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Sample records for alcohol based solution

  1. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  2. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  3. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  4. In vitro-in vivo sequence studies as a method of selecting the most efficacious alcohol-based solution for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaino, M J; Herruzo, I

    2010-05-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand rubs serves to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Many products of this type are now on offer and it is essential to know how to rank their efficacy. A sequence of tests is proposed here to compare any given new alcohol-based solution against the reference solution (60% 2-isopropyl-alcohol) with 30 s of contact time: (i) in vitro (with pig skin as carrier) testing of >30 species of microorganism; (ii) in vitro assessment of residual efficacy (after 30 min of drying); (iii) in vivo study of transient microbiota (modification of the EN 1500 standard procedure) using four ATCC strains; (iv) in vivo study of resident hand microbiota. After performing the in vitro evaluation of seven alcohol-based hand rubs, the two most efficacious (chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol and mecetronium- alcohol) were chosen and studied, comparatively with the reference solution (60% isopropyl alcohol), in vitro (for chemical sustainability on the skin) and in vivo (against transient and resident microbiota). Chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol proved to be significantly superior to mecetronium-alcohol or the reference solution in all tests, except against resident microbiota for which the improvement was not statistically significant.

  5. Comparison of two alcohol-based surgical scrub solutions with an iodine-based scrub brush for presurgical antiseptic effectiveness in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Gupta, C; Czubatyj, A M; Briski, L E; Malani, A K

    2007-01-01

    The antiseptic effectiveness and acceptability of a commercial alcohol-based waterless (ABWL) and an alcohol-based water-aided (ABWA) scrub solution were compared with a brush-based iodine solution (BBIS) under conditions encountered in community hospital operating rooms. This randomized partially blinded study was based on guidelines from the American Society for Testing and Methods. The three scrub solutions were compared for antimicrobial efficacy, using criteria within the Food and Drug Administration's Tentative Final Monograph for Healthcare Antiseptic Products (FDA-TFM), and for participants' acceptance of the products. Volunteer surgical staff that worked daily in the same operating room for the entire duration of the study were enrolled. In total, 1126 surgical scrub procedures were performed over the duration of the study. Only the ABWL met all of the FDA-TFM criteria. The BBIS performed better than both of the alcohol-based solutions at the end of Day 1 (P=0.03), but the ABWL was more efficacious than the ABWA and the BBIS at the end of Days 2 and 5 (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). When colony-count reductions were compared over the entire duration of the study, there was no significant difference between the three solutions (P=0.2). The participants found the ABWL easiest to use (P<0.001), with the fewest adverse effects on skin (P=0.007), and it was their preferred product (P<0.001). Although both of the commercially available alcohol-based solutions may be considered as acceptable alternatives to the BBIS for presurgical antisepsis, the ABWL was found to have significantly higher user acceptability.

  6. Polycondensation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation kinetics is considered.

  7. Comparison of Chain Conformation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Solutions and Melts from Quantum Chemistry Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Matsuda, Tsunetoshi; Yoon, Do; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Confirmations of 2,4-dihydroxypentane (DHP), a model molecule for poly(vinyl alcohol), have been studied by quantum chemistry (QC) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. QC calculations at the 6-311G MP2 level show the meso tt conformer to be lowest in energy followed by the racemic tg, due to intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxy groups. The Dreiding force field has been modified to reproduce the QC conformer energies for DHP. MD simulations using this force field have been carried out for DHP molecules in the gas phase, melt, and CHCl3 and water solutions. Extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed for the gas phase and CHCl3 solution, but not for the melt or aqueous solution, Such a condensed phase effect due to intermolecular interactions results in a drastic change in chain conformations, in agreement with experiments.

  8. Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes three different investigations undertaken to demonstrate the advantage of fluid alcoholic hand disinfectants. In the first study, the skin compatibility of Sterillium, a liquid alcoholic rub-in hand disinfectant was compared with that of Hibiscrub, a water-based handwashing antiseptic. Using various parameters such as image analysis of removed squames (D-squames), skin roughness or transepidermal water loss, Hibiscrub was found to be significantly inferior to Sterillium. Hibiscrub caused skin irritation in 15 volunteers who could not complete the test. In a second study, the microbicidal efficacy of Sterillium and Hibiscrub was tested in surgical hand disinfection. The microbial reduction by Sterillium was significantly greater than that of Hibiscrub, immediately after application as well as after the surgical procedure. In a third study, certain alcoholic gels were tested according to the EN 1500 'hygienic hand disinfection'. None of the gels tested passed the EN 1500 within 30s. However, Sterillium met the EN 1500 requirement within 30s. We conclude that Sterillium is superior to Hibiscrub in terms of skin tolerance and microbicidal efficacy in surgical hand disinfection. It is also superior to alcoholic gels.

  9. Separation characteristics of alcohol from aqueous solution by ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Keiji; Mochida, Kyosuke; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2014-11-01

    The generation rate of ultrasonically atomized droplets and the alcohol concentration in droplets were estimated by measuring the flow rate and the alcohol concentration of vapors from a bulk solution with a fountain. The effect of the alcohol concentration in the bulk solution on the generation rate of droplets and the alcohol concentration in droplets were investigated. The ultrasonic frequency was 2.4MHz, and ethanol and methanol aqueous solutions were used as samples. The generation rate of droplets for ethanol was smaller than that for methanol at the same alcohol molar fraction in the bulk solution. For both solutions, at low alcohol concentration in the bulk solution, the alcohol concentration in droplets was lower than that in vapors and the atomized droplets were visible. On the other side, at high concentration, the concentration in droplets exceeded that in vapors and the atomized droplets became invisible. These results could be explained that the alcohol-rich clusters in the bulk solution were preferentially atomized by ultrasonic irradiation. The concentration in droplets for ethanol was higher than that for methanol at low alcohol concentration because the amount of alcohol-rich clusters was larger. When the alcohol molar fraction was greater than 0.6, the atomized droplets almost consisted of pure alcohol.

  10. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  11. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  12. Pervaporation separation of aqueous alcohol solution through asymmetric polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.R.; Liu, M.J.; Lai, J.Y. )

    1994-01-01

    In the present work the separation of aqueous alcohol mixtures through wet-phase inversion prepared polycarbonate membranes was studied by using the pervaporation process. The formation of asymmetric pervaporation membranes was discussed in terms of the presence of a nonsolvent in the casting solution, the polycarbonate concentration, and the kinds of coagulation media. The effects of feed composition, swelling degree, and the size of the alcohols on the pervaporation performances were investigated. The rate of liquid-liquid demixing increases with a decreasing number of carbon atoms of the alcohol coagulation medium. The permeation rate of the pervaporation process for the nonsolvent-added membrane was much higher than that of the membrane without nonsolvent additive. In binary alcohol mixtures, the permselectivities of small-sized alcohols through the asymmetric membrane are decided by two factors: preferential solubility of larger-sized alcohol and predominant diffusivity of small-sized alcohol. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  14. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  15. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to...

  16. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to...

  17. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to...

  18. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to...

  19. Hairpin ribozyme-catalyzed ligation in water-alcohol solutions.

    PubMed

    Vlassov, Alexander V; Johnston, Brian H; Kazakov, Sergei A

    2005-12-01

    The hairpin ribozyme (HPR) is a naturally existing RNA that catalyzes site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation. At 37 degrees C and in the presence of divalent metal ions (M(2+)), the HPR efficiently cleaves RNA substrates in trans. Here, we show that the HPR can catalyze efficient M(2+)-independent ligation in trans in aqueous solutions containing any of several alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, and millimolar concentrations of monovalent cations. Ligation proceeds most efficiently in 60% isopropanol at 37 degrees C, whereas the reverse (cleavage) reaction is negligible under these conditions. We suggest that dehydration of the RNA is the key factor promoting HPR activity in water- alcohol solutions. Alcohol-induced ribozyme ligation may have practical applications.

  20. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  1. Mechanism of alcohol-enhanced lucigenin chemiluminescence in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Chi, Quan; Chen, Wanying; He, Zhike

    2015-11-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of lucigenin (Luc(2+)) can be enhanced by different alcohols in alkaline solution. The effect of different fatty alcohols on the CL of lucigenin was related to the carbon chain length and the number of hydroxyl groups. Glycerol provides the greatest enhancement. UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra showed that N-methylacridone (NMA) was produced in the CL reaction in the presence of different alcohols. The peak of the CL spectrum was located at 470 nm in all cases, indicating that the luminophore was always the excited-state NMA. The quenching of lucigenin CL by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the electron spin resonance (ESR) results with the spin trap of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) demonstrated that superoxide anions (O2 (•-)) were generated from dissolved oxygen in the CL reaction and that glycerol and dihydroxyacetone (DHA) can promote O2 (•-) production by the reduction of dissolved oxygen in alkaline solution. It was assumed that the enhancement provided by different alcohols was related to the solvent effect and reducing capacity. Glycerol and DHA can also reduce Luc(2+) into lucigenin cation radicals (Luc(•+) ), which react with O2 (•-) to produce CL, and glycerol can slowly transform into DHA, which is oxidized quickly in alkaline solution.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation of Aqueous Dilute Solutions of Polyhydric Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Arnys Clifton, Jr.

    In order to investigate the details of hydrogen bonding and solution molecular conformation of complex alcohols in water, isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations were carried out on several systems. The solutes investigated were ethanol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3 -propylene glycol and glycerol. In addition, propane, which does not hydrogen bond but does form water hydrates, was simulated in aqueous solution. The complex alcohol-water systems are very nonideal in their behavior as a function of solute concentration down to very dilute solutions. The water model employed was TIP4P water^1 and the intermolecular potentials employed are of the Jorgensen type^2 in which the interactions between the molecules are represented by interaction sites usually located on nuclei. The interactions are represented by a sum of Coulomb and Lennard-Jones terms between all intermolecular pairs of sites. Intramolecular rotations in the solute are modeled by torsional potential energy functions taken from ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol for C-O and C-C bond rotations. Quasi-component pair correlation functions were used to analyze the hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds were classified as proton acceptor and proton donor bonds by analyzing the nearest neighbor pair correlation function between hydroxyl oxygen and hydrogen and between solvent-water hydrogen and oxygen. The results obtained for partial molar heats of solution are more negative than experimental values by 3.0 to 14 kcal/mol. In solution, all solutes reached a contracted molecular geometry with the OH groups generally on one side of the molecule. There is a tendency for the solute OH groups to hydrogen bond with water, with more proton acceptor bonds than proton donor bonds. The water -solute binding energies correlate with experimental measurements of the water-binding properties of the solute. ftn ^1Jorgensen, W. L. et al, J. Chem. Phys., 79, 926 (1983). ^2Jorgensen, W. L., J. Phys Chem., 87, 5304

  3. Oxidative alkoxylation of phosphine in alcohol solutions of copper halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polimbetova, G. S.; Borangazieva, A. K.; Ibraimova, Zh. U.; Bugubaeva, G. O.; Keynbay, S.

    2016-08-01

    The phosphine oxidation reaction with oxygen in alcohol solutions of copper (I, II) halides is studied. Kinetic parameters, intermediates, and by-products are studied by means of NMR 31P-, IR-, UV-, and ESR- spectroscopy; and by magnetic susceptibility, redox potentiometry, gas chromatography, and elemental analysis. A reaction mechanism is proposed, and the optimum conditions are found for the reaction of oxidative alkoxylation phosphine.

  4. Does Disease Matter? Incorporating Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed alcoholism counselors (N=284) to determine whether the disease concept of alcoholism precludes acceptance and use of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) in alcoholism treatment. Results suggest that SFBT may be feasible for alcoholism treatment and that endorsement of the disease concept is compatible with the principles of SFBT. (EMK)

  5. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  6. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  7. CuInSe₂ thin-film solar cells with 7.72 % efficiency prepared via direct coating of a metal salts/alcohol-based precursor solution.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sejin; Son, Tae Hwa; Cho, Ara; Gwak, Jihye; Yun, Jae Ho; Shin, Keeshik; Ahn, Seoung Kyu; Park, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Kyunghoon

    2012-09-01

    A simple direct solution coating process for forming CuInSe₂ (CIS) thin films was described, employing a low-cost and environmentally friendly precursor solution. The precursor solution was prepared by mixing metal acetates, ethanol, and ethanolamine. The facile formation of a precursor solution without the need to prefabricate nanoparticles enables a rapid and easy processing, and the high stability of the solution in air further ensures the precursor preparation and the film deposition in ambient conditions without a glove box. The thin film solar cell fabricated with the absorber film prepared by this route showed an initial conversion efficiency of as high as 7.72 %.

  8. Spectroscopy of stop bands in artificial opals filled with an alcohol solution of potassium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Filatov, V. V.

    2012-09-01

    The spectral position of the stop bands in photonic crystals based on artificial opals filled with an alcohol solution of potassium iodide is investigated. The energy-band structure of samples with quartz globules 230 nm in diameter is modeled based on the dispersion equation. The spectral position of the stop bands in the [111] direction at different solution concentrations is determined. The conditions for forbidden-band "collapse" are established. The possibility of applying artificial opals in optical cavities of lasers of different types is analyzed.

  9. Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Peter U; Jensen, Jens K; Møller, Uffe

    2008-06-23

    We demonstrate a method based on self-referenced THz time-domain spectroscopy for inspection of aqueous liquids, and in particular alcohol solutions, inside closed containers. We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the alcohol content of an aqueous solution, and that liquids can be classified as either harmless or inflammable. The method operates in reflection mode with the result that liquids opaque to THz radiation can be characterized with little influence of the bottle shape. The method works with plastic bottles as well as glass bottles, with absorption of THz radiation by the plastic or the glass being the limiting factor. The reflection mode allows for automatic control of the validity of the measurement. The method will be useful in liquid scanning systems at security checkpoints.

  10. Raman OD stretching spectral differences between aqueous and alcoholic tetraalkylammonium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Fumi; Kanno, Hitoshi

    2003-09-01

    Raman OD stretching spectra were measured for aqueous and alcoholic R 4NCl solutions in both liquid state at room temperature and glassy state at liquid nitrogen temperature (alcohol=methanol and ethanol, R=alkyl group: methyl, ethyl and n-propyl). Comparison of the spectra indicates that enhancement of the low frequency region is more pronounced for the glassy aqueous solution than the corresponding alcohol solution. It is suggested that hydrophobic hydration plays a role in the strengthening of hydrogen bonds around an apolar solute (group) at low temperatures in aqueous solution system.

  11. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  12. Inhibition of nucleation and growth of ice by poly(vinyl alcohol) in vitrification solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Inada, Takaaki; Funakoshi, Kunio; Lu, Shu-Shen

    2009-08-01

    Control of ice formation is crucial in cryopreservation of biological substances. Successful vitrification using several additives that inhibit ice nucleation in vitrification solutions has previously been reported. Among these additives, here we focused on a synthetic polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and investigated the effects of PVA on nucleation and growth of ice in 35% (w/w) aqueous 1,2-propanediol solution by using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system equipped with a cryomicroscope. First, the freezing temperature of the solution was measured using the DSC system, and then the change in ice fraction in the solution during cooling was evaluated based on images obtained using the cryomicroscope, at different concentrations of PVA between 0% and 3% (w/w). Based on the ice fraction, the change in residual solution concentration during cooling was also evaluated and then plotted on the state diagram of aqueous 1,2-propanediol solution. Results indicated that, when the partially glassy and partially frozen state was intentionally allowed, the addition of PVA effectively inhibited not only ice nucleation but also ice growth in the vitrification solution. The effect of PVA on ice growth in the vitrification solution was explained based on kinetic limitations mainly due to mass transport. The interfacial kinetics also might limit ice growth in the vitrification solution only when the ice growth rate decreased below a critical value. This coincides with the fact that PVA exhibits a unique antifreeze activity in the same manner as antifreeze proteins when ice growth rate is lower than a critical value.

  13. Strong mechanical adhesion of gold electroless contacts on CdZnTe deposited by alcoholic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassi, G.; Nasi, L.; Bettelli, M.; Zambelli, N.; Calestani, D.; Zappettini, A.

    2017-02-01

    CdZnTe crystals are nowadays employed as X-ray detectors for a number of applications, such as medical imaging, security, and environmental monitoring. One of the main difficulties connected with CdZnTe-based detector processing is the poor contact adhesion that affect bonding procedures and device long term stability. We have shown that it is possible to obtain mechanically stable contacts by common electroless deposition using alcoholic solutions instead of water solutions. The contacts show blocking current-voltage characteristic that is required for obtaining spectroscopic detectors. Nanoscale-resolved chemical analysis indicated that the improved mechanical adhesion is due to a better control of the stoichiometry of the CdZnTe layer below the contact.

  14. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  15. [Efficient killing of anthrax spores using aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid solutions].

    PubMed

    Nattermann, H; Becker, S; Jacob, D; Klee, S R; Schwebke, I; Appel, B

    2005-08-01

    We analysed the sporicidal effect of different concentrations of aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid (PAA) solutions on anthrax spores in suspension and germ carrier tests. In activation of anthrax spores in suspension assays was achieved in less than 2 min using 1% PAA solution and in less than 3 min using 0.5% PAA solution, respectively. In contrast, in germ carrier as says, a test under practical conditions, spores on 38% of the germ carriers survived treatment with 1% PAA solution for 15 min. The use of PAA in 80% ethyl alcohol outclassed the sporicidal effect of aqueous PAA solutions in both suspension and germ carrier assays. Anthrax spores on 14% of germ carriers tested survived 30 min of treatment with a 1% aqueous PAA solution. In contrast anthrax spores were reliably inactivated under the same test procedure using a 1% alcoholic PAA solution for 30 min. The proven enhancement of the sporicidal effect of alcoholic PAA solutions should be kept in mind when using disinfectants in practice. In further surveys we will optimise the test conditions.

  16. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  17. Enthalpic parameters of interaction between diglycylglycine and polyatomic alcohols in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Integral enthalpies of solution Δsol H m of diglycylglycine in aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and 1,2-propylene glycol are measured via solution calorimetry. The experimental data are used to calculate the standard enthalpies of solution (Δsol H°) and transfer (Δtr H°) of the tripeptide from water to aqueous solutions of polyatomic alcohols. The enthalpic pairwise coefficients h xy of interactions between the tripeptide and polyatomic alcohol molecules are calculated using the McMillan-Mayer solution theory and are found to have positive values. The findings are discussed using the theory of estimating various types of interactions in ternary systems and the effect the structural features of interacting biomolecules have on the thermochemical parameters of diglycylglycine dissolution.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  20. Typology of Alcohol Users Based on Longitudinal Patterns of Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F.; Ramsey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance. However, heterogeneity among alcohol users has been widely recognized. This paper presents a typology of alcohol users based on an implementation of idiographic methodology to examine longitudinal daily and cyclic (weekly) patterns of alcohol use at the individual level. Method A secondary data analysis was performed on the pre-intervention data from a large randomized control trial. A time series analysis was performed at the individual level, and a dynamic cluster analysis was employed to identify homogenous longitudinal patterns of drinking behavior at the group level. The analysis employed 180 daily observations of alcohol use in a sample of 177 alcohol users. Results The first order autocorrelations ranged from −.76 to .72, and seventh order autocorrelations ranged from −.27 to .79. Eight distinct profiles of alcohol users were identified, each characterized by a unique configuration of first and seventh autoregressive terms and longitudinal trajectories of alcohol use. External validity of the profiles confirmed the theoretical relevance of different patterns of alcohol use. Significant differences among the eight subtypes were found on gender, marital status, frequency of drug use, lifetime alcohol dependence, family history of alcohol use and the Short Index of Problems. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that individuals can have very different temporal patterns of drinking behavior. The daily and cyclic patterns of alcohol use may be important for designing tailored interventions for problem drinkers. PMID:24333036

  1. Protonation of Alcohols in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at UT/LS Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Vernier, K.; Axson, J.; Morley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The protonation of several small alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol) in cold sulfuric acid aqueous solutions was measured using variable temperature 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acidity of the sulfuric acid + deuterium oxide solutions ranged from 43 to 81 weight percent (wt %) H2SO4. The pKBH+ values, which are a measure of the acidity of each alcohol, range from -2.0 for butanol at room temperature to -2.2 for ethanol at -20°C. The protonation enthalpies of the three alcohols over the temperature range of 22°C to -35°C were found to be small and negative, ranging from -1.8 kJ mol-1 for 2-propanol to -2.3 kJ mol-1 for ethanol. A small, negative protonation enthalpy means that the degree of protonation of the alcohol slightly decreases as temperature decreases. The pKBH+values and protonation enthalpies are used to predict the form of dissolved alcohols in sulfate aerosols. For typical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) conditions (40-70 wt % H2SO4 and 220 K), all three alcohols increase from approximately 10% protonated in 40 wt % H2SO4 to over 60% protonated in 70 wt % H2SO4. The percent of protonated alcohol depends more strongly on m*, the slope factor of the excess acidity treatment, than on pKBH+ values. This relationship may reflect solvation effects. The treatment of strongly acidic, non-ideal solutions as applied to organic solutes in sulfate aerosol particles will be discussed.

  2. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Boyle, Michael G; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program.

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  4. Closantel nano-encapsulated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions.

    PubMed

    Vega, Abraham Faustino; Medina-Torres, Luis; Calderas, Fausto; Gracia-Mora, Jesus; Bernad-Bernad, MaJosefa

    2016-08-01

    The influence of closantel on the rheological and physicochemical properties (particle size and by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy) of PVA aqueous solutions is studied here. About 1% PVA aqueous solutions were prepared by varying the closantel content. The increase of closantel content led to a reduction in the particle size of final solutions. All the solutions were buffered at pH 7.4 and exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Furthermore, in oscillatory flow, a "solid-like" type behavior was observed for the sample containing 30 μg/mL closantel. Indicating a strong interaction between the dispersed and continuous phases and evidencing an interconnected network between the nanoparticle and PVA, this sample also showed the highest shear viscosity and higher shear thinning slope, indicating a more intrincate structure disrupted by shear. In conclusion, PVA interacts with closantel in aqueous solution and the critical concentration for closantel encapsulation by PVA was about 30 μg/mL; above this concentration, the average particle size decreased notoriously which was associated to closantel interacting with the surface of the PVA aggregates and thus avoiding to some extent direct polymer-polymer interaction.

  5. Separation of Alcohols from Solution by Lignin Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, William {Bill} L; Compere, A L

    2008-01-01

    Partition relationships of radioisotope labeled ethanol and 1-butanol between aqueous solutions and a hydrated commercial Kraft softwood lignin gel are presented. These initial evaluations indicate that lignin hydrogels preferentially concentrate 1-butanol and, to a lesser extent, ethanol. The process implications and potential use of lignin as an inexpensive extractant are discussed.

  6. Unified Effect of Hydrophobic Hydration on the Dynamics and the Structure of Water Molecules in Lower Alcohol Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masaru; Maruyama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Misawa, Masakatsu

    2011-04-01

    After the analysis of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra of lower alcoholic aqueous solutions, we found that the parameter α, which is the number fraction of hydrophobic hydrating water molecules, has an important role in describing the dynamics and other properties of these solutions. The diffusion coefficient D was obtained from QENS spectra using the relaxing cage model, and D was found to have the same linear relation against α for ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, i-propyl alcohol, and t-butyl alcohol (with a small deviation) aqueous solutions. The excess molar volume and average hydration number of these solutions could also be expressed with common parameters, which are independent of the alcohol species.

  7. The effect of liquid crystalline structures on antiseizure properties of aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sulek, Marian Wlodzimierz; Bak, Anna

    2010-01-12

    Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40-80%) were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As expected, the viscosity of LLCs decreases considerably with an increase in shearing rate which is characteristic of liquid crystals being non-Newtonian liquids. Antiseizure properties were determined by means of a four-ball machine (T-02 Tester) and characterized by scuffing load (P(t)), seizure load (P(oz)) and limiting pressure of seizure (p(oz)). Alcohol ethoxylates forming mesophases in aqueous solutions have the strongest effect on the P(t) values which are several times higher than those measured in the presence of water. Ethoxylates with higher degrees of ethoxylation exhibit higher values of scuffing load. Those changes have been interpreted as a result of higher cloud points at which those compounds lose their amphiphilic properties. In general, the presence of mesophases in the bulk phase and particularly in the surface phase may lead to the formation of a lubricant film which separates the frictionally cooperating elements of a friction pair. The antiseizure efficiency of alcohol solutions is highest up to the load value which does not exceed the scuffing load value.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  9. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  10. Surface Tension Characteristics of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution with Alcoholic Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    At present, the combination of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as an absorbent and water as a refrigerant have widely been used as the working fluid for absorption refrigerating machines. In order to obtain absorption enhancement of water vapor into the LiBr solution by Marangoni convection, an alcoholic surfactant is being added in the LiBr solution. In that case, the surface tension of the LiBr solution with the surfactant plays an important role for the vapor absorption. In this study, the surface tensions of the LiBr solution with several alcoholic surfactants such as 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were measured by Wilhelmy plate method. As a result, the surface tensions of 50 wt% LiBr solution with several surfactants were obtained over the LiBr solution temperature range from 298 K to 318 K and the surfactant concentration range from 0 to 104 ppm by mass. The measured surface tension has decreased with the increasing number of carbons included in the surfactant at constant concentration, and the surface tension has increased with the increasing temperature of 50 wt% LiBr solution. The surface tension increase of 1-octanol became greater than any other surfactant used in this work. The effective carbon number of the surfactant for the absorption enhancement was in the range from 7 to 8.

  11. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness.

  12. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research.

  13. Assessing reactivity to virtual reality alcohol based cues.

    PubMed

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Traylor, Amy; Copp, Hilary L; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian; Ferrer, Mirtha; Walton, Alicia P

    2008-06-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue reactivity assessment system incorporating visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli was developed and tested. In a controlled trial, 40 non-treatment-seeking drinkers with alcohol use disorders were exposed to VR alcohol cue environments. Subjective craving, attention to alcohol cues, and level of presence (realism of experience) in VR were assessed across the environments. Overall, subjective craving for alcohol increased across the VR alcohol-related cue environments versus VR neutral cue environments. Participants reported high levels of presence in VR, indicating that the environments were perceived as realistic and compelling. These initial findings support the use of VR based cue reactivity environments for use in alcohol cue-based treatment and research.

  14. Thermodynamics of alcohols and monosaccharides in aqueous solutions of biuret at 25/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, G.; Castronuovo, G.; Del Vecchio, P.; Elia, V.; Tosto, M.T.

    1988-10-01

    The excess enthalpies of ternary aqueous solutions of biuret with four aliphatic alcohols or four isomeric pentoses have been determined by flow microcalorimetry at 25/sup 0/C. The coefficients of the virial expansion of the excess enthalpies have been evaluated and compared with those already reported for urea and thiourea with the same alcohols and pentoses used here. For biuret-alcohol systems, the cross coefficients are positive and depend on the length and branching of the alkyl chain of the alcohols. On the contrary, they are negative for biuret-pentose systems. Hence, biuret, as urea and thiourea, is able to differentiate the behavior of families of solutes characterized by the same functional groups. The results are interpreted in terms of the relative stabilities of the hydration cospheres of predominantly hydrophobic or predominantly hydrophilic cosolutes. However, hypotheses about the hydration cospheres of the saccharides, which are more complex than those used previously, seem to be necessary to rationalize their complete behavior in water.

  15. The mechanism of the dehydration of alcohols and the hydration of alkenes in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, M. I.; Obraztsov, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Kinetic data for the hydration of unsaturated compounds, the dehydration of alcohols, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols and aqueous solutions of strong acids are analysed to establish the detailed mechanisms of these reactions. The catalytic action of the acid is caused not only by its ability to protonate the reactant but also by the possibility of the formation of reactive complexes of the reactant with the acid hydrates or the molecules of the undissociated acids. Equations are presented whereby the influence of the ionising capacity of the medium on the effective rate constants for the reactions indicated can be taken into account quantitatively. The question of the involvement of carbonium ions as reactive intermediates in reactions involving the dehydration of alcohols, the hydration of unsaturated compounds, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols is examined. Complexes of the reactant with a solvated proton, the acid molecules, and the acid hydrates are the intermediates in these reactions. The relative contributions of the complexes to the effective rate constant depend on the acid concentration in the aqueous solution. The bibliography includes 65 references

  16. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  17. Telemedicine-Based Alcohol Services for Rural Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wahler, Elizabeth; Webster, J. Matthew; Godlaski, Theodore; Freeman, Rebecca; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that alcohol use is a problem in rural communities and access to substance abuse treatment, particularly evidence-based treatment is limited. Because telemedicine has been shown to be effective in delivering services, this article presents a novel and innovative way of using telemedicine technology in the form of videoconferencing to deliver an evidence-based alcohol intervention (motivational enhancement therapy) with at-risk alcohol users in real-world settings (rural probation and parole offices). This article focuses on: (a) creating a profile of an at-risk group of rural alcohol users; (b) describing the evidence-based intervention; and (c) describing the innovative telemedicine-based service delivery approach. PMID:22867122

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels.

    PubMed

    Guilhermetti, M; Marques Wiirzler, L A; Castanheira Facio, B; da Silva Furlan, M; Campo Meschial, W; Bronharo Tognim, M C; Botelho Garcia, L; Luiz Cardoso, C

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, several commercial alcohol-based hand gels have appeared on the market to improve the hand-cleansing compliance of healthcare workers. Although the antimicrobial efficacy of these products has been reported in different countries, few studies have investigated this subject in Brazil. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of 12 alcohol-based hand gels produced in Brazil, containing 70% w/w or v/v ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient, according to the European Standard EN 1500 (EN 1500). The following alcohol gels were tested: Hand Gel, Voga Gel, Solumax Solugel, Doctor Clean, Rio Gel, Clear Gel, Sevengel, Hand CHC, Gel Bac, WBL-50 Gel, Sanigel and Soft Care Gel. In addition, 70% w/w ethyl alcohol and three alcohol-based hand rubs (Sterillium, Sterillium Gel, and Spitaderm), commonly used in Europe and effective according to EN 1500, were also tested. All the products tested, except for two, were approved by the EN 1500 test protocol with a 60s application. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of the majority of the alcohol gels produced in Brazil for hand hygiene of healthcare workers.

  19. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  20. Solution behavior of metoclopramide in aqueous-alcoholic solutions at 30°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Sawale, R. T.; Tawde, P. D.; Kalyankar, T. M.

    2016-07-01

    Densities (ρ) and refractive indices ( n D) of solutions of antiemetic drug metoclopramide (4-amino-5-chloro- N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride hydrate) in methanolwater and ethanol-water mixtures of different compositions were measured at 30°C. Apparent molar volume (φv) of the drug was calculated from density data and partial molar volumes (φ v 0 ) were determined from Massons relation. Concentration dependence of nD has been studied to determine refractive indices of solution at infinite dilution ( n D 0 ). Results have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

  1. Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols Using Amidine-Based Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ximin; Jiang, Hui; Uffman, Eric W.; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Yuhua; Yang, Xing; Birman, Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic resolution of racemic alcohols has been traditionally achieved via enzymatic enantioselective esterification and ester hydrolysis. However, there has long been considerable interest in devising nonenzymatic alternative methods for this transformation. Amidine-Based Catalysts (ABCs), a new class of enantioselective acyl transfer catalysts developed in our group, have demonstrated, inter alia, high efficacy in the kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic and propargylic secondary alcohols and 2-substituted cycloalkanols, and thus provide a viable alternative to enzymes. PMID:22283696

  2. Alcohol biosensor based on alcohol dehydrogenase and Meldola Blue immobilized into a carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    García Mullor, S; Sánchez-Cabezudo, M; Miranda Ordieres, A J; López Ruiz, B

    1996-05-01

    A yeast alcohol dehydrogenase amperometric carbon paste-based biosensor, with Meldola Blue as a mediator and a dialysis membrane with a very small molecular weight cut-off for protection, is described. The influence of membrane pore size on the stability and overall kinetics of the biosensor is shown using cyclic voltammetry and stationary potential measurements. The operating potential is + 50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl sat. reference electrode. Application of this device to the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages was achieved successfully. In these kinds of samples and at this working potential no interferences were found.

  3. Protolytic dissociation of cyanophenols in ground and excited states in alcohol and water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanik, Beata; Styrcz, Stanisław

    2011-08-01

    The effect of cyano substituents on acidity in ground and excited states of mono- and dicyanophenols was investigated. The equilibrium dissociation constants of 3,4-dicyanophenol in ground and lowest excited states in water solution and the change of these constants in the excited state during the transfer to the ground state for o-, m-, p-cyanophenol and 3,4-dicyanophenol in alcohol and water solutions were determined. It was shown that the cyano substitution increases the acidity of ortho-, meta- and dicyano-derivative in ground state in comparison to the phenol, which makes the anions of these derivatives appear in solutions from methanol to 1-butanol. In the excited state the acidity of investigated compounds changes significantly in comparison to the ground state. 3,4-Dicyanophenol is the strongest acid in the lowest excited singlet state, while p-cyanophenol is the weakest one in both alcohol and water solutions. The distribution of the electronic charge and dipole moments of all investigated cyanophenols in ground and excited states were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations using the GAMESS program.

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. Viscosities of cetylpyridinium bromide solutions (aqueous and aqueous KBr) in the presence of alcohols and amines

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.L.; Kumar, S.; Kabir-ud-Din

    1997-01-01

    Among the large number of additives, alcohols hold a special place, being by far the most common cosurfactants which are added to surfactant-oil combinations to generate microemulsions. Though the studies using amines as cosurfactant in microemulsions are few, it has been proved that they are also potential candidates for such formulations. The effect of organic additives (aliphatic/aromatic amines or alcohols) on the viscosities of aqueous and 0.1 M KBr solutions of 0.05 or 0.1 M cetylpyridinium bromide have been measured under Newtonian flow conditions. The viscosity changed dramatically in the presence of KBr. This is explained by the favorable conditions produced by the salt which assists the micellar growth by organic additives with a concomitant enhancement in viscosity. Reasons for the effectiveness of these additives are suggested. The causes of the viscosity decrease at higher concentrations of the additive are also explained.

  7. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  8. Rheological characterization of solutions and thin films made from amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes and polyvinyl alcohol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of aqueous solutions and films made from blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes (Hex-Am) were investigated to better understand the polymer interactions and processing parameters. Aqueous solutions of Hex-Am displayed ...

  9. Reactivity of polyfunctional alcohols towards atmospheric radicals in the aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    Alcohols such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and glycerol are widely used compounds in numerous applications. The oxidation of these compounds can influence the tropospheric oxidation budget as well as contribute significantly to the formation of low volatile organic particle constituents, such as mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Model simulations applying the multiphase chemistry mechanism CAPRAM 3.0i (Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism) show that the aqueous phase oxidation of ethylene glycol contribute significantly to the formation of the known particle constituent oxalic acid under remote (up to 1.7%) and urban (up to 9.5%) conditions. Due to their high solubility oxidation processes of polyalcohols will take place mainly in the aqueous solution. Oxidation reactions of alcohols are triggered by reactions with atmospheric radicals such as OH, NO3 and SO4-. However, for the detailed implementation of the tropospheric degradation of alcohols in atmospheric chemistry mechanisms many kinetic data, in particular as a function of the temperature, are still needed. Therefore, the reactivity of 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), 1,3-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol), 1,2-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol was systematically investigated towards OH, NO3 and SO4- radicals in the aqueous solution. All kinetic measurements were done as a function of the temperature. During these experiments the temperature of the measurement solution was varied between 278 ≤ T [K] ≤ 318. Experiments were carried out using laser flash photolysis technique at a wavelength of 248 nm. Rate constants were measured directly or using competition kinetics in case of OH. The kinetic data and activation parameters obtained will be summarized and discussed with available literature data. Furthermore, the data obtained will be discussed in terms of reactivity correlations and atmospheric relevance. A more detailed implementation of

  10. Alcohol solutions of triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride as high-dose radiochromic dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, A.; Wojnárovits, L.; El-assy, N. B.; Afeefy, H. Y.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Walker, M. L.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1995-09-01

    The radiolytic reduction of colorless tetrazolium salts in aqueous solution to the highly colored formazan dye is a well-known acid-forming radiation chemical reaction. Radiochromic thin films and three-dimensional hydrocolloid gels have been used for imaging and mapping absorbed dose distributions. The high solubility of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) in alcohols provides a useful liquid dosimeter (45 mM TTC in aerated ethanol) and shows a linear response of absorbance increase (λmax = 480 nm) with dose over the range 1-16 kGy. The linear molar absorption coefficient (ɛm) for the formazan at the absorption peak is 1.5 × 103 m2 mol-1, and the radiation chemical yield for the above solution is G (formazan) = 0.014 μmol J-1. The irradiation temperature coefficient is about 0.8 percent per degree Celsius rise in temperature over the temperature range 0-30 °C but is much larger between 30° and 60 °C. The unirradiated and irradiated solutions are stable over at least five days storage at normal laboratory temperature in the dark, but when stored in daylight at elevated temperature, the unirradiated solution in sealed amber glass ampoules undergoes slow photolytic dye formation, and the irradiated solution experiences initial fading and subsequent reversal (photochromism) when exposed to direct sunlight.

