruit Cutin Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Johann; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Tai, Fabienne Wong Jun; Fich, Eric A.; Joubès, Jérôme; Rothan, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The thick cuticle covering and embedding the epidermal cells of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit acts not only as a protective barrier against pathogens and water loss but also influences quality traits such as brightness and postharvest shelf-life. In a recent study, we screened a mutant collection of the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom and isolated several glossy fruit mutants in which the abundance of cutin, the polyester component of the cuticle, was strongly reduced. We employed a newly developed mapping-by-sequencing strategy to identify the causal mutation underlying the cutin deficiency in a mutant thereafter named gpat6-a (for glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase6). To this end, a backcross population (BC1F2) segregating for the glossy trait was phenotyped. Individuals displaying either a wild-type or a glossy fruit trait were then pooled into bulked populations and submitted to whole-genome sequencing prior to mutation frequency analysis. This revealed that the causal point mutation in the gpat6-a mutant introduces a charged amino acid adjacent to the active site of a GPAT6 enzyme. We further showed that this mutation completely abolished the GPAT activity of the recombinant protein. The gpat6-a mutant showed perturbed pollen formation but, unlike a gpat6 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), was not male sterile. The most striking phenotype was observed in the mutant fruit, where cuticle thickness, composition, and properties were altered. RNA sequencing analysis highlighted the main processes and pathways that were affected by the mutation at the transcriptional level, which included those associated with lipid, secondary metabolite, and cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:27208295

  11. Coexpressing Escherichia coli Cyclopropane Synthase with Sterculia foetida Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase Enhances Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Accumulation1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Prakash, Richa Rawat; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2014-01-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPAs) are desirable as renewable chemical feedstocks for the production of paints, plastics, and lubricants. Toward our goal of creating a CPA-accumulating crop, we expressed nine higher plant cyclopropane synthase (CPS) enzymes in the seeds of fad2fae1 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and observed accumulation of less than 1% CPA. Surprisingly, expression of the Escherichia coli CPS gene resulted in the accumulation of up to 9.1% CPA in the seed. Coexpression of a Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT) increases CPA accumulation up to 35% in individual T1 seeds. However, seeds with more than 9% CPA exhibit wrinkled seed morphology and reduced size and oil accumulation. Seeds with more than 11% CPA exhibit strongly decreased seed germination and establishment, and no seeds with CPA more than 15% germinated. That previous reports suggest that plant CPS prefers the stereospecific numbering (sn)-1 position whereas E. coli CPS acts on sn-2 of phospholipids prompted us to investigate the preferred positions of CPS on phosphatidylcholine (PC) and triacylglycerol. Unexpectedly, in planta, E. coli CPS acts primarily on the sn-1 position of PC; coexpression of SfLPAT results in the incorporation of CPA at the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid. This enables a cycle that enriches CPA at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of PC and results in increased accumulation of CPA. These data provide proof of principle that CPA can accumulate to high levels in transgenic seeds and sets the stage for the identification of factors that will facilitate the movement of CPA from PC into triacylglycerol to produce viable seeds with additional CPA accumulation. PMID:24204024

  12. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase GPAT6 from Tomato Plays a Central Role in Fruit Cutin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petit, Johann; Bres, Cécile; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Tai, Fabienne Wong Jun; Martin, Laetitia B B; Fich, Eric A; Joubès, Jérôme; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domergue, Frédéric; Rothan, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The thick cuticle covering and embedding the epidermal cells of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit acts not only as a protective barrier against pathogens and water loss but also influences quality traits such as brightness and postharvest shelf-life. In a recent study, we screened a mutant collection of the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom and isolated several glossy fruit mutants in which the abundance of cutin, the polyester component of the cuticle, was strongly reduced. We employed a newly developed mapping-by-sequencing strategy to identify the causal mutation underlying the cutin deficiency in a mutant thereafter named gpat6-a (for glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase6). To this end, a backcross population (BC1F2) segregating for the glossy trait was phenotyped. Individuals displaying either a wild-type or a glossy fruit trait were then pooled into bulked populations and submitted to whole-genome sequencing prior to mutation frequency analysis. This revealed that the causal point mutation in the gpat6-a mutant introduces a charged amino acid adjacent to the active site of a GPAT6 enzyme. We further showed that this mutation completely abolished the GPAT activity of the recombinant protein. The gpat6-a mutant showed perturbed pollen formation but, unlike a gpat6 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), was not male sterile. The most striking phenotype was observed in the mutant fruit, where cuticle thickness, composition, and properties were altered. RNA sequencing analysis highlighted the main processes and pathways that were affected by the mutation at the transcriptional level, which included those associated with lipid, secondary metabolite, and cell wall biosynthesis.

  13. The Role of Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase (LRAT)-Mediated Esterification of Vitamin A in Regulating Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Rhim, J.S., Nanus, D.M., and Gudas, L.J. 2002. Retinol metabolism and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase levels are reduced in cultured human prostate...tested LRAT mRNA levels in Wt and RARγ -/- F9 cells, an epithelialtype of cell, which can synthesize retinyl esters. The RT-PCR analysis indicated...that LRAT expression was lost in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, we did not observe RA associated increase in LRAT mRNA levels in

  14. [Deletion of spiramycin 3-O-acyltransferase gene from Streptomyces spiramyceticus F21 resulting in the production of spiramycin I as major component].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin-Zhuan; Ma, Chun-Yan; Wang, Yi-Guang; Dai, Jian-Lu; Li, Jing-Yan; Xia, Huan-Zhang

    2007-07-01

    Spiramycin (SP) belongs to the 16-member macrolide antibiotics. It contains three components,namely SP I, SP II and SP III, which differ structurally in the acylation moieties on the C3 of the lactone. The SP I component contains a hydroxyl group at C3. SP II, and SP III are formed by further acetylation or propionylation of the C3 of SP I, by the same 3-O-acyltransferase (3-O-AT) . The study focused on simplifying spiramycin components. Theoretically, disruption/deletion of the 3-O-AT gene will reduce/stop the acylation of SP I to SP II and SP III. In this study, degenerated primers were designed according to the conserved regions of 3-O-acyltransferase, MdmB and AcyA in the medicamycin and carbomycin producers of S. mycarofaciens and S. thermotolerans, respectively, and an 878bp DNA fragment was amplified from the spiramycin-producer of S. spiramyceticus F21. Blast analysis of the 878bp DNA fragment suggested that it encoded the 3-O-acyltransferase (3-0-AT, sspA) gene for spiramycin biosynthesis. The flanking regions of this 878bp DNA fragment were then amplified by single-oligonucleotide-nested PCR, and a total of 4.3 kb DNA was obtained (3457nt among the 4.3kb fragment was sequenced, and deposited in GenBank DQ642742),covering the whole putative 3-O-acyltransferase gene, sspA. The sspA was then deleted from the S. spiramyceticus F21 genome by double cross-over homologous recombination, mediated by temperature-sensitive plasmid pKC1139. A comparison was done of the components of spiramycins produced by the sspA-deleted mutant strain with that of the parent strain by HPLC analysis, which showed that sspA-deleted mutant produced SP I (72%), SP II (18%), and SP III (9.6%), whereas parent strain produced SP I (7.8%), SP II (67%), and SP III (25%), respectively, demonstrating the role of ssp A in the acylation of SP I into SP II and SP III. The ssp A-deleted mutant strain obtained in this study may be used for the production of SP I, or may serve as a good starter

