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Sample records for alcohol based solution

  1. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene. PMID:25366919

  2. Polycondensation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation kinetics is considered.

  3. The critical size of hydrogen-bonded alcohol clusters as effective Brønsted bases in solutions.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Taeg Gyum; Ajitha, Manjaly J; Kwac, Kijeong; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Heesu; Jung, Yousung; Kwon, Oh-Hoon

    2016-09-28

    The alkyl oxonium ion, which is a protonated alcohol, has long been proposed as a key reaction intermediate in alcohol dehydration. Nonetheless, the dynamics and structure of this simple but important intermediate species have not been adequately examined due to the transient nature of the oxonium ion. Here, we devised a model system for the key step in the alcohol dehydration reaction, in which a photoacid transfers a proton to alcohols of different basicity in the acetonitrile solvent. Using time-resolved spectroscopy and computation, we have found that the linkage of at least two alcohol molecules via hydrogen bonding is critical for their enhanced reactivity and extraction of the proton from the acid. This finding addresses the cooperative role of the simplest organic protic compounds, namely alcohols, in nonaqueous acid-base reactions. PMID:27337993

  4. Accelerated nanoparticles synthesis in alcohol-water-mixture-based solution plasma.

    PubMed

    Sudare, Tomohito; Ueno, Tomonaga; Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Saito, Nagahiro

    2015-11-11

    An extraordinary high-speed synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was discovered by synthesizing the AuNPs in ethanol-water mixtures using a solution plasma process (SPP). The influence of the ethanol mole fraction (χethanol) in the ethanol-water mixtures on the reduction rate of gold chloride ions to AuNPs under the SPP system was studied. The results indicated that the reaction rate of the AuNPs synthesis exhibited a maximum value (i.e. 35.2 times faster than in a pure water system) at the significant point where the partial molar volumes of ethanol and water changed drastically.

  5. Comparison of Chain Conformation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Solutions and Melts from Quantum Chemistry Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Matsuda, Tsunetoshi; Yoon, Do; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Confirmations of 2,4-dihydroxypentane (DHP), a model molecule for poly(vinyl alcohol), have been studied by quantum chemistry (QC) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. QC calculations at the 6-311G MP2 level show the meso tt conformer to be lowest in energy followed by the racemic tg, due to intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxy groups. The Dreiding force field has been modified to reproduce the QC conformer energies for DHP. MD simulations using this force field have been carried out for DHP molecules in the gas phase, melt, and CHCl3 and water solutions. Extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed for the gas phase and CHCl3 solution, but not for the melt or aqueous solution, Such a condensed phase effect due to intermolecular interactions results in a drastic change in chain conformations, in agreement with experiments.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of n-alcohols adsorbed on an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of normal alcohol (n-alcohol) on water and the effect of salt on the structural and dynamical properties of n-alcohol on aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The stability of the alcohol distribution was studied for three types of n-alcohol (n-propanol, C3H7OH; n-heptanol, C7H15OH; and n-undecanol, C11H23OH), four or five concentrations of alcohol, and three concentrations of salt. The simulation results reveal the following. The distribution of n-propanol on water is homogeneous at all n-alcohol concentrations studied here and the distribution of n-heptanol and n-undecanol on water is heterogeneous. The n-alcohol concentration at which fluctuations in the alcohol distribution begin to increase depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. Salt concentration affects the surface excess concentration of n-alcohol and the stability of the adsorbed layer of n-alcohol. The degree of each effect depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. For n-undecanol, the surface structure of n-alcohol is independent of salt concentration because interaction between the hydrocarbon chains is sufficiently strong. In absorption refrigeration technology, to enhance the absorption rate of water vapor into a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte solution, a small amount of alcohols is added to the aqueous electrolyte solution, which induces cellular convection referred to as Marangoni instability. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, only n-heptanol induces strong cellular convection. The simulations reveal two required conditions for Marangoni instability: generation of fluctuations in the alcohol distribution on water, and strong correlation between the structural and dynamical properties and salt concentration. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, based on the simulations, only n-heptanol satisfies both conditions.

  7. Effect of alcohol aggregation on the retention factors of chiral solutes with an amylose-based sorbent: modeling and implications for the adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Hung-Wei; Franses, Elias I; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2014-02-01

    Various displacement models in the literature have been widely used for understanding the adsorption mechanisms of solutes in various chromatography systems. The models were used for describing the often-observed linear plots of the logarithms of the retention factor versus the logarithms of the polar modifier concentration CI(0). The slopes of such a plot was inferred to be equal to the number of the displaced modifier molecules upon adsorption of one solute molecule, and were generally found to be greater than 1. In this study, the retention factors of four structurally related chiral solutes, ethyl lactate (EL), methyl mandelate (MM), benzoin (B), and pantolactone (PL), were measured for the amylose tris[(S)-α-methylbenzylcarbamate] sorbent, or AS, as a function of the concentration of isopropanol (IPA) in n-hexane. With increasing IPA concentration CI(0), the slopes increase from less than 1, at a concentration range from 0.13 to 1.3M, to slightly more than 1 at higher concentrations. Such slopes cannot be explained by the conventional retention models. It was found previously for monovalent solutes that such slopes can only be explained when the aggregation of the mobile phase modifier, isopropyl alcohol, was accounted for. A new retention model is presented here, accounting for alcohol aggregation, multivalent solute adsorption, multivalent solute-alcohol complexation, alcohol adsorption, and solute intra hydrogen-bonding, which occur in these four solutes. The slope is found to be controlled by three key dimensionless groups, the fraction of the sorbent binding sites covered by IPA, the fraction of the solute molecules in complex form, and the fraction of the IPA molecules in aggregate form. The limiting slope at a very high IPA concentration is equal to the value of (x+y)/n, where x is the number of the solute-sorbent binding sites and y is the number of the alcohol molecules in the solute-alcohol complex, and n is the alcohol aggregation number. The model

  8. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  9. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  10. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  11. Aquifer washing by micellar solutions: 1. Optimization of alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Gélinas, Pierre J.; Desnoyers, Jacques E.

    1998-03-01

    Phase diagrams were used for the formulation of alcohol-surfactant-solvent and to identify the DNAPL (Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) extraction zones. Four potential extraction zones of Mercier DNAPL, a mixture of heavy aliphatics, aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons, were identified but only one microemulsion zone showed satisfactory DNAPL recovery in sand columns. More than 90 sand column experiments were performed and demonstrate that: (1) neither surfactant in water, alcohol-surfactant solutions, nor pure solvent can effectively recover Mercier DNAPL and that only alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions are efficient; (2) adding salts to alcohol-surfactant or to alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions does not have a beneficial effect on DNAPL recovery; (3) washing solution formulations are site specific and must be modified if the surface properties of the solids (mineralogy) change locally, or if the interfacial behavior of liquids (type of oil) changes; (4) high solvent concentrations in washing solutions increase DNAPL extraction but also increase their cost and decrease their density dramatically; (5) maximum DNAPL recovery is observed with alcohol-surfactant-solvent formulations which correspond to the maximum solubilization in Zone C of the phase diagram; (6) replacing part of surfactant SAS by the alcohol n-butanol increases washing solution efficiency and decreases the density and the cost of solutions; (7) replacing part of n-butanol by the nonionic surfactant HOES decreases DNAPL recovery and increases the cost of solutions; (8) toluene is a better solvent than D-limonene because it increases DNAPL recovery and decreases the cost of solutions; (9) optimal alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions contain a mixture of solvents in a mass ratio of toluene to D-limonene of one or two. Injection of 1.5 pore volumes of the optimal washing solution of n-butanol-SAS-toluene- D-limonene in water can recover up to 95% of Mercier DNAPL in sand columns. In the first

  12. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  13. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  14. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications. PMID:11759028

  15. Excess enthalpies of solution of primary and secondary alcohols in dodecyldimethylamine oxide micellar solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Milioto, S.; Romancino, D.; De Lisi, R.

    1987-11-01

    The excess enthalpies of solution with respect to water of some primary and secondary alcohols in dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO) micellar solutions were measured by mixing aqueous solutions of alcohols with surfactant solutions. Standard free energies, enthalpies and entropies were obtained from the distribution of alcohol between aqueous and micellar phases. It is shown that thermodynamics of transfer of secondary alcohols from aqueous to the DDAO micellar phase differ slightly from those of their corresponding primary alcohols, that the additivity rule holds for free energies of transfer and that enthalpy and entropy display convex curves. The present data are compared with those from the aqueous to the dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) micellar phases and to the literature data for transfer from water to octane. The role of the hydrophilic interactions between OH group and the micellar head groups and of the hydrophobic interactions between the methylene group and its apolar environment is evidenced.

  16. Low Rates of Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Alcohol-Based Hand Hygiene Solution during Prolonged Use in a Large Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Graham, M.; Nixon, R.; Burrell, L. J.; Bolger, C.; Johnson, P. D. R.; Grayson, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed cutaneous adverse reactions (CARs) to alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) after the introduction of a hand hygiene culture change program at our institution. CARs were infrequent among exposed health care workers (HCWs) (13/2,750; 0.47%; 1 CAR per 72 years of HCW exposure) and were not influenced by the duration or intensity of ABHR use but were associated with the presence of irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:16189134

  17. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to...

  18. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to...

  19. Excess enthalpies of solution of some primary and secondary alcohols in sodium dodecylsulfate micellar solutions

    SciTech Connect

    De Lisi, R.; Milioto, S. )

    1988-03-01

    The excess enthalpies of solution of some primary and secondary alcohols in aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate micellar solutions were measured and the results were explained by considering the distribution of alcohols between aqueous and micellar phases. The distribution constant and the enthalpy of transfer (and the standard free energy and entropy of transfer) were obtained. The thermodynamic parameters for the transfer of secondary alcohols from the aqueous to the sodium dodecylsulfate (NaDS) micellar phase differ slightly from those of the corresponding primary alcohols. For both series of alcohols the additivity rule holds for free energies of transfer whereas enthalpies and entropies display convex curves. The present data are compared to those for the transfer of the same solutes from the aqueous to the dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) micellar phases.

  20. Multicomponent adsorption of alcohols onto silicalite-1 from aqueous solution: isotherms, structural analysis, and assessment of ideal adsorbed solution theory.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2012-11-01

    Configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations in the isobaric-isothermal version of the Gibbs ensemble (GE) were carried out to probe the adsorption from aqueous solutions of methanol and/or ethanol onto silicalite-1. This methodology does require neither specification of the chemical potential nor any reference to activity models based on experimental data. The CBMC-GE methodology can be applied to the complete range of mixture compositions from pure water to pure alcohols and can also be used when multiple solute types are present at high concentration. The simulations demonstrate high selectivities for the alcohols (α(ethanol) > α(methanol)) almost over the entire composition range. The ideal adsorbed solution theory is found to substantially underpredict the amount of sorbed water and leads to very large errors for low alcohol solution concentrations. The simulations indicate that, at lower loadings, the adsorbed alcohol molecules can serve as seeds for water adsorption but, at higher loadings, alcohols displace water molecules from their preferred region.

  1. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  2. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. 19.385 Section 19.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...

  3. Aquifer washing by micellar solutions: 2. DNAPL recovery mechanisms for an optimized alcohol surfactant solvent solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre J.

    1998-03-01

    A large sand column experiment is used to illustrate the principles of complex organic contaminants (DNAPL) recovery by a chemical solution containing an alcohol ( n-butanol), a surfactant (Hostapur SAS), and two solvents ( d-limonene and toluene). The washing solution is pushed by viscous polymer solutions to keep the displacement stable. The main NAPL recovery mechanisms identified are: (1) immiscible displacement by oil saturation increase (oil swelling), oil viscosity reduction, interfacial tension lowering, and relative permeability increase; (2) miscible NAPL displacement by solubilization. Most of the NAPL was recovered in a Winsor, type II system ahead of the washing solution. The 0.8 pore volume (PV) of alcohol-surfactant-solvent solution injected recovered more than 89% of the initial residual DNAPL saturation (0.195). Winsor system types were determined by visual observation of phases and confirmed by electrical resistivity measurements of phases and water content measurements in the oleic phase. Viscosity and density lowering of the oleic phase was made using solvents and alcohol transfer from the washing solution. Small sand column tests are performed to check different rinsing strategies used to minimize washing solution residual ingredients which can be trapped in sediments. An alcohol/surfactant rinsing solution without solvent, injected behind the washing solution, minimizes solvent trapping in sediments. More than five pore volumes of polymer solution and water must be injected after the rinsing solution to decrease alcohol and SAS concentrations in sediments to an acceptable level. To obtain reasonable trapped surfactant concentrations in sediments, the displacement front between the rinsing solution and the subsequent the following polymer solution has to be stable.