  11. Asymmetric criticality of binary ionic solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tianxiang; Xu, Chen; Lv, Hekun; Liu, Shixia; Wang, Mingjie; Chen, Zhiyun; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-09-07

    The liquid-liquid coexistence curves for binary solutions {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]) + 1-propanol} and {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]) + 2-propanol} have been precisely measured. The values of the critical exponents β obtained from the liquid-liquid equilibrium data in the critical region confirmed the 3D-Ising universality. The isobaric heat capacities per unit volume were measured for {[C4mim][BF4] + 1-propanol (or 2-propanol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol)} in both critical and non-critical regions. The experimental results indicate a major solvophobic contribution to the criticality for the studied ionic solutions. The complete scaling theory was applied to well represent the asymmetric behavior of the diameter of the coexistence curves with the consideration of the heat capacity contribution. It was found that the contribution of the heat capacity related term in the ionic solution decreased with the increase of the permittivity of alcohol and was more important in the description of the asymmetry of the coexistence curve of the ionic solutions than that of the molecular solutions.

  12. On the origin of mesoscale structures in aqueous solutions of tertiary butyl alcohol: the mystery resolved.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2014-03-13

    We have performed a detailed experimental study on aqueous solutions of tertiary butyl alcohol which were a subject of long-standing controversies regarding the puzzling presence of virtually infinitely stable large-scale structures in such solutions occurring at length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules, referred to also as mesoscale structures. A combination of static and dynamic light scattering yielding information on solution structure and dynamics and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry yielding information on chemical composition was used. We show that tertiary butyl alcohol clearly exhibiting such structures upon mixing with water does not contain any propylene oxide, which was previously considered as a source of these structures (an impurity expected to be present in all commercial samples of TBA). More importantly, we show that no mesoscale structures are generated upon addition of propylene oxide to aqueous solutions of TBA. The ternary system TBA/water/propylene oxide exhibits homogeneous mixing of the components on mesoscales. We show that the source of the mesoscale structures is a mesophase separation of appreciably more hydrophobic compounds than propylene oxide. These substances are explicitly analytically identified as well as their disappearance upon filtering out the mesoscale structures by nanopore filtration. We clearly show which substances are disappearing upon filtration and which are not. This enables us to estimate with rather high probability the chemical composition of the mesoscale structures. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is also presented. Video capturing the mesoscale particles as well as their Brownian motion can be found in the Supporting Information .

  13. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  14. Efficacy of 2 alcohol-based gels and 1 alcohol-based rinse for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frederic; Djamdjian, Laura; Neyme, Denis; Passot, Christophe; Petit, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 2 alcohol-based gels and 1 alcohol-based rinse for surgical hand disinfection, using European standard EN 12791. Volunteers performed surgical hand disinfection with a reference product and each of the 3 study products, with 1-week intervals between disinfection episodes. The immediate and sustained antimicrobial activities of each study product were not significantly less than those of the reference product. The study products passed the efficacy requirements of the EN 12791 standard, and they are considered suitable for surgical hand disinfection.

  15. Study the density, ultrasonic and compressibility of binary mixture of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol and mustard oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monupal, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrasonic velocities, compressibility and bulk modulus of binary mixtures of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol with mustard oil have been measured at different concentrations at room temperature. The results are varied with the concentration in such a way i.e. ultrasonic velocity and Bulk Modulus is decreases with the increase in concentration and compressibility is increases with the increase in concentration of aqueous isopropyl alcohol. It is due to molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

  16. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  17. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  18. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  19. Frequency dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation for semiquinones in alcohol solutions.

    PubMed

    Elajaili, Hanan B; Biller, Joshua R; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates at 293 K for three anionic semiquinones (2,5-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone) were studied at up to 8 frequencies between 250 MHz and 34 GHz in ethanol or methanol solution containing high concentrations of OH(-). The relaxation rates are about a factor of 2 faster at lower frequencies than at 9 or 34 GHz. However, in perdeuterated alcohols the relaxation rates exhibit little frequency dependence, which demonstrates that the dominant frequency-dependent contribution to relaxation is modulation of dipolar interactions with solvent nuclei. The relaxation rates were modeled as the sum of two frequency-independent contributions (spin rotation and a local mode) and two frequency-dependent contributions (modulation of dipolar interaction with solvent nuclei and a much smaller contribution from modulation of g anisotropy). The correlation time for modulation of the interaction with solvent nuclei is longer than the tumbling correlation time of the semiquinone and is consistent with hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to the oxygen atoms of the semiquinones.

  20. Viscometric Studies in Dilute Solution Mixtures of Chitosan and Microcrystalline Chitosan with Poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The viscosity behavior of aqueous mixtures formed by a polyelectrolyte (A) and a neutral polymer (B), such as chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (Ch/PVA) and microcrystalline chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (MCCh/PVA), have been investigated at 25 °C. The intrinsic viscosity and the viscosity interaction parameter of each polymer in 0.1 mol·dm(-3) CH3COOH/0.2 mol·dm(-3) NaCl solution as well as the ternary systems (polymer A/polymer B/solvent) have been determined and have served for estimation of the miscibility of different polymer mixtures by means of the method of classical dilution. By comparing the experimental and ideal viscosity data it is clearly seen that the satisfaction of the miscibility criterion depends on the definition of the ideal parameter [Formula: see text]. If the [Formula: see text] parameter is defined according to the Krigbaum-Wall criterion and Garcia criterion, the investigated blends of Ch/PVA satisfy the miscibility criterion. In the case of MCCh/PVA blends, the polymeric components show poor miscibility. Additionally, the viscosity results show that the degree of miscibility depends on the molecular weight of chitosan and on the degree of PVA hydrolysis.

  1. Effect of silver nanoparticles on luminescent and generation properties of rhodamine 6G in aqueous alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeinidenov, A. K.; Ibrayev, N. Kh.; Gladkova, V. K.

    2016-12-01

    The plasmon effect that silver nanoparticles have on the luminiscent and generation properties of rhodamine 6G molecules in aqueous alcohol solutions is studied. It is found that the intensities of absorption and emission increase when silver nanoparticles are added to aqueous solutions of rhodamine 6G. It is shown that upon the laser photoexcitation of aqueous solutions of rhodamine 6G dye, spontaneous fluorescence occurs that is converted into stimulated laser emission as the pump power grows. It is found that an increase in intensity and a drop in the generation threshold of stimulated emission are observed when silver nanoparticles are added to a solution of rhodamine 6G. It is shown that the dependence of absorbance, the intensity of fluorescence, and the dye's generation of stimulated emission on the concentration of silver nanoparticles in solution falls as the proportion of alcohol grows.

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Polyvinyl Alcohol/Graphene Oxide Composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Wang, Xiaohui; Hu, Song; Chen, Long; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

    2016-02-01

    As a new member of the carbon family, graphene oxide (GO) has shown excellent adsorption ability to micro-pollutants in aqueous solutions. However, its tiny size makes it difficult to be removed from aqueous solutions using the conventional separation methods, which limits its practical application in the environmental protection. In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as carrier immobilizing GO, and novel PVA/GO composites were prepared. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the composites were characterized by SEM, FTIR and TGA analysis. The adsorption properties of methylene blue (MB) onto the composites were studied through investigating the experimental parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature. The isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity reached 476.2 mg/g at 50% GO content. The pseudo-first-order kinetic, pseudo-second-order kinetic and intra-particle diffusion models were used to explore the adsorption kinetics. The results showed that the dynamic data were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  3. Radiolytic formation of Ag clusters in aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution and hydrogel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju

    2005-05-01

    Ag+ ions, in aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and in PVA hydrogel matrix have been gamma radiolytically reduced to produce Ag clusters. UV-visible absorption spectral characteristics of Ag clusters obtained under different gamma dose, Ag+ concentration, PVA concentration and crosslinking density of the gel used have been studied. The effect of Ag+ ions on the radiation crosslinking of the PVA chains, have also been investigated by viscosity measurements. The radiation-induced Ag+ ion reduction was followed by crosslinking of the PVA chains. PVA was found to be a very efficient stabilizer to prevent aggregation of Ag clusters. The clusters produced in the hydrogel matrix were expected to be smaller than the pore size (∼2-20 nm) of the gels used in the study. These Ag clusters were unable to reduce methyl viologen (MV2+) chloride and were stable in air.

  4. Dielectric friction effects on rotational reorientation of three cyanine dyes in n-alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, Eira; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko; Linnanto, Juha

    1997-11-01

    We have estimated the effect of dielectric friction on the rotational correlation times of three cationic cyanine dyes. Dielectric corrections were evaluated by using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic continuum model including the dielectric friction for DiIC2, DiIC6, and DiIC14 in different n-alcohol solutions at room temperature. The dielectric corrections were done to cis and trans conformations of the cyanine dyes. For the trans conformations, which were found more stable than cis conformations, the dielectric model seemed to be more properly suited. The ground and excited state dipole moments for the calculations were evaluated from ab initio molecular orbital calculations and for the excited state experimentally from the Lippert-Mataga plots.

  5. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  6. LUSH-based SPR sensor for the detection of alcohols and pheromone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Kwon, Jae-Young; Sohn, Young-Soo; Lim, Jeong Ok

    2013-05-01

    Protein is a widely used sensing substrate in the biosensing technology. In the study conducted here, we used odorant binding protein, LUSH from Drosophila as a biosensing substrate in a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. LUSH contains the specific alcohols binding sites, which mediates the detection of alcohols and pheromone. We first modified the surface of the gold sensor chip using the self assembled monolayer in the chloroform solution. The saturated concentration was determined prior to the detection of alcohols and pheromone at various concentrations. The results showed that the LUSH was saturated at 1000 μg/ml on the gold sensor chip. The detection response of LUSH was significant at higher concentration of alcohols. LUSH detected ethanol at concentration >=50% propanol was detected at >=25% whereas pheromone was detected at >=1.25 μg/μl. The results provide some fundamental information on the potential use of LUSH-based SPR as a simple and easy protein-based sensor in the near future.

  7. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  8. Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Adebayo; Ifudu, Onyekachi

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion) or obesity (US$133 billion). Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol. PMID:24791039

  9. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence.

  10. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  11. Gene-based and pathway-based genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    ZUO, Lingjun; ZHANG, Clarence K.; SAYWARD, Frederick G.; CHEUNG, Kei-Hoi; WANG, Kesheng; KRYSTAL, John H.; ZHAO, Hongyu; LUO, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    Background The organization of risk genes within signaling pathways may provide clues about the converging neurobiological effects of risk genes for alcohol dependence. Aim Identify risk genes and risk gene pathways for alcohol dependence. Methods We conducted a pathway-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) of alcohol dependence using a gene-set-rich analytic approach. Approximately one million genetic markers were tested in the discovery sample which included 1409 European-American (EA) alcohol dependent individuals and 1518 EA healthy comparison subjects. An additional 681 African-American (AA) cases and 508 AA healthy subjects served as the replication sample. Results We identified several genome-wide replicable risk genes and risk pathways that were significantly associated with alcohol dependence. After applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the ‘cellextracellular matrix interactions’ pathway (p<2.0E-4 in EAs) and the PXN gene (which encodes paxillin) (p=3.9E-7 in EAs) within this pathway were the most promising risk factors for alcohol dependence. There were also two nominally replicable pathways enriched in alcohol dependence-related genes in both EAs (0.015≤p≤0.035) and AAs (0.025≤p≤0.050): the ‘Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters’ pathway and the ‘other glycan degradation’ pathway. Conclusion These findings provide new evidence highlighting several genes and biological signaling processes that may be related to the risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26120261

  12. Structural restoration of nematodes and acanthocephalans fixed in high percentage alcohol using DESS solution and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Naem, Soraya; Pagan, Christopher; Nadler, Steven A

    2010-08-01

    Ninety-five percent ethanol is the most widely used field and laboratory preservative for nematodes and other helminth specimens intended for use in molecular systematics. Preservation of nematodes in high-concentration alcohols results in structural dehydration artifacts, including shrinkage and body surface distortions sufficient to obscure features required for morphological identification and analysis, thereby compromising precise morphometrics. However, treating dehydrated nematodes using a solution of DMSO, disodium EDTA, and NaCl, followed by rehydration in water produces marked improvements in specimen shape and surface features, resulting from diffusion of water into the tissues and pseudocoelom as the internal salt concentration is reduced. Following rehydration, tissue samples can be obtained for molecular research and individuals can be fixed for morphological examination. This treatment method is demonstrated for species of 3 nematode genera that vary substantially in body size ( Baylisascaris , Uncinaria , and Bidigiticauda ). The method also works on nematodes that have been cut in half, provided the individuals are large enough to be folded and clamped during treatment. This method appears promising for other helminths, although for an acanthocephalan, the treatment restored the body surface but failed to reverse the retracted proboscis.

  13. Hydrophobic Hydration in Water-tert-Butyl Alcohol Solutions by Extended Depolarized Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Comez, L; Paolantoni, M; Lupi, L; Sassi, P; Corezzi, S; Morresi, A; Fioretto, D

    2015-07-23

    Molecular dynamics and structural properties of water-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) mixtures are studied as a function of concentration by extended depolarized light scattering (EDLS) experiments. The wide frequency range, going from fraction to several thousand GHz, explored by EDLS allows distinguishing TBA rotational dynamics from structural relaxation of water and intermolecular vibrational and librational modes of the solution. Contributions to the water relaxation originating from two distinct populations, i.e. hydration and bulk water, are clearly identified. The dynamic retardation factor of hydration water with respect to the bulk, ξ ≈ 4, almost concentration independent, is one of the smallest found by EDLS among a variety of systems of different nature and complexity. This result, together with the small number of water molecules perturbed by the presence of TBA, supports the idea that hydrophobic simple molecules are less effective than hydrophilic and more complex molecules in perturbing the H-bond network of liquid water. At increasing TBA concentrations the average number of perturbed water molecules shows a pronounced decrease and the characteristic frequency of librational motions reduces significantly, both of which are results consistent with the occurrence of self-aggregation of TBA molecules.

  14. What Works in School-Based Alcohol Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nicole K.; Cameron, Jacqui; Battams, Samantha; Roche, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention has been focused on the impact of young people's alcohol use. To address this, schools often implement alcohol and drug education and there are many potential programmes to choose from. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify evidence-based alcohol education programmes for schools. Methods: A systematic…

  15. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month period...'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol, and the Commission transmitted it determinations to the...

  16. Solute retention and the states of water in polyethylene glycol and poly(vinyl alcohol) gels.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Shibukawa, Masami; Oguma, Koichi

    2004-06-18

    The states of water sorbed in a cross-linked polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, TSKgel Ether-250, and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels of different pore sizes, TSKgel Toyopearl HW-40S, 50S, 55S and 75S, were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that there were three types of water in these hydrogels, non-freezing water, freezable bound water and free water. The amount of water that functions as the stationary phase in the column packed with the each gel was also estimated by a liquid chromatographic method. The estimated amount of the stationary phase water is in good agreement with the sum of the amount of non-freezing water and that of freezable bound water for HW-40S, 50S and 55S, while it agrees with the amount of only non-freezing water for HW-75S and Ether-250. This means that the stationary phase water consists of non-freezing water and freezable bound water for HW-40S, 50S and 55S, while only non-freezing water functions as the stationary phase in HW-75S and Ether-250 gels. This result can be attributed to the difference in the structure of the gels; the PVA gels containing PVA at relatively high concentrations, HW-40S, 50S and 55S, have a homogeneous gel phase, whereas HW-75S and Ether-250 have a heterogeneous gel phase consisting hydrated polymer domains and macropores with relatively hydrophobic surface. The freezable bound water in Toyopearl HW-40S, 50S and 55S can be regarded as a component of a homogeneous PVA solution phase, while that in HW-75S and Ether-250 may be water isolated in small pores of the hydrophobic domains. The results obtained by the investigation on the retention selectivity of these hydrogels in aqueous solutions supported our postulated view on the structures of the hydrogels.

  17. Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Shadow over Sub-Saharan Africa in Need of Workable Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Parry, Charles D H; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-03-27

    Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa. In this review, we argue that to have a positive impact on the health of African populations, action addressing specific features of alcohol policy in the continent is needed, namely focusing on particularities linked to alcohol availability, like unrecorded and illicit production, outlet licensing, the expansion of formal production, marketing initiatives and taxation policies.

  18. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  19. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  20. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  1. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders.

  2. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty alcohols in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2015-07-01

    By analysis of experimental data, a quantitative theoretical interpretation of the solubility limit of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols in micellar solutions of water-soluble surfactants is presented. A general picture of the phase behavior of the investigated systems is given in the form of phase diagrams. The limited solubility of the fatty alcohols in the micelles of conventional surfactants is explained with the precipitation of their monomers in the bulk, rather than with micelle phase separation. The long chain fatty alcohols (with n=14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms) exhibit an ideal mixing in the micelles of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Deviations from ideality are observed for the alcohols of shorter chain (n=10 and 12), which can be explained by a mismatch with the longer chains of the surfactant molecules. Using the determined thermodynamic parameters of the systems, their phase diagrams are constructed. Such a diagram consists of four domains, viz. mixed micelles; coexistent micelles and precipitate (dispersed crystallites or droplets); precipitate without micelles, and molecular solution. The four boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, Q. For ionic surfactants (like SLES), a detailed theory for calculating the boundary lines of the phase diagrams is developed and verified against data for the positions of the kinks in surface tension isotherms. The theory takes into account the electrostatic interactions in the micellar solutions and the effect of counterion binding. The results can be useful for a quantitative interpretation and prediction of the phase behavior of mixed solutions of two (or more) surfactants, one of them being water soluble and forming micelles, whereas the other one has a limited water solubility, but readily forms mixed micelles with the former surfactant.

  3. Solution-based nanoengineering of materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Spoerke, Erik David; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Machesky, Michael L.; Tian, Zhengrong Ryan; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2005-02-01

    Solution-based synthesis is a powerful approach for creating nano-structured materials. Although there have been significant recent successes in its application to fabricating nanomaterials, the general principles that control solution synthesis are not well understood. The purpose of this LDRD project was to develop the scientific principles required to design and build unique nanostructures in crystalline oxides and II/VI semiconductors using solution-based molecular self-assembly techniques. The ability to synthesize these materials in a range of different nano-architectures (from controlled morphology nanocrystals to surface templated 3-D structures) has provided the foundation for new opportunities in such areas as interactive interfaces for optics, electronics, and sensors. The homogeneous precipitation of ZnO in aqueous solution was used primarily as the model system for the project. We developed a low temperature, aqueous solution synthesis route for preparation of large arrays of oriented ZnO nanostructures. Through control of heterogeneous nucleation and growth, methods to predicatively alter the ZnO microstructures by tailoring the surface chemistry of the crystals were established. Molecular mechanics simulations, involving single point energy calculations and full geometry optimizations, were developed to assist in selecting appropriate chemical systems and understanding physical adsorption and ultimately growth mechanisms in the design of oxide nanoarrays. The versatility of peptide chemistry in controlling the formation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and zinc oxide/cadmium sulfide heterostructures was also demonstrated.

  4. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  5. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2-10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30-50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  6. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  7. The effect of structural modifications on the solution and interfacial properties of straight and branched aliphatic alcohols: the role of hydrophobic effects.

    PubMed

    Fong, Celesta; Greaves, Tamar L; Healy, Thomas W; Drummond, Calum J

    2015-07-01

    The effect of structural modifications, such as branching of the hydrocarbon chain on the solution and interfacial properties of short-chain aliphatic alcohols has been investigated. Surface tension measurements have been used to study the adsorption of the alcohols at the aqueous solution/air interface from water/alcohol mixtures, and to determine the aqueous solubilities of the alcohols. The related process of the partitioning behaviour of the alcohols between two immiscible phases has also been studied. Standard free energies of adsorption at the aqueous solution/air interface, standard free energies of transfer between water and hexane, and standard free energies of solution were obtained for the alcohols. A linear "Traube" relationship, an elegant demonstration of the hydrophobic effect, was found to exist between the various free energies for the normal alcohols and the number of carbon atoms in the alcohol molecule. The free energies showed that structurally modified alcohols have less negative free energy of adsorption, transfer or solution compared to the normal alcohol with the same number of carbon atoms. We assign effective numbers of carbon atoms for each branched alcohol for each transfer process. The position of the hydroxyl group relative to the branched part of the molecule was found to be a factor which influences the hydrophobic contribution to the free energy of each transfer process. An attempt has been made to ascertain whether there is a correlation between the molecular surface area, or the molecular volume, and the interfacial and solution thermodynamic properties of an alcohol in aqueous solution. The standard free energies of some of the branched alcohols have been found to be inconsistent with the values expected from the energetic of the adsorption and the water/hexane transfer processes. This is thought to reflect the different modes of association of the branched and normal alcohols in the liquid state as revealed by small and wide

  8. Pt/Ceria-based Catalysts for Small Alcohol Electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez-Mora, Christian L.

    High emissions of fossil-based energy sources have led to scientists around the world to develop new alternatives for the future. In this sense, fuel cells are a remarkable and promising energy option with less environmental impact. The most used fuels for this technology are hydrogen and small chain alcohols, which can be oxidized to transform their chemical energy into electrical power. To do this, fuel cells need catalysts that will act as an active surface where the oxidation can take place. The problem with platinum catalysts is its possible CO poisoning with intermediates that are produced before the complete oxidation of alcohol to CO2. Different approaches have been taken to try to resolve this issue. In this case, cerium oxide (ceria) was selected as a co-catalyst to mitigate the effect of CO poisoning of platinum. Ceria is a compound that has the ability to work as an "oxygen tank" and can donate oxygen to carbon monoxide that is strongly adsorbed at platinum surface to produce CO2 (carbon dioxide), regenerating the Pt surface for further alcohol oxidation. Therefore, enhancing the current density as well as the power output of a fuel cell. First, an occlusion deposition technique was used to prepare platinum/ceria composite electrodes and tested them towards small chain alcohol oxidation such as methanol oxidation reaction in acidic and alkaline media. The preliminary results demonstrated that the Pt/ceria electrodes were more efficient towards methanol electrooxidation when compared to Pt electrodes. This enhancement was attributed to the presence of ceria. A second preparation method was selected for the synthesis of ceria/Pt catalysts. In this case, a hydrothermal method was used and the catalysis were studied for the effect of MeOH, EtOH and n-BuOH oxidation. The observed effect was that electrodes made of Pt/Pt:CeO2-x showed better catalytic effect than Pt/ceria and platinum electrodes. Moreover, a comparison between ceria nanorods versus

  9. Inferring Alcoholism SNPs and Regulatory Chemical Compounds Based on Ensemble Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Sun, Jiatong; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Xianyue; Wu, Lingxiang; Wu, Wei; Wang, Qh

    2016-12-20

    The disturbance of consciousness is one of the most common symptoms of those have alcoholism and may cause disability and mortality. Previous studies indicated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) increase the susceptibility of alcoholism. In this study, we utilized the Ensemble Bayesian Network (EBN) method to identify causal SNPs of alcoholism based on the verified GAW14 data. Thirteen out of eighteen SNPs directly connected with alcoholism were found concordance with potential risk regions of alcoholism in OMIM database. As a number of SNPs were found contributing to alteration on gene expression, known as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), we further sought to identify chemical compounds acting as regulators of alcoholism genes captured by causal SNPs. Chloroprene and valproic acid were identified as the expression regulators for genes C11orf66 and SALL3 which were captured by alcoholism SNPs, respectively.

  10. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program Manual on Comprehensive K-12 School-Based Prevention and Intervention Alcohol and Drug Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This document presents a manual to help program developers plan for a comprehensive school and community-based response to the drug problem as required by the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. Part I explains the purpose of the manual and discusses other work being conducted by the North Carolina Alcohol and Drug Defense Program. Part II…

  11. Preoperative Disinfection of Surgeons' Hands: Use of Alcoholic Solutions and Effects of Gloves on Skin Flora

    PubMed Central

    Lowbury, E. J. L.; Lilly, H. A.; Ayliffe, G. A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A single application of about 10 ml of 95% alcoholic chlorhexidine (0·5%) or tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol (0·1%) rubbed on to the hands until they were dry led to mean reduction in viable bacterial counts from standard handwashings of 97·9 ± 1·09% and 91·8 ± 4·63% respectively. After six of such treatments, three on each of two successive days, the mean reductions in relation to viable counts before the first treatment were 99·7 ± 0·09% for alcoholic chlorhexidine and 99·5 ± 0·17% for tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol. These reductions were greater than those obtained with 4% chlorhexidine detergent solution— 87·1 ± 3·5% and 98·2 ± 1·6%, and with 95% or 70% ethyl alcohol and with aqueous 0·5% chlorhexidine. Preoperative washing of the surgeon's hands with alcoholic chlorhexidine used without addition of water is more effective and less expensive than handwashing with antiseptic detergent preparations and running water. The viable counts of washings from hands treated with various antiseptics, including ethyl alcohol, were lower in relation to the pretreatment levels when gloves had been worn for three hours than when samples for counts were taken immediately after the antiseptic treatment. No such difference was found in samplings from hands washed with unmedicated soap. Tests for residual action of antiseptics on the skin showed a greater effect with alcoholic chlorhexidine than with tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol, though both showed greater residual activity than an Irgasan DP 300 detergent preparation. No residual action was shown after 70% ethyl alcohol. PMID:4609555

  12. [Population-based studies on alcohol-related harm in Spain].

    PubMed

    Pulido, José; Indave-Ruiz, B Iciar; Colell-Ortega, Esther; Ruiz-García, Mónica; Bartroli, Montserrat; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Based on the review of scientific papers and institutional reports on the subject and analysis of some secondary data, we assess the alcohol-related harm in Spain between 1990 and 2011. In 2011 they could be attributable to alcohol, 10% of the total mortality of the population aged 15-64, and about 30% of deaths due to traffic accidents. Among the population aged 15-64 years at least 0.8% had alcohol use disorders, an additional 5% could have harmful alcohol consumption that would need clinical evaluation, and about 20% had had some acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) in the last year. The AAI accounted for approximately 0.5-1.1 % of hospital emergency visits. Social costs of alcohol could represent 1% of gross domestic product. The prevalence of alcohol-related harm was significantly higher in men than women, with a male/female ratio greater than three for alcohol-related mortality and serious injuries, and this situation has hardly changed in the last 20 years. Alcohol-related harm has followed a downward trend, except for AAI. In 1990-2011 the standardized mortality rates related to alcohol decreased by half. Large gaps in knowledge and uncertainties on alcohol-related harm in Spanish population, clearly justify the institutional support for the research in this field and the implementation of a comprehensive monitoring system.

  13. Amino alcohol-based degradable poly(ester amide) elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Bruggeman, Joost P.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Langer, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Currently available synthetic biodegradable elastomers are primarily composed of crosslinked aliphatic polyesters, which suffer from deficiencies including (1) high crosslink densities, which results in exceedingly high stiffness, (2) rapid degradation upon implantation, or (3) limited chemical moieties for chemical modification. Herein, we have developed poly(1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-co-polyol sebacate)s, a new class of synthetic, biodegradable elastomeric poly(ester amide)s composed of crosslinked networks based on an amino alcohol. These crosslinked networks feature tensile Young’s modulus on the order of 1 MPa and reversable elongations up to 92%. These polymers exhibit in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. These polymers have projected degradation half-lives up to 20 months in vivo. PMID:18295329

  14. Pulse radiolysis of tetrazolium violet in aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions under oxidative and reductive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, A.; Wojnárovits, L.; Pálfi, T.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Fletcher, J.

    2008-09-01

    The radiolytic reduction of colourless tetrazolium salts to coloured formazans in liquid and solid state is suggested for dosimetry purposes. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, a pulse radiolysis study was conducted in aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions under oxidative and reductive conditions. Under reducing conditions, fast formation of the electron adduct tetrazolinyl radical was observed: coloured formazan final product formed during the decay of electron adduct. Both the decay of the tetrazolinyl radical and the formation of the formazan were found to be second order. The spectra of the formazan were similar in neutral and alkaline solutions, but with higher absorbance in the latter solutions due to the higher molar absorption coefficient. Under oxidative conditions formazan did not form; hydroxylated products through OH-adducts were observed in the pH range studied.

  15. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States.... domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month period ending on the preceding September 30. This determination is to be used to establish the ``base quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl...

  16. Facile access to unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ye; Wang, Ping-An; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Well-defined unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on a cis-2,5-disubstitued pyrrolidine backbone were synthesized from commercially available starting materials meso-diethyl-2,5-dibromoadipate, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine, and phenylalaninol. The structures of these unnatural dipeptide-alcohols are supported by HRMS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These unnatural dipeptide-alcohols can act as building blocks for peptidomimetics.

  17. School/Community-Based Alcoholism/Substance Abuse Prevention Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken; And Others

    This report describes school and community efforts to prevent alcoholism and substance abuse among American Indian and Alaskan Native youth. In 1986, the Indian Health Service (IHS) surveyed Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, public schools with large Indian enrollments, and community groups involved in 225 IHS-funded alcohol and substance abuse…

  18. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A

    2006-02-10

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for

  19. Students' Experiences with Web-Based Alcohol Prevention: A Qualitative Evaluation of AlcoholEdu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Peter; Paschall, Mallie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To provide more in-depth information about students' experiences with AlcoholEdu and in particular to assess if students perceive that the course gives them tools to better control their drinking-related behavior. Methods: Focus group interviews with freshmen at three California universities. Findings: 1) The course provides so much…

  20. Partner Violence before and after Couples-Based Alcoholism Treatment for Female Alcoholic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2009-01-01

    This study examined partner violence before and in the 1st and 2nd year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners; it used a demographically matched nonalcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months.…

  1. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-08-31

    The principal objectives of this study are to identify an appropriate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidative mineralization technique, perform compatibility and evaporation fate tests for neat and mineralized PVA, and determine potential for PVA chemical interferences which may affect ion exchange utilization for radioactive wastewater processing in the nuclear industry.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  3. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population‐based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew H.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Hall, Lynsey S.; Fernandez‐Pujals, Ana M.; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Smith, Blair H.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol dependence is frequently co‐morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale‐Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population‐based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = −0.027; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.001, β = −0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = −0.036; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.00005, β = −0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10−7, β = −0.054; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.000012, β = −0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders. PMID:25865819

  4. Approach to the genetics of alcoholism: a review based on pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a common disorder with a heterogenous etiology. The results of family, twin and adoption studies on alcoholism are reviewed. These studies have revealed a heritability of alcoholism of over 50%. After evaluating the results, it was epidemiologically stated that alcoholism is heterogenous complex disorder with a multiple genetic background. Modern molecular genetic techniques allow examining specific genes involved in the pathophysiology of complex diseases such as alcoholism. Strategies for gene identification are introduced to the reader, including family-based and association studies. The susceptibility genes that are in the focus of this article have been chosen because they are known to encode for underlying mechanisms that are linked to the pathophysiology of alcoholism or that are important for the pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Postulated candidate genes of the metabolism of alcohol and of the involved neurotransmitter systems are introduced. Genetic studies on alcoholism examining the metabolism of alcohol and the dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, opioid, cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems as well as the neuropeptide Y are presented. The results are critically discussed followed by a discussion of possible consequences.

  5. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  6. Cellulose-Based Membranes for Solutes Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, T. S.; Yushkin, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Antonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. V.

    This work was focused on investigation of industrial cellophane film as a membrane material for solvent nanofiltration. The effect of conditioning of cellophane membranes by stepwise changing of composition of ethanol-water binary mixtures (from ethanol to water and from water to ethanol) was studied. It was shown that such treatment leads to an increase of ethanol permeability more than two orders of magnitude over initial untreated film samples. Treated cellophane membranes possess the ethanol permeability coefficient comparable with the values for highly permeability glassy polymers. Investigation of cellophane swelling in water ethanol solutions allowed to conclude that during the treatment formation of porous in the film takes place due to increase of inter chain distances. Observed high ethanol permeability connected with the fact that formed porous structure remains after the replacement of water with ethanol. Also it was shown that rejection coefficients of a number of dyes (MW 350) were in good agreement with the degree of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonding with the solute molecules. It was demonstrated that cellulose-based membranes can be complimentary for other type of the membranes in fractionation of multi-components solutions.

  7. Maternal Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Metabolism Genes, and the Risk of Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Norway, 1996–2001

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Lie, Rolv T.; Taylor, Jack A.; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen J.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out in Norway (1996–2001), the authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of oral clefts according to mother and infant ADH1C haplotypes encoding fast or slow alcohol-metabolizing phenotypes. Subjects were 483 infants with oral cleft malformations and 503 control infants and their mothers, randomly selected from all other livebirths taking place during the same period. Mothers who consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks per sitting during the first trimester of pregnancy had an elevated risk of oral cleft in their offspring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 4.7). This increased risk was evident only in mothers or children who carried the ADH1C haplotype associated with reduced alcohol metabolism (OR= 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8). There was no evidence of alcohol-related risk when both mother and infant carried only the rapid-metabolism ADH1C variant (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.1). The teratogenic effect of alcohol may depend on the genetic capacity of the mother and fetus to metabolize alcohol. PMID:20810466

  8. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N=150 was…

  9. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  10. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  11. Influencing Adolescent Social Perceptions of Alcohol Use to Facilitate Change through a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Marya T.; Monreal, Teresa K.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the effectiveness of a voluntary high school-based alcohol intervention by investigating one proposed mechanism of change in adolescent alcohol involvement: perception of peer use. High school students reporting lifetime drinking (N = 2055) completed fall and spring surveys that assessed demographic information,…

  12. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene/Graphene Oxide-Based Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu; Long, Nguyen Huynh Bach Son; Kieu, Dang Thi Minh; Nhiem, Ly Tan

    2016-05-01

    Graphene (GE)- or graphene oxide (GO)-based poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes have been prepared by the solution blending method. Raman spectra and atomic force microscopy images confirmed that GE and GO were synthesized with average thickness of 0.901 nm and 0.997 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated good exfoliation of GE or GO in the PVA matrix. Fourier-transform infrared spectra revealed the chemical fractions of the nanocomposite membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry results proved that the thermal stability of the nanocomposite membranes was enhanced compared with neat PVA membrane. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed good dispersion of GE or GO sheets in the PVA matrix with thickness in the range of 19 nm to 39 nm. As a result, good compatibility between GE or GO and PVA was obtained at 0.5 wt.% filler content.

  14. Ligand-Substitution Reactions of the Tellurium Compound AS-101 in Physiological Aqueous and Alcoholic Solutions.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Alon; Albeck, Michael; Sredni, Benjamin; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-11-07

    Since its first crystallization, the aqueous structure of the tellurium-containing experimental drug AS-101 has never been studied. We show that, under the aqueous conditions in which it is administered, AS-101 is subjected to an immediate ligand-substitution reaction with water, yielding a stable hydrolyzed oxide anion product that is identified, for the first time, to be TeOCl3(-). Studying the structure of AS-101 in propylene glycol (PG), an alcoholic solvent often used for the topical and oral administration of AS-101, revealed the same phenomenon of ligand-substitution reaction between the alcoholic ligands. Upon exposure to water, the PG-substituted product is also hydrolyzed to the same tellurium(IV) oxide form, TeOCl3(-).

  15. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  16. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.

  17. Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate from a homogeneous precursor solution in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was demonstrated by the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions (pH 10). In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol %) was used as the precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. Thermogravimetric analysis of the obtained xerogels showed that increasing the UV irradiation time increased the amount of CaCO3 formed and the complete conversion of calcium ions to calcite was achieved after 50 min of UV irradiation. Furthermore, solid phase analyses suggested that nanometer-to-micron-sized calcite crystals were formed and dispersed in the obtained PVAPS matrix.

  18. Enthalpy pair coefficients of interaction for DL-valine in aqueous solutions of polyatomic alcohols at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    Integral enthalpies of dissolution Δsol H m of DL-valine are measured via calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and 1,2-propylene glycol. Standard values of the enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H ○) and transfer (Δtr H ○) of amino acid from water to mixed solvent are calculated from the resulting experimental data. The enthalpy coefficients for pair interactions hxy of amino acid with polyatomic alcohol molecules are calculated using the McMillan-Meyer theory and have positive values. The obtained results are discussed in light of the theory of the predomination of various types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of the dissolution of amino acids.