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Biochemistry and Comparative Genomics of SxxK Superfamily Acyltransferases Offer a Clue to the Mycobacterial Paradox: Presence of Penicillin-Susceptible Target Proteins versus Lack of Efficiency of Penicillin as Therapeutic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Colette; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial acyltransferases of the SxxK superfamily vary enormously in sequence and function, with conservation of particular amino acid groups and all-α and α/β folds. They occur as independent entities (free-standing polypeptides) and as modules linked to other polypeptides (protein fusions). They can be classified into three groups. The group I SxxK d,d-acyltransferases are ubiquitous in the bacterial world. They invariably bear the motifs SxxK, SxN(D), and KT(S)G. Anchored in the plasma membrane with the bulk of the polypeptide chain exposed on the outer face of it, they are implicated in the synthesis of wall peptidoglycans of the most frequently encountered (4→3) type. They are inactivated by penicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics acting as suicide carbonyl donors in the form of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). They are components of a morphogenetic apparatus which, as a whole, controls multiple parameters such as shape and size and allows the bacterial cells to enlarge and duplicate their particular pattern. Class A PBP fusions comprise a glycosyltransferase module fused to an SxxK acyltransferase of class A. Class B PBP fusions comprise a linker, i.e., protein recognition, module fused to an SxxK acyltransferase of class B. They ensure the remodeling of the (4→3) peptidoglycans in a cell cycle-dependent manner. The free-standing PBPs hydrolyze d,d peptide bonds. The group II SxxK acyltransferases frequently have a partially modified bar code, but the SxxK motif is invariant. They react with penicillin in various ways and illustrate the great plasticity of the catalytic centers. The secreted free-standing PBPs, the serine β-lactamases, and the penicillin sensors of several penicillin sensory transducers help the d,d-acyltransferases of group I escape penicillin action. The group III SxxK acyltransferases are indistinguishable from the PBP fusion proteins of group I in motifs and membrane topology, but they resist penicillin. They are

  17. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  18. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  19. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  20. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  1. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  2. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self-esteem Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol can put ... or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  3. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  4. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  5. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  6. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  7. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  8. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  9. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  12. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder) Why is it bad to mix antidepressants and alcohol? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. It's best to avoid combining antidepressants and alcohol. It may worsen your symptoms, and ...

  13. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcohol URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcohol.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  15. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  16. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  17. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  18. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  19. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  20. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  1. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  3. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  4. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  5. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  6. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  7. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  8. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  9. A molecular defect causing fish eye disease: an amino acid exchange in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) leads to the selective loss of alpha-LCAT activity.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, H; von Eckardstein, A; Pritchard, P H; Albers, J J; Kastelein, J J; Droste, C; Assmann, G

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological as well as biochemical evidence of recent years has established that a low plasma level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol is a predictor for the risk of coronary artery disease. However, there is a heterogeneous group of rare familial disorders, characterized by severe high density lipoprotein deficiency, in which the predicted increased risk is not clearly apparent. One such disorder has been called fish eye disease to reflect the massive corneal opacification seen in these patients. In this report, we describe the biochemical and genetic presentation of two German fish eye disease homozygotes and their family members. Vertical transmission of a decrease in the specific activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) indicated that this enzyme was a candidate gene for harboring the defect responsible for this disorder. Direct sequencing of DNA segments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that encode the exons of the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase gene led to the identification of a homozygous mutation resulting in the substitution of threonine at codon 123 for an isoleucine residue in both individuals. Family analysis in an extended pedigree was used to establish a causal relationship between this mutation and the biochemical phenotype for fish eye disease. The homozygous presence of this mutation in two phenotypically homozygous members of an unrelated Dutch family with fish eye disease further supports this finding. Images PMID:2052566

  10. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important factor to induce metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, some antihyperlipidemic agents from herbal medicines have been in the spotlight in the medical science field. Thus, the present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) that has been used as a folk remedy for heart disease. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EOPK up-regulated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA level as well as negatively suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) involved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Also, western blotting showed that EOPK activated LDLR and attenuated the expression of FAS at the protein level in the cells. Consistently, EOPK significantly inhibited the level of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT)1 and 2 and reduced the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation activity. Furthermore, chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that EOPK, an essential oil mixture, contained camphene (21.11%), d-limonene (21.01%), α-pinene (16.74%) and borneol (11.52%). Overall, the findings suggest that EOPK can be a potent pharmaceutical agent for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  11. Studies on the Substrate and Stereo/Regioselectivity of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, Hormone-sensitive Lipase, and Diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Thomas O.; Kumari, Manju; Haas, Joel T.; Farese, Robert V.; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is rate-limiting for the initial step of triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis, generating diacylglycerol (DAG) and fatty acids. DAG exists in three stereochemical isoforms. Here we show that ATGL exhibits a strong preference for the hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acid esters at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. The selectivity of ATGL broadens to the sn-1 position upon stimulation of the enzyme by its co-activator CGI-58. sn-1,3 DAG is the preferred substrate for the consecutive hydrolysis by hormone-sensitive lipase. Interestingly, diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2, present at the endoplasmic reticulum and on lipid droplets, preferentially esterifies sn-1,3 DAG. This suggests that ATGL and diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 act coordinately in the hydrolysis/re-esterification cycle of TAGs on lipid droplets. Because ATGL preferentially generates sn-1,3 and sn-2,3, it suggests that TAG-derived DAG cannot directly enter phospholipid synthesis or activate protein kinase C without prior isomerization. PMID:23066022

  12. Dual Role for Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase: Enhancing Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diverting Fatty Acids from Membrane Lipids to Triacylglycerol in Arabidopsis Leaves[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Zhang, Xuebin; Xu, Changcheng

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in engineering green biomass to expand the production of plant oils as feed and biofuels. Here, we show that PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (PDAT1) is a critical enzyme involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in leaves. Overexpression of PDAT1 increases leaf TAG accumulation, leading to oil droplet overexpansion through fusion. Ectopic expression of oleosin promotes the clustering of small oil droplets. Coexpression of PDAT1 with oleosin boosts leaf TAG content by up to 6.4% of the dry weight without affecting membrane lipid composition and plant growth. PDAT1 overexpression stimulates fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and increases fatty acid flux toward the prokaryotic glycerolipid pathway. In the trigalactosyldiacylglycerol1-1 mutant, which is defective in eukaryotic thylakoid lipid synthesis, the combined overexpression of PDAT1 with oleosin increases leaf TAG content to 8.6% of the dry weight and total leaf lipid by fourfold. In the plastidic glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase1 mutant, which is defective in the prokaryotic glycerolipid pathway, PDAT1 overexpression enhances TAG content at the expense of thylakoid membrane lipids, leading to defects in chloroplast division and thylakoid biogenesis. Collectively, these results reveal a dual role for PDAT1 in enhancing fatty acid and TAG synthesis in leaves and suggest that increasing FAS is the key to engineering high levels of TAG accumulation in green biomass. PMID:24076979

  13. Cloning of a coconut endosperm cDNA encoding a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase that accepts medium-chain-length substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Knutzon, D S; Lardizabal, K D; Nelsen, J S; Bleibaum, J L; Davies, H M; Metz, J G