  4. Anodic deprotonation of polyaniline films in alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Susumu Kuwabata, Nobuo Kihira ); Hiroshi Yoneyama

    1993-05-01

    Polyaniline films prepared by electrochemical oxidation of aniline possess high redox activities both in aqueous acidic and in nonaqueous solutions. The high durability of the film against the redox cycling opens applications of this material to electrochromic and electronic devices and cathode-active materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. Polyaniline films immersed in alcohol solutions such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol are deprotonated by applying anodic potentials. The potential at which the deprotonation reaction is induced to occur is the most negative at methanol among the above four kinds of alcohols used, and ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol follow in this order. This finding is quantitatively discussed in terms of the difference of the affinity of the solvent for the protonated polyaniline. An equation to predict the potential at which the conductance of polyaniline is decreased to one-half of the highest conductance by the deprotonation is derived, and the validity of the equation is verified for results obtained both in aqueous solutions of different pH values and in the above alcohol solutions. 26 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Solvation enthalpies of hydrocarbons in water-alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, O.A.; Batov, D.V.; Korolev, V.P.

    1994-03-20

    It was found that the enthalpies of solvation of alkanes and xenon in water-alcohol mixtures vary, following a parabolic law relative to the density of the cohesion energy of a mixed solvent ({rho}). The general relationships were obtained for calculation of the solvation enthalpy of alkanes as a function of {rho} of the mixture and of the size of the solute particles. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Oxidative alkoxylation of phosphine in alcohol solutions of copper halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polimbetova, G. S.; Borangazieva, A. K.; Ibraimova, Zh. U.; Bugubaeva, G. O.; Keynbay, S.

    2016-08-01

    The phosphine oxidation reaction with oxygen in alcohol solutions of copper (I, II) halides is studied. Kinetic parameters, intermediates, and by-products are studied by means of NMR 31Р-, IR-, UV-, and ESR- spectroscopy; and by magnetic susceptibility, redox potentiometry, gas chromatography, and elemental analysis. A reaction mechanism is proposed, and the optimum conditions are found for the reaction of oxidative alkoxylation phosphine.

  7. Oxidative alkoxylation of phosphine in alcohol solutions of copper halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polimbetova, G. S.; Borangazieva, A. K.; Ibraimova, Zh. U.; Bugubaeva, G. O.; Keynbay, S.

    2016-08-01

    The phosphine oxidation reaction with oxygen in alcohol solutions of copper (I, II) halides is studied. Kinetic parameters, intermediates, and by-products are studied by means of NMR 31P-, IR-, UV-, and ESR- spectroscopy; and by magnetic susceptibility, redox potentiometry, gas chromatography, and elemental analysis. A reaction mechanism is proposed, and the optimum conditions are found for the reaction of oxidative alkoxylation phosphine.

  8. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  9. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  10. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  11. Evolution of electrical discharge channel in isopropyl alcohol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M.; Pecherkin, V. Ya; Vetchinin, S. P.; Kulikov, Yu M.; Son, E. E.

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of the spark channel created by the high voltage pulse generator in 15% isopropyl alcohol solution in tap water was investigated experimentally. Fast camera images show the start of spark discharge channel with the anode region glowing, which is due to ionization-overheating instability near the surface of anode electrode. Measured propagation velocity is about 4 m/s and points to thermal process of channel evolution. Partial discharges in gas bubbles near the spark channel were observed. When the channel bridges the gap the cathode flash of lightning occurs which is much brighter than anode glowing and channel one. After destruction of the spark channel the cathode glowing stays for a longer period than anode one.

  12. 27 CFR 19.385 - Making alcohol or water solutions of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Making alcohol or water... alcohol or water solutions of denaturants. If a proprietor uses a denaturant that is difficult to dissolve... water prior to its use in the production of denatured spirits. However, the proof of the...

  13. Summary of results of a comparative study of alcohol problems and solutions: Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Dinis, M C; Lowe, L

    1992-06-01

    This study explores through a mail questionnaire alcohol problems and solutions in Spain and Portugal including: drunk-driving, treatment services and prevention, economic issues, alcohol consumption, cultural aspects, and supply of alcoholic beverages. Consumption of alcohol in both countries is lower for men and women with college educations. Marital status has minimal effects on the consumption level of men and women in Spain and of men in Portugal. For Portuguese married women, consumption is higher. Too many bars and feasts are primary cultural adjuncts contributing to alcohol problems. PMID:1612818

  14. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  15. Inhibition of nucleation and growth of ice by poly(vinyl alcohol) in vitrification solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Inada, Takaaki; Funakoshi, Kunio; Lu, Shu-Shen

    2009-08-01

    Control of ice formation is crucial in cryopreservation of biological substances. Successful vitrification using several additives that inhibit ice nucleation in vitrification solutions has previously been reported. Among these additives, here we focused on a synthetic polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and investigated the effects of PVA on nucleation and growth of ice in 35% (w/w) aqueous 1,2-propanediol solution by using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system equipped with a cryomicroscope. First, the freezing temperature of the solution was measured using the DSC system, and then the change in ice fraction in the solution during cooling was evaluated based on images obtained using the cryomicroscope, at different concentrations of PVA between 0% and 3% (w/w). Based on the ice fraction, the change in residual solution concentration during cooling was also evaluated and then plotted on the state diagram of aqueous 1,2-propanediol solution. Results indicated that, when the partially glassy and partially frozen state was intentionally allowed, the addition of PVA effectively inhibited not only ice nucleation but also ice growth in the vitrification solution. The effect of PVA on ice growth in the vitrification solution was explained based on kinetic limitations mainly due to mass transport. The interfacial kinetics also might limit ice growth in the vitrification solution only when the ice growth rate decreased below a critical value. This coincides with the fact that PVA exhibits a unique antifreeze activity in the same manner as antifreeze proteins when ice growth rate is lower than a critical value.

  16. [The resolution of racemic sec-phenethyl alcohol on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP: influence of different alcohols in the mobile phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lü, S; Gao, P; Li, S

    1999-07-01

    Several primary and secondary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as the mobile phase components separately, to investigate their effects on the capacity factor and stereoselectivity of sec-phenethyl alcohol enantiomers on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP. The chiral recognition mechanism for the enantiomeric aromatic alcohols studied may involve: (1) the aromatic portion of the solute may insert into a chiral cavity of the CSP through a hydrogen bonding interaction between the solute's alcoholic hydrogen and the ester carbonyl group on the CSP; (2) the mobile phase modifiers (various alcohols) compete with the solutes for chiral, as well as achiral, binding sites on the CSP; (3) the structure of the modifier has some effect on stereoselectivity through an alteration of the steric environment of the chiral cavity.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  18. Alcohol adsorption on softwood lignin from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Ladisch, M R; Ladisch, C M

    1990-02-01

    Lignin prepared by acid and enzyme hydrolysis of a softwood mixture adsorbs acetone, butanol, and other alcohols while showing only a slight uptake of glucose. Adsorption of butanol is independent of temperature in the range of 30-65 degrees C. The Polanyi theory fits adsorption for the linear alcohols methanol through hexanol with values of DeltaS and Delta(mu) ranging from 2.6 to 26 J mol(-1) K(-1)and -0.8 to -8 kJ/mol. The adsorption capacity is given by Q (g alcohol/g lignin) = KC(*). Where C(*) is the equilibrium alcohol concentration (g/mL), K = epsilon(W)exp (Delta/R), and epsilon(w) is the porosity of the lignin (0.23-0.42 mL/g). The value of the adsorption capacity constant K for n-butanol ranges from 1.3 to 2.7 mL/g on sorbent containing 26-72% lignin, while ethanol is 0.5-0.73, acetone is 0.62-1.0, and glucose is 0.35. Adsorption is shown to occur through combined hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of the alkyl and hydroxyl groups, respectively, of the adsorbate with the lignin. Consequently, for the alcohols methanol to hexanol, we present the capacity constant K[=K(R) + K(OH)] as a sum of an alky! adsorption constant (0.1-9.5 mL/g) and a hydrophilic (0.40-0.50 mL/g) contribution. This approach may be applicable to organic acids. Lignin's sorbent properties have potential to moderate product inhibition in the anaerobic acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PMID:18592519

  19. Molecular Arrangement and Surface Tension of Alcohol Solutions.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chi M; Nguyen, Cuong V; Pham, Thuy T T

    2016-04-28

    This study investigated the relationship between molecular arrangement and surface tension of water mixtures with methanol and ethanol. It has been found that the molecular structure of interfacial zone was deterministically correlated to alcohol concentration. From the water dipole moment, an interfacial boundary was defined. The boundary then was used to calculate the water and alcohols in the interfacial zone, which was then used to calculate the surface tension. The prediction from simulated data closely followed the experimental data. The analysis revives the relevance of the molecular arrangement, which had been the main focus in the early 20th century, in quantification of surface energy. The results can supplement the current thermodynamic analysis to correctly predict the surface adsorption.

  20. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Enthalpic parameters of interaction between diglycylglycine and polyatomic alcohols in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Integral enthalpies of solution Δsol H m of diglycylglycine in aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and 1,2-propylene glycol are measured via solution calorimetry. The experimental data are used to calculate the standard enthalpies of solution (Δsol H°) and transfer (Δtr H°) of the tripeptide from water to aqueous solutions of polyatomic alcohols. The enthalpic pairwise coefficients h xy of interactions between the tripeptide and polyatomic alcohol molecules are calculated using the McMillan-Mayer solution theory and are found to have positive values. The findings are discussed using the theory of estimating various types of interactions in ternary systems and the effect the structural features of interacting biomolecules have on the thermochemical parameters of diglycylglycine dissolution.

  4. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Boyle, Michael G; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  5. Susceptibility of yeast isolates from cattle with otitis to aqueous solution of povidone iodine and to alcohol-ether solution.

    PubMed

    Duarte, E R; Hamdan, J S

    2006-06-01

    Lipid-dependent Malassezia species, Candida spp. and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa have been associated with bovine parasitic otitis. This paper evaluated the susceptibility of 63 yeast isolates from cattle with otitis to a povidone iodine aqueous solution (1% and 0.5% v/v) and to an alcohol-ether solution (1:1 v/v). The effectiveness of these antiseptics was assessed using the European suspension test. Products achieving equal to or greater than 5-log reduction in numbers of the challenge organism after 5 min contact are considered to have as acceptable microbicidal effect (ME). The two antiseptic solutions achieved ME greater than 5, when tested at 1 and 5 min contact time, against the majority of yeast strains. The exceptions were alcohol and ether solution against two Candida tropicalis strains. Urea broth macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), defined as the lowest concentration that resulted in a visually negative urease test or, in the case of Candida spp., turbidity inhibition when compared with that produced by the growth control. Analysis of the results for all 63 isolates showed Malassezia sympodialis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa to be more susceptible to povidone iodine and Malassezia furfur strains to be less susceptible. Malassezia sympodialis was significantly more susceptible to alcohol-ether solution than other species. This study showed the in vitro efficacy of alcohol-ether solution and povidone iodine and proposes the need for clinical evaluation of the topical treatment and control of bovine otitis with these antiseptics and their effects on the ear microbiota and the ear canal.

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  7. Investigation of Si(h k l) surfaces etched in KOH solutions saturated with tertiary-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rola, K. P.; Zubel, I.

    2011-11-01

    Anisotropic etching of silicon in KOH solutions saturated with tertiary-butyl alcohol (tert-butanol) was studied in this paper. The influence of KOH concentration of the solution with tert-butanol on Si(1 0 0) surface roughness and convex corners undercut were examined. It was shown that the largest reduction of convex corner undercut is achievable at low (3 M) concentration of KOH, at which, though, the (1 0 0) surface is densely covered with hillocks. The study on etch rate anisotropy and surface morphology of silicon substrates with different crystallographic orientations etched in 3 M KOH solutions with tert-butanol was conducted. The advantage of tert-butanol over isopropanol in terms of shaping three-dimensional structures in the (2 2 1) substrate was presented. The impact of agitation of the etching solution on roughness of (1 1 0) and (h h 1) surfaces and the distribution of hillocks on (1 0 0) and (h 1 1) surfaces were shown. Based on surface tension measurements and theoretical considerations, an adsorption explanation of the visible difference in (1 0 0) surface morphologies in the case of solutions saturated with tert-butanol and isopropanol was proposed. The KOH solution with tert-butanol could be particularly useful for texturing Si(1 0 0) surfaces, due to the possibility of achieving a dense surface coverage with hillocks in the solution saturated with the alcohol.

  8. Thermal transformation of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA) in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2015-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), the ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid supplied to human organisms mainly with coffee, tea, fruit and vegetables, has been one of the most studied polyphenols. It is potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics due to its recently discovered biomedical activity, which revived interest in its properties, isomers and natural occurrence. We found that the heating of the alcoholic solution of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid produced at least twenty compounds (chlorogenic acid derivatives and its reaction products with water and alcohol). The formation of three of them (methoxy, ethoxy and propoxy adducts) has not been reported yet. No reports exist either on methoxy adducts of 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid appearing in buffered methanol/water mixtures at pH exceeding 7. We observed that the amount of each formed component depended on the heating time, type of alcohol, its concentration in alcoholic/water mixture, and pH.