  19. Effects of Carrier Gas Conditions on Concentration of Alcohol Aqueous Solution by Ultrasonic Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Tanaka, Naofumi; Rong, Lei; Nakamura, Masaaki; Li, Li; Oda, Akiyoshi; Kawase, Yasuhito

    2003-05-01

    The effects of carrier gas conditions on the concentration of ethanol by ultrasonic atomization are examined. With increasing height from vessel bottom to gas inlet and outlet, the ethanol content in the accompanied liquid increases and the flow rate of alcohol decreases. The ethanol content in the accompanied liquid becomes lower as the gas velocity becomes higher. The attachment of a demister is effective for the increase of the content in the accompanied liquid.

  20. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  1. Zinc pyrithione in alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis: persistence of antimicrobial effects.

    PubMed

    Guthery, Eugene; Seal, Lawton A; Anderson, Edward L

    2005-02-01

    Alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis have a long history of safety and efficacy in the United States and abroad. However, alcohol alone lacks the required antimicrobial persistence to provide for the sustained periods of skin antisepsis desired in the clinical environment. Therefore, alcohol-based products must have a preservative agent such as iodine/iodophor compounds, chlorhexidine gluconate, or zinc pyrithione, to extend its antimicrobial effects. Iodine, iodophors, and chlorhexidine gluconate are well-characterized antimicrobials and preservatives. The thrust of our effort was to examine the characteristics of the lesser-known zinc pyrithione and to evaluate its utility as a preservative in the formulation of alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis. This work includes a literature review of current zinc pyrithione applications in drugs and cosmetics, a safety and toxicity evaluation, consideration of the proposed mechanisms of antimicrobial action, in vitro and in vivo efficacy data, and a discussion of the mechanisms that confer the desired antimicrobial persistence. In addition, alcohol-based, zinc pyrithione-preserved, commercially available products of skin antisepsis are compared with other commercially available antimicrobials used for skin antisepsis and with additional alcohol-based products with different preservatives. The authors' conclusion is that zinc pyrithione is not only a safe and effective antimicrobial but that its use in certain alcohol-based formulations results in antimicrobial efficacy exceeding that of iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate.

  2. Project-Based Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Alcohol Problems: Within-Subjects Analyses of 2-Year Alcohol Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Ginzler, Joshua A.; Garner, Michelle D.; Burlingham, Bonnie; Lonczak, Heather S.; Dana, Elizabeth A.; Kirouac, Megan; Tanzer, Kenneth; Hobson, William G.; Marlatt, G. Alan; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Two-year alcohol use trajectories were documented among residents in a project-based Housing First program. Project-based Housing First provides immediate, low-barrier, nonabstinence-based, permanent supportive housing to chronically homeless individuals within a single housing project. The study aim was to address concerns that nonabstinence-based housing may enable alcohol use. Methods. A 2-year, within-subjects analysis was conducted among 95 chronically homeless individuals with alcohol problems who were allocated to project-based Housing First. Alcohol variables were assessed through self-report. Data on intervention exposure were extracted from agency records. Results. Multilevel growth models indicated significant within-subjects decreases across alcohol use outcomes over the study period. Intervention exposure, represented by months spent in housing, consistently predicted additional decreases in alcohol use outcomes. Conclusions. Findings did not support the enabling hypothesis. Although the project-based Housing First program did not require abstinence or treatment attendance, participants decreased their alcohol use and alcohol-related problems as a function of time and intervention exposure. PMID:22390516

  3. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  4. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  5. Computer experiments on aqueous solutions. VI. Potential energy function for tert-butyl alcohol dimer and molecular dynamics calculation of 3 mol % aqueous solution of tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Touhara, Hidekazu

    1984-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out for a dilute aqueous solution of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) at 298.15 K and with experimental density value by the use of constant temperature technique developed previously. The total number of molecule is 216, seven of which are TBA. The mole fraction of TBA is thus 0.032. For water-water and TBA-water interactions, the MCY (Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine) potential and previously reported potential determined by MO calculation are used. A new potential for TBA-TBA is determined by ab initio LCAO SCF calculations for more than 500 different configurations with an STO-3G basis set and subsequent multiparameter fitting of the MO data to a 12-6-3-1 type potential energy function. The MD calculation is extended up to 84 000 time steps (26 ps) and final 60 000 time steps are used to calculate both static and dynamic properties of the system. Both hydrophobic hydration and interaction due to TBA molecules are proved to be stronger than those of methanol studied previously. Structural promotion of water is clearly observed in radial distribution functions and trajectories of each molecule. The configuration and trajectory of all the molecules in solution indicate clearly the association of TBA molecules. It is also found from pair interaction distribution functions that no hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between two TBA molecules. The self-diffusion coefficient of water in the solution is appreciably smaller than that in pure water.

  6. Predictive models of alcohol use based on attitudes and individual values.

    PubMed

    García del Castillo Rodríguez, José A; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Quiles Soler, M Carmen; García del Castillo-López, Alvaro; Gázquez Pertusa, Mónica; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Inglés, Candido J

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people's attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The questionnaire used obtained information on participants' alcohol use, attitudes and personal values. The results show that the attitudes model correctly classifies 76.3% of cases. Likewise, the model for level of alcohol use correctly classifies 82% of cases. According to our results, we can conclude that there are a series of individual values that influence drinking and attitudes to alcohol use, which therefore provides us with a potentially powerful instrument for developing preventive intervention programs.

  7. The cluster structure of dilute aqueous-alcoholic solutions and molecular light scattering in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malomuzh, N. P.; Slinchak, E. L.

    2007-11-01

    The structures, equations of state, and character of fluctuations of dilute water-glycerol solutions are discussed. Two or three glycerol and about ten water molecules were found to form a fairly stable molecular complex. We call this complex elementary cluster (pseudoparticle). In a certain region of state parameters, the system could be considered a solution of pseudoparticles (clusters). Its properties were modeled by the van der Waals equation. The character of interactions between clusters was analyzed. An anomalous increase in concentration and molecular light scattering fluctuations was caused by the approach to the solution “pseudospinodal.” The experimental data were found to be in quite satisfactory agreement with theoretical estimates.

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting.

  9. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  10. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or

  11. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  12. Adsorption of various alcohols on Illinois No. 6 coal in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.; Rigby, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromacity of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal in water are relatively determined by evaluating equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption of probe compounds on the coal. Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various additives on 60--200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed to investigate relatively surface properties of the coal at 25{degree}C. The additives include various alcohols, alkanes and aromatic compounds. The main objectives of this research are to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals with the inverse liquid chromatography technique, using various probe compounds, to analyze flotation recoveries of coals with a micro-flotation apparatus in order to relate coal floatability to evaluated coal surface properties, and to delineate roles of coal-cleaning/handling additives with the inverse liquid chromatography technique.

  13. Saccharification and alcohol fermentation in starch solution of steam-exploded potato.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, F; Sawada, T; Nakamura, Y; Ohnaga, M; Godliving, M; Ushiyama, T

    1998-03-01

    Steam explosion pretreatment of potato for the efficient production of alcohol was experimentally studied. The amount of water-soluble starch increased with the increase of steam pressure, but the amounts of methanol-soluble material and Klason lignin remained insignificant, regardless of steam pressure. The potatoes exploded at high pressure were hydrolyzed into a low molecular liquid starch, and then easily converted into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using mixed microorganisms: an amylolytic microorganism, Aspergillus awamori, and a fermentation microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The maximal ethanol concentration was 4.2 g/L in a batch culture at 15 g/L starch concentration, and 3.6 g/L in a continuous culture fed the same starch concentration. In the fed-batch culture, the maximal ethanol concentration increased more than twofold, compared to the batch culture.

  14. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-09-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the "imperfect" gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended lifestyle

  15. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A “multiple-hit” pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the “imperfect” gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended

  16. Rheological characterization of solutions and thin films made from amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes and polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hay, William T; Byars, Jeffrey A; Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W

    2017-04-01

    The rheological properties of aqueous solutions and films made from blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes (Hex-Am) were investigated to better understand the polymer interactions and processing parameters. Aqueous solutions of Hex-Am displayed non-Newtonian shear thinning characteristics, becoming highly viscous at 4.2% solids and forming a strong mechanical gel at 10% solids. Cationic Hex-Am was observed to have dramatically different rheological temperature response profiles from anionic amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes, displaying a precipitous increase in viscosity upon cooling from 95°C to 50°C. Aqueous solution blends of 1:1 PVOH/Hex-Am lack this precipitous increase in viscosity, indicating that PVOH reduces amylose-chain entanglement. Films cast from varying blends of Hex-Am and PVOH were thermostable to 200°C, and displayed decreasing storage modulus with increasing concentrations of PVOH in film blends. Films cast from Hex-Am/PVOH absorb water vapor at lower rates than their constitutive polymers.

  17. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-01-27

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders.

  18. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  19. Children of Alcoholics: A School-Based Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Connie K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines differences between 4th-6th grade children of alcoholics (COAs) and non-COAs on measures of internalized shame, self-esteem, perceived support, and teacher behavior ratings. No significant differences were found on measures of social support and shame; however self-esteem and teacher ratings for COAs were significantly lower. Gender…

  20. Effect of copper nanofluid in aqueous solution of long chain alcohols in the performance of heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Sivaraman, B.

    2015-02-01

    Heat pipes are widely used for the thermal control of electronic devices due to their capability of heat transport at high rate over considerable distance with small temperature drop. This study investigates the experimental performance of the heat pipe using the combination of copper nanofluids and the different types of aqueous solution of long chain alcohols. An experimental system is set up to measure the temperature distribution of heat pipes along the surface to determine the thermal efficiency and the thermal resistance of different working fluids computed. The working fluids used in this analysis illustrate certain improvement in the metrics over the conventional working fluids, pertaining to the heat transport limitations. The experimental results display higher efficiency and lower thermal resistance of the heat pipe when compared with the conventional working fluids like water.

  1. Effect of Salt Concentration on the Structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Cryogels Obtained from Aqueous Salt Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Zagorskaya, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The degree of polymer crystallinity and water content on the surfaces and in the bulk of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cryogels prepared from aqueous salt solutions were determined as functions of KCl concentration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of PVA crystallinity increased with increasing KCl concentration and was much greater in the cryogel bulk than on its surfaces. Addition of salt at a concentration of 1.3 M increased the degree of polymer crystallinity on the cryogel surfaces by 1.6-2.3 times whereas the crystallinity in the bulk increased by 3.3-4 times. The cryogel water contents on the surfaces and in the bulk were approximately equal and were practically independent of the salt concentration.

  2. The Link Between Alcohol Use and Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities: An Event-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men’s alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on non-drinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men’s patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups. PMID:20853937

  3. The link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities: an event-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-09-01

    The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18-30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on nondrinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men's patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

  4. Alcohol sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefina Yulias, R.; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol sensor based on Single-mode -Multimode-Single-mode (SMS) fiber structure is being proposed to sense alcohol concentration in alcohol-water mixtures. This proposed sensor uses refractive index sensing as its sensing principle. Fabricated SMS fiber structure had 40 m of multimode length. With power input -6 dBm and wavelength 1550 nm, the proposed sensor showed good response with sensitivity 1,983 dB per % v/v with measurement range 05 % v/v and measurement span 0,5% v/v.

  5. Regularization of identity based solution in string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeze, Syoji

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that an Erler-Schnabl type solution in cubic string field theory can be naturally interpreted as a gauge invariant regularization of an identity based solution. We consider a solution which interpolates between an identity based solution and ordinary Erler-Schnabl one. Two gauge invariant quantities, the classical action and the closed string tadpole, are evaluated for finite value of the gauge parameter. It is explicitly checked that both of them are independent of the gauge parameter.

  6. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamad M; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-06-15

    A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours. Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt (ES), coated the QCM electrode. The frequency shifts (Delta f) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour absorption into the ES film. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L(-1). The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient (D) of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics.

  7. Method and apparatus for producing alcohol and an alcohol-petroleum fuel mix

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.G.

    1982-04-20

    The present invention entails a method and apparatus for producing alcohol and mixing the produced alcohol with a conventional petroleum fuel to form an alcohol-petroleum fuel mix which is typically referred to as gasohol. A grain base material such as animal feed or crushed corn is allowed to ferment and during this process there is produced an alcohol base solution which is removed from the mash fermentation and delivered to a boiler mounted on a vehicle. During operation of the vehicle, heat from the vehicle engine exhaust is selectively directed to the boiler and the fermented alcohol base solution contained therein is heated by this exhaust air. As the alcohol base solution is heated there is produced an alcohol vapor which is directed from the boiler to a condenser where the alcohol vapor becomes liquid alcohol. The liquid alcohol is then collected and selectively mixed with a petroleum fuel carried by said vehicle to form the gasohol mix. Once formed, the gasohol mix is then directed to a carburetor operatively associated with the vehicle engine where the gasohol is metered into the engine.

  8. Experimental and computational study of the effect of alcohols on the solution and adsorption properties of a nonionic symmetric triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomeng; He, Feng; Salas, Carlos; Pasquinelli, Melissa A; Genzer, Jan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-02-02

    This study investigates the effect of alcohols on the solution and adsorption properties of symmetric triblock nonionic copolymers comprising blocks of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) (EO(37)PO(56)EO(37)). The cloud point, surface tension, critical micelle concentration (CMC), and maximum packing at the air-water interface are determined, and the latter is compared to the amount of polymer that adsorbs from solution onto polypropylene (PP) and cellulose surfaces. The interaction energy and radius of micelles are calculated by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Equivalent MD bead parameters were used in dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) simulations to study the influence of alcohols on the phase behavior of EO(37)PO(56)EO(37) and its adsorption on PP from aqueous solutions. The simulation results agree qualitatively with the experimental observations. Ethanol acts as a good cosolvent for EO(37)PO(56)EO(37) and reduces the amount of EO(37)PO(56)EO(37) that adsorbs on PP surfaces; however, little or no influence is observed on the adsorption on cellulose. Interestingly, longer chain alcohols, such as 1-pentanol, produce the opposite effect. Overall, the solution and adsorption properties of nonionic symmetric triblock copolymers in the presence of alcohols are rationalized by changes in solvency and the hydrophobic effect.

  9. The innovative safe fixative for histology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry techniques: "pilot study using shellac alcoholic solution fixative".

    PubMed

    Ali Jamal, Awatif; Abd El-Aziz, Gamal Said; Hamdy, Raid Mahmoud; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah

    2014-05-01

    The concerns over health and workplace hazards of formalin fixative, joined to its cross-linking of molecular groups that results in suboptimal immunohistochemistry, led us to search for an innovative safe fixative. Shellac is a natural material which is used as a preservative in foods and pharmaceutical industries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the fixation adequacy and staining quality of histopathological specimens fixed in the "shellac alcoholic solution" (SAS), and also to determine the validity of immunohistochemical staining of SAS-fixed material in comparison to those fixed in formalin. Fresh samples from 26 cases from various human tissues were collected at the frozen section room of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, and fixed in SAS fixative or in neutral buffered formaldehyde (NBF) for 12, 18, 24, and 48 h, and processed for paraffin sectioning. Deparaffinized sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunostained for different antigens. The tissues fixed in SAS for >18 h showed best staining quality of H&E comparable to NBF-fixed tissues. Comparison of the immunohistochemical staining of different tissues yielded nearly equivalent readings with good positive nuclear staining quality in both fixatives. These findings support the fixation and preservation adequacy of SAS. Furthermore, it was concluded that the good staining quality obtained with SAS-fixed tissues, which was more or less comparable with the quality obtained with the formalin fixed tissues, supports the validity of this new solution as a good innovative fixative.

  10. Surface-Based Parameters of Brain Imaging in Male Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sungjin; Lee, Sang-Gu; Lee, Jeonghwan; Shin, Chul-Jin; Son, Jeong-Woo; Ju, Gawon; Lee, Sang-Ick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The structural alteration of brain shown in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) can originate from both alcohol effects and genetic or developmental processes. We compared surface-based parameters of patients with AUD with healthy controls to prove the applicability of surface-based morphometry with head size correction and to determine the areas that were sensitive to brain alteration related to AUD. Methods Twenty-six abstinent male patients with AUD (alcohol group, mean abstinence=13.2 months) and twenty-eight age-matched healthy participants (control group) were recruited from an inpatient mental hospital and community. All participants underwent a 3T MRI scan. Surface-based parameters were determined by using FreeSurfer. Results Every surface-based parameter of the alcohol group was lower than the corresponding control group parameter. There were large group differences in the whole brain, grey and white matter volume, and the differences were more prominent after head size correction. Significant group differences were shown in cortical thicknesses in entire brain regions, especially in parietal, temporal and frontal areas. There were no significant group differences in surface areas, but group difference trends in surface areas of the frontal and parietal cortices were shown after head size correction. Conclusion Most of the surface-based parameters in alcohol group were altered because of incomplete recovery from chronic alcohol exposure and possibly genetic or developmental factors underlying the risk of AUD. Surface-based morphometry with controlling for head size is useful in comparing the volumetric parameters and the surface area to a lesser extent in alcohol-related brain alteration. PMID:27757129

  11. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade... be used to establish the ``base quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol with a zero percent local... base quantity to be used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the administration of the law is...

  12. Exploratory Trial of a School-Based Alcohol Prevention Intervention with a Family Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrott, Jeremy; Rothwell, Heather; Pignatelli, Ilaria; Playle, Rebecca; Hewitt, Gillian; Huang, Chao; Murphy, Simon; Hickman, Matthew; Reed, Hayley; Moore, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of parents/carers may increase effectiveness of primary school-based alcohol-misuse prevention projects through strengthening family-based protective factors, but rates of parental engagement are typically low. This paper reports findings from an exploratory trial of a school-based prevention intervention--Kids, Adults…

  13. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  14. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  15. Can the use of 70% isopropyl alcohol swab or aspiration using 5 microm Filter Straw reduce bacterial contamination of fentanyl solution used for regional anaesthesia?

    PubMed

    Roshaliza, H M; Liu, C Y; Joanna, O S M

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study aimed to determine the extent of contamination of fentanyl solutions used for central neuraxial injection by wiping the neck of the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs (Kendall) before breaking open the ampoules and aspiration of fentanyl solutions using a 5 microm Filter Straw (B. Braun). In Group A, fifty fentanyl ampoules were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab prior to opening and the contents were aspirated immediately using a 21G needle and a 5 microm filter straw for culture. The same steps were repeated on the remaining solutions after two hours. In Group B, all the above steps were repeated but without wiping the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. None of the samples from the wiped ampoules or aspiration using filter straw grew microorganisms. Six percent of the samples from unwiped group grew microorganisms when fentanyl were aspirated using a 21G needle and the contamination increased to 16% when repeated after two hours. Wiping the outsides of the fentanyl ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs before opening or aspirating the contents using a 5 pm filter straw has been shown to be equally effective in avoiding bacterial contamination and should be practiced routinely when performing regional anaesthesia.

  16. Investigation into the structural composition of hydroalcoholic solutions as basis for the development of multiple suppression pulse sequences for NMR measurement of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-12-01

    An eight-fold suppression pulse sequence was recently developed to improve sensitivity in (1) H NMR measurements of alcoholic beverages [Magn. Res. Chem. 2011 (49): 734-739]. To ensure that only one combined hydroxyl peak from water and ethanol appears in the spectrum, adjustment to a certain range of ethanol concentrations was required. To explain this observation, the structure of water-ethanol solutions was studied. Hydroalcoholic solutions showed extreme behavior at 25% vol, 46% vol, and 83% vol ethanol according to (1) H NMR experiments. Near-infrared spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of four significant compounds ('individual' ethanol and water structures as well as two water-ethanol complexes of defined composition - 1 : 1 and 1 : 3). The successful multiple suppression can be achieved for every kind of alcoholic beverage with different alcoholic strengths, when the final ethanol concentration is adjusted to a range between 25% vol and 46% vol (e.g. using dilution or pure ethanol addition). In this optimum region, an individual ethanol peak was not detected, because the 'individual' water structure and the 1 : 1 ethanol-water complex predominate. The nature of molecular association in ethanol-water solutions is essential to elucidate NMR method development for measurement of alcoholic beverages. The presented approach can be used to optimize other NMR suppression protocols for binary water-organic solvent mixtures, where hydrogen bonding plays a dominant role.

  17. Enhanced selectivity for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to alcohols in aqueous solution with nanostructured Cu-Au alloy as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Falong; Yu, Xinxing; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-04-01

    Electrochemical reduction of CO2 in an aqueous 0.5 M KHCO3 solution is studied by use of novel nanostructured Cu-Au alloys, which are prepared through electrochemical deposition with a nanoporous Cu film (NCF) as template. Linear voltammetry results show that the as-synthesized Cu-Au alloys exhibit obvious catalysis towards electrochemical reduction of CO2. Further analysis of products reveals that faradic efficiencies of alcohols (methanol and ethanol) are greatly dependent on the nanostructures and compositions of Cu-Au alloys. It is expected that this work could provide new insight into the development of powerful electrocatalysts for reduction of CO2 to alcohols.

  18. Silicon-based products and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painchaud, Y.; Poulin, M.; Pelletier, F.; Latrasse, C.; Gagné, J.-F.; Savard, S.; Robidoux, G.; Picard, M.-.; Paquet, S.; Davidson, C.-.; Pelletier, M.; Cyr, M.; Paquet, C.; Guy, M.; Morsy-Osman, M.; Chagnon, M.; Plant, D. V.

    2014-03-01

    TeraXion started silicon photonics activities aiming at developing building blocks for new products and customized solutions. Passive and active devices have been developed including MMI couplers, power splitters, Bragg grating filters, high responsivity photodetectors, high speed modulators and variable optical attenuators. Packaging solutions including fiber attachment and hybrid integration using flip-chip were also developed. More specifically, a compact packaged integrated coherent receiver has been realized. Good performances were obtained as demonstrated by our system tests results showing transmission up to 4800 km with BER below hard FEC threshold. The package size is small but still limited by the electrical interface. Migrating to more compact RF interface would allow realizing the full benefit of this technology.

  19. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  20. Use of Novel Technology-Based Techniques to Improve Alcohol-Related Outcomes in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Eugenia M.; Kenna, George A.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the biologic basis of alcohol dependence and the considerable financial burden of alcohol abuse and dependence, the number of alcohol-related clinical pharmacotherapy trials has been on the rise. Subsequently, the potential to find efficacious treatments is more promising. Unfortunately, alcohol-related trials face a number of challenges, as a result of the difficulties that arise from traditional and outdated methods to collect data and ensure medication adherence. Novel technology-based assessments, such as ecological momentary assessment, interactive voice response, transdermal sensor and medication-event monitoring system provide a prospective solution—albeit not without possible concerns—to the difficulties faced in alcohol-related clinical trials. Clinical trials are meant to define the efficacy of the treatment and to determine an effective and safe dosage. However, due to lack of adherence a drug could inappropriately or mistakenly be judged as ineffective for treating a specific disorder. The described technologies may be important tools to prevent false negatives in validating drug efficacy, to provide consistency in clinical trials and to improve available data regarding the study of pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:23955872

  1. A qualitative exploration of attitudes towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers of two alcohol-attitude-based segments of the adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier study using social marketing and audience segmentation distinguished five segments of Dutch adolescents aged 12–18 years based on their attitudes towards alcohol. The present, qualitative study focuses on two of these five segments (‘ordinaries’ and ‘ordinary sobers’) and explores the attitudes of these two segments towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers in their alcohol use in more detail. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. With a 28-item questionnaire, segments of adolescents were identified. From the ordinaries and ordinary sobers who were willing to participate in a focus group, 55 adolescents (30 ordinaries and 25 ordinary sobers) were selected and invited to participate. Finally, six focus groups were conducted with 12–17 year olds, i.e., three interviews with 17 ordinaries and three interviews with 20 ordinary sobers at three different high schools. Results The ordinaries thought that drinking alcohol was fun and relaxing. Curiosity was an important factor in starting to drink alcohol. Peer pressure played a role, e.g., it was difficult not to drink when peers were drinking. Most parents advised their child to drink a small amount only. The attitude of ordinary sobers towards alcohol was that drinking alcohol was stupid; moreover, they did not feel the need to drink. Most parents set strict rules and prohibited the use of alcohol before the age of 16. Conclusions Qualitative insight into the attitudes towards alcohol and the role played by parents and peers, revealed differences between ordinaries and ordinary sobers. Based on these differences and on health education theories, starting points for the development of interventions, for both parents and adolescents, are formulated. Important starting points for interventions targeting ordinaries are reducing perceived peer pressure and learning to make one’s own choices. For the ordinary sobers, an

  2. CO2 adsorption properties of char produced from brown coal impregnated with alcohol amine solutions.

    PubMed

    Baran, Paweł; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Czuma, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction is critical to mitigating climate change. Power plants for heating and industry are significant sources of CO2 emissions. There is a need for identifying and developing new, efficient methods to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods used is flue gas purification by CO2 capture through adsorption. This study aimed to develop CO2 adsorbent out of modified brown coal impregnated with solutions of first-, second-, and third-order amines. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherms and CO2 isotherms were measured for the prepared samples. The results of experiments unexpectedly revealed that CO2 sorption capacity decreased after impregnation. Due to lack of strait trends in CO2 sorption capacity decrease, the results were closely analyzed to find the reason for the inconsistencies. It was revealed that different amines represent different affinities for CO2 and that the size and structure of impregnating factor has influence on the CO2 sorption capacity of impregnated material. The character of a support was also noticeable as well for impregnation results as for the affinity to CO2. The influence of amine concentration used was investigated along with the comparison on how the theoretical percentage of the impregnation on the support influenced the results. The reaction mechanism of tertiary amine was taken into consideration in connection to no presence of water vapor during the experiments. Key findings were described in the work and provide a strong basis for further studies on CO2 adsorption on amine-impregnated support.

  3. Temperature dependence of the rate constants for oxidation of organic compounds by peroxyl radicals in aqueous alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B.; Huie, R.E.; Kumar, M.; Neta, P.

    1992-01-23

    Rate constants for reactions of chlorinated methylperoxyl radicals with chlorpromazine (2-chloro-10-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]phenothiazine), trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), and ascorbate in aqueous alcohol solutions have been measured by pulse radiolysis as a function of temperature, generally between 5 and 75{degrees}C. The rate constants varied between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, the calculated Arrhenius activation energies ranged from 1 to 30 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and the preexponential factors also varied considerably, with log A ranging from 7 to 14. In general, room temperature rate constants increase with an increase in the number of chlorine atoms on the radical (increasing its electron affinity and thus the driving force for the reaction) and with an increase in the solvent polarity. The Arrhenius preexponential factor and the activation energy both increased as the proportion of water in the solvent mixture increased; i.e., the increase in rate constant with solvent polarity is a result of two compensating effects. Electron transfer from the organic reductants to the chlorinated methylperoxyl radicals is suggested to take place via an inner-sphere mechanism involving a transient adduct of the peroxyl radical to the reductant. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436

  5. Attitudes toward technology-based health information among adult emergency department patients with drug or alcohol misuse☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Esther K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Wong, Zerlina; Mello, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-based screening and interventions are emerging solutions to the challenge of addressing substance use in the emergency department (ED). A standardized questionnaire of adult patients at a large-volume, urban, academic ED assessed interest in, and potential barriers to, technology-based substance use information. Questionnaire topics included substance use, access to technology, preferences for health information, and perceived barriers to technology interventions. Among the 430 participants, mean age was 39 years and 55% were female; 37% reported alcohol misuse and 52% drug misuse. Access to technology was high. Technology was preferred by 46% of alcohol misusers (vs. 43% non-misusers, p=0.65) but only 41.9% of drug misusers (vs. 56% non-drug misusers, p=0.005). In multivariate analyses, drug misuse was associated with decreased interest in receiving technology-based information. Cited barriers included confidentiality, complexity, and time. Our findings suggest that drug misusers in particular may wish to have reassurances about the confidentiality of technology-based interactions. PMID:23107105

  6. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  7. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based film potentially suitable for antimicrobial packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Alessandro; Paderni, Katia; Fabbri, Paola; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Fava, Patrizia

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed at developing a thin and water-resistant food-grade poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based matrix able to swell when in contact with high moisture content food products without rupturing to release antimicrobial agents onto the food surface. This film was prepared by blending PVOH and 7.20% (wt/wt of PVOH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with citric acid as crosslinking agent. The film-forming solution was then casted onto a flat surface and the obtained film was 60 μm in thickness and showed a good transparency (close to T = 100%) in the visible region (400 to 700 nm). After immersion in water for 72 h at room temperature, the crosslinked matrix loses only 19.2% of its original weight (the percentage includes the amount of unreacted crosslinking agent, antimicrobial in itself). Water content, degree of swelling, and crosslinking density of the film prove that the presence of PEG diminishes the hydrophilic behavior of the material. Also the mechanical properties of the wet and dry film were assessed. Alongside this, 2.5% (wt/wt of dry film) of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), an antimicrobial agent, was added to the film-forming solution just before casting and the ability of the plastic matrix to release the additive was then evaluated in vitro against 2 GSE-susceptible microorganisms, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua. The results indicate that the developed matrix may be a promising food-grade material for the incorporation of active substances.

  8. Diagnosis‐based emergency department alcohol harm surveillance: What can it tell us about acute alcohol harms at the population level?

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Michael; Rodgers, Craig; Muscatello, David J.; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Ryan, Therese; Thackway, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Acute harm from heavy drinking episodes is an increasing focus of public health policy, but capturing timely data on acute harms in the population is challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the precision of readily available administrative emergency department (ED) data in public health surveillance of acute alcohol harms. Design and Methods We selected a random sample of 1000 ED presentations assigned an ED diagnosis code for alcohol harms (the ‘alcohol syndrome’) in the New South Wales, Australia, automatic syndromic surveillance system. The sample was selected from 68 public hospitals during 2014. Nursing triage free‐text fields were independently reviewed to confirm alcohol consumption and classify each presentation into either an ‘acute’ or ‘chronic’ harm. Positive predictive value (PPV) for acute harm was calculated, and predictors of acute harm presentations were estimated using logistic regression. Results The PPV of the alcohol syndrome for acute alcohol harm was 53.5%. Independent predictors of acute harm were ambulance arrival [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4–4.7], younger age (12–24 vs. 25–39 years: aOR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.2–5.3), not being admitted (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.2) and arriving between 10 pm and 5.59 am (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5–2.8). PPV among 12 to 24‐year‐olds was 82%. Discussion and Conclusions The alcohol syndrome provides moderate precision as an indicator of acute alcohol harms presenting to the ED. Precision for monitoring acute harm in the population is improved by filtering the syndrome by the strongest independent predictors of acute alcohol harm presentations. [Whitlam G, Dinh M, Rodgers C, Muscatello DJ, McGuire R, Ryan T, Thackway S. Diagnosis‐based emergency department alcohol harm surveillance: What can it tell us about acute alcohol harms at the population level? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:693–701] PMID:27786390

  9. Alcohol sensor based on u-bent hetero-structured fiber optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrialova, Sefi N.; Hatta, Agus M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    A sensor based on a fiber optic hetero-structure to determine the concentration of alcohol has been proposed. The structure of the sensing probe in this research is a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) which bent into Ushaped and soon called as SMS u-bent. The SMS structure was chosen to get a higher sensitivity. This research utilizes the principle of multimode interference and evanescent field by modifying the cladding with various alcohol concentration. Testing of the sensor's performance has been done by measuring the sensor's power output response to the length of the SMS fiber optic, bending diameter, and alcohol concentration. Based on the experiment result, the ubent SMS fiber optic with 50 mm bending diameter and 63 mm MMF lenght has the highest sensitivity, 3.87 dB/% and the minimum resolution, 0.26 x 10-3 %.

  10. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  11. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the red blood cell floating in a plasma-alcohol solution through stenosis in a microvessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Aleksey; Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Park, Cheol Woo

    2014-08-01

    A two-dimensional computational model of a single red blood cell (RBC) floating in a plasma-alcohol solution through a microchannel with stenosis was created using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method with moving mesh for a fluid structure interaction problem. Cell deformability and stability were studied in a plasma-alcohol solution at different fluid flow conditions during movement through the channel with stenosis. Different results were obtained for different input parameters. Motion through 45% and 70% stenoses with the high and law velocities of the RBC and different viscosities was analyzed and successfully simulated. Results show that changes in RBC deformability were due to the effects of alcohol. Changes in behavior during motion were also observed. At low shear rate and high surrounding fluid viscosity the RBC showed a tendency to rotate during movement. The proposed model with its coupling of structural and fluid analysis techniques could be useful to understand the effect of alcohol on the RBC passing through stenosis.

  12. An ordinary differential equation based solution path algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichao

    2011-01-01

    Efron, Hastie, Johnstone and Tibshirani (2004) proposed Least Angle Regression (LAR), a solution path algorithm for the least squares regression. They pointed out that a slight modification of the LAR gives the LASSO (Tibshirani, 1996) solution path. However it is largely unknown how to extend this solution path algorithm to models beyond the least squares regression. In this work, we propose an extension of the LAR for generalized linear models and the quasi-likelihood model by showing that the corresponding solution path is piecewise given by solutions of ordinary differential equation systems. Our contribution is twofold. First, we provide a theoretical understanding on how the corresponding solution path propagates. Second, we propose an ordinary differential equation based algorithm to obtain the whole solution path.

  13. Development of a rapid sanitization solution for silica-based protein A affinity adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Marc; Hiraoka-Sutow, Martha; Mak, Polly; Mann, Fred; Lebreton, Bénédicte

    2009-05-22

    Protein A chromatography media require sanitization between batches as well as prior to long-term storage. While sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is probably one of the most widely used sanitants within the bioprocess industry, it cannot be used with silica- or controlled pore glass (CPG)-based adsorbents due to the instability of the base matrix at high pH. Benzyl alcohol is commonly used for sanitizing such adsorbents, though extended contact times may be required to meet desired microbial log reduction values, especially for fungal and bacterial spore formers. With the rising market need for monoclonal antibody therapeutics, higher manufacturing throughput may be required. In such cases, a shorter sanitization cycle would be extremely beneficial to maximize manufacturing throughput and productivity. This paper describes the development of a new synergistic sanitant solution, designated PAB (120 mM phosphoric acid, 167 mM acetic acid, 2.2% benzyl alcohol) that delivers improved microbial kill kinetics, enabling sanitization times of 2-3h at room temperature, while maintaining acceptable adsorbent stability. Both the approaches taken to establish the effectiveness of the improved solution as well as confirmation of its process compatibility are covered here.

  14. Nucleation of CaCO3 polymorphs from a colloidal alcoholic solution of Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals exposed to low humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Villalba, L. S.; López-Arce, P.; Fort, R.

    2012-01-01

    A study of the stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs formed as a result of the carbonation process from an alcoholic colloidal solution of nanocrystals of Ca(OH)2 in low relative humidity (RH) conditions (33% and 54% RH) is presented in this research. The crystalline behavior, the time dependence of nucleation and the phases' transformations as a result of exposure to low humidity conditions are evaluated. The carbonation process is slow, starting with the nucleation of amorphous calcium carbonate, associated to an amorphization process that affects both the portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and the initial unstable CaCO3 polymorphs. The excess of alcohol in the solution decreases the surface tension and the nucleation is accelerated by the fast evaporation of the solvent, which avoids the particles to diffuse to their lowest energy sites, giving smaller particles with lower crystallinity as RH decreases.

  15. Development of an Abuse- and Alcohol-Resistant Formulation Based on Hot-Melt Extrusion and Film Coating.

    PubMed

    Jedinger, Nicole; Schrank, Simone; Fischer, Johannes M; Breinhälter, Karlheinz; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the development of flexible (i.e., deformable) multiple-unit pellets that feature (i) a prolonged drug release, (ii) drug abuse deterrence, and (iii) a minimal risk of alcohol-induced dose dumping (ADD). Deformable pellets were prepared via an advanced continuous one-step hot-melt extrusion (HME) technique, with the drug (i.e., antipyrine and codeine phosphate) fed as an aqueous solution into the molten matrix material (i.e., cornstarch, gum arabic, and xanthan). Formulations that had suitable mechanical characteristics (i.e., high compression strength) were coated with a flexible Aquacoat(®) ARC film to ensure prolonged release and to avoid ADD. The pellets were characterized in terms of their mechanical properties and in vitro drug release behavior in alcoholic media. All formulations were abuse deterrent: they had a high compression strength and grinding the pellets into powder was impossible. Since the pellets comprising gum arabic and xanthan as a matrix did not remain intact during dissolution testing, they had a very fast drug release rate. Cornstarch-based pellets that swelled but remained intact in the dissolution media had a slower drug release. Coated cornstarch-based pellets had a prolonged release over 8 h and resistance to dose dumping in 20 and 40% ethanol. Our results indicate that cornstarch-based pellets manufactured via the advanced HME process followed by coating are a promising formulation that makes tampering difficult due to a high compression strength combined with robustness in alcoholic media.