    1995-01-01

    Immature coconut (Cocos nucifera) endosperm contains a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT) activity that shows a preference for medium-chain-length fatty acyl-coenzyme A substrates (H.M. Davies, D.J. Hawkins, J.S. Nelsen [1995] Phytochemistry 39:989-996). Beginning with solubilized membrane preparations, we have used chromatographic separations to identify a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kD, whose presence in various column fractions correlates with the acyltransferase activity detected in those same fractions. Amino acid sequence data obtained from several peptides generated from this protein were used to isolate a full-length clone from a coconut endosperm cDNA library. Clone pCGN5503 contains a 1325-bp cDNA insert with an open reading frame encoding a 308-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.8 kD. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of pCGN5503 to sequences in the data banks revealed significant homology to other putative LPAAT sequences. Expression of the coconut cDNA in Escherichia coli conferred upon those cells a novel LPAAT activity whose substrate activity profile matched that of the coconut enzyme. PMID:8552723

  14. Analysis of triglyceride synthesis unveils a green algal soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase and provides clues to potential enzymatic components of the chloroplast pathway.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Carolina; Prados, María B; Franchini, Gisela R; Scaglia, Natalia; Miranda, Silvia E; Beligni, María V

    2017-03-09

    Microalgal triglyceride (TAG) synthesis has attracted considerable attention. Particular emphasis has been put towards characterizing the algal homologs of the canonical rate-limiting enzymes, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). Less work has been done to analyze homologs from a phylogenetic perspective. In this work, we used HMMER iterative profiling and phylogenetic and functional analyses to determine the number and sequence characteristics of algal DGAT and PDAT, as well as related sequences that constitute their corresponding superfamilies. We included most algae with available genomes, as well as representative eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. Amongst our main findings, we identified a novel clade of DGAT1-like proteins exclusive to red algae and glaucophyta and a previously uncharacterized subclade of DGAT2 proteins with an unusual number of transmembrane segments. Our analysis also revealed the existence of a novel DGAT exclusive to green algae with moderate similarity to plant soluble DGAT3. The DGAT3 clade shares a most recent ancestor with a group of uncharacterized proteins from cyanobacteria. Subcellular targeting prediction suggests that most green algal DGAT3 proteins are imported to the chloroplast, evidencing that the green algal chloroplast might have a soluble pathway for the de novo synthesis of TAGs. Heterologous expression of C. reinhardtii DGAT3 produces an increase in the accumulation of TAG, as evidenced by thin layer chromatography. Our analysis contributes to advance in the knowledge of complex superfamilies involved in lipid metabolism and provides clues to possible enzymatic players of chloroplast TAG synthesis.

  15. Ypr140wp, 'the yeast tafazzin', displays a mitochondrial lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) acyltransferase activity related to triacylglycerol and mitochondrial lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Testet, Eric; Laroche-Traineau, Jeanny; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Coulon, Denis; Bunoust, Odile; Camougrand, Nadine; Manon, Stephen; Lessire, René; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2005-05-01

    When the yeast protein Ypr140w was expressed in Escherichia coli, a lyso-PC [lysophosphatidylcholine (1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine)] acyltransferase activity was found associated with the membranes of the bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of a protein capable of catalysing the acylation of lyso-PC molecules to form PC. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of living yeasts revealed that the fusion protein Ypr140w-green fluorescent protein is targeted to the mitochondria. Moreover, in contrast with wild-type cells, in the absence of acyl-CoA, the yeast mutant deleted for the YPR140w gene has no lyso-PC acyltransferase activity associated with the mitochondrial fraction. When yeast cells were grown in the presence of lactate, the mutant synthesized 2-fold more triacylglycerols when compared with the wild-type. Moreover, its mitochondrial membranes contained a lesser amount of PC and cardiolipin, and the fatty acid composition of these latter was greatly changed. These modifications were accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the respiration rates (states 3 and 4) of the mitochondria. The relationship between the deletion of the YPR140w gene and the lipid composition of the ypr140wDelta cells is discussed.

  16. Type I Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (MtDGAT1) from Macadamia tetraphylla: Cloning, Characterization, and Impact of Its Heterologous Expression on Triacylglycerol Composition in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Mañas-Fernández, Aurora; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2016-01-13

    Acyltransferase enzymes have been reported as useful biotechnological tools in order to increase oil yield and modify fatty acid composition. Macadamia species are able to accumulate unusually high levels of palmitoleic acid that besides oleic acid amounts to over 80% of monounsaturated fatty acids in the seed oil. In this work, a gene encoding a type 1 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) was cloned from M. tetraphylla. DGAT activity of the protein encoded by MtDGAT1 was confirmed by heterologous expression in a yeast mutant. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols synthesized by MtDGAT1 was compared to that of DGAT1 enzymes from Arabidopsis and Echium, with the results suggesting a substrate preference for monounsaturated over polyunsaturated fatty acids. Characteristics of MtDGAT1 may contribute to biochemical mechanisms determining the particular fatty acid composition of Macadamia oil and also indicate the possibility of using this enzyme in biotechnological approaches where a reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the oil is desired.

  17. Children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Raphael, B

    1983-03-01

    The familial nature of alcoholism is well established, but the interaction of nature and nurture remains unresolved. Other effects of alcoholic parents on the psychopathology of their children are poorly documented, with studies variably claiming that there is no discernible impact or that there is a significantly higher incidence of problems, particularly in the area of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. The relative importance of family disharmony and disruption which so often accompanies alcohol abuse, as against the impact of the alcohol abuse itself, is rarely considered. The literature on the psychopathology of children of alcoholic parents is reviewed and the relevance of the last two issues explored.

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  20. [Alcohol induced cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history.

  1. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs/SOATs): enzymes with multiple sterols as substrates and as activators

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Maximillian A.; Liu, Jay; Song, Bao-Liang; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential to the growth and viability of cells. The metabolites of cholesterol include: steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids, all of which play important physiological functions. Cholesterol and its metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases, including: atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Thus, understanding how cells maintain the homeostasis of cholesterol and its metabolites is an important area of study. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs, also abbreviated as SOATs) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and play key roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. ACATs are most unusual enzymes because (i) they metabolize diverse substrates including both sterols and certain steroids; (ii) they contain two different binding sites for steroidal molecules. In mammals, there are two ACAT genes that encode two different enzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2. Both are allosteric enzymes that can be activated by a variety of sterols. In addition to cholesterol, other sterols that possess the 3-beta OH at C-3, including PREG, oxysterols (such as 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, etc.), and various plant sterols, could all be ACAT substrates. All sterols that possess the iso-octyl side chain including cholesterol, oxysterols, various plant sterols could all be activators of ACAT. PREG can only be an ACAT substrate because it lacks the isooctyl side chain required to be an ACAT activator. The unnatural cholesterol analogs epi-cholesterol (with 3-alpha OH in steroid ring B) and ent-cholesterol (the mirror image of cholesterol) contain the iso-octyl side chain but do not have the 3-beta OH at C-3. Thus, they can only serve as activators and cannot serve as substrates. Thus, within the ACAT holoenzyme, there are site(s) that bind sterol as substrate and site(s) that bind sterol as activator; these sites are distinct from each other. These features form