  9. The antiseptic effect of a quick drying rubbing type povidone-iodine alcoholic disinfectant solution.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, K; Yamamoto, Y; Matsunaga, K; Hayata, M; Yasuda, T; Katsuno, Y; Takada, H; Iriyama, J; Ishigo, S; Asano, Y

    1993-01-01

    A quick drying rubbing type disinfectant of non-water non-towel type is an antiseptic method suitable for practical use in intensive care units where emergency situations are common. We determined the antiseptic efficacy and safety of a quick drying rubbing type povidone-iodine alcoholic disinfectant solution (HAD Hand Wash) in comparison with benzalkonium chloride alcoholic lotion. The bacterial reduction rate obtained by hand washing with a single 3 ml application was 93.8% for HAD Hand Wash and 94.1% for benzalkonium chloride alcoholic lotion. Thus, excellent antiseptic efficacy was obtained with both disinfectants. Roughening of hand skin which appeared in association with HAD Hand Wash solution was transient and mild in nature in all of the cases, indicating the high safety of this disinfectant. It is justified to say from these findings that HAD Hand Wash is useful as a hand and finger disinfectant.

  10. Unified Effect of Hydrophobic Hydration on the Dynamics and the Structure of Water Molecules in Lower Alcohol Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masaru; Maruyama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Misawa, Masakatsu

    2011-04-01

    After the analysis of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra of lower alcoholic aqueous solutions, we found that the parameter α, which is the number fraction of hydrophobic hydrating water molecules, has an important role in describing the dynamics and other properties of these solutions. The diffusion coefficient D was obtained from QENS spectra using the relaxing cage model, and D was found to have the same linear relation against α for ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, i-propyl alcohol, and t-butyl alcohol (with a small deviation) aqueous solutions. The excess molar volume and average hydration number of these solutions could also be expressed with common parameters, which are independent of the alcohol species.

  11. Evolution of hydrogen from acidic aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions by reduced forms of isopolytungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Saidkhanov, S.S.; Parmon, V.N.; Savinov, E.N.

    1986-02-10

    The authors determine the specific nature of the hydrogen-releasing polytungstate (PT) species and investigate the features of H/sub 2/ evolution by this species. In aqueous and aqueous-alcohol solutions, reoxidation of the doubly reduced form of hexatungstate proceeds spontaneously, accompanied by hydrogen evolution; in contrast, the reduced form of the PT is stable with respect to reoxidation.

  12. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  13. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness. PMID:22852289

  14. Influence of biuret and cyanuric acid on dewaxing petroleum stocks with alcoholic urea solution

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, E.Sh.; Ismailov, A.G.; Gadzhiev, A.Sh.; Balayan, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    The influence of biuret and cyanuric acid contents on the formation and separation of the adduct in commercial dewaxing of petroleum stocks by a urea solution in a water and isopropyl alcohol mixture was studied. The stock was a diesel fuel distillate with a solid point of -12/sup 0/C. Experiments were performed with a 3.5:1 volume ratio of urea solution to feed, urea content 38% by weight, isopropyl alcohol concentration 70% by weight, adduct formation temperature 55-30/sup 0/C, and adduct formation duration 30 min. Test results show the adverse effects at different quantities of cyanuric and biuret acids on adduct formation. Solutions for overcoming these effects are proposed.

  15. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  16. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  17. Telemedicine-Based Alcohol Services for Rural Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wahler, Elizabeth; Webster, J. Matthew; Godlaski, Theodore; Freeman, Rebecca; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that alcohol use is a problem in rural communities and access to substance abuse treatment, particularly evidence-based treatment is limited. Because telemedicine has been shown to be effective in delivering services, this article presents a novel and innovative way of using telemedicine technology in the form of videoconferencing to deliver an evidence-based alcohol intervention (motivational enhancement therapy) with at-risk alcohol users in real-world settings (rural probation and parole offices). This article focuses on: (a) creating a profile of an at-risk group of rural alcohol users; (b) describing the evidence-based intervention; and (c) describing the innovative telemedicine-based service delivery approach. PMID:22867122

  18. Free base amino alcohols as electrostatic precipitator efficiency enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzotti, D.M.; Steelhammer, J.C.

    1980-12-16

    A method is disclosed for improving operation of an electrostatic precipitator. By adding free base amino alcohol to a particle-laden gas being treated by the precipitator, the efficiency of particle removal is significantly enhanced.

  19. Social Psychological Bases for College Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    College students (n=234) completed questionnaires on social and psychological predictors of alcohol consumption and satisfaction as step toward creating nonalcoholic social activities. Among multiple factors affecting drinking were wanting to release emotional tension, wanting to meet new people, belonging to a fraternity or sorority, low academic…

  20. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  1. Novel Microwave Thermodynamic Model for Alcohol with Clustering Structure in Nonpolar Solution.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Takuya; Dillert, Ralf; Horikoshi, Satoshi

    2015-11-12

    A solution containing ethanol as polar material and either benzene or n-dodecane as nonpolar solvent was heated by microwave irradiation employing a single-mode resonance microwave device. Although the microwave heating efficiency was expected from the just value of the relative dielectric constant (εr') or relative dielectric loss (εr″) for liquid system, it was revealed that the clustering structure of alcohol molecules expected from the excess parameter such as the excess relative dielectric loss is the important factor in the decision for efficiency of the microwave heating for the solution. This assumption and novel theory were strongly supported from the thermodynamic data such as vapor pressure and the partial enthalpy.

  2. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks. PMID:22778654

  3. Solution behavior of metoclopramide in aqueous-alcoholic solutions at 30°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Sawale, R. T.; Tawde, P. D.; Kalyankar, T. M.

    2016-07-01

    Densities (ρ) and refractive indices ( n D) of solutions of antiemetic drug metoclopramide (4-amino-5-chloro- N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride hydrate) in methanolwater and ethanol-water mixtures of different compositions were measured at 30°C. Apparent molar volume (φv) of the drug was calculated from density data and partial molar volumes (φ v 0 ) were determined from Massons relation. Concentration dependence of nD has been studied to determine refractive indices of solution at infinite dilution ( n D 0 ). Results have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

  4. Cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogels for reconfigurable lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaramudu, T.; Ko, Hyun-U.; Gao, Xiaoyuan; Li, Yaguang; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    Electroactive hydrogels are attractive for soft robotics and reconfigurable lens applications. Here we describe the design and fabrication of cellulose-poly vinyl alcohol based hydrogels. The fabricated hydrogels were confirmed by Fourier transformer spectroscopy, swelling studies, thermal analysis, surface morphology of fabricated hydrogel was study by using scanning electron microscopy. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol concentration on the optical and electrical behavior of hydrogels was studied.

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. Viscosities of cetylpyridinium bromide solutions (aqueous and aqueous KBr) in the presence of alcohols and amines

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.L.; Kumar, S.; Kabir-ud-Din

    1997-01-01

    Among the large number of additives, alcohols hold a special place, being by far the most common cosurfactants which are added to surfactant-oil combinations to generate microemulsions. Though the studies using amines as cosurfactant in microemulsions are few, it has been proved that they are also potential candidates for such formulations. The effect of organic additives (aliphatic/aromatic amines or alcohols) on the viscosities of aqueous and 0.1 M KBr solutions of 0.05 or 0.1 M cetylpyridinium bromide have been measured under Newtonian flow conditions. The viscosity changed dramatically in the presence of KBr. This is explained by the favorable conditions produced by the salt which assists the micellar growth by organic additives with a concomitant enhancement in viscosity. Reasons for the effectiveness of these additives are suggested. The causes of the viscosity decrease at higher concentrations of the additive are also explained.

  7. Thermodynamics of micelle formation in a water-alcohol solution of sodium tetradecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilova, S. V.; Tret'yakova, A. Ya.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of addition of ethanol and propan-1-ol on sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation in an aqueous solution are studied via microprobe fluorescence microscopy and conductometry. The critical micelle concentration, quantitative characteristics of micelles, and thermodynamic parameters of micelle formation are determined. Addition of 5-15 vol % of ethanol or 5-10 vol % of propan-1-ol is shown to result in a lower critical micelle concentration than in the aqueous solution, and in the formation of mixed spherical micelles whose sizes and aggregation numbers are less than those for the systems without alcohol. The contribution from the enthalpy factor to the free energy of sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation is found to dominate in mixed solvents, in contrast to aqueous solutions.

  8. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  9. Perfluorinated alcohols and acids induce coacervation in aqueous solutions of amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Morteza G; Jenkins, Samuel I; Liang, Shuang

    2013-02-26

    We have discovered that water-miscible perfluorinated alcohols and acids (FA) can induce simple and complex coacervation in aqueous solutions of a wide range of amphiphilic molecules such as synthetic surfactants, phospholipids, and bile salts as well as polyelectrolytes. This unique phenomenon seems to be nearly ubiquitous, especially for complex coacervate systems composed of mixed catanionic amphiphiles. In addition, coacervation and aqueous phase separation were observed over a wide range of surfactants concentrations and for different mole fractions of the oppositely charged amphiphile.

  10. Alcohol solutions of triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride as high-dose radiochromic dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, A.; Wojnárovits, L.; El-assy, N. B.; Afeefy, H. Y.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Walker, M. L.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1995-09-01

    The radiolytic reduction of colorless tetrazolium salts in aqueous solution to the highly colored formazan dye is a well-known acid-forming radiation chemical reaction. Radiochromic thin films and three-dimensional hydrocolloid gels have been used for imaging and mapping absorbed dose distributions. The high solubility of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) in alcohols provides a useful liquid dosimeter (45 mM TTC in aerated ethanol) and shows a linear response of absorbance increase (λmax = 480 nm) with dose over the range 1-16 kGy. The linear molar absorption coefficient (ɛm) for the formazan at the absorption peak is 1.5 × 103 m2 mol-1, and the radiation chemical yield for the above solution is G (formazan) = 0.014 μmol J-1. The irradiation temperature coefficient is about 0.8 percent per degree Celsius rise in temperature over the temperature range 0-30 °C but is much larger between 30° and 60 °C. The unirradiated and irradiated solutions are stable over at least five days storage at normal laboratory temperature in the dark, but when stored in daylight at elevated temperature, the unirradiated solution in sealed amber glass ampoules undergoes slow photolytic dye formation, and the irradiated solution experiences initial fading and subsequent reversal (photochromism) when exposed to direct sunlight.

  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention using community-based narrowcasting campaigns.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669

  12. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  13. Study the density, ultrasonic and compressibility of binary mixture of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol and mustard oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monupal, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrasonic velocities, compressibility and bulk modulus of binary mixtures of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol with mustard oil have been measured at different concentrations at room temperature. The results are varied with the concentration in such a way i.e. ultrasonic velocity and Bulk Modulus is decreases with the increase in concentration and compressibility is increases with the increase in concentration of aqueous isopropyl alcohol. It is due to molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

  14. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  15. Mutagenicity evaluation with Ames test of hydro-alcoholic solution of terpenes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, S; Marconi, S; Paiaro, E; Fochesato, A; Gregorio, P

    2009-09-01

    Mutagenic properties of terpenes (both synthesis and plant derived) have been tested, up to now, as a single molecule. A terpenes containing hydro-alcoholic solution deriving from frankincense and myrrh resins and hyssop essential oil was assayed for mutagenicity by means of ames test. Extraction technique conducted with electromagnetic fields at room temperature enabled to obtain a solution of free active molecules that did not undergo thermal degradation and characterized by biocidal activity. In order to verify lack of mutagenic hazard in coming into contact with human, the solution was appropriately diluted and tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA1535 and YG1024 strains, both in absence and in presence of metabolic system S9. For none of the tested conditions a 2-fold increase of induced revertants, as regards to spontaneous, was registered. The ratio between induced and spontaneous His+ revertants (Mutagenic Index) was around 1.00 in all the determinations and no statistically significant differences have been identified comparing the sample and the negative control. A similar result has been obtained for the dose-response curve. In conclusion, we verified that tested terpenes solution lacks of mutagenicity on Salmonella typhimurium with and without metabolic activator so this plant extract can be safely used as biocide. PMID:20411651

  16. Vitamin C hinders radiation cross-linking in aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ebru; Bodugoz-Senturk, Hatice; Macias, Celia; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2007-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a promising semi-crystalline material for biomedical applications. It is soluble in water and can be formed into hydrogels by freezing and thawing or crystallizing from an aqueous theta solution such as that of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Radiation cross-linking caused by sterilization or high dose irradiation of concentrated PVA solutions could compromise some properties of these hydrogels. Therefore, we hypothesized that radiation cross-linking of PVA solutions and PVA-PEG theta gels could be prevented by using the antioxidant vitamin C as an anticross-linking agent. Our hypothesis tested positive. Vitamin C concentrations of 0.75 and 4.5 mol/mol of PVA repeating unit could prevent cross-linking in 17.5 wt/v% PVA solutions made with PVA molecular weight of 115,000 g/mol irradiated to 25 and 100 kGy, respectively. Vitamin C also prevented cross-linking in 25 kGy irradiated PVA-PEG theta gels containing up to 5 wt% PEG and decreased the viscosity of those up to 39 wt%.