  16. Unsuccessful attempts to add alcohols to transient 2-amino-2-siloxy-silenes - leading to a new benign route for base-free alcohol protection.

    PubMed

    Guliashvili, Tamaz; Tibbelin, Julius; Ryu, Jiyeon; Ottosson, Henrik

    2010-10-21

    Thermolytic formation of transient 1,1-bis(trimethylsilyl)-2-dimethylamino-2-trimethylsiloxysilene (2) from N,N-dimethyl(tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl)methaneamide (1) in presence of a series of alcohols was investigated. The products are, however, not the expected alcohol-silene addition adducts but silylethers formed in nearly quantitative yields. Thermolysis of 1 in the presence of both alcohols (MeOH or iPrOH) and 1,3-dienes (1,3-butadiene or 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene) gives alkyl-tris(trimethylsilyl)silylethers and the [4+2] cycloadducts between the silene and diene, which confirms the presence of 2 and that it is unreactive towards alcohols. The observed silylethers are substitution adducts where the amide group of the silylamide is replaced by an alkoxy group, and the reaction time is reflected in the steric bulk of the alcohol. Indeed, the formation of silylethers from the reaction of alcohols with silylamide represents a new base-free method for protection of alcohols. The protection reactions using 1 progresses at elevated temperatures, or alternatively, under acid catalysis at ambient temperature, and similar protections can be carried out with N-cyclohexyl(triphenylsilyl)methaneamide and N,N-dimethyl(trimethylsilyl)methaneamide. The latter silylamide can be used under neutral conditions at room temperature. The only by-products are formamides (N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N-cyclohexylformamide), and the reactions can be performed without solvent. In addition to alcohols we also examined the method for protection of diols, thiols and carboxylic acids, and also these reactions proceeded in high yields and with good selectivities.

  17. Analysis of alcoholic EEG signals based on horizontal visibility graph entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guohun; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul; Wang, Shuaifang

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel horizontal visibility graph entropy (HVGE) approach to evaluate EEG signals from alcoholic subjects and controlled drinkers and compare with a sample entropy (SaE) method. Firstly, HVGEs and SaEs are extracted from 1,200 recordings of biomedical signals, respectively. A statistical analysis method is employed to choose the optimal channels to identify the abnormalities in alcoholics. Five group channels are selected and forwarded to a K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) and a support vector machine (SVM) to conduct classification, respectively. The experimental results show that the HVGEs associated with left hemisphere, [Formula: see text]1, [Formula: see text]3 and FC5 electrodes, of alcoholics are significantly abnormal. The accuracy of classification with 10-fold cross-validation is 87.5 [Formula: see text] with about three HVGE features. By using just optimal 13-dimension HVGE features, the accuracy is 95.8 [Formula: see text]. In contrast, SaE features associated cannot identify the left hemisphere disorder for alcoholism and the maximum classification ratio based on SaE is just 95.2 [Formula: see text] even using all channel signals. These results demonstrate that the HVGE method is a promising approach for alcoholism identification by EEG signals.

  18. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  19. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Dry Syngas to Ethanol and Higher Alcohols on Cu-Based Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Smith, Miranda L.; Spivey, James J.

    2011-04-19

    Ethanol and higher alcohols have been identified as potential fuel additives or hydrogen carriers for use in fuel cells. One method of ethanol production is catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of CO, H₂, CO₂, and H₂O), derived from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Thermodynamics of CO hydrogenation shows that ethanol is favored as the sole product at conditions of practical interest, but if methane is allowed as product in this analysis, essentially no ethanol is formed at equilibrium. The kinetics of ethanol formation must therefore be maximized. Although rhodium-based catalysts give C{sup 2+} oxygenates with high selectivity, their prohibitive cost has spurred research on less expensive copper-based alternatives. Copper-based catalysts require an optimum amount of promoter to suppress undesired reactions and maximize the yields of ethanol and higher alcohols. Common promoters include alkali, transition metals and their oxides, and rare earth oxides. Careful selection of operating variables is also necessary to achieve the desired activity and selectivity. This review describes the effects of promoters, supports, and operating conditions on the performance of copper-based catalysts for conversion of dry syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols. Proposed mechanisms from the literature for ethanol and higher-alcohol synthesis are outlined.

  20. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  1. Mediators of Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.

    2007-01-01

    A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…

  2. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  3. Surface tension of dilute alcohol-aqueous binary fluids: n-Butanol/water, n-Pentanol/water, and n-Hexanol/water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kuok Kong; Park, Chanwoo

    2017-01-01

    Surface tension of pure fluids, inherently decreasing with regard to temperature, creates a thermo-capillary-driven (Marangoni) flow moving away from a hot surface. It has been known that few high-carbon alcohol-aqueous solutions exhibit an opposite behavior of the surface tension increasing with regard to temperature, such that the Marangoni flow moves towards the hot surface (self-rewetting effect). We report the surface tensions of three dilute aqueous solutions of n-Butanol, n-Pentanol and n-Hexanol as self-rewetting fluids measured for ranges of alcohol concentration (within solubility limits) and fluid temperatures (25-85 °C). A maximum bubble pressure method using a leak-tight setup was used to measure the surface tension without evaporation losses of volatile components. It was found from this study that the aqueous solutions with higher-carbon alcohols exhibit a weak self-rewetting behavior, such that the surface tensions remain constant or slightly increases above about 60 °C. These results greatly differ from the previously reported results showing a strong self-rewetting behavior, which is attributed to the measurement errors associated with the evaporation losses of test fluids during open-system experiments.

  4. Carbonized properties of iodine-incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films prepared by gelation/crystallization from solution.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yumiko; Matsuo, Masaru

    2010-02-16

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) composite films were prepared by gelation/crystallization from a dispersed solution containing different TiO(2) contents against PVA. Iodine was incorporated into the composites, and the iodine-incorporated composites were carbonized under argon gas in the temperature range of 700-1600 degrees C. Under the carbonization process, the incorporation of iodine into composites ensured tough films without cracks. This indicated that iodine incorporation played an important role as a catalyst to promote the formation of cross links between amorphous carbon chains through the resultant Ti-C structure that occurs by hydration. Surprisingly, X-ray diffraction intensity measurements revealed that the coagulated TiO(2) powders in the composite film carbonized at 1200 degrees C remained predominantly anatase type, which has generally been known as photocatalytic activity. The perfect transition to the rutile-type structure dramatically occurred at 1600 degrees C. Judging from the carbon coating on the TiO(2) particle surface as detected by ESCA, no disruption of the composite was found to be due to the appearances of Ti(2)O(3) groups and the Ti-C structure performing cross linking between neighboring amorphous carbon chains. The characteristics of anatase-type TiO(2) crystallites and amorphous carbon structures were analyzed using the para-crystalline theory concerning the distance fluctuation between graphene sheets. The electrical conductivity of the carbonized composite was ca. 0.01 S/cm and was independent of the TiO(2) admixed in the carbon matrix.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing “Prevention for Positives” Alcohol Reduction Support: The Perspectives of Directors and Providers in Hospital-Based HIV Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Tiburcio, Nelson J.; Gwadz, Marya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected patients have considerable need for alcohol reduction support, and HIV care providers are strategically placed to implement a “prevention for positives” alcohol reduction approach through alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs). To facilitate this approach, we provided alcohol SBI education and training to HIV care providers in four hospital-based, New York City HIV Care Centers in 2007. Interviews with the medical directors and 14 of the HIV care providers who attended the training identified barriers to implementing alcohol SBIs. These included limited time for alcohol screening, patients’ incomplete disclosure of alcohol use, providers’ perceptions that alcohol use is not a major problem for their patients, and provider specialization that assigns patients with problematic alcohol use to specifically designated providers. Identified facilitators for alcohol SBI implementation included adequate time to conduct the SBI; availability of information, tools, and key points to emphasize with HIV-infected patients; and use of a brief alcohol screening tool. PMID:21570321

  6. Influence of the nature of the alcohol on the principles of the photocatalytic liberation of hydrogen from aqueous-organic solutions of europium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Myakon'kii, A.G.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Potapova, G.V.

    1988-09-01

    The process of photocatalytic liberation of hydrogen from aqueous alcohol (ROH - CH/sub 3/OH, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/OH, iso-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/OH) solutions of europium salts was investigated. In solutions containing sodium formate as a second organic component, HCOONa and ROH take part in the photoreduction of Eu(III), whereas the main role in the photooxidation of Eu(II) is played by ROH molecules. Such behavior of the system is explained by transfer of an electron in these reactions according to outer- and inner-sphere mechanism, respectively.

  7. Constraint-based solution finding for multidiscipline products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Hans C. H.; Huang, Mei

    2000-10-01

    A standard verbal description, which consists of function verbs, function adverbials and function sinks, is suggested for the common understanding of the design task. Three general purpose design catalogues: principle catalogue, module library and artifact store are introduced to arrange the design knowledge in accordance with the abstraction level of solutions. Based on the formal task description and the layered design catalogues, a systematic solution finding process is presented. The efficiency of a computer aided solution finding process can be drastically improved by using the constraints obtained from the function sinks. With the help of a component library the solutions, which are presented as a special function structure, can be adapted with the proven solutions. This adapted solution in form of connected available components can be further simulated and handed to the embodiment design. The whole process is explained with a design scenario of a gripper.

  8. Examining Perceptions of a Smartphone-Based Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Samantha; King, Diane K.; Dulin, Patrick; Gonzalez, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study presents results from qualitative interviews conducted with participants in a study on the effectiveness of the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A), a smartphone-based, stand-alone intervention application (app) for adults with alcohol use disorders. Materials and Methods: Participants were provided an LBMI-A-enabled smartphone to use during a 6-week pilot study. The LBMI-A was composed of psychoeducational modules, assessment and feedback of alcohol use patterns, geographic high-risk location monitoring and alerts, and in vivo assessment and intervention for alcohol cravings and help with managing psychological distress. Semistructured interviews were conducted with all participants following 6 weeks of interacting with the LBMI-A app (n=26). Interviews explored user perceptions of the ease and utility of LBMI-A features, module helpfulness, barriers to use, and recommendations for improvements to the program. Researchers applied a systematic qualitative coding process to transcripts that included both a priori themes identified as important by the research team and new themes that emerged during the coding process. Results and Conclusions: Narrative analysis found the emergence of five main themes identified by LBMI-A users as the most helpful functions of the phone: (1) Awareness, (2) Accountability, (3) Skill Transference, (4) Tracking Progress, and (5) Prompts. These themes are explored, and implications of these findings for future smartphone-based interventions are discussed. PMID:25243480

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  10. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Internationally Adopted Adolescents: Results From a Norwegian Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; La Greca, Annette M; Tell, Grethe S; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hysing, Mari

    2017-03-02

    Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. A Systematic Review of School-Based Alcohol and other Drug Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Agabio, Roberta; Trincas, Giuseppina; Floris, Francesca; Mura, Gioia; Sancassiani, Federica; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use in adolescents constitutes a major public health concern. Europe is the heaviest drinking region of the world. Several school-based alcohol prevention programs have been developed but it is not clear whether they are really effective. The present study was aimed at identifying the typology with the best evidence of effectiveness in European studies. Methods: A systematic search of meta-analyses and/or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on interventions school-based prevention programs aimed at preventing alcohol consumption or changing the attitudes to consume alcohol. Results: A meta-analysis published in 2011 and 12 RCTs more recently published were identified. The meta-analysis evaluated 53 RCTs but only 11.3% of them were conducted in Europe. Globally, 23 RCTs (43.4%) showed some evidence of effectiveness, and 30 RCTs (56.6%) did not find significant difference between the groups. According to the conclusions of the meta-analysis, the Unplugged program should be considered as a practice option in Europe. Among the other 12 RCTs, 42% were conducted in Europe. Globally, 7 studies (58.3%) achieved positive results, and 5 studies (41.7%) did not find significant differences or produced a mixed pattern of results. Three of the 5 European trials (60%) used the Unplugged program with positive results. Conclusion: Even if further studies should be conducted to confirm these results, Unplugged appears to be the prevention project with the best evidence of effectiveness in European studies. PMID:25834630

  12. Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A.H.; Abeyasinge, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure the drinking pattern before and at 6 and 24 months after the intervention in males over 18 years of age in both villages. The recall and the impact of various components of the intervention were assessed at 24 months post-intervention. Results: The intervention was associated with the development of an active community action group in the village and a significant reduction in illicit alcohol outlets. The drama component of the intervention had the highest level of recall and preference. Comparing the control and intervention villages, there were no significant difference between baseline drinking patterns and the AUDIT. There was a significant reduction in the AUDIT scores in the intervention village compared with the control at 6 and 24 months (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A community-based education program had high acceptance and produces a reduction in alcohol use that was sustained for 2 years. PMID:23161893

  13. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions: Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Luo; Fanlong, Meng; Junying, Zhang; Masao, Doi

    2016-07-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based Lagrangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21434001, 51561145002, and 11421110001).

  14. Photochemical properties of Yt base in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Paszyc, S; Rafalska, M

    1979-01-01

    Photoreactivity of Yt base [I] has been studied in aqueous solution [pH approximately 6] saturated with oxygen. Two photoproducts (II,III], resulting from irradiation at lambda = 253.7 nm and lambda greater than or equal to 290 nm, were isolated and their structures determined. The quantum yield for Yt base disappearance [zeta dis] is 0.002 [lambda = 313 nm]. It was shown that dye-sensitized photooxidation of Yt base in aqueous solution occurs according to a Type I mechanism, as well as with participation of singlet state oxygen. Quantum yields, fluorescence decay times and phosphorescence of Yt base have been also determined. PMID:424298

  15. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  16. Preventing Alcohol Problems Through a Student Assistance Program: A Manual for Implementation Based on the Westchester County, New York Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Gerald; And Others

    This manual was designed to provide school administrators, counselors, teachers, parent groups, and community members with a comprehensive school-based program for preventing alcohol problems. Detection and intervention before the onset of alcohol and drug problems is stressed. Modeled after employees' assistance programs used to identify and aid…

  17. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1…

  18. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  19. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-09-01

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  20. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-07-07

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  1. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  2. Alcohol-induced drying of carbon nanotubes and its implications for alcohol/water separation: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xingling; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Bo; Xiu, Peng; Tu, Yusong

    2013-05-01

    Alcohols are important products in chemical industry, but separating them from their aqueous solutions is very difficult due to the hydrophilic nature of alcohols. Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we observe a striking nanoscale drying phenomenon and suggest an energy-saving and efficient approach toward alcohol/water separation by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We use various common linear alcohols including C1-C6 1-alcohols and glycerol for demonstration (the phenol is also used as comparison). Our simulations show that when SWNTs are immersed in aqueous alcohols solutions, although the alcohols concentration is low (1 M), all kinds of alcohols can induce dehydration (drying) of nanotubes and accumulate inside wide [(13, 13)] and narrow [(6, 6) or (7, 7)] SWNTs. In particular, most kinds of alcohols inside the narrow SWNTs form nearly uniform 1D molecular wires. Detailed energetic analyses reveal that the preferential adsorption of alcohols over water inside nanotubes is attributed to the stronger dispersion interactions of alcohols with SWNTs than water. Interestingly, we find that for the wide SWNT, the selectivity for 1-alcohols increases with the number of alcohol's carbon atoms (Ncarbon) and exhibits an exponential law with respect to Ncarbon for C1-C5 1-alcohols; for narrow SWNTs, the selectivity for 1-alcohols is very high for methanol, ethanol, and propanol, and reaches a maximum when Ncarbon = 3. The underlying physical mechanisms and the implications of these observations for alcohol/water separation are discussed. Our findings provide the possibility for efficient dehydration of aqueous alcohols (and other hydrophilic organic molecules) by using SWNT bundles/membranes.

  3. Smartphone-based colorimetric analysis for detection of saliva alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngkee; Kim, Jinhee; Awofeso, Olumide; Kim, Huisung; Regnier, Fred; Bae, Euiwon

    2015-11-01

    A simple device and associated analytical methods are reported. We provide objective and accurate determination of saliva alcohol concentrations using smartphone-based colorimetric imaging. The device utilizes any smartphone with a miniature attachment that positions the sample and provides constant illumination for sample imaging. Analyses of histograms based on channel imaging of red-green-blue (RGB) and hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space provide unambiguous determination of blood alcohol concentration from color changes on sample pads. A smartphone-based sample analysis by colorimetry was developed and tested with blind samples that matched with the training sets. This technology can be adapted to any smartphone and used to conduct color change assays.

  4. An experimental test of assessment reactivity within a web-based brief alcohol intervention study for college students

    PubMed Central

    Fazzino, Tera L.; Rose, Gail L.; Helzer, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Web-based brief alcohol intervention (WBI) programs have efficacy in a wide range of college students and have been widely disseminated to universities to address heavy alcohol use. In the majority of efficacy studies, web-based research assessments were conducted before the intervention. Web-based research assessments may elicit reactivity, which could inflate estimates of WBI efficacy. The current study tested whether web-based research assessments conducted in combination with a WBI had additive effects on alcohol use outcomes, compared to a WBI only. Methods Undergraduate students (n= 856) from universities in the United States and Canada participated in this online study. Eligible individuals were randomized to complete 1) research assessments + WBI or 2) WBI-only. Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and protective behaviors were assessed at one-month follow up. Results Multiple regression using 20 multiply imputed datasets indicated there were no significant differences at follow up in alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, or protective behaviors used when controlling for variables with theoretical and statistical relevance. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a significant decrease in peak estimated blood alcohol concentration in both groups, but no differential effects by randomized group. There were no significant moderating effects from gender, hazardous alcohol use, or motivation to change drinking. Conclusions Web-based research assessments combined with a web-based alcohol intervention did not inflate estimates of intervention efficacy when measured within-subjects. Our findings suggest universities may be observing intervention effects similar to those cited in efficacy studies, although effectiveness trials are needed. PMID:26363306

  5. Recognition and sensing of biologically relevant anions in alcohol and mixed alcohol-aqueous solutions using charge neutral cleft-like glycol-derived pyridyl-amidothiourea receptors.

    PubMed

    Duke, Rebecca M; McCabe, Thomas; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2012-04-06

    In this paper, the synthesis and the spectroscopic investigation of new colorimetric receptors for anions 3-6, possessing a glycol chain at the 4-position of the pyridyl ring, and 1 and 2, which lack such a chain, and the X-ray crystal structure of 2 is presented. Structures 3-6 are able to bind to anions in competitive media, such as alcohol or in a mixture of methanol and water, where the anion recognition gives rise to changes in the absorption spectra, which is red-shifted, in 1:1 or 1:2 (sensor/anion) stoichiometry. The anion recognition for 1 and 2 was also investigated in organic solvents and in a 4:1 mixture of DMSO/H(2)O. The binding of 1 to anions such as acetate, phosphate, and fluoride was also evaluated using (1)H NMR in DMSO-d(6).

  6. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  7. Family Based Services: A Solution-Focused Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Insoo Kim

    Drawing on the field of family therapy, this step-by-step guide applies principles of brief, solution-focused therapy to family-based services (FBS) in ways that empower clients, increase cooperation, and aid the survival of social workers. Based on the author's experience at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the book is…

  8. Numerical investigation on the structural characteristics of multiple RBCs in a stenotic microcapillary under plasma-alcohol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Aleksey; Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Park, Cheol Woo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol significantly affects blood rheology and influences the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs). Previous studies indicate that plasma-RBC and multiple RBC interaction are important indicators for atherosclerosis progression. Therefore, multiphysics interactions under highly viscous conditions of alcohol consumption and stenosis structure must be investigated. A 2D microcapillary model, wherein multiple RBCs float through a stenotic structure, was established to investigate the effect of alcohol on cell motion and deformability under various flow conditions. Results show that the deformed cells inside the stenosis increase flow resistance and increase plasma velocity gradient in the pre and post stenotic regions. Moreover, the effect of the initial RBC position is important describing the RBC deformation pattern. The structural properties of RBCs may be significantly affected when the stenosis path is filled by cells that increase flow resistance.

  9. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution using TiO₂ nanoparticles prepared with various alcohols as solvent.

    PubMed

    Ku, Young; Lin, Chia-Nan; Hou, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    TiO₂ nanoparticles were prepared with various linear alkyl chains of alcohols under a sol-gel process. The structure characterization and the photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium of the TiO₂ nanoparticles were investigated. The phase transformation temperature, crystal aggregation and surface area of prepared TiO₂ samples were found to be strongly influenced by alcohol used. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile was retarded and the surface area was reduced for TiO₂ prepared with alcohols of longer alkyl chain. TiO₂ nanoparticles prepared with methanol or ethanol exhibited higher photocatalytic reduction activity of hexavalent chromium possibly due to greater and more positively charged surface area.

  10. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spirit-based beverages are alcoholic drinks; their production processes are dependent on the type and origin of raw materials. The composition of this complex matrix is difficult to analyze, and scientists commonly choose gas chromatography techniques for this reason. With a wide selection of extraction methods and detectors it is possible to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis for many chemical compounds with various functional groups. This article describes different types of gas chromatography techniques and their most commonly used associated extraction techniques (e.g., LLE, SPME, SPE, SFE, and SBME) and detectors (MS, TOFMS, FID, ECD, NPD, AED, O or EPD). Additionally, brief characteristics of internationally popular spirit-based beverages and application of gas chromatography to the analysis of selected alcoholic drinks are presented.

  11. Epidemiological features of alcohol use in rural India: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to estimate the proportion of adults in Sehore District, India, who consumed alcohol, and the proportion who had behaviours consistent with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among men who drank, we identified individual-level, household-level and community-level factors associated with AUDIT scores. Men with AUDs (AUDIT score ≥8) reported on whether and where they had sought treatment, and about alcohol-related internal stigma. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Rural villages and urban wards in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants n=3220 adult (≥18 years of age) residents of Sehore District. Primary outcome measure Score on the AUDIT. Results Nearly one in four men (23.8%) had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, while few (0.6%) women were consumers. Among drinkers, 33.2% (95% CI 28.6% to 38.1%) had AUDIT scores consistent with hazardous drinking, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1% to 5.1%) with harmful drinking and 5.5% (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%) with dependent drinking. We observed that AUDIT scores varied widely by village (intraclass correlation=0.052). Among men who had recently consumed alcohol, AUDIT scores were positively associated with depression, having at least one child, high-quality housing, urban residence, tobacco use and disability. AUDIT scores were negatively associated with land ownership, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and participation in the national employment programme. While 49.2% of men with AUDs felt embarrassed by their problems with alcohol, only 2.8% had sought treatment in the past 12 months. Conclusions A need exists for effectively identifying and treating adults with AUDs. Health promotion services, informed by commonly-expressed stigmatised beliefs held among those affected by AUDs and which are targeted at the most affected communities, may be an effective step in closing the treatment gap. PMID:26685035

  12. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  13. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; ...

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cumore » (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.« less

  14. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cu (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.

  15. A Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkku, Leigh E.; Mengel, Mark B.; Nicholson, Robert A.; Hile, Matthew G.; Morris, Daniel S.; Salas, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Despite warnings that drinking during pregnancy is unsafe, many women are still at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). This article describes the outcomes of a web-based, self-guided change intervention designed to lower the risk for AEPs in a community. A sample of 458 women, between the ages of 18 and 44 years and at risk for an AEP…

  16. Effectiveness of various hospital-based solutions against community- acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Perona, Paul J; Johnson, Aaron J; Perona, John P; Issa, Kimona; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Bonutti, Peter M; Mont, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Periprosthetic infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be particularly burdensome and difficult to eradicate. One of the measures that infection control officers have emphasized in our hospitals has been the use of various hand sanitizers throughout the hospital. Our objective was to determine the level of growth inhibition of common hand sanitizers and surgical scrub solutions that are used to prevent the spread of community-acquired strains of MRSA. Various hospital and surgical agents (n = 13) were applied to community-acquired MRSA bacteria that had been cultured on agar plates. These different commercially available solutions were incubated for 48 h, and the plates were assessed to determine the level of growth inhibition (0, 25, 75, or 100%). The negative control was a test in which no agent was added to the MRSA culture, while a positive control tested 100% alcohol. Eight of the solutions tested had 100% growth inhibition, four solutions had partial growth inhibition effects, and one solution did not inhibit MRSA. Of the solutions with alcohol, the 62% solution did not kill MRSA, while the 80% solution only inhibited MRSA. Both the 95 and 100% alcohol solutions had 100% growth inhibition. Of the two surgical scrub solutions, only the one with iodine had 100% growth inhibition, whereas the solution with chloroxylenol (PCMX 3%) had only partial growth inhibition. This study suggests that the solutions with high levels of alcohol, chlorhexidine, or iodine appear to better kill MRSA and might best be used to prevent the spread of community-acquired MRSA in both the hospital and the surgical environment.

  17. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shue; Li, Junjuan; Shearer, Gregory C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuntao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited.Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort.Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study. Alcohol intake was assessed via a questionnaire in 2006 (baseline), and participants were classified into the following categories of alcohol consumption: never, past, light (women: 0-0.4 servings/d; men: 0-0.9 servings/d), moderate (women: 0.5-1.0 servings/d; men: 1-2 servings/d), and heavy (women: >1.0 servings/d; men: >2 servings/d). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the associations between baseline alcohol intake and the change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, liver function, and C-reactive protein concentrations.Results: An umbrella-shaped association was observed between total alcohol consumption and changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Compared with never drinkers, past, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers experienced slower decreases in HDL cholesterol of 0.012 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.008, 0.016 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), 0.013 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.010, 0.016 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), 0.017 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.009, 0.025 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), and 0.008 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.005, 0.011 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), respectively (P < 0.0001 for all), after adjustment for

  18. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  19. A new solution for maximal clique problem based sticker model.

    PubMed

    Darehmiraki, Majid

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we use stickers to construct a solution space of DNA for the maximal clique problem (MCP). Simultaneously, we also apply the DNA operation in the sticker-based model to develop a DNA algorithm. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the MCP is resolved with biological operations in the sticker-based model for the solution space of the sticker. Moreover, this work presents clear evidence of the ability of DNA computing to solve the NP-complete problem. The potential of DNA computing for the MCP is promising given the operational time complexity of O(nxk).

  20. The relationship between the adhesion work, the wettability and composition of the surface layer in the systems polymer/aqueous solution of anionic surfactants and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2010-11-01

    Measurements of advancing contact angle ( θ) were carried out on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDDS) mixtures with methanol, ethanol and propanol in the range of SDDS concentration from 10 -5 to 10 -2 M, and for sodium hexadecyl sulfonate (SHS) with the same alcohols at the SHS concentration ranging from 10 -5 to 8 × 10 -4 M at 293 K. The concentration of methanol, ethanol and propanol used for measurements varied from 0 to 21.1, 11.97 and 6.67 M, respectively. On the basis of the contact angles the critical surface tension of PTFE and PMMA wetting was determined by using for this purpose the relationship between the adhesion and the surface tension and cos θ and surface tension both at constant alcohol and surfactant concentration, respectively. The obtained contact angles were also used in the Young Dupre' equation for calculations of the adhesion work of aqueous solution of mixtures of anionic surfactants and short chain alcohols to PTFE and PMMA surface. The adhesion work calculated in this way was compared to that of the particular components of aqueous solution to these surfaces determined on the basis of the surface tension components and parameters of the surface tension of the surface active agents, water, PTFE and PMMA from van Oss et al. equation. The calculated adhesion work was discussed in the light of the concentration of surface active agents at polymer-water and water-air interface determined from Lucassen-Reynders, Gibbs and Guggenheim-Adam equations.

  1. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.

  2. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  3. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol based multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Nagy, L.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition over an Fe-Co/alumina catalyst. Nanotubes were then oxidized and grafted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained nanostructure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, SEM, TEM and TGA methods. FTIR confirmed the presence of the characteristic peaks of the anticipated ester group. The formation of polymer nanocomposites based on polyvinyl alcohol and multiwalled carbon nanotubes was confirmed by SEM and TEM. High resolution electron micrographs revealed that the primary binding sites for PVA grafting are the sidewall defects of the nanotubes. The novelty of this work is the use of the Fischer esterification reaction for creating the permanent link between the nanotubes and the PVA matrix.

  4. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  5. Solution of partial differential equations by agent-based simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, Miklos N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short note is to demonstrate that partial differential equations can be quickly solved by agent-based simulation with high accuracy. There is no need for the solution of large systems of algebraic equations. This method is especially useful for quick determination of potential distributions and demonstration purposes in teaching electromagnetism.

  6. Aerosol hygroscopic growth parameterization based on a solute specific coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Steil, B.; Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-09-01

    Water is a main component of atmospheric aerosols and its amount depends on the particle chemical composition. We introduce a new parameterization for the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), based on an empirical relation between water activity (aw) and solute molality (μs) through a single solute specific coefficient νi. Three main advantages are: (1) wide applicability, (2) simplicity and (3) analytical nature. (1) Our approach considers the Kelvin effect and covers ideal solutions at large relative humidity (RH), including CCN activation, as well as concentrated solutions with high ionic strength at low RH such as the relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD). (2) A single νi coefficient suffices to parameterize the HGF for a wide range of particle sizes, from nanometer nucleation mode to micrometer coarse mode particles. (3) In contrast to previous methods, our analytical aw parameterization depends not only on a linear correction factor for the solute molality, instead νi also appears in the exponent in form x · ax. According to our findings, νi can be assumed constant for the entire aw range (0-1). Thus, the νi based method is computationally efficient. In this work we focus on single solute solutions, where νi is pre-determined with the bisection method from our analytical equations using RHD measurements and the saturation molality μssat. The computed aerosol HGF and supersaturation (Köhler-theory) compare well with the results of the thermodynamic reference model E-AIM for the key compounds NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 relevant for CCN modeling and calibration studies. The equations introduced here provide the basis of our revised gas-liquid-solid partitioning model, i.e. version 4 of the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM4), described in a companion paper.

  7. Promoting an Alcohol-Free Childhood: A Novel Home-Based Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Denise M.; Hayes, Kim A.; Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Lawson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Few alcohol prevention programs focus on elementary school-aged youth, yet children develop expectancies and norms about alcohol use during the elementary school years, and many elementary school children are allowed to have sips or tastes of alcohol at home. Research on consequences of early alcohol use indicates that it can put children at…

  8. Assessing the Usability of Web-Based Alcohol Education for Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Lorna; Osterweil, Dan; Van Draanen, Jenna; Cooke, Alexis; Beck, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults can experience unfavorable health effects from drinking at relatively low consumption levels because of age-related physiological changes and alcohol’s potentially adverse interactions with declining health, increased medication-use and diminishing functional status. At the same time, alcohol use in older adults may be protective against heart disease, stroke, and other disorders associated with aging. We developed “A Toast to Health in Later Life! Wise Drinking as We Age,” a web-based educational intervention to teach older adults to balance drinking risks and benefits. Objective To examine the intervention’s feasibility in a sample of community-dwelling current drinkers ≥55 years of age and examine its effects on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, adherence to standard drinking guidelines, and alcohol-related risks. Methods Participants were recruited in person, by mail and by telephone between September and October 2014 from a community-based social services organization serving Los Angeles County. Once enrolled, participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a control group. The conceptual frameworks for the intervention were the Health Belief Model, models of adult learning, and the US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for designing easy-to-use websites. The intervention’s content focuses on the relationship between drinking and its effects on older adults’ medical conditions, use of medications, and ability to perform daily activities. It also addresses quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking and driving and binge drinking. The control group did not receive any special intervention. Data on alcohol use and risks for both groups came from the online version of the Alcohol-Related Problems Survey and were collected at baseline and four weeks later. Data on usability were collected online from the intervention group immediately after it completed its review of the website

  9. Difficulties with telephone-based surveys on alcohol consumption in high-income countries: the Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Accurate information concerning alcohol consumption level and patterns is vital to formulating public health policy. The objective of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which survey design, response rate and alcohol consumption coverage obtained in random digit dialling, telephone-based surveys impact on conclusions about alcohol consumption and its patterns in the general population. Our analysis will be based on the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) 2008, a national survey intended to be representative of the general population. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) ignoring people who are homeless, institutionalized and/or do not have a home phone may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related problems; (2) weighting of observations to population demographics may lead to a increase in the design effect, does not necessarily address the underlying selection bias, and may lead to overly influential observations; and (3) the accurate characterization of alcohol consumption patterns obtained by triangulating the data with the adult per capita consumption estimate is essential for comparative analyses and intervention planning especially when the alcohol coverage rate is low like in the CADUMS with 34%.

  10. Molecular Genetic Influences on Normative and Problematic Alcohol Use in a Population-Based Sample of College Students

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Bradley T.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Riley, Brien P.; Sun, Cuie; Williamson, Vernell S.; Kitchens, James N.; Pedersen, Kimberly; Adkins, Amy; Cooke, Megan E.; Savage, Jeanne E.; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung B.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h2SNP) was assessed. We also evaluated whether risk variants in aggregate were associated with alcohol use outcomes in an independent sample of young adults. Results: Two genome-wide significant markers were observed: rs11201929 in GRID1 for maximum drinks in 24 h, with supportive evidence across all ancestry groups; and rs73317305 in SAMD12 (alcohol problems), tested only in the African ancestry group. The h2SNP estimate was 0.19 (SE = 0.11) for consumption, and was non-significant for other outcomes. Genome-wide polygenic scores were significantly associated with alcohol outcomes in an independent sample. Conclusions: These results robustly identify genetic risk for alcohol use outcomes at the variant level and in aggregate. We confirm prior evidence that genetic variation in GRID1 impacts alcohol use, and identify novel loci of interest for multiple alcohol outcomes in emerging adults. These findings indicate that genetic variation influencing normative and problematic alcohol use is, to some extent, convergent across ancestry groups. Studying college populations represents a promising avenue by which to obtain large, diverse samples for gene identification. PMID:28360924

  11. Molecular Genetic Influences on Normative and Problematic Alcohol Use in a Population-Based Sample of College Students.

    PubMed

    Webb, Bradley T; Edwards, Alexis C; Wolen, Aaron R; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Riley, Brien P; Sun, Cuie; Williamson, Vernell S; Kitchens, James N; Pedersen, Kimberly; Adkins, Amy; Cooke, Megan E; Savage, Jeanne E; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung B; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h(2)SNP) was assessed. We also evaluated whether risk variants in aggregate were associated with alcohol use outcomes in an independent sample of young adults. Results: Two genome-wide significant markers were observed: rs11201929 in GRID1 for maximum drinks in 24 h, with supportive evidence across all ancestry groups; and rs73317305 in SAMD12 (alcohol problems), tested only in the African ancestry group. The h(2)SNP estimate was 0.19 (SE = 0.11) for consumption, and was non-significant for other outcomes. Genome-wide polygenic scores were significantly associated with alcohol outcomes in an independent sample. Conclusions: These results robustly identify genetic risk for alcohol use outcomes at the variant level and in aggregate. We confirm prior evidence that genetic variation in GRID1 impacts alcohol use, and identify novel loci of interest for multiple alcohol outcomes in emerging adults. These findings indicate that genetic variation influencing normative and problematic alcohol use is, to some extent, convergent across ancestry groups. Studying college populations represents a promising avenue by which to obtain large, diverse samples for gene identification.

  12. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  13. Using PG-Liposome-Based System to Enhance Puerarin Liver-Targeted Therapy for Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Zhang, Lu; Gupta, Pardeep K; Tian, Fu-Rong; Mao, Kai-Li; Qiu, Kai-Yan; Yang, Wei; Lv, Chuan-Zhu; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2016-12-01

    A critical issue for alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) therapeutics is the lack of a highly efficient delivery system. In this study, a Puerarin-propylene glycol-liposome system was prepared for the purpose of targeting puerarin, an isoflavon, to the liver. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed the liposomes to be spherical in shape with an average diameter of 182 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.239. The zeta potential of the particles was about -30 mV. The entrapment efficiency of puerarin was above 90%. MTT-based assay in HpeG2 cells showed no significant cytotoxicity in the presence of up to 25% concentration of the system containing 3% puerarin. In vivo performance of this system was studied in mice. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of puerarin-PG-liposome system was studied relative to puerarin solution at the same dose levels. The results show that puerarin-PG-liposome prolonged drug retention time and decreased elimination of puerarin in mice (AUC of liposome system and solution was 9.5 and 4.0 mg h L(-1), respectively). Furthermore, propylene glycol (PG)-liposome system enhanced puerarin distribution into liver and spleen, while decreasing puerarin distribution in other tissues. Overall, the puerarin-PG-liposome system showed enhanced therapeutic effect in mice with ALD.