  6. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs/SOATs): Enzymes with multiple sterols as substrates and as activators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maximillian A; Liu, Jay; Song, Bao-Liang; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Cholesterol is essential to the growth and viability of cells. The metabolites of cholesterol include: steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids, all of which play important physiological functions. Cholesterol and its metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases, including: atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Thus, understanding how cells maintain the homeostasis of cholesterol and its metabolites is an important area of study. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs, also abbreviated as SOATs) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and play key roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. ACATs are most unusual enzymes because (i) they metabolize diverse substrates including both sterols and certain steroids; (ii) they contain two different binding sites for steroidal molecules. In mammals, there are two ACAT genes that encode two different enzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2. Both are allosteric enzymes that can be activated by a variety of sterols. In addition to cholesterol, other sterols that possess the 3-beta OH at C-3, including PREG, oxysterols (such as 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, etc.), and various plant sterols, could all be ACAT substrates. All sterols that possess the iso-octyl side chain including cholesterol, oxysterols, various plant sterols could all be activators of ACAT. PREG can only be an ACAT substrate because it lacks the iso-octyl side chain required to be an ACAT activator. The unnatural cholesterol analogs epi-cholesterol (with 3-alpha OH in steroid ring B) and ent-cholesterol (the mirror image of cholesterol) contain the iso-octyl side chain but do not have the 3-beta OH at C-3. Thus, they can only serve as activators and cannot serve as substrates. Thus, within the ACAT holoenzyme, there are site(s) that bind sterol as substrate and site(s) that bind sterol as activator; these sites are distinct from each other. These features form

  7. Expression of the Acyl-Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase GFP Fusion Protein in Sf21 Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahtani, H. K.; Richmond, R. C.; Chang, T. Y.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important contributor to the pathological expression of plaque leading to artherosclerosis n a major health problem. Adequate knowledge of the structure of this protein will enable pharmaceutical companies to design drugs specific to the enzyme. ACAT is a membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum.t The protein has never been purified to homogeneity.T.Y. Chang's laboratory at Dartmouth College provided a 4-kb cDNA clone (K1) coding for a structural gene of the protein. We have modified the gene sequence and inserted the cDNA into the BioGreen His Baculovirus transfer vector. This was successfully expressed in Sf2l insect cells as a GFP-labeled ACAT protein. The advantage to this ACAT-GFP fusion protein (abbreviated GCAT) is that one can easily monitor its expression as a function of GFP excitation at 395 nm and emission at 509 nm. Moreover, the fusion protein GCAT can be detected on Western blots with the use of commercially available GFP antibodies. Antibodies against ACAT are not readily available. The presence of the 6xHis tag in the transfer vector facilitates purification of the recombinant protein since 6xHis fusion proteins bind with high affinity to Ni-NTA agarose. Obtaining highly pure protein in large quantities is essential for subsequent crystallization. The purified GCAT fusion protein can readily be cleaved into distinct GFP and ACAT proteins in the presence of thrombin. Thrombin digests the 6xHis tag linking the two protein sequences. Preliminary experiments have indicated that both GCAT and ACAT are expressed as functional proteins. The ultimate aim is to obtain large quantities of the ACAT protein in pure and functional form appropriate for protein crystal growth. Determining protein structure is the key to the design and development of effective drugs. X-ray analysis requires large homogeneous crystals that are difficult to obtain in the gravity environment of earth

  8. Structurally divergent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases with high selectivity for saturated medium chain fatty acids from Cuphea seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Andersson, Mariette; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-12-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) catalyzes acylation of the sn-2 position on lysophosphatidic acid by an acyl CoA substrate to produce the phosphatidic acid precursor of polar glycerolipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs). In the case of TAGs, this reaction is typically catalyzed by an LPAT2 from microsomal LPAT class A that has high specificity for C18 fatty acids containing Δ9 unsaturation. Because of this specificity, the occurrence of saturated fatty acids in the TAG sn-2 position is infrequent in seed oils. To identify LPATs with variant substrate specificities, deep transcriptomic mining was performed on seeds of two Cuphea species producing TAGs that are highly enriched in saturated C8 and C10 fatty acids. From these analyses, cDNAs for seven previously unreported LPATs were identified, including cDNAs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvLPAT2) and Cuphea avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPAT2a) encoding microsomal, seed-specific class A LPAT2s and a cDNA from C. avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPATB) encoding a microsomal, seed-specific LPAT from the bacterial-type class B. The activities of these enzymes were characterized in Camelina sativa by seed-specific co-expression with cDNAs for various Cuphea FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (FatB) that produce a variety of saturated medium-chain fatty acids. CvLPAT2 and CpuLPAT2a expression resulted in accumulation of 10:0 fatty acids in the Camelina sativa TAG sn-2 position, indicating a 10:0 CoA specificity that has not been previously described for plant LPATs. CpuLPATB expression generated TAGs with 14:0 at the sn-2 position, but not 10:0. Identification of these LPATs provides tools for understanding the structural basis of LPAT substrate specificity and for generating altered oil functionalities. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Expression of the Acyl-Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase GFP Fusion Protein in Sf21 Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahtani, H. K.; Richmond, R. C.; Chang, T. Y.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important contributor to the pathological expression of plaque leading to artherosclerosis n a major health problem. Adequate knowledge of the structure of this protein will enable pharmaceutical companies to design drugs specific to the enzyme. ACAT is a membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum.t The protein has never been purified to homogeneity.T.Y. Chang's laboratory at Dartmouth College provided a 4-kb cDNA clone (K1) coding for a structural gene of the protein. We have modified the gene sequence and inserted the cDNA into the BioGreen His Baculovirus transfer vector. This was successfully expressed in Sf2l insect cells as a GFP-labeled ACAT protein. The advantage to this ACAT-GFP fusion protein (abbreviated GCAT) is that one can easily monitor its expression as a function of GFP excitation at 395 nm and emission at 509 nm. Moreover, the fusion protein GCAT can be detected on Western blots with the use of commercially available GFP antibodies. Antibodies against ACAT are not readily available. The presence of the 6xHis tag in the transfer vector facilitates purification of the recombinant protein since 6xHis fusion proteins bind with high affinity to Ni-NTA agarose. Obtaining highly pure protein in large quantities is essential for subsequent crystallization. The purified GCAT fusion protein can readily be cleaved into distinct GFP and ACAT proteins in the presence of thrombin. Thrombin digests the 6xHis tag linking the two protein sequences. Preliminary experiments have indicated that both GCAT and ACAT are expressed as functional proteins. The ultimate aim is to obtain large quantities of the ACAT protein in pure and functional form appropriate for protein crystal growth. Determining protein structure is the key to the design and development of effective drugs. X-ray analysis requires large homogeneous crystals that are difficult to obtain in the gravity environment of earth

  10. RP 64477: a potent inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase with low systemic bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bello, A A; Bright, C; Burton, B J; Bush, R C; Casey, J H; Dron, D I; Facchini, V; Joannou, P P; Parrott, D P; Riddell, D; Roberts, S A; Williams, R J