  17. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  18. Frequency dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation for semiquinones in alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elajaili, Hanan B.; Biller, Joshua R.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates at 293 K for three anionic semiquinones (2,5-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone) were studied at up to 8 frequencies between 250 MHz and 34 GHz in ethanol or methanol solution containing high concentrations of OH-. The relaxation rates are about a factor of 2 faster at lower frequencies than at 9 or 34 GHz. However, in perdeuterated alcohols the relaxation rates exhibit little frequency dependence, which demonstrates that the dominant frequency-dependent contribution to relaxation is modulation of dipolar interactions with solvent nuclei. The relaxation rates were modeled as the sum of two frequency-independent contributions (spin rotation and a local mode) and two frequency-dependent contributions (modulation of dipolar interaction with solvent nuclei and a much smaller contribution from modulation of g anisotropy). The correlation time for modulation of the interaction with solvent nuclei is longer than the tumbling correlation time of the semiquinone and is consistent with hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to the oxygen atoms of the semiquinones.

  19. Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Polyvinyl Alcohol/Graphene Oxide Composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Wang, Xiaohui; Hu, Song; Chen, Long; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

    2016-02-01

    As a new member of the carbon family, graphene oxide (GO) has shown excellent adsorption ability to micro-pollutants in aqueous solutions. However, its tiny size makes it difficult to be removed from aqueous solutions using the conventional separation methods, which limits its practical application in the environmental protection. In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as carrier immobilizing GO, and novel PVA/GO composites were prepared. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the composites were characterized by SEM, FTIR and TGA analysis. The adsorption properties of methylene blue (MB) onto the composites were studied through investigating the experimental parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature. The isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity reached 476.2 mg/g at 50% GO content. The pseudo-first-order kinetic, pseudo-second-order kinetic and intra-particle diffusion models were used to explore the adsorption kinetics. The results showed that the dynamic data were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:27433669

  20. Spectra of copper and europium β-diketonates in alcoholic solutions and transparent dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybaltovskii, A. O.; Gerasimova, V. I.; Bogomolova, L. D.; Zhachkin, V. A.; Lemenovskii, D. A.; Tsypina, S. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2006-07-01

    We have used optical and EPR spectroscopy to study the mechanisms for color center formation in nanoporous glasses, polymethylmethacrylate, and alcoholic solutions containing ?-diketonate molecules: Cu(hfac)2, Ba(hfac)2, Pr(hfac)3, and Eu(fod)3. We have observed and studied the complex structure of the absorption bands in the 300 nm region belonging to the intraligand π-π* transition. Analogous results were obtained when studying the photoluminescence spectra of 5D0 → 7F0 transitions of Eu3+ ions and the EPR spectra of Cu2+ ions in matrices doped with Cu(hfac)2. We propose a model according to which for β-diketonate molecules (except for basic diketonates), a hydrolyzed form exists that is formed during synthesis of the polycrystalline powder due to the presence of water molecules. The model allows us to explain the spectral manifestations of β-diketonates in different matrices.

  1. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  2. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  3. Dissolution and mechanical behaviors of recrystallized carbamazepine from alcohol solution in the presence of additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhodchi, A.; Bolourtchian, N.; Dinarvand, R.

    2005-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) crystals were grown from pure ethanol solutions containing various additives (PEG 4000, PVP K30 or Tween 80). Physical characteristics of the crystals were studied for the morphology of crystals using scanning electron microscope, for the identification of polymorphism by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and FT-IR, and for thermodynamic properties using differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The dissolution behaviour of various carbamazepine crystals was also studied by dissolution apparatus II at pH 7.4 containing 1% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) studies showed that the presence of the additives in the solutions growth medium affected the morphology and size of carbamazepine crystals. SEMs of untreated and treated carbamazepine crystals obtained from alcohol containing PEG 4000, PVP K30 or Tween 80 showed that the crystal shape of untreated carbamazepine is flaky or thin plate-like, whereas the crystals obtained from alcohol containing no additive, PEG 4000, PVP K30 or Tween 80 are polyhedral prismatic, block-shaped, polyhedral or hexagonal, respectively. XRPD, FT-IR and DSC results showed that the untreated CBZ was form III and recrystallization of CBZ in the absence or presence of the additives did not cause any polymorphic changes. The results showed that the higher dissolution rate and compact strength were observed for the crystals obtained in the presence of PVP K30. The presence of the additives in crystallization medium alters crystal morphology of carbamazepine, but only the samples crystallized in the presence of PVP K30 showed an improvement in dissolution rate and tensile strength.

  4. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence.

  5. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  6. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  7. Solution Spinning and Characterization of Poly (vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Polyblend Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiefei; Kumar, Satish

    2002-03-01

    Solution Spinning and Characterization of Poly (vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Polyblend Fibers Xiefei Zhang and Satish Kumar School of Textile and Fiber Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta GA 30032 During 1930s and 40s there was significant research activity in processing fibers from regenerated proteins. However, due to development of synthetic fibers and partially due to low tensile strength of the regenerated protein fibers, there has not been much interest in this field over last half a century. To improve strength of the regenerated protein, an attempt has been made to process PVA /soybean protein polyblend fibers. PVA/Soybean protein ratio of 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 have been utilized. This has been done in an attempt to take advantage of the PVA/soybean interaction. Urea, sodium sulfite, as well as heat, were used to make denatured soybean protein solution, which was suitable for solution spinning. The polyblend fibers underwent post-spinning treatment, such as crosslinking, washing, drying and heat treatment. The fibers have been characterized for thermal behavior and tensile as well as dynamic mechanical properties. Blend fiber morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy and fiber structure characterized using wide angle X-ray diffraction. Effects of draw ratio, crosslinking time, crosslinking agent, heat treatment conditions as well as PVA/soybean composition on the mechanical properties of polyblend fibers have been studied. Dynamic mechanical analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy exhibit PVA /soybean protein compatibility.

  8. Evaluation of transport parameters for PVC based polyvinyl alcohol Ce(IV) phosphate composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Mujahid Ali; Rafiuddin; Inamuddin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation of novel membrane and the characterization of their properties. A new class of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based polyvinyl alcohol Ce(IV) phosphate composite membrane was successfully prepared by solution casting method. The structural formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and morphological studies. The thermal property was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. The order of surface charge density for various electrolytes was found to be LiCl

  9. A relative humidity sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber coated with polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Yang, Zaihang; Zhou, Libin; Liu, Nan; Gang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Hu, Manli

    2015-12-01

    A relative humidity (RH) sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber (TCF) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.This sensor is constructed by splicing a section of TCF with a single mode fiber (SMF), then part of the TCF's cladding is etched by hydrofluoric acid solution and finally the tip of TCF is coated with PVA. Experimental results demonstrate that this sensor can measure the ambient RH by demodulating the power variation of reflection spectrum. The power demodulation method make this sensor can ignore the temperature cross-sensitivity and have an extensive application prospect.

  10. ASTN1 and alcohol dependence: family-based association analysis in multiplex alcohol dependence families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shirley Y; Weeks, Daniel E; Jones, Bobby L; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2012-06-01

    A previous genome-wide linkage study of alcohol dependence (AD) in multiplex families found a suggestive linkage result for a region on Chromosome 1 near microsatellite markers D1S196 and D1S2878. The ASTN1 gene is in this region, a gene previously reported to be associated with substance abuse, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Using the same family data consisting of 330 individuals with phenotypic data and DNA, finer mapping of a 26 cM region centered on D1S196 was undertaken using SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.15 and pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) of r(2) < 0.8 using the HapMap CEU population. Significant FBAT P-values for SNPs within the ASTN1 gene were observed for four SNPs (rs465066, rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917), the most significant, rs228008, within intron 8 had a P-value of 0.001. Using MQLS, which allows for inclusion of all families, we find three of these SNPs with MQLS P-values < 0.003. In addition, two additional neighboring SNPs (rs10798496 and rs6667588) showed significance at P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively. Haplotype analysis was performed using the haplotype-based test function of FBAT for a block that included rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917. This analysis found one block (GCG) over-transmitted and another (ATA) under-transmitted to affected offspring. Linkage analysis identified a region consistent with the association results. Family-based association analysis shows the ASTN1 gene significantly associated with alcohol dependence. The potential importance of the ASTN1 gene for AD risk may be related its role in glial-guided neuronal migration.

  11. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  12. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions. PMID:27223341

  13. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions.

  14. Aggregation in dilute aqueous tert-butyl alcohol solutions: Insights from large-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rini; Patey, G. N.

    2012-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations employing up to 64 000 particles are used to investigate aggregation and microheterogeneity in aqueous tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) solutions for TBA mole fractions Xt ⩽ 0.1. Four different force fields are considered. It is shown that the results obtained can be strongly dependent on the particular force field employed, and can be significantly influenced by system size. Two of the force fields considered show TBA aggregation in the concentration range Xt ≈ 0.03 - 0.06. For these models, systems of 64 000 particles are minimally sufficient to accommodate the TBA aggregates. The structures resulting from TBA aggregation do not have a well-defined size and shape, as one might find in micellar systems, but are better described as TBA-rich and water-rich regions. All pair correlation functions exhibit long-range oscillatory behavior with wavelengths that are much larger than molecular length scales. The oscillations are not strongly damped and the correlations can easily exceed the size of the simulation cell, even for the low TBA concentrations considered here. We note that these long-range correlations pose a serious problem if one wishes to obtain certain physical properties such as Kirkwood-Buff integrals from simulation results. In contrast, two other force fields that we consider show little sign of aggregation for Xt ≲ 0.08. In our 64 000 particle simulations all four models considered show demixing-like behavior for Xt ≳ 0.1, although such behavior is not evident in smaller systems of 2000 particles. The meaning of the demixing-like behavior is unclear. Since real TBA-water solutions do not demix, it might be an indication that all four models we consider poorly represent the real system. Alternatively, it might be an artifact of finite system size. Possibly, the apparent demixing indicates that for Xt ≳ 0.1, the stable TBA aggregates are simply too large to fit into the simulation cell. Our results provide a view of the

  15. Hydrophobic Hydration in Water-tert-Butyl Alcohol Solutions by Extended Depolarized Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Comez, L; Paolantoni, M; Lupi, L; Sassi, P; Corezzi, S; Morresi, A; Fioretto, D

    2015-07-23

    Molecular dynamics and structural properties of water-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) mixtures are studied as a function of concentration by extended depolarized light scattering (EDLS) experiments. The wide frequency range, going from fraction to several thousand GHz, explored by EDLS allows distinguishing TBA rotational dynamics from structural relaxation of water and intermolecular vibrational and librational modes of the solution. Contributions to the water relaxation originating from two distinct populations, i.e. hydration and bulk water, are clearly identified. The dynamic retardation factor of hydration water with respect to the bulk, ξ ≈ 4, almost concentration independent, is one of the smallest found by EDLS among a variety of systems of different nature and complexity. This result, together with the small number of water molecules perturbed by the presence of TBA, supports the idea that hydrophobic simple molecules are less effective than hydrophilic and more complex molecules in perturbing the H-bond network of liquid water. At increasing TBA concentrations the average number of perturbed water molecules shows a pronounced decrease and the characteristic frequency of librational motions reduces significantly, both of which are results consistent with the occurrence of self-aggregation of TBA molecules.

  16. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the singlet excited state of betanin in aqueous and alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Monika; Nizinski, Stanislaw; Tuwalska, Dorota; Starzak, Karolina; Szot, Dominika; Prukala, Dorota; Sikorski, Marek; Wybraniec, Slawomir; Burdzinski, Gotard

    2015-07-21

    The photophysical properties of betanin in aqueous and alcoholic solutions were determined at room temperature using ultrafast UV-vis-NIR transient absorption spectroscopy (λexc = 535 nm). Its S1 → Sn (n > 1) absorption bands appear with maxima at about λ ∼ 450 and 1220 nm. The short betanin S1 state lifetime (6.4 ps in water) is mainly determined by the efficient S1 → S0 radiationless relaxation, probably requiring a strong change in geometry, since the S1 lifetime grows to 27 ps in the more viscous ethylene glycol. The fluorescence quantum yield is very low (Φf ∼ 0.0007 in water), therefore this deactivation path is of minor importance. Other processes, such as S1 → T1 intersystem crossing or photoproduct formation, are virtually absent, since full S0 ← S1 ground state recovery is observed within tens of picoseconds after photoexcitation. The observed fast light-to-heat conversion in the absence of triplet excited state formation supports the idea that betanin is a photoprotector in vivo.