  14. Health Care Burden and Cost Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Based on Official Canadian Data

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10). This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008–2009). Methods Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008–2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient’s length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00–F99). It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing −1.6 times greater in 2008–2009, compared to 2002–2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000–2008), may be underreported, and are likely invalid. Discussion The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD. PMID:22900084

  15. Solution structures of nanoassemblies based on pyrogallol[4]arenes.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Harshita; Deakyne, Carol A; Atwood, Jerry L

    2014-10-21

    Nanoassemblies of hydrogen-bonded and metal-seamed pyrogallol[4]arenes have been shown to possess novel solution-phase geometries. Further, we have demonstrated that both guest encapsulation and structural rearrangements may be studied by solution-phase techniques such as small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and diffusion NMR. Application of these techniques to pyrogallol[4]arene-based nanoassemblies has allowed (1) differentiation among spherical, ellipsoidal, toroidal, and tubular structures in solution, (2) determination of factors that control the preferred geometrical shape and size of the nanoassemblies, and (3) detection of small variations in metric dimensions distinguishing similarly and differently shaped nanoassemblies in a given solution. Indeed, we have shown that the solution-phase structure of such nanoassemblies is often quite different from what one would predict based on solid-state studies, a result in disagreement with the frequently made assumption that these assemblies have similar structures in the two phases. We instead have predicted solid-state architectures from solution-phase structures by combining the solution-phase analysis with solid-state magnetic and elemental analyses. Specifically, the iron-seamed C-methylpyrogallol[4]arene nanoassembly was found to be tubular in solution and predicted to be tubular in the solid state, but it was found to undergo a rearrangement from a tubular to spherical geometry in solution as a function of base concentration. The absence of metal within a tubular framework affects its stability in both solution and the solid state; however, this instability is not necessarily characteristic of hydrogen-bonded capsular entities. Even metal seaming of the capsules does not guarantee similar solid-state and solution-phase architectures. The rugby ball-shaped gallium-seamed C-butylpyrogallol[4]arene hexamer becomes toroidal on dissolution, as does the spherically shaped gallium/zinc-seamed C-butylpyrogallol[4

  16. Voxelwise and skeleton-based region of interest analysis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in young adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Longchuan; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-10-01

    Though fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are among the most common developmental disorders, their understanding is incomplete. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which is sensitive to microstructural organization in white matter, may provide a relevant measure in this population demonstrating incompletely characterized white matter pathology. In this study, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) routine and a skeleton-based region of interest analyses were employed to detect differences in DTI-derived metrics between young adults who were alcohol exposed and an unexposed control group. Participants include 28 with dysmorphic features associated with FAS, 29 who were prenatally exposed but do not show physical effects, and 25 with the same low socioeconomic status but unexposed. The TBSS analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in fractional anisotropy at the isthmus of the corpus callosum and its connected callosal fibers in dysmorphic individuals relative to controls (clusterwise P(FWE) < 0.05). This finding was consistent with that of the follow-up skeleton-based region of interest analysis (F((2,79)) = 3.256, p = 0.044). In addition, the patterns in axial and radial diffusivity changes suggest that demyelination may be associated with the degraded white matter integrity observed in the dysmorphic group.

  17. Solution spinning of a high-? oxide superconductor: the effect of poly(vinyl alcohol) spinning medium on the critical current density of melt-processed ? superconducting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Hisayo; Sunohara, Makoto; Goto, Tomoko; Takahashi, Kiyohisa

    1996-12-01

    The precursor 0953-2048/9/12/014/img9 filament was prepared by solution spinning through a homogeneous aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution of Y, Ba and Cu acetates. The solution spinning was successfully performed using PVA with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 1700 and 2450 and a degree of saponification of 85 mol%. The as-drawn filament was heated to remove volatile components and partially melted to generate a superconducting phase. The effects of the DP of PVA and a content of mixed acetates in the precursor filament on the critical current density 0953-2048/9/12/014/img10 of the melt-processed filament were examined. The higher 0953-2048/9/12/014/img11 was obtained for the filament spun from PVA solution of higher DP and lower acetate content. The highest 0953-2048/9/12/014/img11 value of 0953-2048/9/12/014/img13 at 77 K and 0 T was achieved for the filament spun from the DP 2450 PVA with an acetate to PVA ratio of two.

  18. Halfway Houses for Alcohol Dependents: From Theoretical Bases to Implications for the Organization of Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Alessandra Diehl; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to supply a narrative review of the concepts, history, functions, methods, development and theoretical bases for the use of halfway houses for patients with mental disorders, and their correlations, for the net construction of chemical dependence model. This theme, in spite of its relevance, is still infrequently explored in the national literature. The authors report international and national uses of this model and discuss its applicability for the continuity of services for alcohol dependents. The results suggest that this area is in need of more attention and interest for future research. PMID:19061008

  19. Alcohol amination with ammonia catalyzed by an acridine-based ruthenium pincer complex: a mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuan; Plessow, Philipp N; Brinks, Marion K; Schelwies, Mathias; Schaub, Thomas; Rominger, Frank; Paciello, Rocco; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-04-23

    The mechanistic course of the amination of alcohols with ammonia catalyzed by a structurally modified congener of Milstein's well-defined acridine-based PNP-pincer Ru complex has been investigated both experimentally and by DFT calculations. Several key Ru intermediates have been isolated and characterized. The detailed analysis of a series of possible catalytic pathways (e.g., with and without metal-ligand cooperation, inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms) leads us to conclude that the most favorable pathway for this catalyst does not require metal-ligand cooperation.

  20. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit.

  1. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  2. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Steven Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.

  3. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level.

  4. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, E L; Eke, P I; Laughon, B E

    1986-01-01

    Fifty volunteers randomly assigned to one of five hand washing agents (10 subjects per agent)--a nonantiseptic liquid soap (control), an antiseptic hand rinse containing 60% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with emollients (Alc A), an antiseptic hand rinse containing 70% IPA and 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate with emollients (Alc B), an antiseptic containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 4% IPA (CHG), and 70% IPA--washed their hands 15 times per day for 5 days under supervision by using a standardized technique and measured amounts of test agent. Microbiologic samples of hand flora were obtained at base line and after hand washes 1 and 15 on test days 1 and 5. After the initial hand wash there were significant reductions over base line in aerobic and anaerobic log CFU among those using Alc A, CHG, and IPA. By the end of the first day of hand washing (15 washes), there were 2-log or greater reductions in aerobic counts among subjects using all antiseptics, but no significant reductions in controls. By the end of day 5, all agents produced significant reductions in aerobic (P = 0.0002) and anaerobic (P = 0.002) counts over control soap. Subject assessment of effects of hand washing on the skin and overall satisfaction varied significantly by product (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that alcohol-based hand rinses are highly efficacious, and such products are recommended as a health care personnel hand wash, particularly when sink and running water are inaccessible. PMID:3789690

  5. Hybrid fundamental-solution-based FEM for piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changyong; Qin, Qing-Hua; Yu, Aibing

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a new type of hybrid finite element method (FEM), hybrid fundamental-solution-based FEM (HFS-FEM), is developed for analyzing plane piezoelectric problems by employing fundamental solutions (Green's functions) as internal interpolation functions. A modified variational functional used in the proposed model is first constructed, and then the assumed intra-element displacement fields satisfying a priori the governing equations of the problem are constructed by using a linear combination of fundamental solutions at a number of source points located outside the element domain. To ensure continuity of fields over inter-element boundaries, conventional shape functions are employed to construct the independent element frame displacement fields defined over the element boundary. The proposed methodology is assessed by several examples with different boundary conditions and is also used to investigate the phenomenon of stress concentration in infinite piezoelectric medium containing a hole under remote loading. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has good performance in numerical accuracy and mesh distortion insensitivity compared with analytical solutions and those from ABAQUS. In addition, some new insights on the stress concentration have been clarified and presented in the paper.

  6. An airport surface surveillance solution based on fusion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianliang; Xu, Yang; Liang, Xuelin; Yang, Yihuang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an airport surface surveillance solution combined with Multilateration (MLAT) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). The moving target to be monitored is regarded as a linear stochastic hybrid system moving freely and each surveillance technology is simplified as a sensor with white Gaussian noise. The dynamic model of target and the observation model of sensor are established in this paper. The measurements of sensors are filtered properly by estimators to get the estimation results for current time. Then, we analysis the characteristics of two fusion solutions proposed, and decide to use the scheme based on sensor estimation fusion for our surveillance solution. In the proposed fusion algorithm, according to the output of estimators, the estimation error is quantified, and the fusion weight of each sensor is calculated. The two estimation results are fused with weights, and the position estimation of target is computed accurately. Finally the proposed solution and algorithm are validated by an illustrative target tracking simulation.

  7. Flow-based solution-liquid-solid nanowire synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Werder, Donald J.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2013-09-01

    Discovered almost two decades ago, the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method for semiconductor nanowire synthesis has proven to be an important route to high-quality, single-crystalline anisotropic nanomaterials. In execution, the SLS technique is similar to colloidal quantum-dot synthesis in that it entails the injection of chemical precursors into a hot surfactant solution, but mechanistically it is considered the solution-phase analogue to vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Both SLS and VLS methods make use of molten metal nanoparticles to catalyse the nucleation and elongation of single-crystalline nanowires. Significantly, however, the methods differ in how chemical precursors are introduced to the metal catalysts. In SLS, precursors are added in a one-off fashion in a flask, whereas in VLS they are carried by a flow of gas through the reaction chamber, and by-products are removed similarly. The ability to dynamically control the introduction of reactants and removal of by-products in VLS synthesis has enabled a degree of synthetic control not possible with SLS growth. We show here that SLS synthesis can be transformed into a continuous technique using a microfluidic reactor. The resulting flow-based SLS (`flow-SLS') platform allows us to slow down the synthesis of nanowires and capture mechanistic details concerning their growth in the solution phase, as well as synthesize technologically relevant axially heterostructured semiconductor nanowires, while maintaining the propensity of SLS for accessing ultrasmall diameters below 10 nm.

  8. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R

    2002-07-11

    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  9. Composite films based on biorelated agro-industrial waste and poly(vinyl alcohol). Preparation and mechanical properties characterization.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, E; Cinelli, P; Imam, S H; Mao, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byproducts, derived from sugar cane (SC) and apple (AP) and orange (OR) fruit juice extraction, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. The effect of fiber type and composition on the relative properties of cast films was evaluated and compared. OR resulted to be suitable for blending in higher amounts by weight than SC and AP. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and were observed to be effective in giving flexible films. Additionally, cornstarch was added to further increase the composition of polymers from renewable resources in cost-effective and ecoefficient composite film formulations. The prepared films resulted sensitive to moisture and water. To reduce water sensitivity, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) was tested as a cross-linking agent for the present composite formulations. Cross-linked films exhibited significant improvement in water-resistance that can be taken as a tuneable structural feature for customized applications. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite films (elongation at break, tensile strength, Young modulus) were found to be dependent upon the nature and content of the filler and on environmental conditions.

  10. MPEG-4 solutions for virtualizing RDP-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joveski, Bojan; Mitrea, Mihai; Ganji, Rama-Rao

    2014-02-01

    The present paper provides the proof-of-concepts for the use of the MPEG-4 multimedia scene representations (BiFS and LASeR) as a virtualization tool for RDP-based applications (e.g. MS Windows applications). Two main applicative benefits are thus granted. First, any legacy application can be virtualized without additional programming effort. Second, heterogeneous mobile devices (different manufacturers, OS) can collaboratively enjoy full multimedia experiences. From the methodological point of view, the main novelty consists in (1) designing an architecture allowing the conversion of the RDP content into a semantic multimedia scene-graph and its subsequent rendering on the client and (2) providing the underlying scene graph management and interactivity tools. Experiments consider 5 users and two RDP applications (MS Word and Internet Explorer), and benchmark our solution against two state-of-the-art technologies (VNC and FreeRDP). The visual quality is evaluated by six objective measures (e.g. PSNR<37dB, SSIM<0.99). The network traffic evaluation shows that: (1) for text editing, the MPEG-based solutions outperforms the VNC by a factor 1.8 while being 2 times heavier then the FreeRDP; (2) for Internet browsing, the MPEG solutions outperform both VNC and FreeRDP by factors of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively. The average round-trip times (less than 40ms) cope with real-time application constraints.

  11. Characteristics of photosensors based on solid solutions of AII BVIcompounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubegin, Gennady V.; Gusliannikov, Vladimir V.

    1999-10-01

    In the work there are submitted the results of the research of photosensors on a base of solid solutions of A(superscript II)B(superscript VI) compounds for measurement and control of intensity of low-level light in narrow areas of spectrum. The basic principles of technological process of manufacturing of injection photo diodes are described. The results of measurements of voltage-current characteristics and spectral characteristics of photo diodes, received in laboratory technological process with the various contents of cadmy and zinc in ZnCd(subscript 1-x)S(subscript x) solid solutions, and also sulfur and selen in CdS(subscript 1-x)Se(subscript x) solid solutions are submitted. The investigation results have shown, that photosensors work at low positive bias voltage, do not require cooling, have high sensitivity in a maximum and narrow selectivity. In CdS(subscript 1-x)Se(subscript x)- photosensors the photosensitive protecting coverage of transparent films on the base of As(subscript 2)S(subscript 3) compounds is applied. The opportunity of creation of a wide discrete range of photo diodes with the sensitivity in range from near ultraviolet up to near infrared area of spectrum is shown.

  12. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  13. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  14. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  15. Configurations of base-pair complexes in solutions. [nucleotide chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. T.; Nir, S.; Rein, R.; Macelroy, R.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical search for the most stable conformations (i.e., stacked or hydrogen bonded) of the base pairs A-U and G-C in water, CCl4, and CHCl3 solutions is presented. The calculations of free energies indicate a significant role of the solvent in determining the conformations of the base-pair complexes. The application of the continuum method yields preferred conformations in good agreement with experiment. Results of the calculations with this method emphasize the importance of both the electrostatic interactions between the two bases in a complex, and the dipolar interaction of the complex with the entire medium. In calculations with the solvation shell method, the last term, i.e., dipolar interaction of the complex with the entire medium, was added. With this modification the prediction of the solvation shell model agrees both with the continuum model and with experiment, i.e., in water the stacked conformation of the bases is preferred.

  16. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  18. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  19. X-ray diffraction study of the molecular propolis films deposited from an alcohol solution onto the cleavage surfaces of layered V2VI3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapak, S. I.; Gavrylyuk, S. V.; Kaminskii, V. M.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2008-09-01

    The structures of the molecular propolis films deposited from an alcohol solution on the (0001) cleavage surface of layered bismuth selenide and telluride are studied by X-ray diffraction. Despite the chemical interaction between the semiconductor substrates and the organic-substance components, the molecular structural ordering of the propolis films is shown to be identical to that in the films of this substance on the surface of amorphous glass substrates. The chemical and deformation interaction between the organic substance and the layered V2VI3 compounds is found to result in the formation of an organic-inorganic sandwich nanostructure at a distance of ˜0.3 μm from the layered crystal-propolis film interface.

  20. Theoretical investigation of interaction of sorbitol molecules with alcohol dehydrogenase in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Homayoon; Zahedi, Mansour; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Azizian, Homa; Amanlou, Massoud

    2011-03-01

    The nature of protein-sorbitol-water interaction in solution at the molecular level, has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. In order to do this task, two molecular dynamics simulations of the protein ADH in solution at room temperature have been carried out, one in the presence (about 0.9 M) and another in the absence of sorbitol. The results show that the sorbitol molecules cluster and move toward the protein, and form hydrogen bonds with protein. Also, coating by sorbitol reduces the conformational fluctuations of the protein compared to the sorbitol-free system. Thus, it is concluded that at moderate concentration of sorbitol solution, sorbitol molecules interact with ADH via many H-bonds that prevent the protein folding. In fact, at more concentrated sorbitol solution, water and sorbitol molecules accumulate around the protein surface and form a continuous space-filling network to reduce the protein flexibility. Namely, in such solution, sorbitol molecules can stabilize a misfolded state of ADH, and prevent the protein from folding to its native structure.

  1. Synthesis of higher alcohols over highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts derived from layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinyou; Fang, Kegong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-05-15

    Highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts with Fe/Cu molar ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1 were prepared via thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors and tested for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) via CO hydrogenation. The catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, and H2-TPR. It was demonstrated that the Cu and Fe ions were highly dispersed in the brucite-like layers of the LDHs. With increased Fe/Cu atomic ratio, the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content, Cu reduction temperatures, and the spacing of layers initially increase until the Fe/Cu ratio reaches 0.5 and then decrease. In addition to the catalytic evaluation for CO hydrogenation and catalyst characterization, the relationships between the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and their catalytic performances were also investigated. It was also found that the alcohols/hydrocarbons ratios correlate linearly with the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content. Moreover, higher reduction temperatures of Cu species as well as larger spacing between the layers in the catalyst are favorable for the synthesis of alcohols. The incorporation of a suitable amount of Fe is beneficial for the production of higher alcohols, with the best catalytic performance (alcohol selectivity of 20.77% and C2+ alcohol selectivity of 48.06%) obtained from a Fe/Cu atomic ratio of 0.5.

  2. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  3. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness.

  4. Alcohol-based hand disinfection: a more robust hand-hygiene method in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tvedt, C; Bukholm, G

    2005-03-01

    This study involved observation of hand-hygiene behaviour and evaluation of the effect of alcohol-based hand disinfection and handwashing with plain liquid soap on microbial flora. The study was performed in a combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. We demonstrated a crude compliance of hand hygiene of 50.4%, which was only performed adequately in 20.8% of cases. Of this group, handwashing and hand-disinfection procedures were performed properly 34.0% and 71.6% of the time, respectively. Hand samples for bacteriological examinations with the glove juice method demonstrated that whilst handwashing was sensitive to the way in which hand hygiene was performed, alcohol-based hand disinfection was less sensitive to such performance. Our study demonstrated that alcohol-based hand disinfection is a robust hand-hygiene method with many advantages in a practical setting. It is very feasible for use in hospital wards.

  5. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  6. Probabilistic capture zone delineation based on an analytic solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elizabeth; Andricevic, Roko; Morrice, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    A major tool used in the design of wellhead protection areas is the delineation of a capture zone for a pumping well by use of a simple, steady-state analytic solution. This simple approach has been useful for many small municipalities because of the high costs associated with obtaining the hydrogeologic information needed for detailed numerical modeling. This analytic solution, however, is deterministic, and uncertainty in the mean value estimates of the hydraulic parameters used in this model can be a major source of error in predicting capture zones. To address this problem, a statistical theory was developed for including the uncertainty in the transmissivity and the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic head gradient in the analytic solution for both the ultimate and time-dependent capture zone for an arbitrary reliability level. To demonstrate the method and investigate the effect of varying magnitudes of uncertainty on time-dependent capture zones, the method is applied to three synthetic data sets based on data from the Borden Aquifer in Ontario, Canada. In general, the results show that uncertainty in the length of the time-dependent capture zone at a given reliability level is dependent on the uncertainty in the magnitude of the mean regional flow, which is equal to the transmissivity multiplied by the hydraulic head gradient; uncertainty in the maximum width of the capture zone is dependent primarily on the uncertainty in the mean direction of the regional flow.

  7. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  8. Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

  9. Synthesis of novel chiral Schiff base and amino alcohol derivatives of calix[4]arene and chiral recognition properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the synthesis and liquid phase extraction properties towards some amino acid methylesters and amino alcohols of Schiff base and amino alcohol substituted calix[4]arene are reported. The Schiff base substituted calix[4]arene 5 has been synthesized via condensation reaction involving 5,17-diformyl-11,23-di- tert-butyl-25,27-di[3-(4-formylphenoxy)propoxy]-26,28 dihydroxycalix[4]arene 4 and ( R)-(-)-2-phenylglycine methyl ester in CHCl 3:MeOH. To give the amino alcohol substituted calix[4]arene 6, the synthesized chiral compound 5 was reduced by LiAlH 4. The new chiral Schiff base and amino alcohol derivatives of calix[4]arene have been characterized by a combination of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FAB-MS and elemental analysis. Also, the extraction behaviors of 5 and 6 towards some selected amino acid methylesters and amino alcohols have been studied by liquid-liquid extraction.

  10. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  11. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-27

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.

  12. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  13. Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joohoon; Sangwan, Vinod K; Wood, Joshua D; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-02-27

    Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics. Much of the initial research on 2D nanomaterials has relied on micromechanical exfoliation, which yields high-quality 2D nanomaterial flakes that are suitable for fundamental studies but possesses limited scalability for real-world applications. In an effort to overcome this limitation, solution-processing methods for isolating large quantities of 2D nanomaterials have emerged. Importantly, solution processing results in 2D nanomaterial dispersions that are amenable to roll-to-roll fabrication methods that underlie lost-cost manufacturing of thin-film transistors, transparent conductors, energy storage devices, and solar cells. Despite these advantages, solution-based exfoliation methods typically lack control over the lateral size and thickness of the resulting 2D nanomaterial flakes, resulting in polydisperse dispersions with heterogeneous properties. Therefore, post-exfoliation separation techniques are needed to achieve 2D nanomaterial dispersions with monodispersity in lateral size, thickness, and properties. In this Account, we survey the latest developments in solution-based separation methods that aim to produce monodisperse dispersions and thin films of emerging 2D nanomaterials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus. First, we motivate the need for precise thickness

  14. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    PubMed

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  15. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghită, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codruta; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-07-25

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an "overall paraben index", the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  16. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghiță, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codruța; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed. PMID:27879939

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James A.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-02-14

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over Amberlyst TM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5- trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over AmberlystTM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  19. Acute Alcohol Effects on Contextual Memory BOLD Response: Differences Based on Fragmentary Blackout History

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Schnyer, David M.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual memory, or memory for source details, is an important aspect of episodic memory and has been implicated in alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts (FB). Little is known, however, about how neural functioning during contextual memory processes may differ between individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts. This study examined whether neural activation during a contextual memory task differed by history of fragmentary blackout and acute alcohol consumption. Methods Twenty-four matched individuals with (FB+; n = 12) and without (FB−; n = 12) a history of FBs were recruited from a longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks and completed a laboratory beverage challenge followed by two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions under no alcohol and alcohol [breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) = 0.08%] conditions. Task performance and brain hemodynamic activity during a block design contextual memory task were examined across 48 fMRI sessions. Results Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the contextual memory task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns after alcohol intoxication. A significant FB group by beverage interaction emerged in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex with FB− individuals showing greater BOLD response after alcohol exposure (p < .05). Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on neural activity for FB+ and FB− individuals during recollection of contextual information, perhaps suggesting a neurobiological mechanism associated with alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts. PMID:22420742

  20. Two RFID-based solutions to enhance inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Chien, Hung-Yu; Yang, Chia-Chuan; Wu, Tzong-Chen; Lee, Chin-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Owing to the low cost and convenience of identifying an object without physical contact, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems provide innovative, promising and efficient applications in many domains. An RFID grouping protocol is a protocol that allows an off-line verifier to collect and verify the evidence of two or more tags simultaneously present. Recently, Huang and Ku (J. Med. Syst, 2009) proposed an efficient grouping protocol to enhance medication safety for inpatients based on low-cost tags. However, the Huang-Ku scheme is not secure; an attacker can easily make up fake grouping records to cheat the verifier. This weakness would seriously endanger the safety of inpatient medication safety. This paper will show the weaknesses, and then propose two RFID-based solutions to enhance medication safety for two different scenarios. The proposed schemes are practical, secure and efficient for medication applications.

  1. Preventing Alcohol Use Among Late Adolescent Urban Youth: 6-Year Results From a Computer-Based Intervention*

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a skills-based CD-ROM intervention, with and without a parent component, to reduce alcohol use among urban youth at 6-year follow-up. Method: At recruitment, 513 youths with a mean age of 10.8 years were randomly assigned to one of three study arms: youth CD-ROM intervention plus parent component, youth CD-ROM intervention only, or control. All youths completed pretest, posttest, and annual follow-up measures. Youths and parents in their respective arms received the initial intervention program between pretest and posttest measures and received booster interventions between each follow-up measure. Results: With 80% sample retention at 6-year follow-up, youths in both intervention arms reported less past-month alcohol and cigarette use and fewer instances of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. Despite having similar numbers of drinking peers as youths in the control arm, youths in both intervention arms reported greater alcohol-refusal skills. Only past-month cigarette use differed between the two intervention arms, with youths in the intervention-plus-parent-component arm smoking less than youths in the CD-ROM intervention-only arm. Conclusions: Six years after initial intervention, youths who received a culturally tailored, skills-based prevention program had reduced alcohol use and lower rates of related risky behaviors than youths in the control arm. PMID:20553661

  2. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na2SO3 microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yanmin; Liu, Fei; Shang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yanzhao

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl(4)(-)CTAB(+). The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol(-1) and -84.87 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E%>99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach.

  3. Ultrasonic Velocity, Viscosity and Refractive Index Investigation on Interacting Blend Solutions of PAA (Poly Acrylic Acid) and PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) in Solvent DMSO (Di methyl Sulphoxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamani, Chakrala

    2010-11-01

    The present study provides a great insight into the major new research areas like Plasma research (which is yielding a greater understanding of the universe) and Nano Technology Research (which provides many practical uses like Drug Delivery System). The Ultrasonic Velocities, Viscosities and Refractive indices of Poly (Acrylic Acid) and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) blends in DMSO solutions have been measured over a wide range of composition, concentration and at different temperatures. The variation of Ultrasonic Velocity, derived acoustical parameters, adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, Rao number, molar compressibility and relaxation strength with composition of blend solution was found not linear. This non-linearity has been attributed to incompatibility in conformity with the earlier findings. This behavior was confirmed by Viscometric and interaction parameters studies, as well as by investigation of Refractive index studies. These investigations offer an entirely new and simple approach to the study of the compatibility of polymer blends which is in general obtained by sophisticated techniques of thermal dynamic mechanical and electron microscopic analysis.

  4. Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Fiber Pulp Instead of Asbestos Fibers in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Mahmoudi, A.; Shadkam, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum content of a four-parameters cellulose fiber pulp, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, a silica fume, and bentonite for cement-based composite sheets. Then cement composite sheets from the hybrid of PVA and the cellulose fiber pulp were manufactured, and their moduli of rapture were determined experimentally. The result obtained showed that cement composites with a hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp had a higher flexural strength than cellulose-fiber- reinforced cement ones, but this strength was rather similar to that of asbestos-fiber-reinforced cement composites. Also, using the results of flexural tests and an analytical method, the tensile and compressive moduli of the hybrid of PVA and cement sheet were calculated. The hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp is proposed as an appropriate alternative for substituting asbestos in the Hatschek process.

  5. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, S. A. Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.

  6. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhudesai, S. A.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Mitra, S.; Desa, J. A. E.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2015-06-01

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D2O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10-5 cm2/sec.

  7. Novel polyvinyl alcohol-bioglass 45S5 based composite nanofibrous membranes as bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kumar, Manishekhar; Mandal, Biman B; Srinivasan, A

    2016-12-01

    Composite nanofibrous membranes based on sol-gel derived 45SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 (bioglass, BG) and 43SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 2Fe2O3 (magnetic bioglass, MBG) blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been electrospun. These low cost membranes were mostly amorphous in structure with minor crystalline (sodium calcium phosphate) precipitates. All membranes were biodegradable. Among these, the composites exhibited higher tensile strength, better proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells and higher alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity than the bare PVA membrane, indicating their potential in bone tissue engineering. The magnetic PVA-MBG scaffold was also found to be a promising candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application.

  8. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  9. Common Issues and Collaborative Solutions: A Comparison of Student Alcohol Use Behaviors at the Community College and 4-Year Institutional Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Jerimy

    2009-01-01

    The literature exploring commonalities between four-year and community college student alcohol use is relatively scarce. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the heavy focus on alcohol issues at university colleges. Coll (1999) presented one of the first brief assessments comparing community and four-year colleges on alcohol use and related…

  10. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite.

  11. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate/layered silicate based nanofibrous mats for bacterial inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Xueyong; Chen, Yang; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Ting; Huang, Rong; Fan, Gang

    2013-02-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG)/organic rectorite (OREC) composite nanofibrous mats are fabricated by electrospinning aqueous solutions with different mixing ratios. Both good fiber shape and three-dimensional structure of nanofibrous mats can be observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows the existence of OREC in the as-spun composite mats. In addition, small-angle X-ray diffraction confirms that the interlayer of OREC is intercalated by ALG/PVA chains, and the distance between OREC interlayers is increased from 4.50 to 4.74 nm. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra further verify the intercalation is between polymers and layered silicate. Moreover, the thermal gravimetric analysis shows that the addition of OREC has only a small effect on the thermal stability of composites. Furthermore, the antibacterial experiments illustrate that OREC can enhance the bacterial inhibition ability of nanofibrous mats against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Hexavalent chromium reduction in solution and in chromite ore processing residue-enriched soil by tartaric Acid with isopropyl alcohol and divalent manganese as co-reductants.

    PubMed

    Brose, Dominic A; James, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), the solid waste product from the high-temperature alkaline processing of ferrochromite (FeO·CrO), contains Cr(VI) in soluble and insoluble compounds formed in the roasting process. This research investigated tartaric acid in combination with Mn and isopropyl alcohol (IPOH ) as co-reductants for reagent- and COPR-derived Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) by tartaric acid alone at pH 5.0 or greater was negligible; however, in the presence of Mn or IPOH, reduction occurred in hours. Isopropyl alcohol enhanced Cr(VI) reduction, probably via formation of a termolecular complex with the alcohol, tartaric acid, and Cr(VI). In aqueous solutions of reagent-derived Cr(VI) at pH 4, 12 mmol L tartaric acid with 1.0 mmol L Mn or 1.0 mmol L Mn and 0.29 mol L (2% v/v) IPOH reduced 1.0 mmol L Cr(VI) in 48 h. The same treatments at pH 5.5 reduced 0.60 and 0.58 mmol L Cr(VI) (60%) in 96 h, respectively. A minimum half-life of 10.2 h was calculated from first-order rate constants obtained from Mn and IPOH-Mn co-reductant treatments with tartaric acid at pH 4. The most COPR-derived Cr(VI) reduced in suspension was by IPOH and Mn at high acidity (pH 5.8), which reduced 0.52 mmol L (52%) of the COPR-derived soluble Cr(VI) at 96 h. The enhanced reduction of soluble Cr(VI) by tartaric acid by the addition of Mn proceeds within a complex formed by an esterification reaction between tartaric acid and Cr(VI) with Mn bound to tartaric acid. The combined treatment of tartaric acid, IPOH, Mn, and a strong acid to lower the pH of COPR-enriched soils would be effective in field applications of this chemistry. By creating a slurry of the field soil with these amendments, mass transfer limitations would be overcome, and Cr(VI) would be reduced to Cr(III) in days.

  13. Anharmonic densities of states: A general dynamics-based solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jellinek, Julius; Aleinikava, Darya

    2016-06-07

    Density of states is a fundamental physical characteristic that lies at the foundation of statistical mechanics and theoretical constructs that derive from them (e.g., kinetic rate theories, phase diagrams, and others). Even though most real physical systems are anharmonic, the vibrational density of states is customarily treated within the harmonic approximation, or with some partial, often limited, account for anharmonicity. The reason for this is that the problem of anharmonic densities of states stubbornly resisted a general and exact, yet convenient and straightforward in applications, solution. Here we formulate such a solution within both classical and quantum mechanics. It is based on actual dynamical behavior of systems as a function of energy and as observed, or monitored, on a chosen time scale, short or long. As a consequence, the resulting anharmonic densities of states are fully dynamically informed and, in general, time-dependent. As such, they lay the ground for formulation of new statistical mechanical frameworks that incorporate time and are ergodic, by construction, with respect to actual dynamical behavior of systems.

  14. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  15. The effect of thiolated additives on the properties of wheat gluten based plastics, aqueous solutions and electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing

    Wheat gluten (WG) is a promising substitute for petroleum-based plastics due to its unique ability to form a cohesive blend with viscoelastic properties once plasticized. Previous work blending WG with thiolated poly(vinyl alcohol) (TPVA) showed that both the strength and elongation of compression molded native WG bars can be improved via thiol/disulfide interchange reactions between WG and TPVA. In this study, the morphology of WG/TPVA blends was investigated by atomic force (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as by modulated dynamic scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Consistent with our earlier results, AFM and TEM imaging clearly indicated that TPVA is much more compatible with WG compared with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) although there are still two phases in the blend: one WG rich phase and another TPVA rich phase. TPVA was also blended with WG in an aqueous solvent (1/1 (v/v) water/1-propanol mixture) to improve its solubility and spinnability. Control experiments were conducted with PVA and dithiothreitol (DTT) for comparison purposes. The concentration and the thiolation level of TPVA were also varied to explore the parameter space. The interactions of thiol groups from TPVA and soluble WG were found to be important during electrospinning. The fiber diameter became more uniform and the fiber quality increased very noticeably when TPVA was included. Furthermore, the time-dependent rheology behaviors of TPVA/WG and DTT/WG electrospinning solutions were investigated by using steady shear sweeps, oscillatory frequency sweeps, SE-HPLC and free -SH content determination. A two-step mechanism of interaction was proposed for DTT/WG and TPVA/WG solutions based on current results and other earlier studies. In comparison with WG and PVA/WG solutions, the reduction and reformation of disulfide linkages in both TPVA/WG and DTT/WG solutions were believed to play a key role in determining the rheological properties and molecular weight distribution of WG

  16. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  17. Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Service: Impact on Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Transports at a Small Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…

  18. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens’ information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  19. Distributed heterogeneous inspecting system and its middleware-based solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-can; Wu, Zhao-hui; Pan, Yun-he

    2003-01-01

    There are many cases when an organization needs to monitor the data and operations of its supervised departments, especially those departments which are not owned by this organization and are managed by their own information systems. Distributed Heterogeneous Inspecting System (DHIS) is the system an organization uses to monitor its supervised departments by inspecting their information systems. In DHIS, the inspected systems are generally distributed, heterogeneous, and constructed by different companies. DHIS has three key processes-abstracting core data sets and core operation sets, collecting these sets, and inspecting these collected sets. In this paper, we present the concept and mathematical definition of DHIS, a metadata method for solving the interoperability, a security strategy for data transferring, and a middleware-based solution of DHIS. We also describe an example of the inspecting system at WENZHOU custom.

  20. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01–90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b–effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b–effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater. PMID:26887357

  1. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-12-24

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens' information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing.

  2. Web-based intervention to change perceived norms of college student alcohol use and sexual behavior on spring break.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an adapted web-based multi-component personalized feedback intervention to reduce college student alcohol use and risky sexual behavior during Spring Break. This is one of the first interventions focused on Spring Break alcohol use and related sexual behavior. Personalized feedback intervention components addressed intentions, expected consequences, norms, motivations, protective behavioral strategies, and pacts with friends. Participants were college students (N=263; 55% women) between the ages of 18 and 21 who planned to go on a Spring Break trip with their friends. Effects were not significant in reducing alcohol use or sexual behavior during Spring Break or some of the proposed intervention mechanisms. However, consistent results showed that the intervention succeeded in reducing perceived social norms for Spring Break drinking and sexual behavior. Findings suggest that changing norms alone is not sufficient for changing risk behavior during this event and alternative strategies are needed to impact other putative mediators.

  3. Web-Based Intervention to Change Perceived Norms of College Student Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior on Spring Break

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an adapted web-based multi-component personalized feedback intervention to reduce college student alcohol use and risky sexual behavior during Spring Break. This is one of the first interventions focused on Spring Break alcohol use and related sexual behavior. Personalized feedback intervention components addressed intentions, expected consequences, norms, motivations, protective behavioral strategies, and pacts with friends. Participants were college students (N=263; 55% women) between the ages of 18 and 21 who planned to go on a Spring Break trip with their friends. Effects were not significant in reducing alcohol use or sexual behavior during Spring Break or some of the proposed intervention mechanisms. However, consistent results showed that the intervention succeeded in reducing perceived social norms for Spring Break drinking and sexual behavior. Findings suggest that changing norms alone is not sufficient for changing risk behavior during this event and alternative strategies are needed to impact other putative mediators. PMID:24333038

  4. Biomimetic oxidation studies. 9. Mechanistic aspects of the oxidation of alcohols with functional,active site methane monooxygenase enzyme models in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rabion, A. ||; Chen, S.; Wang, J.; Buchanan, R.M.; Seris, J.L.; Fish, R.H. |

    1995-12-13

    The syntheses of biomimetic complexes that mimic the major structural features of the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase enzyme (MMO) and, more importantly, that provide similar alkane functionalization activity, in the presence of an oxidant, have been of great interest to the discipline of bioinorganic chemistry. In this communication, we will demonstrate the feasibility of conducting biomimetic oxidation studies in H{sub 2}O with soluble substrates, i.e., alcohols (cyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol), using H{sub 2}O-stable MMO mimics at pH 4.2, and the oxidant, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). Both the Mitusunobu procedure and the mesylate displacement reaction proceeded with complete inversion of the stereo-center and provided optically pure penultimate intermediate (>99.9% ee). The synthesis was completed by reduction of the nitro group under standard conditions to deliver LY300164 in 87%. In summary, we have developed an efficient and environmentally benign synthesis of the 5H-2,3-benzodiazepine LY300164 that provides the optically pure compound in 51% overall yield. Intramolecular hydrazone alkylation led to a remarkably facile and selective formation of the benzodiazepine. Furthermore, the application of resins to whole-cell-based biotransformations should find general utility for similar reactions that are complicated by component inhibition and product isolation. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  6. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

    2014-11-07

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior.