    1996-02-23

    RP 64477 (N-butyl-3-(p-decyloxybenzamido)-4-(methylthio)benzamide) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.26; ACAT) in intestinal, hepatic, adrenal, and arterial tissue preparations obtained from a range of animal species. Drug concentrations producing 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50 values) ranged from 14-283 nM. Inhibition by RP 64477 in a rabbit intestinal enzyme preparation was shown to be non-competitive with respect to the substrate oleoyl-CoA. In whole cell assays using human intestinal (CaCo-2), hepatic HepG2) and monocytic (THP-1) cell lines, RP 64477 inhibited ACAT activity with IC50s of 113, 503, and 180 nM, respectively. RP 64477 (0.03% w/w by diet) reduced significantly cholesterol absorption in cholesterol/cholic acid-fed rats from 94+/- 8% to 65 +/- 4%. In cholesterol-fed rabbits, cholesterol absorption was reduced from 72 +/- 5% to 50 +/-5% and 44 +/- 5% at dose levels of 10 and 30 mg kg-1 b.i.d., respectively. Plasma cholesterol levels were reduced dose-dependently in both cholesterol/cholic-acid-fed rats and cholesterol-fed rabbits. Neither cholesterol absorption nor plasma cholesterol levels were reduced significantly in animals maintained on standard laboratory diets. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that RP 64477 were very poorly absorbed following oral administration to rats. Plasma levels of drug were < 2 ng mL-1 following a dose of 2000 mg kg-1 p.o.. When radiolabelled RP 64477 was administered orally, limited absorption was indicated by the overwhelming elimination of radioactivity in the faces (96.4% of administered material) coupled with low renal clearance (0.6% of dose) and biliary excretion (0.05% of dose). In conclusion, this work shows that RP 64477 is a potent inhibitor of ACAT obtained from a range of animal species and man. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and hypocholesterolaemic activity has been demonstrated in rats and

  11. Impact of subdermal norgestrel on hepatic acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol- acyltransferase (ACAT) activity: possible antiatherogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Letterie, G S

    2000-06-01

    The impact of subdermally placed ethinyl estradiol, norgestrel, and the combination of the two on cholesterol metabolism as measured by hepatic acyl:cholesterol-acyltransferase (ACAT) activity was examined in the rat model. A total of 48 rats were assigned to one of 6 groups, receiving either 0.1 mg or 1.0 mg of ethinyl estradiol daily, 1.0 or 10 mg of norgestrel daily, and combinations of either 0.1 mg ethinyl estradiol/1.0 mg norgestrel or 1.0 mg ethinyl estradiol/10 mg norgestrel daily. All drugs were administered through subdermally placed time release capsules. The administration of norgestrel only in either 1.0 mg or 10 mg resulted in significantly lower rates of ACAT activity (0.77 +/- 0.566 and 0.91 +/- 0.239 pmol/mg/min, respectively). The combination of 1.0 ethinyl estradiol and 10 mg norgestrel resulted in a significant increase in ACAT activity to 2.17 +/- 0.873. This combination also resulted in significantly greater weight loss at the conclusion of treatment [247.83 +/- 6.2 g (pre) vs. 205.50 +/- 10.6 (post)]. There were no other differences in ACAT activity between groups and no other differences in weight, both between groups and pre- and post-treatment within groups. In summary, subdermally placed norgestrel resulted in a significant lowering of ACAT activity not seen with either administration of ethinyl estradiol alone or the combination of ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel in doses ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 1.0 to 10.0 mg of norgestrel. Significantly increased ACAT activity for the combination of 1.0 ethinyl estradiol and 10 mg norgestrel over either ethinyl estradiol or norgestrel alone or a lower dose combination suggests a dose-related threshold and drug-drug interaction for this effect. These results suggest that subdermally placed norgestrel may result in significantly lower ACAT activity and may have a potential role as an antiatherogenic treatment.

  12. Structure of the human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) gene and its relation to dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Katsuren, K; Tamura, T; Arashiro, R; Takata, K; Matsuura, T; Niikawa, N; Ohta, T

    2001-04-30

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes cholesterol esterification in mammalian cells. Two isoforms of ACAT have been reported to date (ACAT-1 and ACAT-2). ACAT-1 is ubiquitously expressed in tissues except the intestine. In contrast, ACAT-2 is expressed mainly in the intestine in humans. To investigate the relationship between ACAT-2 and dyslipidemia, we determined the structure of the human ACAT-2 gene and then studied the relationship between mutations of the ACAT-2 gene and dyslipidemia. To isolate human ACAT-2 genomic DNA, we designed primers based on the human ACAT-2 cDNA sequence: forward primer 5'-ACACCTCGATCTTGGTCCTGCCATA-3' and reverse primer 5'-GGAATGCAGACAGGGAGTCCT-3'. Using these primers, a human P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) library was screened by PCR-based procedures. Isolated PAC clones were completely digested with BamHI and subcloned into plasmid vector. Subclones that contained exons were screened by dot-blot hybridization using partial ACAT-2 cDNA fragments. The coding region of the ACAT-2 gene was encoded in 15 exons from 51 to 265 base pairs on a 21 kilobase span of genomic DNA. The exonic sequences coincided completely with that of ACAT-2 cDNA, and each exon-intron junction conserved splicing consensus sequences. Next, 187 (91 dyslipidemic and 96 normolipidemic) subjects were screened by PCR single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of the ACAT-2 gene. Three mutations were identified by DNA sequencing: two missense mutations (E14G in exon 1 and T254I in exon 7) and a point mutation in intron 7 (-35G-->A). Mutations in exon 1 and intron 7 were not associated with plasma concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins (apo). However, plasma apoC-III levels in T254I heterozygotes were significantly higher than those in subjects without mutation. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in T254I heterozygotes were similar to those in subjects without mutation. Although further studies are needed, our data suggest that ACAT-2

  13. Effect of Deletion of Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase on the Pulsatile Release of Growth Hormone in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, T Y; Ngo, S T; Veldhuis, J D; Jeffery, P L; Chopin, L K; Tschöp, M; Waters, M J; Tolle, V; Epelbaum, J; Chen, C; Steyn, F J

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin, a gut hormone originating from the post-translational cleavage of preproghrelin, is the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Within the growth hormone (GH) axis, the biological activity of ghrelin requires octanoylation by ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT), conferring selective binding to the GHS-R1a receptor via acylated ghrelin. Complete loss of preproghrelin-derived signalling (through deletion of the Ghrl gene) contributes to a decline in peak GH release; however, the selective contribution of endogenous acyl-ghrelin to pulsatile GH release remains to be established. We assessed the pulsatile release of GH in ad lib. fed male germline goat(-/-) mice, extending measures to include mRNA for key hypothalamic regulators of GH release, and peripheral factors that are modulated relative to GH release. The amount of GH released was reduced in young goat(-/-) mice compared to age-matched wild-type mice, whereas pulse frequency and irregularity increased. Altered GH release did not coincide with alterations in hypothalamic Ghrh, Srif, Npy or Ghsr mRNA expression, or pituitary GH content, suggesting that loss of Goat does not compromise canonical mechanisms that contribute to pituitary GH production and release. Although loss of Goat resulted in an irregular pattern of GH release (characterised by an increase in the number of GH pulses observed during extended secretory events), this did not contribute to a change in the expression of sexually dimorphic GH-dependent liver genes. Of interest, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were elevated in goat(-/-) mice. This rise in circulating levels of IGF-1 was correlated with an increase in GH pulse frequency, suggesting that sustained or increased IGF-1 release in goat(-/-) mice may occur in response to altered GH release patterning. Our observations demonstrate that germline loss of Goat alters GH release and patterning. Although the biological relevance of