  17. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  18. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving. PMID:26628164

  19. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  20. Polihexanide solution is more efficient than alcohol to remove phenol in chemical matricectomy: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cordoba Diaz, Damian; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Cordoba Diaz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    For treatment of ingrown toenails, a phenolization approach is often chosen. Many reports describe a lavage of the wound with alcohol to neutralize any residual phenol; however, it remains uncertain if there is a more effective solution for use in the lavage step. The aim of our study was to analyze the suitability and effectiveness of 0.1% polihexanide solution compared with isopropyl alcohol in the removal of excess phenol after treatment for ingrown toenails. We performed an in vitro study using human matrix and a diffusion cell apparatus to measure the amount of phenol remaining after two lavage washes. The effect of phenol evaporation was also examined.When phenol was irrigated with alcohol alone, 27.43 ± 4.10 mg (57.74%) of the initial amount of phenol was recovered. If irrigated with 0.1% polihexanide, 35.98 ± 2.93 mg (75.74%) of phenol was recovered. These results indicate that a polihexanide lavage step has significantly higher efficiency for removing excess phenol relative to alcohol.

  1. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty alcohols in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2015-07-01

    By analysis of experimental data, a quantitative theoretical interpretation of the solubility limit of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols in micellar solutions of water-soluble surfactants is presented. A general picture of the phase behavior of the investigated systems is given in the form of phase diagrams. The limited solubility of the fatty alcohols in the micelles of conventional surfactants is explained with the precipitation of their monomers in the bulk, rather than with micelle phase separation. The long chain fatty alcohols (with n=14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms) exhibit an ideal mixing in the micelles of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Deviations from ideality are observed for the alcohols of shorter chain (n=10 and 12), which can be explained by a mismatch with the longer chains of the surfactant molecules. Using the determined thermodynamic parameters of the systems, their phase diagrams are constructed. Such a diagram consists of four domains, viz. mixed micelles; coexistent micelles and precipitate (dispersed crystallites or droplets); precipitate without micelles, and molecular solution. The four boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, Q. For ionic surfactants (like SLES), a detailed theory for calculating the boundary lines of the phase diagrams is developed and verified against data for the positions of the kinks in surface tension isotherms. The theory takes into account the electrostatic interactions in the micellar solutions and the effect of counterion binding. The results can be useful for a quantitative interpretation and prediction of the phase behavior of mixed solutions of two (or more) surfactants, one of them being water soluble and forming micelles, whereas the other one has a limited water solubility, but readily forms mixed micelles with the former surfactant.

  2. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Huang, Wei-wei; Xu, Yong; Liu, Lu; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-02-01

    A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas, derived from the biomass gasification. The Cu1Co1Fe1Mo1Zn0.5-6%K catalyst exhibited a higher activity on the space-time yield of mixed alcohols, compared with the other Mo-based catalysts. The carbon conversion significantly increases with rising temperature below 340 °C, but the alcohol selectivity has an opposite trend. The maximum mixed alcohols yield derived from biomass gasification is 494.8 g/(kgcatal·h) with the C2+ (C2—C6 higher alcohols) alcohols of 80.4% under the tested conditions. The alcohol distributions are consistent with the Schulz-Flory plots, except methanol. In the alcohols products, the C2+ alcohols (higher alcohols) dominate with a weight ratio of 70%-85%. The Mo-based catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption/desorption. The clean bio-fules of mixed alcohols derived from bio-syngas with higher octane values could be used as transportation fuels or petrol additives.

  3. Effect of an alcohol-based caries detector on the surface tension of sodium hypochlorite preparations.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Guastalli, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an alcohol-based caries detector (Kurakay) on the surface tension of a conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparation, and a product containing a surface-active agent (Chlor-XTRA). The surface tensions of the following solutions were tested: NaOCl, a mixture of NaOCl and Kurakay 9:1 w/w, Chlor-XTRA, a mixture of Chlor-XTRA and Kurakay 9:1 w/w. Ten measurements per test solution were made at 20°C, using an optical method called the "Pendant drop method", with a commercially available apparatus. The addition of Kurakay reduced the surface tension for NaOCl (p<0.05) whilst no significant difference was detected for Chlor-XTRA (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences between the NaOCl and Chlor-XTRA groups were found (p<0.05). The addition of an alcohol-based caries detector resulted in a reduction of the original surface tension values for NaOCl only. Taking into account the fact that mixtures of NaOCl and Kurakay have been used to assess the penetration of root canal irrigants in vitro, the related changes in surface tension are a possible source of bias.

  4. Solution-based nanoengineering of materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Spoerke, Erik David; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Machesky, Michael L.; Tian, Zhengrong Ryan; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2005-02-01

    Solution-based synthesis is a powerful approach for creating nano-structured materials. Although there have been significant recent successes in its application to fabricating nanomaterials, the general principles that control solution synthesis are not well understood. The purpose of this LDRD project was to develop the scientific principles required to design and build unique nanostructures in crystalline oxides and II/VI semiconductors using solution-based molecular self-assembly techniques. The ability to synthesize these materials in a range of different nano-architectures (from controlled morphology nanocrystals to surface templated 3-D structures) has provided the foundation for new opportunities in such areas as interactive interfaces for optics, electronics, and sensors. The homogeneous precipitation of ZnO in aqueous solution was used primarily as the model system for the project. We developed a low temperature, aqueous solution synthesis route for preparation of large arrays of oriented ZnO nanostructures. Through control of heterogeneous nucleation and growth, methods to predicatively alter the ZnO microstructures by tailoring the surface chemistry of the crystals were established. Molecular mechanics simulations, involving single point energy calculations and full geometry optimizations, were developed to assist in selecting appropriate chemical systems and understanding physical adsorption and ultimately growth mechanisms in the design of oxide nanoarrays. The versatility of peptide chemistry in controlling the formation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and zinc oxide/cadmium sulfide heterostructures was also demonstrated.

  5. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  6. Stable TEMPO and ABNO Catalyst Solutions for User-Friendly (bpy)Cu/Nitroxyl-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-11-01

    Two solutions, one consisting of bpy/TEMPO/NMI and the other bpy/ABNO/NMI (bpy =2,2'-bipyridyl; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl, ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl; NMI = N-methylimidazole), in acetonitrile are shown to have good long-term stability (≥1 year) under air at 5 °C. The solutions may be combined in appropriate quantities with commercially available [Cu(MeCN)4]OTf to provide a convenient catalyst system for the aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols.

  7. Stable TEMPO and ABNO Catalyst Solutions for User-Friendly (bpy)Cu/Nitroxyl-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-11-01

    Two solutions, one consisting of bpy/TEMPO/NMI and the other bpy/ABNO/NMI (bpy =2,2'-bipyridyl; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl, ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl; NMI = N-methylimidazole), in acetonitrile are shown to have good long-term stability (≥1 year) under air at 5 °C. The solutions may be combined in appropriate quantities with commercially available [Cu(MeCN)4]OTf to provide a convenient catalyst system for the aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. PMID:26457658

  8. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  9. Pt/Ceria-based Catalysts for Small Alcohol Electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez-Mora, Christian L.

    High emissions of fossil-based energy sources have led to scientists around the world to develop new alternatives for the future. In this sense, fuel cells are a remarkable and promising energy option with less environmental impact. The most used fuels for this technology are hydrogen and small chain alcohols, which can be oxidized to transform their chemical energy into electrical power. To do this, fuel cells need catalysts that will act as an active surface where the oxidation can take place. The problem with platinum catalysts is its possible CO poisoning with intermediates that are produced before the complete oxidation of alcohol to CO2. Different approaches have been taken to try to resolve this issue. In this case, cerium oxide (ceria) was selected as a co-catalyst to mitigate the effect of CO poisoning of platinum. Ceria is a compound that has the ability to work as an "oxygen tank" and can donate oxygen to carbon monoxide that is strongly adsorbed at platinum surface to produce CO2 (carbon dioxide), regenerating the Pt surface for further alcohol oxidation. Therefore, enhancing the current density as well as the power output of a fuel cell. First, an occlusion deposition technique was used to prepare platinum/ceria composite electrodes and tested them towards small chain alcohol oxidation such as methanol oxidation reaction in acidic and alkaline media. The preliminary results demonstrated that the Pt/ceria electrodes were more efficient towards methanol electrooxidation when compared to Pt electrodes. This enhancement was attributed to the presence of ceria. A second preparation method was selected for the synthesis of ceria/Pt catalysts. In this case, a hydrothermal method was used and the catalysis were studied for the effect of MeOH, EtOH and n-BuOH oxidation. The observed effect was that electrodes made of Pt/Pt:CeO2-x showed better catalytic effect than Pt/ceria and platinum electrodes. Moreover, a comparison between ceria nanorods versus

  10. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States.... This determination is to be used to establish the ``base quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol... CBERA-beneficiary countries. The base quantity to be used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in...

  11. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease.

  12. Amino alcohol-based degradable poly(ester amide) elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Bruggeman, Joost P.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Langer, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Currently available synthetic biodegradable elastomers are primarily composed of crosslinked aliphatic polyesters, which suffer from deficiencies including (1) high crosslink densities, which results in exceedingly high stiffness, (2) rapid degradation upon implantation, or (3) limited chemical moieties for chemical modification. Herein, we have developed poly(1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-co-polyol sebacate)s, a new class of synthetic, biodegradable elastomeric poly(ester amide)s composed of crosslinked networks based on an amino alcohol. These crosslinked networks feature tensile Young’s modulus on the order of 1 MPa and reversable elongations up to 92%. These polymers exhibit in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. These polymers have projected degradation half-lives up to 20 months in vivo. PMID:18295329

  13. Facile access to unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ye; Wang, Ping-An; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Well-defined unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on a cis-2,5-disubstitued pyrrolidine backbone were synthesized from commercially available starting materials meso-diethyl-2,5-dibromoadipate, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine, and phenylalaninol. The structures of these unnatural dipeptide-alcohols are supported by HRMS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These unnatural dipeptide-alcohols can act as building blocks for peptidomimetics. PMID:25679051

  14. Students' Experiences with Web-Based Alcohol Prevention: A Qualitative Evaluation of AlcoholEdu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Peter; Paschall, Mallie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To provide more in-depth information about students' experiences with AlcoholEdu and in particular to assess if students perceive that the course gives them tools to better control their drinking-related behavior. Methods: Focus group interviews with freshmen at three California universities. Findings: 1) The course provides so much…

  15. Partner Violence before and after Couples-Based Alcoholism Treatment for Female Alcoholic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2009-01-01

    This study examined partner violence before and in the 1st and 2nd year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners; it used a demographically matched nonalcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months.…

  16. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  17. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A

    2006-02-10

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for

  18. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-08-31

    The principal objectives of this study are to identify an appropriate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidative mineralization technique, perform compatibility and evaporation fate tests for neat and mineralized PVA, and determine potential for PVA chemical interferences which may affect ion exchange utilization for radioactive wastewater processing in the nuclear industry.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  20. Maternal Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Metabolism Genes, and the Risk of Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Norway, 1996–2001

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Lie, Rolv T.; Taylor, Jack A.; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen J.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out in Norway (1996–2001), the authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of oral clefts according to mother and infant ADH1C haplotypes encoding fast or slow alcohol-metabolizing phenotypes. Subjects were 483 infants with oral cleft malformations and 503 control infants and their mothers, randomly selected from all other livebirths taking place during the same period. Mothers who consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks per sitting during the first trimester of pregnancy had an elevated risk of oral cleft in their offspring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 4.7). This increased risk was evident only in mothers or children who carried the ADH1C haplotype associated with reduced alcohol metabolism (OR= 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8). There was no evidence of alcohol-related risk when both mother and infant carried only the rapid-metabolism ADH1C variant (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.1). The teratogenic effect of alcohol may depend on the genetic capacity of the mother and fetus to metabolize alcohol. PMID:20810466

  1. Cellulose-Based Membranes for Solutes Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, T. S.; Yushkin, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Antonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. V.

    This work was focused on investigation of industrial cellophane film as a membrane material for solvent nanofiltration. The effect of conditioning of cellophane membranes by stepwise changing of composition of ethanol-water binary mixtures (from ethanol to water and from water to ethanol) was studied. It was shown that such treatment leads to an increase of ethanol permeability more than two orders of magnitude over initial untreated film samples. Treated cellophane membranes possess the ethanol permeability coefficient comparable with the values for highly permeability glassy polymers. Investigation of cellophane swelling in water ethanol solutions allowed to conclude that during the treatment formation of porous in the film takes place due to increase of inter chain distances. Observed high ethanol permeability connected with the fact that formed porous structure remains after the replacement of water with ethanol. Also it was shown that rejection coefficients of a number of dyes (MW 350) were in good agreement with the degree of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonding with the solute molecules. It was demonstrated that cellulose-based membranes can be complimentary for other type of the membranes in fractionation of multi-components solutions.