  7. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  8. Phase equilibria and modeling of pyridinium-based ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Królikowski, Marek; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M; Tumba, Kaniki

    2010-11-25

    The phase diagrams of the ionic liquid (IL) N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ([BM(4)Py][NTf(2)]) with water, an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol), an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane), or cyclohexane have been measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. This work includes the characterization of the synthesized compound by water content and also by differential scanning calorimetry. Phase diagrams for the binary systems of [BM(4)Py][NTf(2)] with all solvents reveal eutectic systems with regards to (solid-liquid) phase equilibria and show immiscibility in the liquid phase region with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in most of the mixtures. The phase equilibria (solid, or liquid-liquid) for the binary systems containing aliphatic hydrocarbons reported here exhibit the lowest solubility and the highest immiscibility gap, a trend which has been observed for all ILs. The reduction of experimental data has been carried out using the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) correlation equation. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared with analogous phase diagrams reported previously for systems containing the IL N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tosylate and other pyridinium-based ILs. The influence of the anion of the IL on the phase behavior has been discussed.

  9. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  10. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses.

  11. Bringing the Evidence Base to the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelling, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The National Drug Sector Information Service is committed to supporting those who work to prevent or reduce the harm to individuals, families, communities and the nation caused by alcohol and other drugs. This paper describes a project to assist particular members of the alcohol and other drugs sector to improve quality and the transfer of…

  12. Population-based case-control study of DRD2 gene polymorphisms and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, L V K S; Thangaraj, K; Non, A L; Singh, Lalji; Rao, V R

    2010-10-01

    Several independent lines of evidence for genetic contributions to vulnerability to alcoholism exist. Dopamine is thought to play a major role in the mechanism of reward and reinforcement in response to alcohol. D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene has been among the stronger candidate genes implicated in alcoholism. In this study, alcohol use was assessed in 196 randomly selected Kota individuals of Nilgiri Hills, South India. Six DRD2 SNPs were assessed in 81 individuals with alcoholism and 151 controls to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcoholism. Of the three models (dominant, recessive, and additive) tested for association between alcoholism and DRD2 SNPs, only the additive model shows association for three loci (rs1116313, TaqID, and rs2734835). Of six studied polymorphisms, five are in strong linkage disequilibrium forming onesingle haplotype block. Though the global haplotype analysis with these five SNPs was not significant, haplotype analysis using all six SNPs yielded a global P value of .033, even after adjusting for age. These findings support the importance of dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms in alcoholism. Further studies to replicate these findings in different populations are needed to confirm these results.

  13. Solute based Lagrangian scheme in modeling the drying process of soft matter solutions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanlong; Luo, Ling; Doi, Masao; Ouyang, Zhongcan

    2016-02-01

    We develop a new dynamical model to study the drying process of a droplet of soft matter solutions. The model includes the processes of solute diffusion, gel-layer formation and cavity creation. A new scheme is proposed to handle the diffusion dynamics taking place in such processes. In this scheme, the dynamics is described by the motion of material points taken on solute. It is convenient to apply this scheme to solve problems that involve moving boundaries and phase changes. As an example, we show results of a numerical calculation for a drying spherical droplet, and discuss how initial concentration and evaporation rate affect the structural evolution of the droplet.

  14. Explicating an evidence-based, theoretically informed, mobile technology-based system to improve outcomes for people in recovery for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; Baker, Timothy; Boyle, Michael G; Levy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Post-treatment relapse to uncontrolled alcohol use is common. Currently available communication technology can use existing models for relapse prevention to cost-effectively improve long-term relapse prevention. This paper describes: (1) research-based elements of alcohol consumption-related relapse prevention and how they can be encompassed in self-determination theory (SDT) and Marlatt's cognitive behavioral relapse prevention model, (2) how technology could help address the needs of people seeking recovery, (3) a technology-based prototype, organized around sexual transmitted disease and Marlatt's model, and (4) how we are testing a system based on the ideas in this article and related ethical and operational considerations.

  15. Synthesis, micellization behavior and alcohol induced amphipathic cellulose film of cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Liu, Ya-nan; Yu, Jian-ling; Li, Hai-peng; Li, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presented a novel preparation method of the cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant, and the surfactant was used to prepare amphipathic cellulose membrane. The native cotton cellulose was tailored to cellulose segments in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Then, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification of cellulose segments were carried out by esterification and graft polymerization of the ɛ-caprolactone (ɛ-CL) monomer onto the hydroxyl group of cellulose as well as sulphonation with sulfamic acid. The amphipathic cellulose membrane was made by cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The molecular structure of amphipathic cellulose surfactant was confirmed by FT-IR, and its surface active properties were investigated by Wilhelmy plate method and Steady-state fluorescence probe method, respectively. Experimental results showed that cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant caused low interfacial tension of 48.62 mN/m and its critical micelle concentration (cmc) value was 0.65 wt% when the grafting ratio of cellulose-g-PCL (poly-caprolactone) was 25.40%. The contact angle between a droplet of water and the surface of membrane was 90.84o, and the surface free energy of the alcohol induced cellulose membrane was 15.7 mJ/m2. This study may help increase using natural and biodegradable surface-activity materials with improved properties as surfactants.

  16. Baseline predictors of treatment outcome in Internet-based alcohol interventions: a recursive partitioning analysis alongside a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are seen as attractive for harmful users of alcohol and lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Some participants will however not achieve the desired results. In this study, harmful users of alcohol have been partitioned in subgroups with low, intermediate or high probability of positive treatment outcome, using recursive partitioning classification tree analysis. Methods Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two Internet-based alcohol interventions. The main outcome variable was treatment response, a dichotomous outcome measure for treatment success. Candidate predictors for the classification analysis were first selected using univariate regression. Next, a tree decision model to classify participants in categories with a low, medium and high probability of treatment response was constructed using recursive partitioning software. Results Based on literature review, 46 potentially relevant baseline predictors were identified. Five variables were selected using univariate regression as candidate predictors for the classification analysis. Two variables were found most relevant for classification and selected for the decision tree model: ‘living alone’, and ‘interpersonal sensitivity’. Using sensitivity analysis, the robustness of the decision tree model was supported. Conclusions Harmful alcohol users in a shared living situation, with high interpersonal sensitivity, have a significantly higher probability of positive treatment outcome. The resulting decision tree model may be used as part of a decision support system but is on its own insufficient as a screening algorithm with satisfactory clinical utility. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (Cochrane Collaboration): NTR-TC1155. PMID:23651767

  17. Alcohol based fixatives provide excellent tissue morphology, protein immunoreactivity and RNA integrity in paraffin embedded tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Milcheva, Rositsa; Janega, Pavol; Celec, Peter; Russev, Russy; Babál, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Fixation techniques preserving morphological fidelity, protein antigenicity and integrity of nucleic acids can have a high impact on both basic and applied biomedical sciences and diagnostic pathology. Different types of mouse tissues were fixed with neutral buffered formalin, ethanol supplemented with acetic acid and modified methacarn (methanol-Carnoy) fixative. The alcohol-fixed samples were processed in an Autotechnicon tissue processor or in an incubator. The preservation of tissue morphology was assessed in all specimens and the immunoreactivity was evaluated with antibodies specific for proteins with nuclear, membrane or cytoplasmic localization. RNA was extracted from all groups of fixed hind limb skeletal muscle specimens and was assessed versus unfixed tissue for preservation of its quantity and quality by amplification of gene-specific fragments of different lengths. Both alcohol-based fixatives preserved the tissue architecture and the specificity of immunoreactivity in excellent quality; the trimming approach did not result in detectable differences. Oligonucleotide fragments of length between 108 and 577 base pairs were amplified from all groups of alcohol-fixed skeletal muscle specimens in amounts comparative to the unfixed muscle tissue. We conclude that both alcohol-based fixatives are an excellent tool for storage of tissue samples designed for immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies when the access to fresh samples is limited.

  18. An Ecologically Based Model of Alcohol-Consumption Decision Making: Evidence for the Discriminative and Predictive Role of Contextual Reward and Punishment Information*

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. Method: The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). Results: The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. PMID:19371496

  19. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    PubMed

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-07-23

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions.

  20. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    PubMed Central

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  1. Effectiveness of brief school-based interventions for adolescents: A meta-analysis of alcohol use prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of school-based brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) among adolescents, and to examine possible iatrogenic effects due to deviancy training in group-delivered interventions. Method A systematic search for eligible studies was undertaken, current through December 31, 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they used an experimental/quasi-experimental design; focused on school-based BAIs; enrolled adolescent participants; and reported an alcohol-related outcome measure. Studies were coded for key variables, and outcome effect sizes were analyzed as standardized mean differences adjusted for small samples (Hedges’ g). Analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted mixed effects meta-regression models. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results Across all 17 studies eligible for inclusion, school-based BAIs were associated with significant improvements among adolescents, whereby adolescents in the BAI groups reduced their alcohol consumption relative to the control groups (ḡ = 0.34, 95% CI [0.11, 0.56]). Subgroup analyses indicated that whereas individually-delivered BAIs were effective (ḡ = 0.58, 95% CI [0.23, 0.92]), there was no evidence that group-delivered BAIs were associated with reductions in alcohol use (ḡ = −0.02, 95% CI [−0.17, 0.14]). Delivery format was confounded with program modality, however, such that motivational enhancement therapy was the most effective modality, but was rarely implemented in group-delivered interventions. Conclusions Some school-based BAIs are effective in reducing adolescent alcohol consumption, but may be ineffective if delivered in group settings. Future research should explore whether group-delivered BAIs that use motivational enhancement therapy components may yield beneficial outcomes like those observed in individually-delivered programs. PMID:25294110

  2. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  3. Background-Error Correlation Model Based on the Implicit Solution of a Diffusion Equation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    1 Background- Error Correlation Model Based on the Implicit Solution of a Diffusion Equation Matthew J. Carrier* and Hans Ngodock...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Background- Error Correlation Model Based on the Implicit Solution of a Diffusion Equation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...2001), which sought to model error correlations based on the explicit solution of a generalized diffusion equation. The implicit solution is

  4. Guided and Unguided Internet-Based Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use – A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Johansson, Magnus; Blankers, Matthijs; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Stenlund-Gens, Erik; Berman, Anne H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. Methods An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of ≥ 6 for women and ≥ 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. Results In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Conclusion Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more

  5. The Interactive Effects of Emotion Regulation and Alcohol Intoxication on Lab-Based Intimate Partner Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Laura E.; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C.

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt’s (2013) I3 framework to examine the interactive effects of two emotion regulation strategies, anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor), on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants’ trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while employing one of three randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I3 theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  6. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration.

  7. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods. PMID:22163450

  8. A critical review of laboratory-based studies examining the relationships of social anxiety and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Battista, Susan R; Stewart, Sherry H; Ham, Lindsay S

    2010-03-01

    Research has revealed inconsistencies regarding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use. The goal of the current review is to examine lab-based studies that have been conducted in an attempt to help disentangle the social anxiety - alcohol link. Specifically, this review focuses on the most prominent theories present in this area of research, namely, the Tension Reduction Theory, the Stress-Response Dampening Model, the Self-Awareness Model, the Attention Allocation Model, and the Appraisal-Disruption Model. The review then describes the empirical studies that have been conducted to test predictions derived from each of these theories. This is followed by a discussion of some methodological considerations in this area of research, including an examination of participant characteristics, study selection criteria, alcohol administration procedures, the nature of the anxiety-inducing tasks that have been used in this area of research, and the different types of outcome measures that are typically used to measure social anxiety. The review ends with some tentative conclusions and directions for future research, including recommendations to recruit individuals with high levels of trait social anxiety, to closely monitor blood alcohol levels achieved at different time points during the study, to examine more interaction-based social anxiety provoking tasks, and to employ a wider range of outcome measures (e.g., cognitive and behavioural outcomes relevant to social anxiety).

  9. Selection of an autochthonous Saccharomyces strain starter for alcoholic fermentation of Sherry base wines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palero, María Jesús; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Valcárcel, Manuel J

    2013-06-01

    Several indigenous Saccharomyces strains from musts were isolated in the Jerez de la Frontera region, at the end of spontaneous fermentation, in order to select the most suitable autochthonous yeast starter, during the 2007 vintage. Five strains were chosen for their oenological abilities and fermentative kinetics to elaborate a Sherry base wine. The selected autochthonous strains were characterized by molecular methods: electrophoretic karyotype and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and by physiological parameters: fermentative power, ethanol production, sugar consumption, acidity and volatile compound production, sensory quality, killer phenotype, desiccation, and sulphur dioxide tolerance. Laboratory- and pilot-scale fermentations were conducted with those autochthonous strains. One of them, named J4, was finally selected over all others for industrial fermentations. The J4 strain, which possesses exceptional fermentative properties and oenological qualities, prevails in industrial fermentations, and becomes the principal biological agent responsible for winemaking. Sherry base wine, industrially manufactured by means of the J4 strain, was analyzed, yielding, together with its sensory qualities, final average values of 0.9 g/l sugar content, 13.4 % (v/v) ethanol content and 0.26 g/l volatile acidity content; apart from a high acetaldehyde production, responsible for the distinctive aroma of "Fino". This base wine was selected for "Fino" Sherry elaboration and so it was fortified; it is at present being subjected to biological aging by the so-called "flor" yeasts. The "flor" velum formed so far is very high quality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study covering from laboratory to industrial scale of characterization and selection of autochthonous starter intended for alcoholic fermentation in Sherry base wines. Since the 2010 vintage, the indigenous J4 strain is employed to industrially manufacture a

  10. Modeling Project Management Competences: An Ontology-Based Solution for Competency-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodea, Constanţa-Nicoleta; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana

    Due to growing requirements for skilled workers, the education should value the outcome and address students' real performance in life. A learning process turns out to be good when the degree of transformation made possible through that process is high or the degree of competences increases. Current paper indicates e-learning as a suitable activity for competences development. The authors also argue that a proper competences modeling solution would increase the efficiency of competence-based learning. Consequently, an ontology based solution is presented for project management domain.

  11. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  12. Improved dielectric properties of nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongrui; Bao, Yaru; Zha, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Jun; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua

    2012-11-01

    In this work, two series of nanocomposites of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-modified rGO (rGO-PVA) were fabricated using solution-cast method and their dielectric properties were carefully characterized. Infrared spectroscopy and atom force microscope analysis indicated that PVA chains were successfully grafted onto graphene through ester linkage. The PVA functionalization of graphene surface can not only prevent the agglomeration of original rGO but also enhance the interaction between PVDF and rGO-PVA. Strong hydrogen bonds and charge transfer effect between rGO-PVA and PVDF were determined by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The dielectric properties of rGO-PVA/PVDF and rGO/PVDF nanocomposites were investigated in a frequency range from 10² Hz to 10⁷ Hz. Both composite systems exhibited an insulator-to-conductor percolating transition as the increase of the filler content. The percolation thresholds were estimated to be 2.24 vol % for rGO-PVA/PVDF composites and 0.61 vol % for rGO/PVDF composites, respectively. Near the percolation threshold, the dielectric permittivity of the nanocomposites was significantly promoted, which can be well explained by interfacial polarization effect and microcapacitor model. Compared to rGO/PVDF composites, higher dielectric constant and lower loss factor were simultaneously achieved in rGO-PVA/PVDF nanocomposites at a frequency range lower than 1 × 10³ Hz. This work provides a potential design strategy based on graphene interface engineering, which would lead to higher-performance flexible dielectric materials.

  13. Biosensors based on porous cellulose nanocrystal-poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Schyrr, Bastien; Pasche, Stéphanie; Voirin, Guy; Weder, Christoph; Simon, Yoan C; Foster, E Johan

    2014-08-13

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which offer a high aspect ratio, large specific surface area, and large number of reactive surface groups, are well suited for the facile immobilization of high density biological probes. We here report functional high surface area scaffolds based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and demonstrate that this platform is useful for fluorescence-based sensing schemes. Porous CNC/PVA nanocomposite films with a thickness of 25-70 nm were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating with an aqueous mixture of the CNCs and PVA, and the porous nanostructure was fixated by heat treatment. In a subsequent step, a portion of the scaffold's hydroxyl surface groups was reacted with 2-(acryloxy)ethyl (3-isocyanato-4-methylphenyl)carbamate to permit the immobilization of thiolated fluorescein-substituted lysine, which was used as a first sensing motif, via nucleophile-based thiol-ene Michael addition. The resulting sensor films exhibit a nearly instantaneous and pronounced change of their fluorescence emission intensity in response to changes in pH. The approach was further extended to the detection of protease activity by immobilizing a Förster-type resonance energy transfer chromophore pair via a labile peptide sequence to the scaffold. This sensing scheme is based on the degradation of the protein linker in the presence of appropriate enzymes, which separate the chromophores and causes a turn-on of the originally quenched fluorescence. Using a standard benchtop spectrometer to monitor the increase in fluorescence intensity, trypsin was detected at a concentration of 250 μg/mL, i.e., in a concentration that is typical for abnormal proteolytic activity in wound fluids.

  14. A comparison of solute-transport solution techniques based on inverse modelling results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Five common numerical techniques (finite difference, predictor-corrector, total-variation-diminishing, method-of-characteristics, and modified-method-of-characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using randomly distributed homogeneous blocks of five sand types. This experimental model provides an outstanding opportunity to compare the solution techniques because of the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution of known structure, and the availability of detailed measurements with which to compare simulated concentrations. The present work uses this opportunity to investigate how three common types of results-simulated breakthrough curves, sensitivity analysis, and calibrated parameter values-change in this heterogeneous situation, given the different methods of simulating solute transport. The results show that simulated peak concentrations, even at very fine grid spacings, varied because of different amounts of numerical dispersion. Sensitivity analysis results were robust in that they were independent of the solution technique. They revealed extreme correlation between hydraulic conductivity and porosity, and that the breakthrough curve data did not provide enough information about the dispersivities to estimate individual values for the five sands. However, estimated hydraulic conductivity values are significantly influenced by both the large possible variations in model dispersion and the amount of numerical dispersion present in the solution technique.Five common numerical techniques (finite difference, predictor-corrector, total-variation-diminishing, method-of-characteristics, and modified-method-of-characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using randomly

  15. Design Conception of a Solution Ion Source Based Particle Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashis, Das

    2004-05-01

    Particle accelerators till date have been based on several ion source principles such as thermal ionization, stripping etc. Such methods of ion source enabling is very limited by high temperature of ionization required in cases of very heavy ions generation. Heavy ions speeding in accelerator may lead to experiments with such ions in both accelerators and colliders, that is believed capable of opening new regimes of particle accelerator studies that is very heavy very heavy collision. Literature indicate that many yet-unknown mysteries of atomic and subnuclear Physics, creation and fate of Universe, new element synthesis all lie in this regime of investigation. In this paper, I outline a simpler and less energetic manner of creating, particularly, speeding very heavy ions using a solution ion stripping source such as with liquid ammonia which has ability to dissolve many heavy metals in form of ammonia-metal ion clusters, that can be led to a specially designed accelerator chamber as detailed in the paper. It is surprising indeed why such easy road to ions source generation was not conceived by particle accelerator Physicists earlier.

  16. Biofunctionalization of Si nanowires using a solution based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elissa H.; Davydov, Albert V.; Oleshko, Vladimir P.; Lin, Nancy J.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Manocchi, Amy K.; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Schreifels, John A.

    2012-10-01

    Here we present a solution based functionalization technique for streptavidin (SA) protein conjugation to silicon nanowires (Si NWs). Si NWs, with a diameter of 110 nm to 130 nm and a length of 5 μm to 10 μm, were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by biotin for the selective attachment of SA. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the Si NWs were conformally coated with 20 nm to 30 nm thick APTES, biotin, and SA layers upon functionalization. Successful attachment of each bio/organic layer was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy also demonstrated that there was an undesirable non-specific binding of the SA protein as well as a control protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), to the APTES-coated Si NWs. However, inhibition of BSA binding and enhancement of SA binding were achieved following the biotinylation step. The biofunctionalized Si NWs show potential as label-free biosensing platforms for the specific and selective detection of biomolecules.

  17. Radiation effects on viscosimetry of protein based solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    Due to their good functional properties allied to their excellent nutritional value, milk protein isolates and soy protein concentrates have gained a crescent interest. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as gamma irradiation, alone or in presence of other compounds, as a plasticizer. In this work, solutions of those proteins were mixed with a generally recognized as safe plasticizer, glycerol. These mixtures (8% protein (w/v) base) at two ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to a gamma irradiation treatment ( 60Co), at doses 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy, and their rheological performance was studied. As irradiation dose increased viscosity measurements decayed significantly ( p<0.05) for mixture soy/glycerol and calcium caseinate/glycerol. The mixture sodium caseinate/glycerol showed a trend to form aggregation of macromolecules with dose of 5 kGy, while the apparent viscosity for dispersions containing whey/glycerol remained almost constant as irradiation dose increases. In the case of soy protein isolate and sodium caseinate, a mixture of 2:1 showed a significant higher viscosity ( p<0.05) than a mixture of 1:1.

  18. Two RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chung; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    2012-10-01

    Medication error can easily cause serious health damage to inpatients in hospital. Consequently, the whole society has to spend huge amount of extra resources for additional therapies and medication on those affected inpatients. In order to prevent medication errors, secure inpatient medication administration system is required in a hospital. Using RFID technology, such administration system provides automated medication verification for inpatient's medicine doses and generates corresponding medication evidence, which may be audited later for medical dispute. Recently, Peris-Lopez et al. (Int. J. Med. Inform., 2011) proposed an IS-RFID system to enhance inpatient medication safety. Nevertheless, IS-RFID system does not detect the denial of proof attack efficiently and the generated medication evidence cannot defend against counterfeit evidence generated from the hospital. That is, the hospital possesses enough privilege from the design of IS-RFID system to modify generated medication evidence whenever it is necessary. Hence, we design two lightweight RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration, one for online verification environment and the other for offline validation situation, to achieve system security on evidence generation and provide early detection on denial of proof attack.

  19. Solute-Solvent Energetics Based on Proximal Distribution Functions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2016-08-25

    We consider the hydration structure and thermodynamic energetics of solutes in aqueous solution. On the basis of the dominant local correlation between the solvent and the chemical nature of the solute atoms, proximal distribution functions (pDF) can be used to quantitatively estimate the hydration pattern of the macromolecules. We extended this technique to study the solute-solvent energetics including the van der Waals terms representing excluded volume and tested the method with butane and propanol. Our results indicate that the pDF-reconstruction algorithm can reproduce van der Waals solute-solvent interaction energies to useful kilocalorie per mole accuracy. We subsequently computed polyalanine-water interaction energies for a variety of conformers, which also showed agreement with the simulated values.

  20. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  1. Synthesis of magnetic and multiferroic materials from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes results on the synthesis of the magnetic materials including modified nickel ferrite (Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ), yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), lanthanum-containing manganites (MxLa1-xMnO3 (M=Pb, Ba or Sr; x=0.3-0.35)), and multiferroics (BiFeO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3) from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels. It is shown that the ammonium nitrate accelerates destruction of organic components of xerogels and thus Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ and BiFeO3 can be prepared at record low temperatures (100 and 250 °C, respectively) which are 200-300 °C lower compared to the process where air is used as an oxidizing agent. As for the synthesis of Y3Fe5O12, MxLa1-xMnO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, the presence of NH4NO3 favors formation of foreign phases, which ultimately complicate reaction mechanisms and lead to the higher temperature to synthesize target products. Developed methods provide nanoscale magnetic and multiferroic materials with an average particle size of ∼20-50 nm.

  2. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  3. Adaptation of an alcohol and HIV school-based prevention program for teens.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rosy; Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17-21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13-16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability.

  4. Radiation sensitive indicator based on tetrabromophenol blue dyed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshir, W. B.

    2013-05-01

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing acid- sensitive dye (tetrabromophenol blue, TBPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl3·CH·(OH)2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo color change from blue (the alkaline form of TBPB) to yellow (the acidic form of TBPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maximum of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 8 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 0 to 70% as good post irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature. The overall combined uncertainty (at 2σ) associated with measurement of response (ΔA mm-1) at 623 nm for dose range 1-8 kGy is 4.53%.

  5. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  6. Lyotropic liquid crystal behaviour of azelate and succinate monoester surfactants based on fragrance alcohols.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Frédéric; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Chailloux, Nelly; Aubry, Jean-Marie; Tiddy, Gordon J T

    2008-05-01

    Azelaic acid was used as a starting material for the preparation of new monoester surfactants based on fragrance alcohols. Sodium monocitronellyl azelate (citroC(9)Na) and sodium monomenthyl azelate (menC(9)Na) were synthesized and their aqueous phase behaviour was studied. For comparison, monoesters derived from succinic anhydride, i.e. sodium monocitronellyl succinate (citroC(4)Na) and sodium monomenthyl succinate (menC(4)Na), were also prepared as well as sodium monodecyl succinate (C(10)C(4)Na) and sodium monodecyl azelate (C(10)C(9)Na) in order to study the effect of the position of the ester function inside the hydrophobic tail and of branching and unsaturation respectively. Liquid crystal structures were examined by optical polarising microscopy and schematic partial binary phase diagrams (surfactant+water, 0-100 wt%, 10-90 degrees C) of the surfactants were established. Succinate surfactants behave as longer alkyl chain surfactants than their azelate counterparts, meaning that these last ones probably adopt a more folded conformation, with the ester function more frequently present at the micelle surface. This conformation would result in a rougher micelle surface, making it slightly less easy for micelles to pack in liquid crystalline phases. It was also shown that the tendency to adopt a more folded conformation and to form smaller micelles is ranked in this order: monomenthyl>monocitronellyl>monodecyl.

  7. Bioactivities of alcohol based extracts of Phyllanthus emblica branches: antioxidation, antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Junlatat, Jintana

    2014-07-01

    Phyllanthus emblica is an euphorbiaceous plant that has long been used in traditional medicines for health promotion, anti-aging and also for treatment of wide ranges of symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological activity of the plant branch. Alcohol based extracts of P. emblica branch were prepared in 50 % ethanolic extract by maceration (EPE) and methanolic extract by Soxhlet apparatus (MPE). EPE and MPE contained high total phenolic content and strong antioxidative activity. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid and vanillic acid are the major phenolic compounds of these extracts. Both EPE and MPE inhibited tyrosinase activity stronger than the ethanolic extract of P. emblica fruit (IC50 of 247.37 ± 18.57 and 193.75 ± 44.90 versus 4346.95 ± 166.23 μg/ml). EPE significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related proteins (TRP-1 and TRP-2) in B16 murine melanoma cells and suppressed the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory genes (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-16 and IL-6) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. These extracts significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  8. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE) are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776) subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a) had daily use, (b) commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c) those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day). Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:22204498

  9. Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

    2012-06-01

    A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy.

  10. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  11. Relaxor-based solid solutions for piezoelectric and electrostrictive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberta, Edward F.

    This thesis explores the dielectric, piezoelectric, and electrostrictive properties of a number of relaxor ferroelectric-based solid solution systems. The components of these solid solution systems have a variety of characteristics ranging from normal- to relaxor- to anti-ferroelectric. Some of the relaxor end-members investigated were Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 [PIN], Pb(In1/2Ta1/2)O3 [PIT], Pb(Sc 1/2Nb1/2)O3 [PSN], Pb(Ni1/3Nb 2/3)O3 [PNN], Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O 3 [PMN], and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 [PZN]. Several of these systems have Curie temperatures [Tc] that are among the highest known for MPB compositions. Some examples are PIN-0.38PT with a Tc of 319°C, PIT-0.38PT with a Tc of 248°C, and PSN 0.42PT with a Tc of 254°C. While these are slightly lower that those of typically found in PZT, the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric properties was found to be minimal. The electromechanical coupling coefficients were largely unchanged upon heating to as high as 150°C. This is approximately equal to the Tc of PMN-PT and PZN-PT and significantly exceeds the generally accepted maximum operating temperature for these materials. Many of the materials studied were found to have very large electromechanical coupling factors and produce extraordinarily high field-induced strains. Both PSN-0.42PT and PNN-0.15PZ-0.34PT were found to produce strain levels of ˜0.30% under unipolar drive with limited hysteresis. Peak-to-peak strain levels of as much as 0.60% were possible under bipolar drive conditions. Both of these MPB compositions had very large piezoelectric properties, with the slightly larger values of d33 = 810pC/N, kp = 0.69, kt = 0.56, and k33 = 0.80 occurring in PNN-PZ-PT. Each of the MPB compositions studied has features that can be exploited for specific applications. The combination of high Tc and coercive field found in both PIN-PT and Bi(Ni1/2T1/2)O3 -PT should allow these materials to be used at high drive levels and/or at high temperatures. The high strain, low hysteresis

  12. A self-reducible and alcohol-soluble copper-based metal-organic decomposition ink for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hun; Woo, Seunghee; Yem, Hyesuk; Cha, Minjeong; Cho, Sanghun; Kang, Mingyu; Jeong, Sooncheol; Kim, Yoonhyun; Kang, Kyungtae; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2014-03-12

    We report a novel method for the synthesis of a self-reducible (thermally reducible without a reducing atmosphere) and alcohol-soluble copper-based metal-organic decomposition (MOD) ink for printed electronics. Alcohol-solvent-based conductive inks are necessary for commercial printing processes such as reverse offset printing. We selected copper(II) formate as a precursor and alkanolamine (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) as a ligand to make an alcohol-solvent-based conductive ink and to assist in the reduction reaction of copper(II) formate. In addition, a co-complexing agent (octylamine) and a sintering helper (hexanoic acid) were introduced to improve the metallic copper film. The specific resistivity of copper-based MOD ink (Cuf-AMP-OH ink) after heat treatment at 350 °C is 9.46 μΩ·cm, which is 5.5 times higher than the specific resistivity of bulk copper. A simple stamping transfer was conducted to demonstrate the potential of our ink for commercial printing processes.

  13. Conical intersections of free energy surfaces in solution: Effect of electron correlation on a protonated Schiff base in methanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Toshifumi; Nakano, Katsuhiro; Kato, Shigeki

    2010-08-14

    The minimum energy conical intersection (MECI) optimization method with taking account of the dynamic electron correlation effect [T. Mori and S. Kato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 97 (2009)] is extended to locate the MECI of nonequilibrium free energy surfaces in solution. A multistate electronic perturbation theory is introduced into the nonequilibrium free energy formula, which is defined as a function of solute and solvation coordinates. The analytical free energy gradient and interstate coupling vectors are derived, and are applied to locate MECIs in solution. The present method is applied to study the cis-trans photoisomerization reaction of a protonated Schiff base molecule (PSB3) in methanol (MeOH) solution. It is found that the effect of dynamic electron correlation largely lowers the energy of S{sub 1} state. We also show that the solvation effect strongly stabilizes the MECI obtained by twisting the terminal C=N bond to become accessible in MeOH solution, whereas the conical intersection is found to be unstable in gas phase. The present study indicates that both electron correlation and solvation effects are important in the photoisomerization reaction of PSB3. The effect of counterion is also examined, and seems to be rather small in solution. The structures of free energy surfaces around MECIs are also discussed.

  14. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and acceptability of an alcohol-based hand rinse with two alcohol-based hand gels during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frédéric; Maury, Eric; Goldwirt, Laurianne; Boëlle, Piérre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Aman, Rubina; Rossi, Beatrice; Offenstadt, Georges

    2007-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the antibacterial efficacy of handrubbing with an alcoholic rinse (AHRR) and two different alcoholic gels (AHRG) in reducing hand contamination under practical use conditions. We wanted to assess the acceptability of the three products and to determine the effect of each product on overall hand hygiene compliance. A prospective alternating time-series clinical trial was performed in a medical intensive care unit. The study was divided into three six-week periods (P1, P2, P3). Handrubbing was achieved with Sterillium rinse (AHRR) during P1, sterillium gel(AHRG-1) during P2 and Manugel Plus (AHRG-2) during P3. Pre- and post-rubbing hand contaminations were assessed immediately after a direct contact with a patient, using the glove juice technique. Health care workers (HCWs) evaluated the acceptability of the products through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Compliance of HCWs with hand hygiene was assessed during the three periods. We studied 242 handrubbing opportunities. The mean reduction factor (expressed as the Log(10) CFU/mL) of the AHRR, AHRG-1 and AHRG-2 were 1.28+/-0.95, 1.29+/-0.84 and 0.51+/-0.73, respectively (p<0.001). Assessment of the three products by HCWs indicated that AHRR and AHRG-1 were significantly better accepted than AHRG-2. The overall compliance of HCWs to hand hygiene was better when gel was available. Under practical use conditions, AHRG-1 and AHRR were more effective than AHRG-2, although all were claimed to pass the European standard EN1500. In vivo trials are essential to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of products for handrubbing.

  15. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  16. Potential and Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioral Data on Adolescent Alcohol Norms: Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter; Allsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method successfully used to research hard-to-access populations. Few studies have explored the use of the Internet and social media with RDS, known as Web-based RDS (WebRDS). This study explored the use of combining both “traditional” RDS and WebRDS to examine the influences on adolescent alcohol use. Objective This paper reports on the recruitment processes and the challenges and enablers of both RDS and WebRDS. It details comparative recruitment data and provides a summary of the utility of both methods for recruiting adolescents to participate in an online survey investigating youth alcohol norms. Methods Process evaluation data collected from research staff throughout the study were used to assess the challenges and solutions of RDS and WebRDS. Pearson chi-square test (Fisher’s exact test if applicable) was used to compare the differences in sociodemographics and drinking behavior between data collected by RDS and WebRDS. Results Of the total sample (N=1012), 232 adolescents were recruited by RDS and 780 by WebRDS. A significantly larger proportion of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (P<.001) participants who spoke English as their main language at home (P=.03), and of middle and lower socioeconomic status (P<.001) was found in the RDS sample. The RDS sample was also found to have a higher occurrence of past 7-day drinking (P<.001) and past 7-day risky drinking (P=.004). No significant differences in gender, age, past month alcohol use, and lifetime alcohol use were observed between the RDS and WebRDS samples. This study revealed RDS and WebRDS used similar lengths of chains for recruiting participants; however, WebRDS conducted a faster rate of recruitment at a lower average cost per participant compared to RDS. Conclusions Using WebRDS resulted in significant improvements in the recruitment rate and was a more effective and efficient use of resources than the traditional RDS method. However, Web

  17. A versatile synthetic approach for the synthesis of CoO, CoxC, and Co based nanocomposites: tuning kinetics and crystal phase with different polyhydric alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Huba, ZJ; Carpenter, EE

    2014-07-04

    The solution synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles allows for precise control of a particle's shape, size, and crystal phase on the nanoscale, key parameters in tuning the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles. In this study, we investigate the role of polyhydric alcohols for the solution synthesis of cobalt carbide nanoparticles, a newly discovered hard ferromagnetic material. The oxidative stability of the polyhydric alcohol at reaction temperatures plays a significant role in the kinetics of carbide formation, as well as the phase produced (Co2C vs. Co3C). By tuning the oxidation rate of the polyhydric alcohol, composites of CoO, CoxC, and Co phases can be produced, allowing for magnetic composites comprised of anti ferromagnetic, hard ferromagnetic and soft ferromagnetic phases.

  18. Similarity-Based Solution of the Generalized Boussinesq Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, J. S.; Mortensen, J.; Telyakovskiy, A. S.; Wheatcraft, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    The generalized Boussinesq equation is a nonlinear diffusion equation where hydraulic conductivity is a power-law function of hydraulic head. In the traditional Boussinesq equation it is a linear function of hydraulic head. The generalized Boussinesq equation models flows of gases through porous media and flows of water in forest soils and concretes. Also, when the hydraulic conductivity is a power-law function of elevation we obtain this equation. We model a one-dimensional semi-infinite initially empty aquifer with boundary conditions at the inlet in rectangular coordinates. We introduce similarity variables to reduce the initial-boundary value problem to a boundary value problem for a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. We construct an approximate solution that preserves certain properties of the true solution and replicated known exact solutions.