  14. Molecular characterization of the acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase gene (penDE) from Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans and activity of recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, M B; Fleming, M D; Skatrud, P L; Miller, J R

    1990-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics in Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans involves removal of the L-alpha-aminoadipyl side chain from isopenicillin N (IPN) and exchange with a nonpolar side chain. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction, acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase (acyltransferase), was purified from P. chrysogenum and A. nidulans. Based on NH2-terminal amino acid sequence information, the acyltransferase gene (penDE) from P. chrysogenum and A. nidulans were cloned. In both organisms, penDE was located immediately downstream from the isopenicillin N synthetase gene (pcbC) and consisted of four exons encoding an enzyme of 357 amino acids (approximately 40 kilodaltons [kDa]). The DNA coding sequences showed approximately 73% identity, while the amino acid sequences were approximately 76% identical. Noncoding DNA regions (including the region between pcbC and penDE) were not conserved. Acyltransferase activity from Escherichia coli producing the 40-kDa protein accepted either 6-aminopenicillanic acid or IPN as the substrate and made a penicillinase-sensitive antibiotic in the presence of phenylacetyl coenzyme A. Therefore, a single gene is responsible for converting IPN to penicillin G. The active form of the enzyme may result from processing of the 40-kDa monomeric precursor to a heterodimer containing subunits of 11 and 29 kDa. Images PMID:2120195

  15. Plasmalogens and fatty alcohols in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ana R; da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Brites, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a special class of ether-phospholipids, best recognized by their vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerobackbone and by the observation that their deficiency causes rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). The complex plasmalogen biosynthetic pathway involves multiple enzymatic steps carried-out in peroxisomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum. The rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens resides in the formation of the fatty alcohol responsible for the formation of an intermediate with an alkyl-linked moiety. The regulation in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens also takes place at this step using a feedback mechanism to stimulate or inhibit the biosynthesis. As such, fatty alcohols play a relevant role in the formation of ether-phospholipids. These advances in our understanding of complex lipid biosynthesis brought two seemingly distinct disorders into the spotlight. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is caused by defects in the microsomal fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) leading to the accumulation of fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes. In RCDP cells, the defect in plasmalogens is thought to generate a feedback signal to increase their biosynthesis, through the activity of fatty acid reductases to produce fatty alcohols. However, the enzymatic defects in either glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) or alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) disrupt the biosynthesis and result in the accumulation of the fatty alcohols. A detailed characterization on the processes and enzymes that govern these intricate biosynthetic pathways, as well as, the metabolic characterization of defects along the pathway should increase our understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind these disorders.

  16. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  17. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  18. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  19. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  20. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction

    PubMed Central

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABAA, glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca2+ channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  1. Alcohol and alcohol problems research. 17. Malta.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, A M

    1991-08-01

    This article is an enquiry into the current status of alcohol in Maltese culture. The responses of society to alcoholism depend on the way members of the community perceive the problems incurred by the use and abuse of a dependence producing substance like alcohol. These perceptions and subsequent responses are very much influenced by prevailing attitudes and beliefs. Malta is a melting point of cultures. This factor, together with a high density population and Malta's geopolitical strategic position, combine to make Malta a tolerant society. There is a laissez-faire response to alcoholism, at least partly due to the present inability to identify the need to take appropriate measures. The police force, medical profession and politicians still do not feel the responsibility or the need to provide effective laws and regulations, specialized treatment services or educative programmes on alcohol-related issues. A systematic enquiry is needed urgently to determine the severity and degree of the problems posed by alcohol abuse among the Maltese. Such an enquiry should be followed by a well planned national policy which includes local approaches and interventions. Finally, these interventions must be evaluated frequently and developed to achieve better results in the future.

  2. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  3. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  4. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  5. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  6. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects.

  7. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  8. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  9. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  10. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  11. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  12. Alcohol and coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Oda, H; Suzuki, M; Oniki, T; Kishi, Y; Numano, F

    1994-03-01

    Alcohol is known to sometimes cause coronary spasm, the mechanism of which is still unknown. The authors monitored changes in plasma levels of prostanoids (thromboxane [TX B2], 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha [PGF1 alpha]), catecholamines (CA), serotonin (5-HT), cyclic nucleotides (cyclic adenosine monophosphate--cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate--cGMP), and platelet aggregation after alcohol ingestion (Japanese rice wine 400 mL) in 8 patients with alcohol-induced variant angina and 8 healthy men as controls. Coronary spasm was confirmed to have been induced in 4 patients nine hours after alcohol challenge (VA[+]), when their plasma ethanol levels had already returned to a null level. Neither CA nor 5-HT levels showed any change after alcohol ingestion either in patients or controls, though controls showed high levels of CA during alcohol ingestion. TX B2 in VA(+) patients increased gradually after alcohol ingestion to reach up to a statistically significantly high level just before attack, as compared with those of controls and VA(-) patients, who, on the contrary, did not show such changes. The levels of 6-keto PGF1 alpha, however, which were significantly lower in patients than in controls before the test, exhibited a gradual increase in VA(+) patients in parallel with the increase in TX B2. No significant changes in cAMP levels between either controls or patients were present. On the contrary, cGMP levels had a gradual decrease in patients after alcohol ingestion. Especially six hours after alcohol ingestion, cGMP levels in VA(+) patients decreased so much as to make a statistically significant difference, as compared with the level in controls. Platelet aggregability in controls showed a decrease after alcohol ingestion, in spite of no change or even increase in patients. These data suggest that low levels of PGF1 alpha and the decrease of cGMP levels from alcohol ingestion play important roles in the mechanism of coronary spasm induced by alcohol ingestion.

  13. Huntingtin-interacting Proteins, HIP14 and HIP14L, Mediate Dual Functions, Palmitoyl Acyltransferase and Mg2+ Transport*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Goytain, Angela; Hines, Rochelle M.; Quamme, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansions of huntingtin protein are responsible for the Huntington neurological disorder. HIP14 protein has been shown to interact with huntingtin. HIP14 and a HIP14-like protein, HIP14L, with a 69% similarity reside in the Golgi and possess palmitoyl acyltransferase activity through innate cysteine-rich domains, DHHC. Here, we used microarray analysis to show that reduced extracellular magnesium concentration increases HIP14L mRNA suggesting a role in cellular magnesium metabolism. Because HIP14 was not on the microarray platform, we used real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR to show that HIP14 and HIP14L transcripts were up-regulated 3-fold with low magnesium. Western analysis with a specific HIP14 antibody also showed that endogenous HIP14 protein increased with diminished magnesium. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, HIP14 and HIP14L mediate Mg2+ uptake that is electrogenic, voltage-dependent, and saturable with Michaelis constants of 0.87 ± 0.02 and 0.74 ± 0.07 mm, respectively. Diminished magnesium leads to an apparent increase in HIP14-green fluorescent protein and HIP14L-green fluorescent fusion proteins in the Golgi complex and subplasma membrane post-Golgi vesicles of transfected epithelial cells. We also show that inhibition of palmitoylation with 2-bromopalmitate, or deletion of the DHHC motif HIP14ΔDHHC, diminishes HIP14-mediated Mg2+ transport by about 50%. Coexpression of an independent protein acyltransferase, GODZ, with the deleted HIP14ΔDHHC mutant restored Mg2+ transport to values observed with wild-type HIP14. Although we did not directly measure palmitoylation of HIP14 in these studies, the data are consistent with a regulatory role of autopalmitoylation in HIP14-mediated Mg2+ transport. We conclude that the huntingtin interacting protein genes, HIP14 and HIP14L, encode Mg2+ transport proteins that are regulated by their innate palmitoyl acyltransferases thus fulfilling the characteristics of

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  16. Alcohol: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo A

    2011-10-01

    Popular belief has it that alcohol, particularly red wine, protects against atherosclerosis and associated cardio- and cerebrovascular conditions. That presumption motivates this paper, which describes the mechanisms underlying the J-shaped risk curve for alcohol use, with benefits for vascular disease risk at low consumption levels and harmful effects--both directly on the user and indirectly on the bystander--at higher levels. The importance of further exploring alcohol use in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and of intervening to modify non-social use of alcohol to prevent serious adverse health consequences is also addressed.