  2. Tracking of the organic species during the synthesis of cobalt-based nanoparticles in non-aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniuk, M.; Niederberger, M.; Koziej, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this work we investigate the organic products of the synthesis of Co-based nanoparticles in benzyl alcohol. Our GC and in situ IR studies provide the experimental proofs for the formation of benzaldehyde, toluene and isopropanol in the reaction solution. These organic products can be correlated with formation of cobalt-based nanoparticles with oxidation state from 0 to 3+. These results shine the light on the complexity of organic and inorganic reactions in solution during crystallization of nanoparticles.

  3. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  4. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  5. Influencing Adolescent Social Perceptions of Alcohol Use to Facilitate Change through a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Marya T.; Monreal, Teresa K.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the effectiveness of a voluntary high school-based alcohol intervention by investigating one proposed mechanism of change in adolescent alcohol involvement: perception of peer use. High school students reporting lifetime drinking (N = 2055) completed fall and spring surveys that assessed demographic information,…

  6. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  7. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N=150 was…

  8. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  9. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  10. Effect of different polyol-based plasticizers on thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol:starch blends.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Ilberg, Vladimir

    2016-01-20

    A series of gelatinized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):starch blends were prepared with various polyol-based plasticizers in 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% ratios via solution casting method. The obtained films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkable changes have been observed in glass-transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the samples containing varying concentrations of different plasticizers and they have been discussed in detail with respect to the conducted thermal and chemical analyses. The observed order of Tg point depression of the samples containing 15 wt% plasticizer is 1,4-butanediol - 1,2,6-hexanetriol--pentaerythriyol--xylitol--mannitol, which is similar to the sequence of the thermal stability changes of the samples.

  11. Effect of different polyol-based plasticizers on thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol:starch blends.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Ilberg, Vladimir

    2016-01-20

    A series of gelatinized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):starch blends were prepared with various polyol-based plasticizers in 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% ratios via solution casting method. The obtained films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkable changes have been observed in glass-transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the samples containing varying concentrations of different plasticizers and they have been discussed in detail with respect to the conducted thermal and chemical analyses. The observed order of Tg point depression of the samples containing 15 wt% plasticizer is 1,4-butanediol - 1,2,6-hexanetriol--pentaerythriyol--xylitol--mannitol, which is similar to the sequence of the thermal stability changes of the samples. PMID:26572374

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene/Graphene Oxide-Based Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu; Long, Nguyen Huynh Bach Son; Kieu, Dang Thi Minh; Nhiem, Ly Tan

    2016-05-01

    Graphene (GE)- or graphene oxide (GO)-based poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes have been prepared by the solution blending method. Raman spectra and atomic force microscopy images confirmed that GE and GO were synthesized with average thickness of 0.901 nm and 0.997 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated good exfoliation of GE or GO in the PVA matrix. Fourier-transform infrared spectra revealed the chemical fractions of the nanocomposite membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry results proved that the thermal stability of the nanocomposite membranes was enhanced compared with neat PVA membrane. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed good dispersion of GE or GO sheets in the PVA matrix with thickness in the range of 19 nm to 39 nm. As a result, good compatibility between GE or GO and PVA was obtained at 0.5 wt.% filler content.

  13. Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate from a homogeneous precursor solution in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was demonstrated by the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions (pH 10). In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol %) was used as the precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. Thermogravimetric analysis of the obtained xerogels showed that increasing the UV irradiation time increased the amount of CaCO3 formed and the complete conversion of calcium ions to calcite was achieved after 50 min of UV irradiation. Furthermore, solid phase analyses suggested that nanometer-to-micron-sized calcite crystals were formed and dispersed in the obtained PVAPS matrix.

  14. Enthalpy pair coefficients of interaction for DL-valine in aqueous solutions of polyatomic alcohols at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    Integral enthalpies of dissolution Δsol H m of DL-valine are measured via calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and 1,2-propylene glycol. Standard values of the enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H ○) and transfer (Δtr H ○) of amino acid from water to mixed solvent are calculated from the resulting experimental data. The enthalpy coefficients for pair interactions hxy of amino acid with polyatomic alcohol molecules are calculated using the McMillan-Meyer theory and have positive values. The obtained results are discussed in light of the theory of the predomination of various types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of the dissolution of amino acids.

  15. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  16. Predictive models of alcohol use based on attitudes and individual values.

    PubMed

    García del Castillo Rodríguez, José A; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Quiles Soler, M Carmen; García del Castillo-López, Alvaro; Gázquez Pertusa, Mónica; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Inglés, Candido J

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people's attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The questionnaire used obtained information on participants' alcohol use, attitudes and personal values. The results show that the attitudes model correctly classifies 76.3% of cases. Likewise, the model for level of alcohol use correctly classifies 82% of cases. According to our results, we can conclude that there are a series of individual values that influence drinking and attitudes to alcohol use, which therefore provides us with a potentially powerful instrument for developing preventive intervention programs.

  17. WILL FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL BASED POLYMER FORMULATIONS BIODEGRADE DURING AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) based polymer formulations (PFs) to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may be an important source of the perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) observed in many environmental matrices. Working with the Office of Pollution, Prevention,...

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting. PMID:20131613

  19. Higher alcohols from synthesis gas using carbon-supported doped molybdenum-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Feng, L.; Liu, Z.; Zhong, B.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Kugler, E.L.

    1998-10-01

    A series of carbon-supported molybdenum-based catalysts was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. The materials, when promoted with potassium and additionally with cobalt, were screened for the selective production of mixed higher-molecular weight alcohols from syngas. The effects of the catalyst preparation parameters (Mo precursor, Mo loading, doping levels of K and Co, and calcination) and of the reaction conditions (temperature and space velocity) were studied. The screening procedure consisted of ramping the temperature steadily from 200 to 400 C and back again. Adding K results in a maximum in the space-time yield (STY) of total alcohols and the ratio of higher alcohols to methanol. Increasing the reaction temperature results in a monotonic increase in the STY of hydrocarbons, a monotonic decrease in the selectivity toward alcohols, and a maximum in the STY of alcohols. Increasing the space velocity increases the STY and selectivity to alcohols while decreasing the STY of hydrocarbons. Increasing the space velocity also decreases the higher-alcohol fraction in the alcohol products.

  20. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  1. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-02-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  2. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  3. Triphosgene–Amine Base Promoted Chlorination of Unactivated Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Ayala, Caitlan E.; Watson, Christopher B.; Kartika, Rendy

    2014-01-01

    Unactivated α-branched primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols have been successfully transformed into their corresponding alkyl chlorides in high yields upon treatment with a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine in dichloromethane at reflux. These mild chlorination conditions are high yielding, stereospecific, and well tolerated by numerous sensitive functionalities. Furthermore, no nuisance waste products are generated in the course of the reactions. PMID:23496045

  4. Alcohol Expectancy Multiaxial Assessment: A Memory Network-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Mark S.; Darkes, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Despite several decades of activity, alcohol expectancy research has yet to merge measurement approaches with developing memory theory. This article offers an expectancy assessment approach built on a conceptualization of expectancy as an information processing network. The authors began with multidimensional scaling models of expectancy space,…

  5. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  6. Adsorption of various alcohols on Illinois No. 6 coal in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.; Rigby, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromacity of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal in water are relatively determined by evaluating equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption of probe compounds on the coal. Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various additives on 60--200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed to investigate relatively surface properties of the coal at 25{degree}C. The additives include various alcohols, alkanes and aromatic compounds. The main objectives of this research are to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals with the inverse liquid chromatography technique, using various probe compounds, to analyze flotation recoveries of coals with a micro-flotation apparatus in order to relate coal floatability to evaluated coal surface properties, and to delineate roles of coal-cleaning/handling additives with the inverse liquid chromatography technique.

  7. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-09-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the "imperfect" gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended lifestyle

  8. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A “multiple-hit” pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the “imperfect” gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended

  9. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-09-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the "imperfect" gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended lifestyle

  10. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A “multiple-hit” pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the “imperfect” gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended

  11. Difficulties with telephone-based surveys on alcohol in high-income countries: the Canadian example

    PubMed Central

    Shield, Kevin D.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Accurate information concerning alcohol consumption level and patterns is vital to formulating public health policy. The objective of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which survey design, response rate and alcohol consumption coverage obtained in random digit dialing, telephone-based surveys impact on conclusions about alcohol consumption and its patterns in the general population. Our analysis will be based on the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) 2008, a national survey intended to be representative of the general population. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: 1) ignoring people who are homeless, institutionalized and/or do not have a home phone may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related problems; 2) weighting of observations to population demographics may lead to a increase in the design effect, does not necessarily address the underlying selection bias, and may lead to overly influential observations; and 3) the accurate characterization of alcohol consumption patterns obtained by triangulating the data with the adult per capita consumption estimate is essential for comparative analyses and intervention planning especially when the alcohol coverage rate is low like in the CADUMS with 34%. PMID:22337654

  12. The link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities: an event-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-09-01

    The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18-30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on nondrinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men's patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

  13. CIS(CIGS) thin films prepared for solar cells by one-step electrodeposition in alcohol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Fei; Wang, Weiming; Du, Jingjing; Zou, Zhengguang

    2009-03-01

    The precursors of CIS and CIGS thin films were prepared by one-step electrodeposition in alcohol solution and then annealed in Ar atmosphere at 550°C for 30min. The influences of deposition potentials and salt concentrations on the morphology and composition of the thin films were studied in details. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS). The results show that annealed films have pure CIS or CIGS phases with good crystallization and the morphology of the films are very uniform and dense. The high quality precursor films were obtained using optimized deposition parameters. Moreover the electrodeposition mechanism of CIS thin films was briefly discussed.

  14. Time-resolving analysis of cryotropic gelation of water/poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions via small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Ricciardi, Rosa; Lo Celso, Fabrizio; Triolo, Roberto; Pipich, Vitaly

    2008-01-24

    The structural transformations occurring in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through application of freezing (-13 degrees C) and thawing (20 degrees C) cycles is investigated by time resolving small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). These measurements indicate that formation of gels of complex hierarchical structure arises from occurrence of different elementary processes, involving different length and time scales. The fastest process that could be detected by our measurements during the first cryotropic treatment consists of the crystallization of the solvent. However, solvent crystallization is incomplete, and an unfrozen liquid microphase more concentrated in PVA than the initial solution is also formed. Crystallization of PVA takes place inside the unfrozen liquid microphase and is slowed down because of formation of a microgel fraction. Water crystallization takes place in the early 10 min of the treatment of the solution at subzero temperatures, and although below 0 degrees C the PVA solutions used for preparation of cryogels should be below the spinodal curve, occurrence of liquid-liquid phase separation could not be detected in our experiments. Upon thawing, ice crystals melt, and transparent gels are obtained that become opaque in approximately 200 min, due to a slow and progressive increase of the size of microheterogeneities (dilute and dense regions) imprinted during the fast freezing by the crystallization of water. During the permanence of these gels at room temperature (for hours), the presence of a high content of water (higher than 85% by mass) prevents further crystallization of PVA. Crystallization of PVA, in turn, is resumed by freezing the gels at subzero temperatures, after water crystallization and consequent formation of an unfrozen microphase. The kinetic parameters of PVA crystallization during the permanence of these gels at subzero temperatures are the same shown by PVA during the first freezing step

  15. Electrochemical Study of AISI C1018 Steel in Methanesulfonic Acid Containing an Acetylenic Alcohol-Based Corrosion Inhibitor Formulation.

    PubMed

    Finšgar, Matjaž; Jackson, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the electrochemical potentiodynamic behavior of AISI C1018 lower-grade steel material was investigated in 20 wt.% methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions with or without different components to design corrosion inhibitor formulations based on acetylenic alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 1-dodecylpyridinium chloride, and methanol. MSA has recently been considered as a new potential acid to be used in the matrix stimulation procedure and in well cleaning. It is demonstrated that AISI C1018 steel MSA needs to be inhibited. Inhibition type is determined for single components as well as for formulations.