  19. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  20. Supercapacitors based on ordered mesoporous carbon derived from furfuryl alcohol: effect of the carbonized temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Xu, Jianxiong; Chen, Han; Wang, Xianyou

    2014-07-01

    Supercapacitors are successfully prepared from ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) synthesized by employing the mesoporous silica, SBA-15 as template and furfuryl alcohol as carbon source. It is found that the carbonized temperature greatly influences the physical properties of the synthesized mesoporous carbon materials. The optimal carbonized temperature is measured to be 600 degrees C under which OMC with the specific surface area of 1219 m2/g and pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g and average pore diameter of - 3 nm are synthesized. The OMC materials synthesized under different carbonized temperature are used as electrode material of supercapacitors and the electrochemical properties of the OMC materials are compared by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge tests. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the OMC materials are directly related to the specific surface area and pore volume of the mesoporous carbon and the electrode prepared from the OMC synthesized under the carbonized temperature of 600 degrees C (OMC-600) exhibits the most excellent electrochemical performance with the specific capacitance of 207.08 F/g obtained from cyclic voltammetry at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, small resistance and low self-discharge rate. Moreover, the supercapacitor based on the OMC-600 material exhibits good capacitance properties and stable cycle behavior with the specific capacitance of 105 F/g at the current density of 700 mA/g, and keeps a specific capacitance of 98 F/g after 20000 consecutive charge/discharge cycles.

  1. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  2. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G; Ferro, Jose M; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H; Dowling, Nicole F; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R; Price, Jackie F; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dai, James Y; Lanktree, Matthew B; Siscovick, David S; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Schreiner, Pamela J; Ellison, R Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y; Patel, Sanjay R; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John; Davey Smith, George; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie A; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (−0.88 (−1.19 to −0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (−5.2% (−7.8 to −2.4%)), waist circumference (−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1) cm), and body mass index (−0.17 (−0.24 to −0.10) kg/m2). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P=0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for

  3. Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Meier, Petra; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age. Method Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage. Results We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, p<0.001) and a positive relationship between lower SES and AUDIT-Harm (β = 0.022, p<0.001) and AUDIT-Dependence (β = 0.024, p<0.001) scores. Individual measures of SES displayed different, and non-linear, relationships with AUDIT modules. For example, social-grade and income had a u-shaped relationship with AUDIT-Consumption scores while education had an inverse u-shaped relationship. Almost all measures displayed an exponential relationship with AUDIT-Dependence and AUDIT-Harm scores. We identified moderating effects from age and gender, with AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in men and both AUDIT-Harm and AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in younger age groups. Conclusion Different SES measures appear to influence whether the Alcohol Harm Paradox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or

  4. Amino alcohol-derived reduced Schiff base V(IV)O and V(V) compounds as catalysts for asymmetric sulfoxidation of thioanisole with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Adão, Pedro; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Barroso, Sónia; Martins, Ana M; Avecilla, F; Costa Pessoa, João

    2012-11-05

    We report the synthesis and characterization of several amino alcohol-derived reduced Schiff base ligands (AORSB) and the corresponding V(IV)O and V(V) complexes. Some of the related Schiff base variants (amino alcohol derived Schiff base = AOSB) were also prepared and characterized. With some exceptions, all compounds are formulated as dinuclear compounds {V(IV)O(L)}(2) in the solid state. Suitable crystals for X-ray diffraction were obtained for two of the AORSB compounds, as well as a rare X-ray structure of a chiral V(IV)O compound, which revealed a dinuclear {V(IV)O(AOSB)}(2) structure with a rather short V-V distance of 3.053(9) Å. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), (51)V NMR, and density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to identify the intervenient species prior to and during catalytic reactions. The quantum-chemical DFT calculations were important to determine the more stable isomers in solution, to explain the EPR data, and to assign the (51)V NMR chemical shifts. The V(AORSB) and V(AOSB) complexes were tested as catalysts in the oxidation of thioanisole, with H(2)O(2) as the oxidant in organic solvents. In general, high conversions of sulfoxide were obtained. The V(AOSB) systems exhibited greater activity and enantioselectivity than their V(AORSB) counterparts. Computational and spectroscopic studies were carried out to assist in the understanding of the mechanistic aspects and the reasons behind such marked differences in activity and enantioselectivity. The quantum-chemical calculations are consistent with experimental data in the assessment of the differences in catalytic activity between V(AOSB) and V(AORSB) peroxido variants because the V(AORSB) peroxido transition states correspond to ca. 22 kJ/mol higher energy activation barriers than their V(AOSB) counterparts.

  5. Reinforcement of counseling attendance and alcohol abstinence in a community-based dual-diagnosis treatment program: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Todd C; Saules, Karen K; Schoener, Eugene P; Roll, John M

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based contingency management (CM) protocol reinforcing punctual dual-diagnosis group counseling attendance and negative breath alcohol levels. Participants were 20 dual-diagnosis patients. The A-B-A within-subjects reversal design included a 4-week baseline phase (BL), a 12-week CM intervention, and a 4-week return-to-baseline phase (R-BL). Group counseling was provided twice weekly, with breath tests before each session. CM attendance rates were significantly higher (65%+-28%) than BL (45%+-32%, p<.05) and remained elevated in the R-BL phase (68%+-29%). Despite clinical reports of frequent intoxication, during the study all breath test results were negative, regardless of study phase. Thus, no contingency effect on alcohol use could be determined. Results suggest that CM interventions can be effective in increasing attendance in a community treatment program for the dually diagnosed.

  6. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Moncher, Michael S.; Parms, Clifford A.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schinke, Steven P.; Miller, Samuel O.; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects’ attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions. PMID:17387376

  7. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Moncher, Michael S; Parms, Clifford A; Orlandi, Mario A; Schinke, Steven P; Miller, Samuel O; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects' attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions.

  8. “I am a Muslim and My Dad is an Alcoholic -- What Should I Do?”: Internet-Based Advice for Muslims about Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Laurence; Trocki, Karen; Katz, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes 113 fatwas (pieces of advice from Muslim scholars) in response to Internet user-contributed questions about correct behavior in situations involving alcohol. The fatwas are from IslamOnline.net, a popular Islamic Web site. Most of the questions on the English site are submitted by individuals living in non-Muslim countries, who are more likely to confront difficult situations relating to alcohol. In spite of the general condemnation of alcohol consumption in Islam, many individuals face ethical dilemmas and feel the need to request advice about proper behavior in situations involving alcohol, relating to the family, society, work, and bodily purity, as well as more abstract theological questions. PMID:20514354

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  10. An Accurate Heading Solution using MEMS-based Gyroscope and Magnetometer Integrated System (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, M.

    2014-11-01

    An accurate heading solution is required for many applications and it can be achieved by high grade (high cost) gyroscopes (gyros) which may not be suitable for such applications. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems-based (MEMS) is an emerging technology, which has the potential of providing heading solution using a low cost MEMS-based gyro. However, MEMS-gyro-based heading solution drifts significantly over time. The heading solution can also be estimated using MEMS-based magnetometer by measuring the horizontal components of the Earth magnetic field. The MEMS-magnetometer-based heading solution does not drift over time, but are contaminated by high level of noise and may be disturbed by the presence of magnetic field sources such as metal objects. This paper proposed an accurate heading estimation procedure based on the integration of MEMS-based gyro and magnetometer measurements that correct gyro and magnetometer measurements where gyro angular rates of changes are estimated using magnetometer measurements and then integrated with the measured gyro angular rates of changes with a robust filter to estimate the heading. The proposed integration solution is implemented using two data sets; one was conducted in static mode without magnetic disturbances and the second was conducted in kinematic mode with magnetic disturbances. The results showed that the proposed integrated heading solution provides accurate, smoothed and undisturbed solution when compared with magnetometerbased and gyro-based heading solutions.

  11. Treatment of Acidified Blood Using Reduced Osmolarity Mixed-Base Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Thomas G.; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that reduced osmolarity mixed-base (ROMB) solutions can potentially serve as customizable treatments for acidoses, going beyond standard solutions in clinical use, such as 1.0 M sodium bicarbonate. Through in silico quantitative modeling, by treating acidified canine blood using ROMB solutions, and by performing blood-gas and optical microscopy measurements in vitro, we demonstrate that ROMB solutions having a high proportion of a strong base, such as disodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, can be effective in reducing carbon dioxide pressure PCO2 while raising pH and bicarbonate ion concentration without causing significant osmotic damage to red blood cells, which can occur during rapid administration of hypertonic solutions of weak bases. These results suggest that a ROMB solution, which is composed mostly of a strong base, could be administered in a safe and effective manner, when compared to a hypertonic solution of sodium bicarbonate. Because of the reduced osmolarity and the customizable content of strong base in ROMB solutions, this approach differs from prior approaches involving hypertonic solutions that only considered a single molar ratio of strong to weak base. Our calculations and measurements suggest that custom-tailored ROMB solutions merit consideration as potentially efficacious treatments for specific types of acidosis, particularly acute metabolic acidosis and acute respiratory acidosis. PMID:28082905

  12. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  13. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  14. EXPLORING THE BIOTRANSFORMATION POTENTIAL OF FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL-BASED POLYMER FORMULATIONS DURING AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer alcohols have been widely used over the past 50 years in surface protection products for paper, packaging, textile, and carpet goods; in industrial surfactant mixtures; in aqueous fire-fighting foams, and as processing aids during the production of fluoropolymer pla...

  15. Parental Monitoring, Peer Activities and Alcohol Use: A Study Based on Data on Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…

  16. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  17. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  18. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase and lignocellulosic fibres, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste were moulded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Corn starch was introduced as a bio...

  19. Web-Based Intervention for Alcohol Use in Women of Childbearing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Katia Delrahim

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for more effective assessment and primary prevention programs aimed at accurately measuring and reducing alcohol consumption among women before conception in underserved, high-risk populations. Health Information Technology (HIT) may serve this purpose; however, the effectiveness of such tools is not known. We conducted a…

  20. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  1. An EEG-based machine learning method to screen alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Wajid; Vuong, Pham Lam; Xia, Likun; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Rashid, Rusdi Bin Abd

    2017-04-01

    Screening alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients has been challenging due to the subjectivity involved in the process. Hence, robust and objective methods are needed to automate the screening of AUD patients. In this paper, a machine learning method is proposed that utilized resting-state electroencephalography (EEG)-derived features as input data to classify the AUD patients and healthy controls and to perform automatic screening of AUD patients. In this context, the EEG data were recorded during 5 min of eyes closed and 5 min of eyes open conditions. For this purpose, 30 AUD patients and 15 aged-matched healthy controls were recruited. After preprocessing the EEG data, EEG features such as inter-hemispheric coherences and spectral power for EEG delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands were computed involving 19 scalp locations. The selection of most discriminant features was performed with a rank-based feature selection method assigning a weight value to each feature according to a criterion, i.e., receiver operating characteristics curve. For example, a feature with large weight was considered more relevant to the target labels than a feature with less weight. Therefore, a reduced set of most discriminant features was identified and further be utilized during classification of AUD patients and healthy controls. As results, the inter-hemispheric coherences between the brain regions were found significantly different between the study groups and provided high classification efficiency (Accuracy = 80.8, sensitivity = 82.5, and specificity = 80, F-Measure = 0.78). In addition, the power computed in different EEG bands were found significant and provided an overall classification efficiency as (Accuracy = 86.6, sensitivity = 95, specificity = 82.5, and F-Measure = 0.88). Further, the integration of these EEG feature resulted into even higher results (Accuracy = 89.3 %, sensitivity = 88.5 %, specificity = 91 %, and F-Measure = 0.90). Based

  2. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  3. Fluorinated Alkoxide-Based Magnesium-Ion Battery Electrolytes that Demonstrate Li-Ion-Battery-Like High Anodic Stability and Solution Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Adam J; Stringham, Kyle K; Bartlett, Bart M

    2016-09-07

    Based on DFT predictions, a series of highly soluble fluorinated alkoxide-based electrolytes were prepared, examined electrochemically, and reversibly cycled. The alcohols react with ethylmagnesium chloride to generate a fluoroalkoxy-magnesium chloride intermediate, which subsequently reacts with aluminum chloride to generate the electrolyte. Solutions starting from a 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methylpropan-2-ol precursor exhibit high anodic stability, 3.2 V vs Mg(2+/0), and a record 3.5 mS/cm solution conductivity. Excellent galvanostatic cycling and capacity retention (94%) is observed with more than 300 h of cycle time while employing the standard Chevrel phase-Mo6S8 cathode material.

  4. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of oral cavity cancer by subsite: results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Guida, Florence; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Carton, Matthieu; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Delafosse, Patricia; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible. The risk associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption did not differ between intraoral cavity and subsites usually included in the oropharynx (soft palate and base of the tongue). Population-attributable risks for oral cavity cancer were 78.6% for tobacco smoking, 7.3% for alcohol drinking and 80.7% for tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. These results indicate that regular oral check-ups should be targeted at smokers and heavy drinkers, and that prevention efforts should be focused on smoking cessation.

  5. Magnetic separation of iron-based nanosorbents from watery solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Zhakov, Sergey; Baerner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Iron and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) both naked and with chemically modified surface are promising agents for different environmental applications, in particular for water purification and for analytical control of water and soil pollution. The MNP can be used as sorbents with selective abilities due to designed surface functionalization. While a lot of research has been devoted to the impurity sorption processes, the second part, that is the efficient removal of the MNP sorbents from the watery solution, has not been sufficiently studied so far. For that particles with magnetic cores are especially attractive due to the possibility of their subsequent magnetic separation from water without using coagulants, i.e. without a secondary water pollution, just by applying external magnetic fields B. In order to remove magnetic sorbent nanoparticles ( 10-100 nm) effectively from the water solution gradient magnetic fields are required. Depending on the MNP size, the magnetic moment, the chemical properties of the solution, the water purification conditions , either the low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS) with dB/dz < 100 T/m or the high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) with dB/dz > 100 T/m is used. The gradient magnetic field is provided by permanent magnets or electromagnets of different configuration. In this work the sedimentation dynamics of naked Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (10-30 nm) in water was studied in a vertical gradient magnetic field (B1 ≤ 0.3T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm). By this LGMS , the sedimentation time of the naked Fe3O4 NP is reduced down from several days to several minutes. The sedimentation time for Fe3O4@SiO2 decreases from several weeks to several hours and to several minutes when salts Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaH2PO4 are added to the solution. The results are interpreted in terms of MNP aggregate formation caused by electrostatic, steric and magnetic inter-particle interactions in the watery solution. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work was

  6. Daily Variations in Spring Break Alcohol and Sexual Behaviors Based on Intentions, Perceived Norms, and Daily Trip Context

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the known risks of alcohol use and sexual behavior for college students on Spring Break, this study was designed to document the behaviors and correlates associated with being on a Spring Break trip on a given day (controlling for average time on a trip). Method: Participants were undergraduate students (n = 261; 55% women) who reported that they planned to go on a Spring Break trip. Web-based survey responses before and after Spring Break documented perceived norms, intentions, and actual behavior on each of the 10 days of Spring Break. Results: Students who went on longer trips, who previously engaged in more heavy episodic drinking, or who had greater pre–Spring Break intentions to drink reported greater alcohol use during Spring Break. Similarly, students with greater pre–Spring Break intentions to have sex, greater perceived norms for sex, or more previoussexual partners had greater odds of having sex. On days students were on trips, they had a greater likelihood of having sex, drinking to higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations, consuming more drinks, and reporting perceived drunkenness than on nontrip days, especially if they had intentions to have sex and drink alcohol (and, for models predicting sexual behavior and drunkenness, had greater perceived norms for sex and drinking). Conclusions: Students who went on Spring Break trips engaged in more risk behaviors. In addition, the context of being on a trip on a given day was associated with increased risk, especially if they had stronger intentions and, in some cases, higher perceived norms. Further research is needed to describe the contexts of Spring Break trips and how to intervene effectively. PMID:22630797

  7. Alkali promoted molybdenum (IV) sulfide based catalysts, development and characterization for alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Belinda Delilah

    For more than a century transition metal sulfides (TMS) have been the anchor of hydro-processing fuels and upgrading bitumen and coal in refineries worldwide. As oil supplies dwindle and environmental laws become more stringent, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels and/or synthetic fuels. The depletion of oil reserves and a rapidly increasing energy demand worldwide, together with the interest to reduce dependence on foreign oil makes alcohol production for fuels and chemicals via the Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) very attractive. The original Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction is the heart of all gas-to-liquid technologies; it creates higher alcohols and hydrocarbons from CO/H2 using a metal catalyst. This research focuses on the development of alkali promoted MoS2-based catalysts to investigate an optimal synthesis for their assistance in the production of long chain alcohols (via FTS) for their use as synthetic transportation liquid fuels. Properties of catalytic material are strongly affected by every step of the preparation together with the quality of the raw materials. The choice of a laboratory method for preparing a given catalyst depends on the physical and chemical characteristics desired in the final composition. Characterization methods of K0.3/Cs0.3-MoS2 and K0.3 /Cs0.3-Co0.5MoS2 catalysts have been carried out through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET porosity and surface analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Various characterization methods have been deployed to correlate FTS products versus crystal and morphological properties of these heterogeneous catalysts. A lab scale gas to liquid system has been developed to evaluate its efficiency in testing FT catalysts for their production of alcohols.

  8. Explicating an Evidence-Based, Theoretically Informed, Mobile Technology-Based System to Improve Outcomes for People in Recovery for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Isham, Andrew; Baker, Timothy; Boyle, Michael G.; Levy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Post treatment relapse to uncontrolled alcohol use is common. More cost-effective approaches are needed. We believe currently available communication technology can use existing models for relapse prevention to cost-effectively improve long-term relapse prevention. This paper describes: 1) research-based elements of alcohol related relapse prevention and how they can be encompassed in Self Determination Theory (SDT) and Marlatt’s Cognitive Behavioral Relapse Prevention Model, 2) how technology could help address the needs of people seeking recovery, 3) a technology-based prototype, organized around Self Determination Theory and Marlatt’s model and 4) how we are testing a system based on the ideas in this article and related ethical and operational considerations. PMID:21190410

  9. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting.

  10. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  11. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  12. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  13. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  14. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  15. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  16. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  17. Enhanced proton conductivity by the influence of modified montmorillonite on poly (vinyl alcohol) based blend composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palani, P. Bahavan; Abidin, K. Sainul; Kannan, R.; Rajashabala, S.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-05-01

    The highest proton conductivity value of 0.0802 Scm-1 is obtained at 6wt% of protonated MMT added to the PVA/PEG blends. The polymer blend composite membranes are prepared with varied concentration of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and Montmorillonite (MMT) by solution casting method. The Na+ MMT was modified (protonated) to H+ MMT with ion exchange process. The prepared membranes were characterized by using TGA, FTIR, XRD, Ion Exchange Capacity, Water/Methanol uptake, swelling ratio and proton conductivity. The significant improvements in the hydrolytic stability were observed. In addition, thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved and controlled by the addition of MMT. All the prepared membranes are shown appreciable values of proton conductivity at room temperature with 100% relative humidity.

  18. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R

    1987-04-24

    Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.

  19. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2009 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2010-12-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting research for the United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). This research has involved the screening of potential catalysts, and optimization of the more promising ones, using laboratory scale reactors. During 2009, the main goal of the testing program focused on optimizing selected supported catalysts containing rhodium (Rh) and manganese (Mn). Optimization involved examining different total concentrations and atomic ratios of Rh and Mn as well as that of the more promising promoters (Ir and Li) identified in the earlier screening studies. Evaluation of catalyst performance focused on attaining improvements with respect to the space-time-yield and converted carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates, with additional consideration given to the fraction of the oxygenates that were C2+ alcohols.

  20. Blood alcohol levels in rats: non-uniform yields from intraperitoneal doses based on body weight.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, F.; Lad, P.; Pittman, Q.; Rogers, J.

    1982-01-01

    1 Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 72) weighing from 125 to 450 g were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 16% (w/v) ethanol to provide 1, 2 or 3 g/kg doses. 2 Resulting blood alcohol levels (BALs) demonstrated a general inadequacy of dose/body weight (g/kg) formulations of ethanol to provide uniform BALs in animals of different weights. 3 BAL differences between heavier and lighter rats were not well accounted for by developmental changes in liver weight or alcohol dehydrogenase activity. 4 From the data, a table was derived of more appropriate ethanol injection volumes to produce 0-300 mg% BALs (20 mg% increments) in rats from 100-500 g (10 g increments). PMID:7074285

  1. Supply Chain-based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Daugherty, Michael; Siekmann, Adam; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Barker, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor fuel and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to fuel-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between $1 billion per year, or approximately 25% of the total tax collected. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This paper presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many fuel-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the fuel-hauling companies and their customers. The technology was deployed and successfully tested during an eight-month period on a real-world fuel-hauling fleet. Day-to-day operations of the fleet were minimally affected by their interaction with this system. The results of that test are discussed in this paper.

  2. The search for an optimal DNA, RNA, and protein detection by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and solution-based methods.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fengting; Wu, Xin; Crawford, Melissa; Duan, Wenrui; Wilding, Emily E; Gao, Li; Nana-Sinkam, S Patrick; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A; Baiocchi, Robert A; Otterson, Gregory A

    2010-12-01

    Clinical trials and correlative laboratory research are increasingly reliant upon archived paraffin-embedded samples. Therefore, the proper processing of biological samples is an important step to sample preservation and for downstream analyses like the detection of a wide variety of targets including micro RNA, DNA and proteins. This paper analyzed the question whether routine fixation of cells and tissues in 10% buffered formalin is optimal for in situ and solution phase analyses by comparing this fixative to a variety of cross linking and alcohol (denaturing) fixatives. We examined the ability of nine commonly used fixative regimens to preserve cell morphology and DNA/RNA/protein quality for these applications. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-infected tissues and cells were used as our model systems. Our evaluation showed that the optimal fixative in cell preparations for molecular hybridization techniques was "gentle" fixative with a cross-linker such as paraformaldehyde or a short incubation in 10% buffered formalin. The optimal fixatives for tissue were either paraformaldehyde or low concentration of formalin (5% of formalin). Methanol was the best of the non cross-linking fixatives for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. For PCR-based detection of DNA or RNA, some denaturing fixatives like acetone and methanol as well as "gentle" cross-linking fixatives like paraformaldehyde out-performed other fixatives. Long term fixation was not proposed for DNA/RNA-based assays. The typical long-term fixation of cells and tissues in 10% buffered formalin is not optimal for combined analyses by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, or--if one does not have unfixed tissues--solution phase PCR. Rather, we recommend short term less intense cross linking fixation if one wishes to use the same cells/tissue for in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and solution phase PCR.

  3. The Search for an Optimal DNA, RNA, and Protein Detection by in situ Hybridization, Immunohistochemistry, and Solution-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fengting; Wu, Xin; Crawford, Melissa; Duan, Wenrui; Wilding, Emily E; Gao, Li; Nana-Sinkam, S. Patrick; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Otterson, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials and correlative laboratory research are increasingly reliant upon archived paraffin-embedded samples. Therefore, the proper processing of biological samples is an important step to sample preservation and for downstream analyses like the detection of a wide variety of targets including micro RNA, DNA and proteins. This paper analyzed the question whether routine fixation of cells and tissues in 10% buffered formalin is optimal for in situ and solution phase analyses by comparing this fixative to a variety of cross linking and alcohol (denaturing) fixatives. We examined the ability of nine commonly used fixative regimens to preserve cell morphology and DNA/RNA/protein quality for these applications. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV)-infected tissues and cells were used as our model systems. Our evaluation showed that the optimal fixative in cell preparations for molecular hybridization techniques was “gentle” fixative with a cross-linker such as paraformaldehyde or a short incubation in 10% buffered formalin. The optimal fixatives for tissue were either paraformaldehyde or low concentration of formalin (5% of formalin). Methanol was the best of the non cross-linking fixatives for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. For PCR-based detection of DNA or RNA, some denaturing fixatives like acetone and methanol as well as “gentle” cross-linking fixatives like paraformaldehyde out-performed other fixatives. Long term fixation was not proposed for DNA/RNA-based assays. The typical long-term fixation of cells and tissues in 10% buffered formalin is not optimal for combined analyses by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, or -if one does not have unfixed tissues - solution phase PCR. Rather, we recommend short term less intense cross linking fixation if one wishes to use the same cells/tissue for in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and solution phase PCR. PMID:20888418

  4. Natural recovery in a community-based sample of alcoholics: study design and descriptive data.

    PubMed

    Russell, M; Peirce, R S; Chan, A W; Wieczorek, W F; Moscato, B S; Nochajski, T H

    2001-09-01

    The majority of alcoholics who recover do so without the benefit of treatment, yet little is known about these individuals and the factors associated with their success. A better understanding is needed of the self-initiated and maintained change processes ("natural recovery") associated with such recoveries. In the current study, initiated in 1997, we followed up alcoholics identified in four previous community surveys and conducted a brief physical examination and an in-depth interview assessing factors thought to be associated with "natural recovery" or entry into treatment. Here we present the study model, describe our sample of 83 "naturally recovered" and 138 "hazardous problem drinkers," and report factors associated with "natural recovery." During the period when their drinking was at its most problematic, those who naturally recovered had discussed their alcohol-use associated problems with fewer network members and had been advised to stop drinking or to drink less by fewer network members. In addition to older age, "natural recovery" was associated with marriage, lower levels of avoidant coping, higher self-esteem, social networks with members who drank less, and a history of less frequent drug use and lower frequencies of intoxication. Rates of "natural recovery'' may be increased by encouraging the development of these attributes in hazardous problem drinkers who do not already have them.

  5. 21 CFR 524.1044i - Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gentamicin base and 1 mg betamethasone acetate equivalent to 0.89 mg betamethasone alcohol. (b) Sponsor. See... two drops of solution in the conjunctival sac three or four times a day. (2) Indications for use....

  6. 21 CFR 524.1044i - Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams (mg) of gentamicin base and 1 mg betamethasone acetate equivalent to 0.89 mg betamethasone alcohol. (b) Sponsor....

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  8. New ruthenium-based protocol for cleavage of terminal olefins to primary alcohols: improved synthesis of a bicyclic nucleoside.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan K; Nielsen, Poul

    2004-08-20

    A new protocol for the oxidative cleavage of terminal alkenes to give exclusively primary alcohols in high yields is introduced. The protocol is based on RuO4-mediated dihydroxylation, NaIO4-mediated diol cleavage, and NaBH4-mediated reduction, but the introduction of a reducing step before the diol cleavage removes the formation of byproducts and improves the yield significantly. The new protocol has been developed and used for the improved preparation of a [3.2.0]bicycloarabinonucleoside with important potential in antisense and antigene technology.

  9. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  10. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  11. Behavioral impulsivity mediates the relationship between decreased frontal gray matter volume and harmful alcohol drinking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Gröpper, Sonja; Spengler, Stephanie; Stuke, Heiner; Gawron, Christiane K; Parnack, Jenny; Gutwinski, Stefan; Wiers, Corinde E; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) with harmful drinking patterns is on the one hand characterized by impulsive behavior and is on the other hand known to involve structural brain alterations with lower gray matter volume (GMV), especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). So far it is unclear whether frontal brain volumes are associated to harmful alcohol drinking and impulsivity, while controlling simultaneously for a wide array of important confounding factors, which are related to alcohol consumption. We used voxel-based morphometry in 99 adults ranging within a continuum of normal to harmful drinking behavior and alcohol dependence, measured by the 'Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test', to examine whether the severity of harmful drinking is correlated with structural markers, in particular in the PFC and whether such markers are linked to self-reported impulsivity. We included alcohol and nicotine lifetime exposure, age, education, and BMI as covariates to control that GMV decreases were not related to those factors. Harmful drinking was associated with lower GMV in the right frontal pole, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobe. GMV loss in the PFC regions was correlated with increased impulsivity. Follow-up mediation analyses showed that the relationship between GMV in the frontal pole and harmful drinking was mediated by impulsivity. Our findings show that PFC reductions are associated with harmful drinking and impulsivity. Our data suggest that reduced frontal pole GM, independent of a number of alcohol drinking associated covariates, e.g. lifetime alcohol consumption, is related to impaired top-down control of alcohol drinking behavior.

  12. Phoretic motion of soft vesicles and droplets: an XFEM/particle-based numerical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tong; Vernerey, Franck

    2017-03-01

    When immersed in solution, surface-active particles interact with solute molecules and migrate along gradients of solute concentration. Depending on the conditions, this phenomenon could arise from either diffusiophoresis or the Marangoni effect, both of which involve strong interactions between the fluid and the particle surface. We introduce here a numerical approach that can accurately capture these interactions, and thus provide an efficient tool to understand and characterize the phoresis of soft particles. The model is based on a combination of the extended finite element—that enable the consideration of various discontinuities across the particle surface—and the particle-based moving interface method—that is used to measure and update the interface deformation in time. In addition to validating the approach with analytical solutions, the model is used to study the motion of deformable vesicles in solutions with spatial variations in both solute concentration and temperature.

  13. Allowing for missing outcome data and incomplete uptake of randomised interventions, with application to an Internet-based alcohol trial.

    PubMed

    White, Ian R; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Thompson, Simon G

    2011-11-30

    Missing outcome data and incomplete uptake of randomised interventions are common problems, which complicate the analysis and interpretation of randomised controlled trials, and are rarely addressed well in practice. To promote the implementation of recent methodological developments, we describe sequences of randomisation-based analyses that can be used to explore both issues. We illustrate these in an Internet-based trial evaluating the use of a new interactive website for those seeking help to reduce their alcohol consumption, in which the primary outcome was available for less than half of the participants and uptake of the intervention was limited. For missing outcome data, we first employ data on intermediate outcomes and intervention use to make a missing at random assumption more plausible, with analyses based on general estimating equations, mixed models and multiple imputation. We then use data on the ease of obtaining outcome data and sensitivity analyses to explore departures from the missing at random assumption. For incomplete uptake of randomised interventions, we estimate structural mean models by using instrumental variable methods. In the alcohol trial, there is no evidence of benefit unless rather extreme assumptions are made about the missing data nor an important benefit in more extensive users of the intervention. These findings considerably aid the interpretation of the trial's results. More generally, the analyses proposed are applicable to many trials with missing outcome data or incomplete intervention uptake. To facilitate use by others, Stata code is provided for all methods.

  14. [Survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus after hand washing using alcohol-based handrub].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Midori; Takada, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Masao; Yasuda, Etsuko; Watase, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2006-12-01

    Hand washing is the most fundamental method for preventing infection. Currently, hand washing with an alcohol-based handrub is the international gold standard method. However, in our study we found many samples of ineffective hand washing using an alcohol-based handrub. The rates of ineffective samples were 10.4% (5/48) in 2004 and 34.3% (12/35) in 2005. We examined the morphology by Gram staining and biochemical properties of the bacteria which remained after hand washing in 2005. Their colonies were divided into 3 groups (round colonies, irregular-shaped and diffusive colonies). The round colonies were considered Staphylococcus spp., and the irregular-shaped colonies or diffusive colonies were considered Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. In the 12 ineffective hand washing samples (more than the same number of bacteria colonies as before hand washing, or > or = 300), there were 3 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Staphylococcus spp., and 9 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus. Based on these results, we should take careful measures, such as wearing sterile gloves if necessary. We should never be overconfident regarding the effect of hand washing.

  15. Differentiating prenatal exposure to methamphetamine and alcohol versus alcohol and not methamphetamine using tensor-based brain morphometry and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Sowell, Elizabeth R; Leow, Alex D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Smith, Lynne M; O'Connor, Mary J; Kan, Eric; Rosso, Carly; Houston, Suzanne; Dinov, Ivo D; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-03-17

    Here we investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) on local brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Because many who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined whether local brain volumes differed among 61 children (ages 5-15 years), 21 with prenatal MA exposure, 18 with concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but not MA exposure (ALC group), and 27 unexposed controls. Volume reductions were observed in both exposure groups relative to controls in striatal and thalamic regions bilaterally and in right prefrontal and left occipitoparietal cortices. Striatal volume reductions were more severe in the MAA group than in the ALC group, and, within the MAA group, a negative correlation between full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores and caudate volume was observed. Limbic structures, including the anterior and posterior cingulate, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral and lateral temporal lobes bilaterally, were increased in volume in both exposure groups. Furthermore, cingulate and right IFG volume increases were more pronounced in the MAA than ALC group. Discriminant function analyses using local volume measurements and FSIQ were used to predict group membership, yielding factor scores that correctly classified 72% of participants in jackknife analyses. These findings suggest that striatal and limbic structures, known to be sites of neurotoxicity in adult MA abusers, may be more vulnerable to prenatal MA exposure than alcohol exposure and that more severe striatal damage is associated with more severe cognitive deficit.

  16. Business intelligence and capacity planning: web-based solutions.

    PubMed

    James, Roger

    2010-07-01

    Income (activity) and expenditure (costs) form the basis of a modern hospital's 'business intelligence'. However, clinical engagement in business intelligence is patchy. This article describes the principles of business intelligence and outlines some recent developments using web-based applications.

  17. Mask process matching using a model based data preparation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Brian; Saib, Mohamed; Figueiro, Thiago; Petroni, Paolo; Progler, Chris; Schiavone, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Process matching is the ability to precisely reproduce the signature of a given fabrication process while using a different one. A process signature is typically described as systematic CD variation driven by feature geometry as a function of feature size, local density or distance to neighboring structures. The interest of performing process matching is usually to address differences in the mask fabrication process without altering the signature of the mask, which is already validated by OPC models and already used in production. The need for such process matching typically arises from the expansion of the production capacity within the same or different mask fabrication facilities, from the introduction of new, perhaps more advanced, equipment to deliver same process of record masks and/or from the re-alignment of processes which have altered over time. For state-of-the-art logic and memory mask processes, such matching requirements can be well below 2nm and are expected to reduce below 1nm in near future. In this paper, a data preparation solution for process matching is presented and discussed. Instead of adapting the physical process itself, a calibrated model is used to modify the data to be exposed by the source process in order to induce the results to match the one obtained while running the target process. This strategy consists in using the differences among measurements from the source and target processes, in the calibration of a single differential model. In this approach, no information other than the metrology results is required from either process. Experimental results were obtained by matching two different processes at Photronics. The standard deviation between both processes was of 2.4nm. After applying the process matching technique, the average absolute difference between the processes was reduced to 1.0nm with a standard deviation of 1.3nm. The methods used to achieve the result will be described along with implementation considerations, to

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  19. Glucose solution determination based on liquid photoacoustic resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, SiWei; Tao, Wei; He, QiaoZhi; Zhao, Hui; Yang, HongWei

    2017-01-10

    Noninvasive blood glucose determination has received considerable attention in the past from both patients and scientists all over the world, and it is becoming increasingly important as a research focus. The two most difficult problems leading to no breakthrough in this area are sensitivity and specificity in determination. In order to obtain reliable measurement results of blood glucose levels, we propose a new liquid photoacoustic resonance theory that can significantly enhance the intensity of the signal and improve the sensitivity. This paper demonstrates the theory of liquid photoacoustic resonance, gives a rigorous mathematical expression, and analyzes the variation of the transducer output in the case of liquid photoacoustic resonance. A signal processing method is demonstrated at the same time under the liquid photoacoustic resonance condition. Meanwhile, the feasibility and validity are verified by experiments with different concentrations of glucose solution. The result shows that liquid photoacoustic resonance can strengthen the signal, and the resolution achieves 20  mg/dL. This method overcomes the issue of low sensitivity and the inaccurate detection in the nonresonant case, and gets accurate results. This result could provide a theoretical basis for realization of noninvasive measurement of blood glucose.

  20. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  1. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001) and GGT (p=0.001), and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001) but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001), GGT (p<0.001) and ALP (p=0.001) values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect

  2. One-electron properties using a CI method based on multiple Hartree-Fock solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbouisson, L. A. C.; Martins, M. G. R.; Makiuchi, N.

    A multi-reference configuration interaction (CI) method based on multiple Hartree-Fock (HF) solutions is applied to study the permanent dipole moment of the LiH, BH, FH, and H2O systems with the minimal atomic basis. The LiH was also calculated with the double-zeta atomic basis. This method uses several HF solutions as references to expand the state functions. For each one of the systems studied, several HF solutions were obtained in the appropriate point and spin symmetry classes, i.e., 1?+ and 1A1. With each of these solutions is generated a distinct basis of the same full CI space. The set of these bases is a system of generators of the full CI space and the multi-reference HF (MRHF) bases are built mixing configuration state functions (CSFs) originated from distinct HF solutions.

  3. A New Solution of Distributed Disaster Recovery Based on Raptor Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kai; Wang, Kaiyun; Ma, Danyang

    For the large cost, low data availability in the condition of multi-node storage and poor capacity of intrusion tolerance of traditional disaster recovery which is based on simple copy, this paper put forward a distributed disaster recovery scheme based on raptor codes. This article introduces the principle of raptor codes, and analyses its coding advantages, and gives a comparative analysis between this solution and traditional solutions through the aspects of redundancy, data availability and capacity of intrusion tolerance. The results show that the distributed disaster recovery solution based on raptor codes can achieve higher data availability as well as better intrusion tolerance capabilities in the premise of lower redundancy.