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  18. Continuing Education about Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Signe S.; Murphy, Julianne

    1978-01-01

    Describes a statewide continuing education program for emergency room nurses on the care of alcohol abusers. Covers planning and scheduling, resources, format and content, participants, and evaluation. (EM)

  19. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  20. Parental alcoholism in opioid addicts.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1985-08-01

    Using the family history method, the authors examined the relationships of parental alcoholism to alcoholism, depression, and antisocial personality disorder among 638 opioid addicts. It was concluded that, compared to addicts without parental alcoholism; addicts with parental alcoholism were more frequently concurrent alcoholics; addicts with parental alcoholism not only had alcoholism more often, but also depression and antisocial personality disorder; among alcoholic addicts, those with parental alcoholism had more severe problems with alcohol abuse; and addicts with parental alcoholism reported more disruptive childhood events. The independent additive effects of disruptive childhood events and parental alcoholism on the severity of addict disorders including alcoholism were also examined. Although alcoholic addicts had experienced more disruptive childhood events than nonalcoholic addicts, these events did not substantially contribute to increasing the severity of alcohol-related problems. Similar results were obtained for depression and antisocial behaviors in these addicts. The conclusions concerning addicts supported some of those described for "familial alcoholism" among nonaddict alcoholics, but other characteristics of alcoholics with familial alcoholism were not found among addicts.

  1. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  2. In vivo and in vitro Trans-Acylation by BryP, the Putative Bryostatin Pathway Acyltransferase Derived from an Uncultured Marine Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Lopanik, Nicole B.; Shields, Jennifer A.; Buchholz, Tonia J.; Rath, Christopher M.; Hothersall, Joanne; Haygood, Margo G.; Håkansson, Kristina; Thomas, Christopher M.; Sherman, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The putative modular polyketide synthase (PKS) that prescribes biosynthesis of the bryostatin natural products from the uncultured bacterial symbiont of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina possesses a discrete ORF (bryP) that encodes a protein containing tandem acyltransferase (AT) domains upstream of the PKS ORFs. BryP is hypothesized to catalyze in trans acylation of the PKS modules for polyketide chain elongation. To verify conservation of function, bryP was introduced into AT-deletion mutant strains of a heterologous host containing a PKS cluster with similar architecture, and polyketide production was partially rescued. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that BryP catalyzes selective malonyl-CoA acylation of native and heterologous acyl carrier proteins and complete PKS modules in vitro. The results support the hypothesis that BryP loads malonyl-CoA onto Bry PKS modules, and provide the first biochemical evidence of the functionality of the bry cluster. PMID:19022178

  3. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Nikola M; Orem, William H; Tatu, Calin A; Lerch, Harry E; Bunnell, Joseph E; Feder, Gerald L; Kostic, Emina N; Ordodi, Valentin L

    2008-03-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p=0.02) and (p=0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population.

  4. Investigations into the post-translational modification and mechanism of isopenicillin N:acyl-CoA acyltransferase using electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Aplin, R T; Baldwin, J E; Roach, P L; Robinson, C V; Schofield, C J

    1993-01-01

    Electrospray mass spectrometry (e.s.m.s.) was used to confirm the position of the post-translational cleavage of the isopenicillin N:acyl-CoA acyltransferase preprotein to give the alpha- and beta-subunits. The e.s.m.s. studies suggested partial modification of the alpha-subunit in vivo by exogenously added substituted acetic acids. E.s.m.s. has also allowed the observation in vitro of the transfer of the acyl group from several acyl-CoAs to the beta-subunit. N.m.r. data for the CoA species have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 500173 (2 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre (DSC), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1993) 289, 9. Images Figure 1 PMID:8396910

  5. Discovery of a potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor as an anti-atherosclerotic agent: (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masaki; Fukui, Seiji; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Tokunoh, Ryosuke; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Kakoi, Yuichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Kazuki; Wada, Takeo; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes cholesterol esterification. ACAT inhibitors are expected to be potent therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A series of potent ACAT inhibitors based on an (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide scaffold was identified. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationships of a substituent on this scaffold, with an emphasis on improving the pharmacokinetic profile led to the discovery of 2-[7-chloro-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl]-N-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamide (23), which exhibited potent ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50=12 nM) and good pharmacokinetic profile in mice. Compound 23 also showed regressive effects on atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein (apo)E knock out (KO) mice at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg per os (p.o.).

  6. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  8. Seed-Specific Over-Expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA Encoding a Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Enhances Seed Oil Content and Seed Weight1

    PubMed Central

    Jako, Colette; Kumar, Arvind; Wei, Yangdou; Zou, Jitao; Barton, Dennis L.; Giblin, E. Michael; Covello, Patrick S.; Taylor, David C.

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported the cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis (ecotype Columbia) diacylglycerol acyltransferase cDNA (Zou et al., 1999) and found that in Arabidopsis mutant line AS11, an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation at a locus on chromosome II designated as Tag1 consists of a 147-bp insertion in the DNA, which results in a repeat of the 81-bp exon 2 in the Tag1 cDNA. This insertion mutation is correlated with an altered seed fatty acid composition, reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) activity, reduced seed triacylglycerol content, and delayed seed development in the AS11 mutant. The effect of the insertion mutation on microsomal acyl-coenzyme A-dependent DGAT is examined with respect to DGAT activity and its substrate specificity in the AS11 mutant relative to wild type. We demonstrate that transformation of mutant AS11 with a single copy of the wild-type Tag1 DGAT cDNA can complement the fatty acid and reduced oil phenotype of mutant AS11. More importantly, we show for the first time that seed-specific over-expression of the DGAT cDNA in wild-type Arabidopsis enhances oil deposition and average seed weight, which are correlated with DGAT transcript levels. The DGAT activity in developing seed of transgenic lines was enhanced by 10% to 70%. Thus, the current study confirms the important role of DGAT in regulating the quantity of seed triacylglycerols and the sink size in developing seeds. PMID:11402213

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics. PMID:26581109

  10. Identification of a pair of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases from developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed catalyzing the selective production of trilinolenin.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xue; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Wickramarathna, Aruna D; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-08-16

    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cis)(Δ9,12,15)) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database. Due to recent genome duplication, duplicated gene pairs have been identified for all genes except DGAT2-2. Analysis of gene expression indicated that two DGAT1, two DGAT2, and four PDAT genes were preferentially expressed in flax embryos. Yeast functional analysis showed that DGAT1, DGAT2, and two PDAT enzymes restored TAG synthesis when produced recombinantly in yeast H1246 strain. The activity of particular PDAT enzymes (LuPDAT1 and LuPDAT2) was stimulated by the presence of ALA. Further seed-specific expression of flax genes in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that DGAT1, PDAT1, and PDAT2 had significant effects on seed oil phenotype. Overall, this study indicated the existence of unique PDAT enzymes from flax that are able to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of TAG containing ALA acyl moieties. The identified LuPDATs may have practical applications for increasing the accumulation of ALA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in oilseeds for food and industrial applications.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification of BAHD Acyltransferases and In vivo Characterization of HQT-like Enzymes Involved in Caffeoylquinic Acid Synthesis in Globe Artichoke.