  16. San Mateo County's Server Information Program (S.I.P.): A Community-Based Alcohol Server Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John

    The field of alcohol server awareness and training has grown dramatically in the past several years and the idea of training servers to reduce alcohol problems has become a central fixture in the current alcohol policy debate. The San Mateo County, California Server Information Program (SIP) is a community-based prevention strategy designed to…

  17. Surface-Based Parameters of Brain Imaging in Male Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sungjin; Lee, Sang-Gu; Lee, Jeonghwan; Shin, Chul-Jin; Son, Jeong-Woo; Ju, Gawon; Lee, Sang-Ick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The structural alteration of brain shown in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) can originate from both alcohol effects and genetic or developmental processes. We compared surface-based parameters of patients with AUD with healthy controls to prove the applicability of surface-based morphometry with head size correction and to determine the areas that were sensitive to brain alteration related to AUD. Methods Twenty-six abstinent male patients with AUD (alcohol group, mean abstinence=13.2 months) and twenty-eight age-matched healthy participants (control group) were recruited from an inpatient mental hospital and community. All participants underwent a 3T MRI scan. Surface-based parameters were determined by using FreeSurfer. Results Every surface-based parameter of the alcohol group was lower than the corresponding control group parameter. There were large group differences in the whole brain, grey and white matter volume, and the differences were more prominent after head size correction. Significant group differences were shown in cortical thicknesses in entire brain regions, especially in parietal, temporal and frontal areas. There were no significant group differences in surface areas, but group difference trends in surface areas of the frontal and parietal cortices were shown after head size correction. Conclusion Most of the surface-based parameters in alcohol group were altered because of incomplete recovery from chronic alcohol exposure and possibly genetic or developmental factors underlying the risk of AUD. Surface-based morphometry with controlling for head size is useful in comparing the volumetric parameters and the surface area to a lesser extent in alcohol-related brain alteration. PMID:27757129

  18. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  19. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  20. Free-energy landscape of alcohol driven coacervation transition in aqueous gelatin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amarnath; Reena, Bohidar, H. B.

    2006-08-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation of a homogeneous polyampholyte (gelatin) solution into a dense polymer-rich coacervate and the dilute supernatant phase is discussed through free-energy landscape formalism. We have evaluated the free energy and entropy of the system as it undergoes the phenomenon of simple coacervation, driven by the addition of a nonsolvent. Electrophoretic mobility (μ) and turbidity measurements were performed on 0.01% and 0.05%(w/v) aqueous gelatin solutions that were driven towards coacervation by the addition of ethanol. The mobility of the polyampholyte molecules, which was typically μ ≈0.38±0.02μm/scm/V in water, gradually reduced for the soluble intermolecular complexes to a plateau value of μ ≈0.11±0.01μm/scm/V as the ethanol volume fraction equaled φns≈0.47±0.03, which coincided with the first appearance of coacervate droplets (coacervation transition) observed from turbidity measurements, a behavior found to be invariant of gelatin concentration. These results were used as input to the theoretical model to explicitly construct the free-energy landscape for a single gelatin chain and the global system comprising the polymer-rich coacervate and the dilute supernatant phase.

  1. Significant effects of sodium acetate, an impurity present in poly(vinyl alcohol) solution on the radiolytic formation of silver nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Junhwa; Kim, Yunhye; Lee, Kiwon; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang

    2008-07-01

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) stabilizer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) generally contains a relatively large amount of sodium acetate (NaOAc) as an impurity (up to several weight percentages) as a result of a base-catalyzed hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc). In this study, the effects of NaOAc on the radiolytic formation of AgNPs in PVA solutions were studied by using UV/vis spectroscopy. Several AgNPs were prepared by γ-ray irradiation using 60Co source at various doses in the presence of various amounts of NaOAc. The UV data of the AgNPs observed at around 410 nm show that more AgNPs are generally produced as the NaOAc concentration in the PVA solution increases. Furthermore, no significant absorption band of the AgNPs was observed when the purified PVA containing a very small amount of NaOAc (less than 3×10 -4 M) was applied with 1×10 -3 M AgNO 3 up to 10 kGy. These results reveal that NaOAc present as an impurity in PVA, plays an important role in the radiolytic formation of AgNPs.

  2. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  3. Use of Novel Technology-Based Techniques to Improve Alcohol-Related Outcomes in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Eugenia M.; Kenna, George A.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the biologic basis of alcohol dependence and the considerable financial burden of alcohol abuse and dependence, the number of alcohol-related clinical pharmacotherapy trials has been on the rise. Subsequently, the potential to find efficacious treatments is more promising. Unfortunately, alcohol-related trials face a number of challenges, as a result of the difficulties that arise from traditional and outdated methods to collect data and ensure medication adherence. Novel technology-based assessments, such as ecological momentary assessment, interactive voice response, transdermal sensor and medication-event monitoring system provide a prospective solution—albeit not without possible concerns—to the difficulties faced in alcohol-related clinical trials. Clinical trials are meant to define the efficacy of the treatment and to determine an effective and safe dosage. However, due to lack of adherence a drug could inappropriately or mistakenly be judged as ineffective for treating a specific disorder. The described technologies may be important tools to prevent false negatives in validating drug efficacy, to provide consistency in clinical trials and to improve available data regarding the study of pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:23955872

  4. Reducing youth access to alcohol: findings from a community-based randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Robert L; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, M J; Biglan, Anthony; Kraft, Anne; Black, Carol; Hanley, Sean M; Ringwalt, Christopher; Wiesen, Chris; Ruscoe, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se.

  5. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  6. Feedback from recently returned veterans on an anonymous web-based brief alcohol intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) are at increased risk for alcohol misuse, and innovative methods are needed to improve their access to alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBI). This study adapted an electronic SBI (e-SBI) website shown to be efficacious in college students for OEF/OIF veterans and reported findings from interviews with OEF/OIF veterans about their impressions of the e-SBI. Methods Outpatient veterans of OEF/OIF who drank ≥3 days in the past week were recruited from a US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Deployment Health Clinic waiting room. Veterans privately pretested the anonymous e-SBI then completed individual semistructured audio-recorded interviews. Their responses were analyzed using template analysis to explore domains identified a priori as well as emergent domains. Results During interviews, all nine OEF/OIF veterans (1 woman and 8 men) indicated they had received feedback for risky alcohol consumption. Participants generally liked the standard-drinks image, alcohol-related caloric and monetary feedback, and the website’s brevity and anonymity (a priori domains). They also experienced challenges with portions of the e-SBI assessment and viewed feedback regarding alcohol risk and normative drinking as problematic, but described potential benefits derived from the e-SBI (emergent domains). The most appealing e-SBIs would ensure anonymity and provide personalized transparent feedback about alcohol-related risk, consideration of the context for drinking, strategies to reduce drinking, and additional resources for veterans with more severe alcohol misuse. Conclusions Results of this qualitative exploratory study suggest e-SBI may be an acceptable strategy for increasing OEF/OIF veteran access to evidenced-based alcohol SBI. PMID:23186354

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  8. Incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island: a population-based descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bryanton, Janet; Boswall, Diane; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Fraser, Bonnie; Walsh, Donna; Freeman, Bridget; Koren, Gideon; Bigsby, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disability in North America. The stigma associated with alcohol use and abuse during pregnancy makes it difficult to obtain information on prenatal alcohol use through self-reporting. We assessed the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island to facilitate future public health initiatives addressing FASD. Methods Prenatal alcohol exposure was examined via population-based collection of meconium and analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Fatty acid ethyl esters are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol that are produced in the fetus. Meconium FAEE concentrations of 2.0 nmol/g or greater are indicative of frequent prenatal alcohol exposure during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy. Samples were collected from 1307 neonates between Nov. 8, 2010, and Nov. 8, 2011, in hospitals in PEI, or from those born to mothers who resided in PEI but gave birth in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Samples were frozen and shipped for analysis. Fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified by means of deuterated internal standards. Results Of the 1307 samples collected, 1271 samples were successfully analyzed. Positive results for FAEEs were obtained in 3.1% (n = 39) of samples collected within the first 24 hours after birth. Interpretation Not all neonates exposed to heavy prenatal alcohol in utero will exhibit FASD; based on current estimates of predictive value for disease by exposure, our findings suggest that 1.3% of neonates born in PEI during this 1-year period will have FASD. In its application to an entire provincial birth cohort, this study successfully implemented a public health–centred approach for evaluating population-based risk of FASD, with implications for practice across Canada. PMID:25077128

  9. Investigation into the structural composition of hydroalcoholic solutions as basis for the development of multiple suppression pulse sequences for NMR measurement of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-12-01

    An eight-fold suppression pulse sequence was recently developed to improve sensitivity in (1) H NMR measurements of alcoholic beverages [Magn. Res. Chem. 2011 (49): 734-739]. To ensure that only one combined hydroxyl peak from water and ethanol appears in the spectrum, adjustment to a certain range of ethanol concentrations was required. To explain this observation, the structure of water-ethanol solutions was studied. Hydroalcoholic solutions showed extreme behavior at 25% vol, 46% vol, and 83% vol ethanol according to (1) H NMR experiments. Near-infrared spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of four significant compounds ('individual' ethanol and water structures as well as two water-ethanol complexes of defined composition - 1 : 1 and 1 : 3). The successful multiple suppression can be achieved for every kind of alcoholic beverage with different alcoholic strengths, when the final ethanol concentration is adjusted to a range between 25% vol and 46% vol (e.g. using dilution or pure ethanol addition). In this optimum region, an individual ethanol peak was not detected, because the 'individual' water structure and the 1 : 1 ethanol-water complex predominate. The nature of molecular association in ethanol-water solutions is essential to elucidate NMR method development for measurement of alcoholic beverages. The presented approach can be used to optimize other NMR suppression protocols for binary water-organic solvent mixtures, where hydrogen bonding plays a dominant role.

  10. A qualitative exploration of attitudes towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers of two alcohol-attitude-based segments of the adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier study using social marketing and audience segmentation distinguished five segments of Dutch adolescents aged 12–18 years based on their attitudes towards alcohol. The present, qualitative study focuses on two of these five segments (‘ordinaries’ and ‘ordinary sobers’) and explores the attitudes of these two segments towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers in their alcohol use in more detail. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. With a 28-item questionnaire, segments of adolescents were identified. From the ordinaries and ordinary sobers who were willing to participate in a focus group, 55 adolescents (30 ordinaries and 25 ordinary sobers) were selected and invited to participate. Finally, six focus groups were conducted with 12–17 year olds, i.e., three interviews with 17 ordinaries and three interviews with 20 ordinary sobers at three different high schools. Results The ordinaries thought that drinking alcohol was fun and relaxing. Curiosity was an important factor in starting to drink alcohol. Peer pressure played a role, e.g., it was difficult not to drink when peers were drinking. Most parents advised their child to drink a small amount only. The attitude of ordinary sobers towards alcohol was that drinking alcohol was stupid; moreover, they did not feel the need to drink. Most parents set strict rules and prohibited the use of alcohol before the age of 16. Conclusions Qualitative insight into the attitudes towards alcohol and the role played by parents and peers, revealed differences between ordinaries and ordinary sobers. Based on these differences and on health education theories, starting points for the development of interventions, for both parents and adolescents, are formulated. Important starting points for interventions targeting ordinaries are reducing perceived peer pressure and learning to make one’s own choices. For the ordinary sobers, an

  11. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  12. Efficacy and safety of a quick drying rubbing type povidone-iodine alcoholic disinfectant solution.

    PubMed

    Kirita, T; Hamano, K; Ochi, T; Ihara, H; Nishiyama, T; Seshimo, A; Yagi, Y; Sakakida, K

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of a quick drying rubbing type disinfectant (HAD Hand Wash) composed of a povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and ethanol were evaluated in the disinfection of transient skin flora on fingers of 30 medical staff of our department. Three millilitres of HAD solution was rubbed onto the hands for three minutes several times a day over a four week period. Bacteriological effects were evaluated twice, on the first day and after four weeks, by the palm stamp method. The rate of colonies sterilized (bacterial reduction rate) after the use of HAD Hand Wash was 86.9 +/- 21.2% (mean +/- SD) on the first measurement, and 91.5% +/- 12.8% at four weeks. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated most frequently and this was eradicated in 83.3% of subjects, the bacterial reduction rate 99.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was originally isolated in 14 subjects and was eradicated in 13; the bacterial colony reduction rate was 99.9% showing high antiseptic efficacy. Although the bacterial reduction rate for Bacillus sp. was a rather low, 75.8-100%, this result was not considered problematic from the clinical standpoint. There were no side effects like chapping in spite of an average 104 applications of HAD Hand Wash during the 4-week test period. From these results, HAD Hand Wash was considered highly effective and safe.