  4. Determination of pKa values of organic bases in aqueous acetonitrile solutions using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Stephan M C; McCalley, David V; Euerby, Melvin R

    2003-07-04

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the determination of ionisation constants (pKa) of a variety of organic bases in aqueous acetonitrile solutions over the range 0-60% (v/v) acetonitrile. These bases are used as test compounds in HPLC column evaluation, thus knowledge of their pKa in hydro-organic solutions is useful. The base pKa decreased with acetonitrile concentration and significant shifts from the aqueous pKa (up to -0.8) were found using 60% acetonitrile. The CE application was confirmed to be very suitable for fast and accurate pKa measurement in aqueous organic solutions.

  5. The exact solutions and approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on symmetry method.

    PubMed

    Gai, Litao; Bilige, Sudao; Jie, Yingmo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we successfully obtained the exact solutions and the approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Lie symmetry, the extended tanh method and the homotopy perturbation method. In first part, we obtained the symmetries of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Wu-differential characteristic set algorithm and reduced it. In the second part, we constructed the abundant exact travelling wave solutions by using the extended tanh method. These solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions respectively. It should be noted that when the parameters are taken as special values, some solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solutions. Finally, we apply the homotopy perturbation method to obtain the approximate analytic solutions based on four kinds of initial conditions.

  6. Functionalized gold nanorod solution via reverse micelle based polyacrylate coating.

    PubMed

    Basiruddin, S K; Saha, Arindam; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R

    2010-05-18

    Functionalization of gold nanorods is a key issue for their biomedical application, and currently it is performed via either electrostatic interaction or thiol based strategy. We have developed a polyacrylate based coating chemistry for gold nanorods that can be used in deriving a variety of functional nanorods with high colloidal stability. The coating processes can introduce primary amines, fluorescein, or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on the nanorod surface in one step process. While fluorescein incorporation can produce fluorescent nanorods, primary amine groups can be used for further functionalization. Various functional nanorods have been successfully synthesized from these coated nanorods and used in different applications. Glucose and biotin functionalized nanorods are used for protein detection, and oleyl functionalized nanorods with fluorescein incorporated in the polymer shell are used for fluorescence based cell labeling.

  7. PNF 2.0? Initial evidence that gamification can increase the efficacy of brief, web-based personalized normative feedback alcohol interventions.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah C; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Gamified interventions exploit the motivational characteristics of a game in order to provide prevention information and promote behavior change. Despite the modest effect sizes observed in increasingly popular web-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) alcohol interventions for college students, previous research has yet to consider how gamification might be used to enhance efficacy. This study examines whether a novel, gamified PNF intervention format, which includes a point-based reward system, the element of chance, and personal icons to visually represent users, is more effective in reducing short-term alcohol use than the standard web-based style of PNF currently used on college campuses. Two-hundred and thirty-seven college students were randomly assigned to receive either a standard brief, web-based PNF alcohol intervention or the same alcohol intervention components delivered within a Facebook-connected social game called CampusGANDR (Gamified Alcohol Norm Discovery and Readjustment). In both study conditions participants answered identical questions about their perceptions of peer drinking norms and own drinking and then received the same PNF slides. Two weeks following PNF delivery, participants again reported their perceptions of peers' alcohol use and own drinking. Students in the CampusGANDR condition reported significantly reduced peer drinking norms and alcohol use at the two-week follow-up relative to students who received identical PNF delivered by standard online survey. Further, a mediation model demonstrated that this effect was driven by larger reductions in perceived drinking norms among participants assigned to receive CampusGANDR, relative to control. As web-based PNF is becoming an increasingly universal prevention strategy, findings from this study suggest gamification may represent one method by which intervention efficacy could be substantially improved. The potential methodological and economic benefits associated with gamified

  8. Solution immersed silicon (SIS)-based biosensors: a new approach in biosensing.

    PubMed

    Diware, M S; Cho, H M; Chegal, W; Cho, Y J; Jo, J H; O, S W; Paek, S H; Yoon, Y H; Kim, D

    2015-02-07

    A novel, solution immersed silicon (SIS)-based sensor has been developed which employs the non-reflecting condition (NRC) for a p-polarized wave. The SIS sensor's response is almost independent of change in the refractive index (RI) of a buffer solution (BS) which makes it capable of measuring low-concentration and/or low-molecular-weight compounds.

  9. Solution-Focused Therapy: Strength-Based Counseling for Children with Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…

  10. Post-Adoption Issues Related to Cloud-Based IT Solutions: A Multi-Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low cost of implementation and considerable elasticity, cloud-based IT solutions are being widely adopted or considered in organizations across various industries. However, such IT solutions bring forth several unique challenges--challenges that make it difficult for organizations to achieve successful utilization of cloud-based…

  11. The Effectiveness of Adapted Versions of an Evidence-based Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use among Alternative School Students

    PubMed Central

    Hopson, Laura M.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a strong evidence base for effective substance abuse prevention programs for youth, there is a need to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of these programs in real world settings. This study evaluates the effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (kiR), with alternative school students. Programs are often adapted when used in schools and other community settings for a variety of reasons. The kiR adaptations, developed during an earlier phase of this study, were created to make the curriculum more appropriate for alternative high school youth. The adaptations were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design in which questionnaires were administered at pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and focus groups were conducted at posttest. MANOVA analyses indicate significantly reduced intentions to accept alcohol and, for younger participants, reduced alcohol use. Focus group data support the need for age appropriate prevention content. The authors discuss implications for practitioners implementing prevention programs in schools. PMID:20622971

  12. Alcohol fuels: production. September 1985-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 75 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  13. An Examination of State and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Based on the Students' Alcohol Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalesky, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines anxiety and level of alcohol consumption among college freshman and sophomore student's to determine if state and trait anxiety are significant factors in high risk alcohol consumption or binge drinking. The State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to…

  14. An N-soliton solution to the DNLS equation based on revised inverse scattering transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guo-Quan; Huang, Nian-Ning

    2007-11-01

    Based on a revised version of inverse scattering transform for the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation with vanishing boundary condition (VBC), the explicit N-soliton solution has been derived by some algebra techniques of some special matrices and determinants, especially the Binet-Cauchy formula. The one- and two-soliton solutions have been given as the illustration of the general formula of the N-soliton solution. Moreover, the asymptotic behaviors of the N-soliton solution have been discussed.

  15. Negative urgency and ventromedial prefrontal cortex responses to alcohol cues: fMRI evidence of emotion-based impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Eiler, William J.; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Karyadi, Kenny; Kareken, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the role of emotion-based impulsivity (negative and positive urgency personality traits) for alcohol use and abuse, but has yet to examine how these personality traits interact with the brain’s motivational systems. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested if urgency traits and mood induction affected medial prefrontal responses to alcohol odors (AcO). Methods Twenty seven social drinkers (mean age = 25.2, 14 males) had six fMRI scans while viewing negative, neutral, or positive mood images (3 mood conditions) during intermittent exposure to AcO and appetitive control (AppCo) aromas. Results Voxel-wise analyses (p < 0.001) confirmed [AcO > AppCo] activation throughout medial (mPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal regions (vmPFC). Extracted from a priori mPFC and vmPFC regions, and analyzed in Odor (AcO, AppCo) × Mood factorial models, AcO activation was greater than AppCo in left vmPFC (p < 0.001), left mPFC (p = 0.002), and right vmPFC (p = 0.01) regions. Mood did not interact significantly with activation but the covariate of trait negative urgency accounted for significant variance in left vmPFC (p = 0.01) and right vmPFC (p = 0.01) [AcO > AppCo] activation. Negative urgency also mediated the relationship between vmPFC activation and both (1) subjective craving and (2) problematic drinking. Conclusion The trait of negative urgency is associated with neural responses to alcohol cues in the vmPFC, a region involved in reward value and emotion-guided decision-making. This suggests that negative urgency might alter subjective craving and brain regions involved in coding reward value. PMID:24164291

  16. Distributed Cooperation Solution Method of Complex System Based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijin, Jiang; Yuhui, Xu

    To adapt the model in reconfiguring fault diagnosing to dynamic environment and the needs of solving the tasks of complex system fully, the paper introduced multi-Agent and related technology to the complicated fault diagnosis, an integrated intelligent control system is studied in this paper. Based on the thought of the structure of diagnostic decision and hierarchy in modeling, based on multi-layer decomposition strategy of diagnosis task, a multi-agent synchronous diagnosis federation integrated different knowledge expression modes and inference mechanisms are presented, the functions of management agent, diagnosis agent and decision agent are analyzed, the organization and evolution of agents in the system are proposed, and the corresponding conflict resolution algorithm in given, Layered structure of abstract agent with public attributes is build. System architecture is realized based on MAS distributed layered blackboard. The real world application shows that the proposed control structure successfully solves the fault diagnose problem of the complex plant, and the special advantage in the distributed domain.

  17. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  18. Attrition Revisited: Adherence and Retention in a Web-Based Alcohol Trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Ian R; Varagunam, Mira; Godfrey, Christine; Khadjesari, Zarnie; McCambridge, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background Attrition is a noted feature of eHealth interventions and trials. In 2005, Eysenbach published a landmark paper calling for a “science of attrition,” suggesting that the 2 forms of attrition—nonusage attrition (low adherence to the intervention) and dropout attrition (poor retention to follow-up)—may be related and that this potential relationship deserved further study. Objective The aim of this paper was to use data from an online alcohol trial to explore Eysenbach’s hypothesis, and to answer 3 research questions: (1) Are adherence and retention related? If so, how, and under which circumstances? (2) Do adherence and retention have similar predictors? Can these predictors adequately explain any relationship between adherence and retention or are there additional, unmeasured predictors impacting on the relationship? (3) If there are additional unmeasured predictors impacting on the relationship, are there data to support Eysenbach’s hypothesis that these are related to overall levels of interest? Methods Secondary analysis of data from an online trial of an online intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. The 2 outcomes were adherence to the intervention measured by number of log-ins, and retention to the trial measured by provision of follow-up data at 3 months (the primary outcome point). Dependent variables were demographic and alcohol-related data collected at baseline. Predictors of adherence and retention were modeled using logistic regression models. Results Data were available on 7932 participants. Adherence and retention were related in a complex fashion. Participants in the intervention group were more likely than those in the control group to log in more than once (42% vs 28%, P<.001) and less likely than those in the control group to respond at 3 months (40% vs 49%, P<.001). Within each randomized group, participants who logged in more frequently were more likely to respond than those who logged in less

  19. A novel electrochemical biosensor based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles-polyvinyl alcohol composite for sensitive detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Sanaeifar, Niuosha; Rabiee, Mohammad; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-02-15

    In this research, a new electrochemical biosensor was constructed for the glucose detection. Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized through co-precipitation method. Polyvinyl alcohol-Fe3O4 nanocomposite was prepared by dispersing synthesized nanoparticles in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on the PVA-Fe3O4 nanocomposite via physical adsorption. The mixture of PVA, Fe3O4 nanoparticles and GOx was drop cast on a tin (Sn) electrode surface (GOx/PVA-Fe3O4/Sn). The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) techniques were utilized to evaluate the PVA-Fe3O4 and GOx/PVA-Fe3O4 nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of the modified biosensor was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the PVA matrix enhanced the electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface and the immobilized GOx showed excellent catalytic characteristic toward glucose. The GOx/PVA-Fe3O4/Sn bioelectrode could measure glucose in the range from 5 × 10(-3) to 30 mM with a sensitivity of 9.36 μA mM(-1) and exhibited a lower detection limit of 8 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The value of Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) was calculated as 1.42 mM. The modified biosensor also has good anti-interfering ability during the glucose detection, fast response (10 s), good reproducibility and satisfactory stability. Finally, the results demonstrated that the GOx/PVA-Fe3O4/Sn bioelectrode is promising in biosensor construction.

  20. Improved solution accuracy for TDRSS-based TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Oza, D. H.; Bolvin, D. T.; Cox, C. M.; Nemesure, M.; Niklewski, D. J.; Samii, M. V.

    1994-05-01

    Orbit determination results are obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) using a batch-least-squares estimator available in the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and an extended Kalman filter estimation system to process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) measurements. GTDS is the operational orbit determination system used by the FDD in support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft navigation and health and safety operations. The extended Kalman filter was implemented in an orbit determination analysis prototype system, closely related to the Real-Time Orbit Determination System/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system. In addition, the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) team within the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch generated an independent set of high-accuracy trajectories to support the TOPEX/Poseidon scientific data. These latter solutions use the geodynamics (GEODYN) orbit determination system with laser ranging and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking measurements. The TOPEX/Poseidon trajectories were estimated for November 7 through November 11, 1992, the timeframe under study. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The batch-least-squares solutions were assessed based on the solution residuals, while the sequential solutions were assessed based on primarily the estimated covariances. The batch-least-squares and sequential orbit solutions were compared with the definitive POD orbit solutions. The solution differences were generally less than 2 meters for the batch-least-squares and less than 13 meters for the sequential estimation solutions. After the sequential estimation solutions were processed with a smoother algorithm, position differences with POD orbit solutions of less than 7 meters were obtained. The differences among the POD, GTDS, and filter

  1. Earth Based Views of Solute Profiles on Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, R.

    2013-12-01

    'Historical accounts of planetary evolution are mostly written in stone' (1), but the last chapter of that history is embedded in its soil. Soil properties reflect the effects of prevailing environmental boundary conditions. Solute profiles are powerful indicators of the direction and magnitude of water flow. I briefly review the chemistry of salt profiles from deserts formed by upward vs. downward migrating water, use this as a basis for interpreting aspects of Mars hydrological history. The Noachian-aged Meridiani Planum land surface is exposed in the Endurance and Victoria Craters. These craters have been estimated to be ~ <10 My in age (2). During that time, wind erosion has sculpted the exposed walls, with possible secondary effects of moisture. The measurements by the MER Opportunity allow for an analysis of both post-excavation alteration of the craters and the pre-excavation alteration of the landscape by aqueous processes. Crater profiles include APXS 'asis' (fresh surface), brushed , and RAT'd samples. Using RAT'd samples as a baseline, the gains and losses of elements in the surficial samples can be assessed (Fig. 1). The calculations reveal similar trends of surface alteration within a crater (Victoria) and between two craters (Fig. 1). The asis samples are enriched in Na2O, Al2O3, CaO, and Br (and depleted in MgO, SO3, Cl, K2O, MnO, FeO) relative to the RAT'd material. Brushing drastically reduces these differences. These data show that the alteration is very surficial. The RAT'd samples appear to represent pre-impact chemical profiles of the sediment (Fig. 2). It has previously been reported that the upper ~1m at Victoria has been visibly altered by diagenesis (3). Both Endurance (4) and Victoria craters have remarkably similar depth profiles (relative to the lowest sampling point) of SO3, Cl, and Br. The salt profiles, combined with observations of physical alteration, suggest modest pedogenic alteration of the landsurface sometime prior to impact

  2. A web-based solution for 3D medical image visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In this presentation, we present a web-based 3D medical image visualization solution which enables interactive large medical image data processing and visualization over the web platform. To improve the efficiency of our solution, we adopt GPU accelerated techniques to process images on the server side while rapidly transferring images to the HTML5 supported web browser on the client side. Compared to traditional local visualization solution, our solution doesn't require the users to install extra software or download the whole volume dataset from PACS server. By designing this web-based solution, it is feasible for users to access the 3D medical image visualization service wherever the internet is available.

  3. Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

  4. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. Methods In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. Results We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusions A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment. PMID:25079703

  5. Personalized feedback as a universal prevention approach for college drinking: a randomized trial of an e-mail linked universal web-based alcohol intervention.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first

  6. The Surface Structure and Thermal Properties of Novel Polymer Composite Films Based on Partially Phosphorylated Poly(vinyl alcohol) with Aluminum Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Saat, Asmalina

    2014-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (PPVA)100−y − (ALPO4)y (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4. PMID:25506069

  7. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  8. Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics.

    PubMed

    Kolotilin, Igor; Topp, Ed; Cox, Eric; Devriendt, Bert; Conrad, Udo; Joensuu, Jussi; Stöger, Eva; Warzecha, Heribert; McAllister, Tim; Potter, Andrew; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher; Menassa, Rima

    2014-12-31

    An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today's market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health Initiative that humans need to reduce the use of antibiotics and turn to alternative, improved means to control disease: vaccination and prophylactics. Besides the intense research focused on novel therapeutic molecules, both these strategies rely heavily on the availability of cost-effective, efficient and scalable production platforms which will allow large-volume manufacturing for vaccines, antibodies and other biopharmaceuticals. Within this context, plant-based platforms for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins offer significant advantages over conventional expression systems, including lack of animal pathogens, low production costs, fast turnaround and response times and rapid, nearly-unlimited scalability. Also, because dried leaves and seeds can be stored at room temperature for lengthy periods without loss of recombinant proteins, plant expression systems have the potential to offer lucrative benefits from the development of edible vaccines and prophylactics, as these would not require "cold chain" storage and transportation, and could be administered in mass volumes with minimal processing. Several biotechnology companies currently have developed and adopted plant-based platforms for commercial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. In this manuscript, we outline the challenges in the process of livestock immunization as well as the current

  9. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  10. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  11. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  12. Statin-based treatment for cardiovascular risk and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Killing two birds with one stone?

    PubMed

    Athyros, Vasilios G; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Daskalopoulos, Georgios N; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) share common risk factors and may have a parallel course. Statin treatment alone or in combination with other drugs has a substantially beneficial effect on CVD morbidity and mortality. The question was if these regimens were harmful for the liver. Mounting data suggest that statin monotherapy or statin-based treatments are safe in patients with NAFLD and can improve liver tests and liver ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD. Recent data suggest that statin-based therapies are beneficial to the liver and at the same time reduce CVD morbidity and mortality in patients with NAFLD more than in subjects without it. These findings suggest that with statins we are able to get two birds with one stone.

  13. Method for the synthesis of chiral allylic alcohols utilizing selone based chiral derivatizing agents

    DOEpatents

    Silks, III, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    Molecules containing a chiral 1,2-diol unit are synthesized from reactions between aldehydes and N-acyl selones. A chilled N-acyl selone is reacted with a Lewis acid such as TiCl.sub.4 and mixed with a tertiary amine such as diisopropylethylamine to generate an enolate solution. Upon further chilling of the enolate solution a desired aldehyde is added and after an acceptable reaction period a quencher is introduced and the product isolated.

  14. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Web-Based Program to Increase Parental Awareness and Monitoring of Underage Alcohol Use: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela C.; Dunn, Michael E.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of a Web-based parent-focused intervention to improve parental awareness and monitoring of adolescent alcohol use was preliminarily evaluated. Upon completion of baseline assessment, 67 parents were randomly assigned to the experimental Web-based parent-focused intervention or an assessment-only control condition. Participants who…

  15. A new class of organogelators based on triphenylmethyl derivatives of primary alcohols: hydrophobic interactions alone can mediate gelation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Wangkhem P; Singh, Rajkumar S

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we have explored the use of the triphenylmethyl group, a commonly used protecting group for primary alcohols as a gelling structural component in the design of molecular gelators. We synthesized a small library of triphenylmethyl derivatives of simple primary alcohols and studied their gelation properties in different solvents. Gelation efficiency for some of the derivatives was moderate to excellent with a minimum gelation concentration ranging between 0.5-4.0% w/v and a gel-sol transition temperature range of 31-75 °C. 1,8-Bis(trityloxy)octane, the ditrityl derivative of 1,8-octanediol was the most efficient organogelator. Detailed characterizations of the gel were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, rheology and powder XRD techniques. This gel also showed a good absorption profile for a water soluble dye. Given the non-polar nature of this molecule, gel formation is likely to be mediated by hydrophobic interactions between the triphenylmethyl moieties and alkyl chains. Possible self-assembled packing arrangements in the gel state for 1,8-bis(trityloxy)octane and (hexadecyloxymethanetriyl)tribenzene are presented. Results from this study strongly indicate that triphenylmethyl group is a promising gelling structural unit which may be further exploited in the design of small molecule based gelators.

  16. A new class of organogelators based on triphenylmethyl derivatives of primary alcohols: hydrophobic interactions alone can mediate gelation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Wangkhem P

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we have explored the use of the triphenylmethyl group, a commonly used protecting group for primary alcohols as a gelling structural component in the design of molecular gelators. We synthesized a small library of triphenylmethyl derivatives of simple primary alcohols and studied their gelation properties in different solvents. Gelation efficiency for some of the derivatives was moderate to excellent with a minimum gelation concentration ranging between 0.5–4.0% w/v and a gel–sol transition temperature range of 31–75 °C. 1,8-Bis(trityloxy)octane, the ditrityl derivative of 1,8-octanediol was the most efficient organogelator. Detailed characterizations of the gel were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, rheology and powder XRD techniques. This gel also showed a good absorption profile for a water soluble dye. Given the non-polar nature of this molecule, gel formation is likely to be mediated by hydrophobic interactions between the triphenylmethyl moieties and alkyl chains. Possible self-assembled packing arrangements in the gel state for 1,8-bis(trityloxy)octane and (hexadecyloxymethanetriyl)tribenzene are presented. Results from this study strongly indicate that triphenylmethyl group is a promising gelling structural unit which may be further exploited in the design of small molecule based gelators. PMID:28228855

  17. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-03-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment.

  18. Evaluation and clinical validation of an alcohol-based transport medium for preservation and inactivation of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Luinstra, Kathy; Petrich, Astrid; Castriciano, Santina; Ackerman, Mona; Chong, Sylvia; Carruthers, Susan; Ammons, Brenna; Mahony, James B; Smieja, Marek

    2011-06-01

    The clinical and public health importance of influenza and other respiratory viruses has accelerated the development of highly sensitive molecular diagnostics, but data are limited regarding preanalytical stages of diagnostic testing. We evaluated CyMol, an alcohol-based transport medium, for its ability to maintain specimen integrity for up to 21 days of storage at various temperatures; for its ability to inactivate virus; and for its compatibility with antigen- or nucleic acid-based diagnostics for respiratory viruses in clinical samples. In mock-infected samples, both universal transport medium (UTM-RT) and CyMol maintained equivalent viral quantities for at least 14 days at room temperature or colder, whereas a dry swab collection maintained viral quantities only if refrigerated or frozen. CyMol inactivated influenza virus within 5 min of sample immersion. UTM-RT- and CyMol-collected nasal swab specimens from 73 symptomatic students attending a campus health clinic were positive for a respiratory virus in 56.2% of subjects by multiplex PCR testing, including influenza A and B viruses, rhinovirus/enteroviruses, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, metapneumovirus, and adenovirus. Detection by PCR was equivalent in UTM-RT- and CyMol-collected specimens and in self- and staff-collected swabs. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) testing was substantially less sensitive (23.3%) than multiplex PCR, and DFA testing from UTM-RT-collected swabs was more sensitive than that from CyMol-collected swabs. These data indicate that an alcohol-based transport medium such as CyMol preserves respiratory virus integrity, rapidly inactivates viruses, and is compatible with PCR-based respiratory diagnostics.

  19. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, Kevin A.; McCrady, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples’ communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns (“we” language), fewer second-person pronouns (“you” language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns (“I” language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a six-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO “we” language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO “we” language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO “you” and “I” language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP “we” langue and lower IP “you” language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO “we” language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment. PMID:25809790

  20. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group), offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  1. Simple but Strong: A Mussel-Inspired Hot Curing Adhesive Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol Backbone.

    PubMed

    Mu, Youbing; Wan, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    The strong adhesion ability of mussel foot-byssal proteins (Mfps) has inspired scientists to develop novel materials for strong and reversible adhesion, coating, antifouling, and many other applications. However, in many cases, the high costs and the tedious preparation steps of such bioinspired materials hamper the process to push them into practical application. Here a simple but effective way (one step) is presented to synthesize a mussel-inspired glue from two cheap commercially available materials: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DBA). This bioinspired hot curing adhesive exhibits a strong bonding ability as high as 17.3 MPa on stainless steel surfaces, which surpasses most of the commercially available adhesives.

  2. A stimuli-responsive and bioactive film based on blended polyvinyl alcohol and cashew gum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio E F; Batista, Karla A; Di-Medeiros, Maria C B; Silva, Cassio N S; Moreira, Bruna R; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a stimuli-responsive, biodegradable and bioactive film was produced by blending cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The film presented malleability and mechanical properties enabling an easy handling. Wetting the film changed the optical property from opacity to levels of transparency higher than 70% and resulted in up to 2-fold increase in its superficial area. Different swelling indexes were obtained varying the pH of solvent, which allows classifying the CGP/PVA film as pH sensitive stimuli-responsive material. The bioactivity was achieved through covalent immobilization of papain, which remained active after storage of CGP/PVA-papain film for 24h in the presence of buffer or in a dry form. These results evidenced that CGP/PVA-papain film is a very promising material for biomedical applications.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol- carboxymethyl tamarind gum based composite films.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Indu; Rathnam, V S Sharan; Yogalakshmi, Yamini; Chakraborty, Subhabrata; Banerjee, Indranil; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal

    2017-06-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis of novel composite films using polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl tamarind gum. The microscopic study results confirmed the formation of composite matrices. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the occurrence of hydrogen-bonding amongst the components of the films. The extent of hydrogen bonding was composition-dependent which reached a critical higher limit at a particular composition. At the critical composition, the instantaneous and the intermediate polymer relaxation time were longer. All the films were found to be viscoelastic in nature. The melting endotherm was also highest for the composition described above. Ciprofloxacin loaded films showed excellent antimicrobial property against E. coli, suggesting that the drug was released in its active form. Cell proliferation study using human keratinocytes suggested better cell proliferation in the CMT containing films as compared to the control (PVA only) film. In gist, the developed films can be explored for skin tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.

  4. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

    2010-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

  5. Microphotonic structures based on poly(viny1 alcohol) polymer for chemo- and bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreja, P.; Manea, E.; Budianu, E.; Rebigan, R.; Kusko, M.; Cristea, D.

    2005-08-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] is a photo-induced cross-linking polymer, water-soluble, biocompatible, used in holography, nonlinear optics, as tissue engineering scaffolds and as polymer matrices for enzymes immobilization. PVA has been investigated for use as binder polymer in optical waveguides for sensor applications. The Y-shaped waveguides is composed of a buffer layer (lower refractive index) - SiO2, a core layer (higher refractive index) - PVA doped for the refractive index and sensibility increasing and a cladding layer (lower refractive index) - an other polymer. The light propagation in doped PVA waveguides represents the sensing element of the sensor. The preliminary results suggest that doped PVA polymers are promising for optical (bio)chemical sensors; the processes used to make them, represent environmentally friendly technology.

  6. Solution identification and quantitative analysis of fiber-capacitive drop analyzer based on multivariate statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Qiu, Zurong; Huo, Xinming; Fan, Yuming; Li, Xinghua

    2017-03-01

    A fiber-capacitive drop analyzer is an instrument which monitors a growing droplet to produce a capacitive opto-tensiotrace (COT). Each COT is an integration of fiber light intensity signals and capacitance signals and can reflect the unique physicochemical property of a liquid. In this study, we propose a solution analytical and concentration quantitative method based on multivariate statistical methods. Eight characteristic values are extracted from each COT. A series of COT characteristic values of training solutions at different concentrations compose a data library of this kind of solution. A two-stage linear discriminant analysis is applied to analyze different solution libraries and establish discriminant functions. Test solutions can be discriminated by these functions. After determining the variety of test solutions, Spearman correlation test and principal components analysis are used to filter and reduce dimensions of eight characteristic values, producing a new representative parameter. A cubic spline interpolation function is built between the parameters and concentrations, based on which we can calculate the concentration of the test solution. Methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and saline solutions are taken as experimental subjects in this paper. For each solution, nine or ten different concentrations are chosen to be the standard library, and the other two concentrations compose the test group. By using the methods mentioned above, all eight test solutions are correctly identified and the average relative error of quantitative analysis is 1.11%. The method proposed is feasible which enlarges the applicable scope of recognizing liquids based on the COT and improves the concentration quantitative precision, as well.

  7. Analytic Solutions for the Spectral Responses of RCA-Grating-Based Waveguide Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Kai; Wei, Lai

    2012-12-01

    Analytic solutions (ASs) for the spectral responses of waveguide devices with raised-cosine-apodized (RCA) gratings are presented. The waveguide devices include short- and long-period RCA-gratings, RCA-grating-based interferometers as Fabry—Perot, Mach—Zehnder and Michelson interferometers. The calculations based on the analytic solutions are demonstrated and compared with those based on the transfer matrix (TM) method preferred, which has confirmed that the AS-based analysis is with enough accuracy and several thousands times the efficiency of the TM method.

  8. Alcohol, Base, and Available Chlorine: Three Factors Affect the Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Trinitrobenzyl Chloride and Hexanitrobibenzyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Lu, Ming

    2011-04-01

    Trinitrobenzyl chloride and hexanitrobibenzyl can be prepared by the oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with sodium hypochlorite. Alcohol, base, and available chlorine are the three key factors that affect the oxidation. The reason why base led the production of trinitrobenzyl chloride and hexanitrobibenzyl with alcohol is explained and the mechanism of reaction is also discussed. Available chlorine reflected the oxidation capacity of sodium hypochlorite. Too low available chlorine cannot make 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene oxidize completely and produces many by-products.

  9. Analysis of cloud-based solutions on EHRs systems in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cardeñosa, Gonzalo; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays with the growing of the wireless connections people can access all the resources hosted in the Cloud almost everywhere. In this context, organisms can take advantage of this fact, in terms of e-Health, deploying Cloud-based solutions on e-Health services. In this paper two Cloud-based solutions for different scenarios of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) management system are proposed. We have researched articles published between the years 2005 and 2011 about the implementation of e-Health services based on the Cloud in Medline. In order to analyze the best scenario for the deployment of Cloud Computing two solutions for a large Hospital and a network of Primary Care Health centers have been studied. Economic estimation of the cost of the implementation for both scenarios has been done via the Amazon calculator tool. As a result of this analysis two solutions are suggested depending on the scenario: To deploy a Cloud solution for a large Hospital a typical Cloud solution in which are hired just the needed services has been assumed. On the other hand to work with several Primary Care Centers it's suggested the implementation of a network, which interconnects these centers with just one Cloud environment. Finally it's considered the fact of deploying a hybrid solution: in which EHRs with images will be hosted in the Hospital or Primary Care Centers and the rest of them will be migrated to the Cloud.

  10. Cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) embryos by DMSO-based vitrificant solutions.

    PubMed

    Keivanloo, Saeide; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Vitrification could provide a promising tool for the cryopreservation of fish embryos. To achieve successful cryopreservation, several parameters should be taken into account in the design of a vitrification protocol. In the present study, some relevant factors were investigated (choice of a proper vitrificant solutions and temperature for thawing) using neurulation-stage embryos. Six DMSO-based vitrificant solutions (V1-V6) were tested using a 6-step incorporation protocol. DMSO-based vitrificant solutions contained DMSO + permeable cryoprotectants + nonpermeable cryoprotectants. Embryos were immersed in vitrificant solutions for 7 minutes and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen. After vitrification (-196 °C for 10 minutes), the thawing was performed in a water bath at 0 or 20 °C and then embryos incubated until hatched. Our results demonstrated that some embryos vitrified in 5 of 6 vitrification solutions survived and hatched out, but none survived after vitrification in V2. The highest survival rate (45.45%) was observed in samples frozen with the best vitrificant solution (V6) and thawing combination (20 °C). These results establish that cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) embryos by DMSO-based vitrificant solutions is possible.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for Unhealthy Alcohol Use with %Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin: Results From a Literature-Based Decision Analytic Computer Model

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Alok; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Mark S.; Saitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background The %carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) test offers objective evidence of unhealthy alcohol use but its cost-effectiveness in primary care conditions is unknown. Methods Using a decision tree and Markov model, we performed a literature-based cost-effectiveness analysis of 4 strategies for detecting unhealthy alcohol use in adult primary care patients: (i) Questionnaire Only, using a validated 3-item alcohol questionnaire; (ii) %CDT Only; (iii) Questionnaire followed by %CDT (Questionnaire-%CDT) if the questionnaire is negative; and (iv) No Screening. For those patients screening positive, clinicians performed more detailed assessment to characterize unhealthy use and determine therapy. We estimated costs using Medicare reimbursement and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We determined sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of disease, and mortality from the medical literature. In the base case, we calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in 2006 dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY) for a 50-year-old cohort. Results In the base case, the ICER for the Questionnaire-%CDT strategy was $15,500/QALY compared with the Questionnaire Only strategy. Other strategies were dominated. When the prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use exceeded 15% and screening age was <60 years, the Questionnaire-%CDT strategy costs less than $50,000/QALY compared to the Questionnaire Only strategy. Conclusions Adding %CDT to questionnaire-based screening for unhealthy alcohol use was cost-effective in our literature-based decision analytic model set in typical primary care conditions. Screening with %CDT should be considered for adults up to the age of 60 when the prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use is 15% or more and screening questionnaires are negative. PMID:19426168

  12. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  13. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  14. Navier-Stokes solutions for two-dimensional subsonic base flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for determining the effects of mass injection from the trailing edge of a bluff body at low speeds and in transonic flow were numerically studied along with an unmodified blunt-based body to gain insight into the effects of vortex shedding on the base drag. The methodology used to obtain finite-difference solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for subsonic compressible two-dimensional near-wake flows is presented. The effectiveness of an introduced outflow boundary condition which minimizes reflections back into the computational domain was demonstrated with the solution of a model vortex problem. Calculations of the near-wake flow past a circular cylinder were in excellent agreement with experimental data. Laminar-flow solutions for a blunt-based model with and without a base cavity and with mass injection into the wake agreed qualitatively with experimental observations. The drag reduction capability provided by such base modifications was demonstrated.

  15. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. A web-based rapid assessment tool for production publishing solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tong

    2010-02-01

    Solution assessment is a critical first-step in understanding and measuring the business process efficiency enabled by an integrated solution package. However, assessing the effectiveness of any solution is usually a very expensive and timeconsuming task which involves lots of domain knowledge, collecting and understanding the specific customer operational context, defining validation scenarios and estimating the expected performance and operational cost. This paper presents an intelligent web-based tool that can rapidly assess any given solution package for production publishing workflows via a simulation engine and create a report for various estimated performance metrics (e.g. throughput, turnaround time, resource utilization) and operational cost. By integrating the digital publishing workflow ontology and an activity based costing model with a Petri-net based workflow simulation engine, this web-based tool allows users to quickly evaluate any potential digital publishing solutions side-by-side within their desired operational contexts, and provides a low-cost and rapid assessment for organizations before committing any purchase. This tool also benefits the solution providers to shorten the sales cycles, establishing a trustworthy customer relationship and supplement the professional assessment services with a proven quantitative simulation and estimation technology.

  17. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  18. Passively Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on double walled carbon nanotubes-polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, D. Z.; Al-Janabi, A. H.

    2016-11-01

    A passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with a ring cavity operating at 1568.6 nm is demonstrated using a saturable absorber based on a double walled carbon nanotubes film, which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol as a host polymer. The Q-switching operation is achieved at a low pump threshold of 40 mW. The proposed fiber laser produces stable pulses train of repetition rate ranging from 14.7 KHz to 47 KHz as the pump power increases from threshold to 203 mW. The minimum recorded pulse width was 4.6 µs at 203 mW, while the highest energy obtained was 102.1 nJ.

  19. Michael-type addition reactions for the in situ formation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester; Paradossi, Gaio

    2007-01-01

    Michael-type addition reactions offer the possibility to obtain in situ formation of polymeric hydrogels in the absence of a radical mechanism for the networking process. We explored such a synthetic route for obtaining a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based hydrogel as a potential biomaterial for applications in vitro-retinal replacement surgery. The presence of radicals in the reaction medium can represent a risk for in situ surgical treatment. To circumvent this problem we have applied nucleophilic addition to ad hoc modified PVA macromers. The gel formation has been studied with respect to the timing required in this surgery and in terms of the structural characteristics of the obtained network.

  20. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of a Web-based Gratitude Exercise among Individuals in Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Mannella, Kristin A.; Hassett, Afton L.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Cranford, James A.; Brower, Kirk J.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Meyer, Piper S.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the ‘Three Good Things’ exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended. Participants associated TGT with gratitude, although there were no observed changes in grateful disposition over time. TGT had a significant effect on decreasing negative affect and increasing unactivated (e.g., feeling calm, at ease) positive affect, although there were no differences between groups at the 8 week follow up. Qualitative results converged on quantitative findings that TGT was convenient, feasible, and acceptable, and additionally suggested that TGT was beneficial for engendering positive cognitions and reinforcing recovery. PMID:27076837