    PubMed

    Moglia, Andrea; Acquadro, Alberto; Eljounaidi, Kaouthar; Milani, Anna M; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Genre, Andrea; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Comino, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades. Nine globe artichoke acyltransferases clustered in a sub-group of Clade V, with 3 belonging to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 2 to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) like proteins. We focused our attention on the former, HQT1, HQT2, and HQT3, as they are known to play a key role in CGA biosynthesis. The expression of genes coding for the three HQTs and correlation of expression with the CQA content is reported for different globe artichoke tissues. For the first time in the globe artichoke, we developed and applied the virus-induced gene silencing approach with the goal of assessing in vivo the effect of HQT1 silencing, which resulted in a marked reduction of both CGA and diCQAs. On the other hand, when the role of the three HQTs was assessed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana through their transient overexpression, significant increases in mono- and diCQAs content were observed. Using transient GFP fusion proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves we also established the sub-cellular localization of these three enzymes.

  12. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterifies cerebrosterol and limits the toxic effect of this oxysterol on SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Marasco, Daniela; Abrescia, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Cholesterol is mostly removed from the CNS by its conversion to cerebrosterol (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)OH-C), which is transported to the circulation for bile formation in liver. A neurotoxic role of this oxysterol was previously demonstrated in cell culture. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, long known to esterify cholesterol, also produces monoesters of 24(S)OH-C. Proteoliposomes containing apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E were used to stimulate the enzyme activity and entrap the formed esters. Proteoliposomes with apolipoprotein A-I were found to be more active than those with apolipoprotein E in stimulating the production of oxysteryl esters. Cholesterol and 24(S)OH-C were found to compete for enzyme activity. High levels of haptoglobin, as those circulating during the acute inflammatory phase, inhibited 24(S)OH-C esterification. When highly neurotoxic 24(S)OH-C was treated with enzyme and proteoliposomes before incubation with differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, the neuron survival improved. The esters of 24(S)OH-C, embedded into proteoliposomes by the enzyme and isolated from unesterified 24(S)OH-C by gel filtration chromatography, did not enter the neurons in culture. These results suggest that the enzyme, in the presence of the apolipoproteins, converts 24(S)OH-C into esters restricted to the extracellular environment, thus preventing or limiting oxysterol-induced neurotoxic injuries to neurons in culture. 24-hydroxycholesterol (24(S)OH-C) is neurotoxic. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) synthesizes monoesters of 24(S)OH-C in reaction mixtures with proteoliposomes containing phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E. The esters, also produced by incubation of cerebrospinal fluid only with tritiated 24(S)OH-C, are embedded into lipoproteins that do not enter neurons in culture. The enzyme activity limits the toxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol in neuron culture.

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification of BAHD Acyltransferases and In vivo Characterization of HQT-like Enzymes Involved in Caffeoylquinic Acid Synthesis in Globe Artichoke

    PubMed Central

    Moglia, Andrea; Acquadro, Alberto; Eljounaidi, Kaouthar; Milani, Anna M.; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Genre, Andrea; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Comino, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades. Nine globe artichoke acyltransferases clustered in a sub-group of Clade V, with 3 belonging to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 2 to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) like proteins. We focused our attention on the former, HQT1, HQT2, and HQT3, as they are known to play a key role in CGA biosynthesis. The expression of genes coding for the three HQTs and correlation of expression with the CQA content is reported for different globe artichoke tissues. For the first time in the globe artichoke, we developed and applied the virus-induced gene silencing approach with the goal of assessing in vivo the effect of HQT1 silencing, which resulted in a marked reduction of both CGA and diCQAs. On the other hand, when the role of the three HQTs was assessed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana through their transient overexpression, significant increases in mono- and diCQAs content were observed. Using transient GFP fusion proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves we also established the sub-cellular localization of these three enzymes. PMID:27721818

  15. Identification of a Pair of Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferases from Developing Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Seed Catalyzing the Selective Production of Trilinolenin*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Siloto, Rodrigo M. P.; Wickramarathna, Aruna D.; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3cisΔ9,12,15) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database. Due to recent genome duplication, duplicated gene pairs have been identified for all genes except DGAT2-2. Analysis of gene expression indicated that two DGAT1, two DGAT2, and four PDAT genes were preferentially expressed in flax embryos. Yeast functional analysis showed that DGAT1, DGAT2, and two PDAT enzymes restored TAG synthesis when produced recombinantly in yeast H1246 strain. The activity of particular PDAT enzymes (LuPDAT1 and LuPDAT2) was stimulated by the presence of ALA. Further seed-specific expression of flax genes in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that DGAT1, PDAT1, and PDAT2 had significant effects on seed oil phenotype. Overall, this study indicated the existence of unique PDAT enzymes from flax that are able to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of TAG containing ALA acyl moieties. The identified LuPDATs may have practical applications for increasing the accumulation of ALA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in oilseeds for food and industrial applications. PMID:23824186

  16. Identification of a Novel Sequence Motif Recognized by the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of zDHHC17/13 S-Acyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Lemonidis, Kimon; Sanchez-Perez, Maria C.; Chamberlain, Luke H.

    2015-01-01

    S-Acylation is a major post-translational modification affecting several cellular processes. It is particularly important for neuronal functions. This modification is catalyzed by a family of transmembrane S-acyltransferases that contain a conserved zinc finger DHHC (zDHHC) domain. Typically, eukaryote genomes encode for 7–24 distinct zDHHC enzymes, with two members also harboring an ankyrin repeat (AR) domain at their cytosolic N termini. The AR domain of zDHHC enzymes is predicted to engage in numerous interactions and facilitates both substrate recruitment and S-acylation-independent functions; however, the sequence/structural features recognized by this module remain unknown. The two mammalian AR-containing S-acyltransferases are the Golgi-localized zDHHC17 and zDHHC13, also known as Huntingtin-interacting proteins 14 and 14-like, respectively; they are highly expressed in brain, and their loss in mice leads to neuropathological deficits that are reminiscent of Huntington's disease. Here, we report that zDHHC17 and zDHHC13 recognize, via their AR domain, evolutionary conserved and closely related sequences of a [VIAP][VIT]XXQP consensus in SNAP25, SNAP23, cysteine string protein, Huntingtin, cytoplasmic linker protein 3, and microtubule-associated protein 6. This novel AR-binding sequence motif is found in regions predicted to be unstructured and is present in a number of zDHHC17 substrates and zDHHC17/13-interacting S-acylated proteins. This is the first study to identify a motif recognized by AR-containing zDHHCs. PMID:26198635

  17. Alcoholism in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1994-01-01

    Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…

  18. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  19. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  20. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)