  13. Two Fully Automated Web-Based Interventions for Risky Alcohol Use: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strüber, Evelin

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is a widespread problem in many countries, especially among young people. To reach more people engaging in high-risk drinking behaviors, a number of online programs have been developed in recent years. Change Your Drinking is a German, diary-based, fully automated alcohol intervention. In 2010, a revised version of the program was developed. It is more strongly oriented to concepts of relapse prevention than the previous version, includes more feedback, and offers more possibilities to interact with the program. Moreover, the program duration was extended from 10 to 14 days. Objective This paper examines whether the revised version of Change Your Drinking is more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than the original version. Methods The effectiveness of both program versions was compared in a Web-based, open, randomized controlled trial with follow-up surveys 6 weeks and 3 months after registration. Participants were recruited online and were randomly assigned to either the original or the revised version of Change Your Drinking. The following self-assessed outcomes were used: alcohol use days, alcohol intake in grams, the occurrence of binge drinking and risky drinking (all referring to the past 7 days prior to each survey), and the number of alcohol-related problems. Results A total of 595 participants were included in the trial. Follow-up rates were 58.0% after 6 weeks and 49.6% after 3 months. No significant group differences were found in any of the outcomes. However, the revised version was used by more participants (80.7%) than the original version (55.7%). A significant time effect was detected in all outcomes (alcohol use days: P=.002; alcohol intake in grams: P<.001; binge drinking: P<.001; alcohol-related problems: P=.004; risky drinking: P<.001). Conclusions The duration and complexity of the program played a minor role in reducing alcohol consumption. However, differences in program usage between the versions

  14. Solubilities of stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, and arachidyl alcohol in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35[degree]C

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Yoshio; Koga, Yoshio; Maruyama, Hironori; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The solubilities of stearic acid (octadecanoic acid), stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol), and arachidyl alcohol (1-eicosanol) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by using a flow-type apparatus at 35 C up to 23.7 MPa. The solubilities of those substances and other fatty acids and higher alcohols in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35 C were correlated by a solution model based on the regular solution model coupled with the Flory-Huggins theory.

  15. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436

  16. CO2 adsorption properties of char produced from brown coal impregnated with alcohol amine solutions.

    PubMed

    Baran, Paweł; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Czuma, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction is critical to mitigating climate change. Power plants for heating and industry are significant sources of CO2 emissions. There is a need for identifying and developing new, efficient methods to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods used is flue gas purification by CO2 capture through adsorption. This study aimed to develop CO2 adsorbent out of modified brown coal impregnated with solutions of first-, second-, and third-order amines. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherms and CO2 isotherms were measured for the prepared samples. The results of experiments unexpectedly revealed that CO2 sorption capacity decreased after impregnation. Due to lack of strait trends in CO2 sorption capacity decrease, the results were closely analyzed to find the reason for the inconsistencies. It was revealed that different amines represent different affinities for CO2 and that the size and structure of impregnating factor has influence on the CO2 sorption capacity of impregnated material. The character of a support was also noticeable as well for impregnation results as for the affinity to CO2. The influence of amine concentration used was investigated along with the comparison on how the theoretical percentage of the impregnation on the support influenced the results. The reaction mechanism of tertiary amine was taken into consideration in connection to no presence of water vapor during the experiments. Key findings were described in the work and provide a strong basis for further studies on CO2 adsorption on amine-impregnated support. PMID:27317051

  17. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based film potentially suitable for antimicrobial packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Alessandro; Paderni, Katia; Fabbri, Paola; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Fava, Patrizia

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed at developing a thin and water-resistant food-grade poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based matrix able to swell when in contact with high moisture content food products without rupturing to release antimicrobial agents onto the food surface. This film was prepared by blending PVOH and 7.20% (wt/wt of PVOH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with citric acid as crosslinking agent. The film-forming solution was then casted onto a flat surface and the obtained film was 60 μm in thickness and showed a good transparency (close to T = 100%) in the visible region (400 to 700 nm). After immersion in water for 72 h at room temperature, the crosslinked matrix loses only 19.2% of its original weight (the percentage includes the amount of unreacted crosslinking agent, antimicrobial in itself). Water content, degree of swelling, and crosslinking density of the film prove that the presence of PEG diminishes the hydrophilic behavior of the material. Also the mechanical properties of the wet and dry film were assessed. Alongside this, 2.5% (wt/wt of dry film) of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), an antimicrobial agent, was added to the film-forming solution just before casting and the ability of the plastic matrix to release the additive was then evaluated in vitro against 2 GSE-susceptible microorganisms, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua. The results indicate that the developed matrix may be a promising food-grade material for the incorporation of active substances. PMID:24611868

  18. Importance of solute partitioning in biphasic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by free and immobilized whole cells of Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Koei; Nakahara, Takehiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-25

    Using free and immobilized whole cells of Pichia pastoris, the biocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol was investigated in different two-phase systems. This reaction was strongly influenced by both the substrate and product inhibitions, and the production rate of benzaldehyde in the aqueous system became maximum at the initial substrate concentration of ca. 29 g/L with the aldehyde formation less than 4 to 5 g/L even after a longer reaction period. The reaction rates in the two-liquid phase systems were predominantly determined by the partitioning behaviors of the substrate and the product between the two phases rather than by enzyme deactivation by the organic solvents. In the two-liquid phase systems, consequently, the organic solvent acted as a reservoir to reduce these inhibitory effects, and it was essential to select the organic solvent providing the optimal partitioning of the substrate into the aqueous phase as well as the preferential extraction of the product into the organic phase. The whole cells immobilized in a mixed matrix composed of silicone polymer and Ca alginate gel worked well in the xylene and decane media, providing comparable activities with the free cells. The production rate of aldehyde was also influenced by the solute partitioning into the hydrophilic alginate phase where the cells existed.

  19. Web Based Treatment of Alcohol Problems Among Rural Women: Results of a Randomized Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that six million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The world wide web has the potential to overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a web based self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision-making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11), and their baseline AUDIT score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cutoff for problem drinking. At 3-month follow-up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking, however, there were no significant differences between them. PMID:18823000

  20. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  1. TESTING A LEVEL OF RESPONSE TO ALCOHOL-BASED MODEL OF HEAVY DRINKING AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN 1,905 17-YEAR-OLDS

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Lewis, Glyn; Davis, John M.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Brown, Sandra; Zuccolo, Luisa; Miller, Laura L.; Davey-Smith, George

    2011-01-01

    Background The low level of response (LR) to alcohol is one of several genetically-influenced characteristics that increase the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Efforts to understand how LR operates through additional life influences have been carried out primarily in modest sized U.S.-based samples with limited statistical power, raising questions about generalizability and about the importance of components with smaller effects. This study evaluates a full LR-based model of risk in a large sample of adolescents from the U.K. Methods Cross-sectional structural equation models (SEM) were used for the approximate first half of the age 17 subjects assessed by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), generating data on 1,905 adolescents (0 age 17.8 years, 44.2% males). LR was measured with the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) Questionnaire, outcomes were based on drinking quantities and problems, and standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate peer substance use, alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress. Results In this young and large U.K. sample, a low LR related to more adverse alcohol outcomes both directly and through partial mediation by all three additional key variables (peer substance use, expectancies, and coping). The models were similar in males and females. Conclusions These results confirm key elements of the hypothesized LR-based model in a large U.K. sample, supporting some generalizability beyond U.S. groups. They also indicate that with enough statistical power multiple elements contribute to how LR relates to alcohol outcomes, and reinforce the applicability of the model to both genders. PMID:21762180

  2. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the red blood cell floating in a plasma-alcohol solution through stenosis in a microvessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Aleksey; Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Park, Cheol Woo

    2014-08-01

    A two-dimensional computational model of a single red blood cell (RBC) floating in a plasma-alcohol solution through a microchannel with stenosis was created using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method with moving mesh for a fluid structure interaction problem. Cell deformability and stability were studied in a plasma-alcohol solution at different fluid flow conditions during movement through the channel with stenosis. Different results were obtained for different input parameters. Motion through 45% and 70% stenoses with the high and law velocities of the RBC and different viscosities was analyzed and successfully simulated. Results show that changes in RBC deformability were due to the effects of alcohol. Changes in behavior during motion were also observed. At low shear rate and high surrounding fluid viscosity the RBC showed a tendency to rotate during movement. The proposed model with its coupling of structural and fluid analysis techniques could be useful to understand the effect of alcohol on the RBC passing through stenosis.

  3. Unfinished Business or, Why Is It So Difficult to Implement an Evidence-Based Alcohol-Use Intervention Program?

    PubMed

    Koning, Ina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Though many evidence-based interventions targeting adolescent alcohol drug use are available, it is unknown if these interventions are put to practice. In this article, we discuss some critical issues associated with the implementation of an evidence-based alcohol prevention program in the Netherlands. Tips that may potentially contribute to a successful implementation of this specific intervention are provided.

  4. Young Men's Perceived Quality of Parenting Based on Familial History of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Megan J.; Cacciola, John S.; Alterman, Arthur I.; McKay, James R.; Cook, Terry J.

    1997-01-01

    Gave Parental Bonding Inventories (PBI) to 173 males and analyzed scores based on the participants' familial risk for alcoholism. Results indicate that fathers of the high familial risk participants were rated by sons as being significantly less caring than the fathers of low familial risk participants. Other findings are reported. (RJM)

  5. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Dry Syngas to Ethanol and Higher Alcohols on Cu-Based Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Smith, Miranda L.; Spivey, James J.

    2011-04-19

    Ethanol and higher alcohols have been identified as potential fuel additives or hydrogen carriers for use in fuel cells. One method of ethanol production is catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of CO, H₂, CO₂, and H₂O), derived from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Thermodynamics of CO hydrogenation shows that ethanol is favored as the sole product at conditions of practical interest, but if methane is allowed as product in this analysis, essentially no ethanol is formed at equilibrium. The kinetics of ethanol formation must therefore be maximized. Although rhodium-based catalysts give C{sup 2+} oxygenates with high selectivity, their prohibitive cost has spurred research on less expensive copper-based alternatives. Copper-based catalysts require an optimum amount of promoter to suppress undesired reactions and maximize the yields of ethanol and higher alcohols. Common promoters include alkali, transition metals and their oxides, and rare earth oxides. Careful selection of operating variables is also necessary to achieve the desired activity and selectivity. This review describes the effects of promoters, supports, and operating conditions on the performance of copper-based catalysts for conversion of dry syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols. Proposed mechanisms from the literature for ethanol and higher-alcohol synthesis are outlined.

  6. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A; Buscemi, Raymond; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-04-01

    Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking. Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant (P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity, perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further research.

  7. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  8. Mediators of Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.

    2007-01-01

    A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…

  9. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... its notice instituting this investigation in the Federal Register of March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and..., 2010 (75 FR 82069). By order of the Commission. James R. Holbein, Secretary. BILLING CODE 7020-02-P ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  10. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  11. The time burden of alcohol-based hand cleanser when using nonsterile gloves.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Joseph M; Valenzuela, Josephine E; Parmar, Siddharth; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Allen, Matthew B; Pallin, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    We quantified the time burden of alcohol-based handrub accompanying nonsterile-glove use among emergency physicians, through observation in controlled and clinical settings. We report gloving episodes per hour, gloving times with and without handrub, and handrub recommendations compliance. Handrub adds 46 seconds to each glove-use episode, and we provide national extrapolations. PMID:23221200

  12. Antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) based micelles loaded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Kyulavska, Mariya; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Debuigne, Antoine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2010-04-15

    A new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVOH-b-PAN) copolymer obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) copolymer synthesized by cobalt mediated radical polymerization was used for the preparation of PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles. The successful formation of silver loaded micelles has been confirmed by UV-vis, DLS and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and spore solution of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has been studied. PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles showed a strong bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and the minimum bactericidal concentration for each system (MBC) has been determined.

  13. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  14. Examining Perceptions of a Smartphone-Based Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Samantha; King, Diane K.; Dulin, Patrick; Gonzalez, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study presents results from qualitative interviews conducted with participants in a study on the effectiveness of the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A), a smartphone-based, stand-alone intervention application (app) for adults with alcohol use disorders. Materials and Methods: Participants were provided an LBMI-A-enabled smartphone to use during a 6-week pilot study. The LBMI-A was composed of psychoeducational modules, assessment and feedback of alcohol use patterns, geographic high-risk location monitoring and alerts, and in vivo assessment and intervention for alcohol cravings and help with managing psychological distress. Semistructured interviews were conducted with all participants following 6 weeks of interacting with the LBMI-A app (n=26). Interviews explored user perceptions of the ease and utility of LBMI-A features, module helpfulness, barriers to use, and recommendations for improvements to the program. Researchers applied a systematic qualitative coding process to transcripts that included both a priori themes identified as important by the research team and new themes that emerged during the coding process. Results and Conclusions: Narrative analysis found the emergence of five main themes identified by LBMI-A users as the most helpful functions of the phone: (1) Awareness, (2) Accountability, (3) Skill Transference, (4) Tracking Progress, and (5) Prompts. These themes are explored, and implications of these findings for future smartphone-based interventions are discussed. PMID:25243480

  15. Influence of the nature of the alcohol on the principles of the photocatalytic liberation of hydrogen from aqueous-organic solutions of europium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Myakon'kii, A.G.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Potapova, G.V.

    1988-09-01

    The process of photocatalytic liberation of hydrogen from aqueous alcohol (ROH - CH/sub 3/OH, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/OH, iso-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/OH) solutions of europium salts was investigated. In solutions containing sodium formate as a second organic component, HCOONa and ROH take part in the photoreduction of Eu(III), whereas the main role in the photooxidation of Eu(II) is played by ROH molecules. Such behavior of the system is explained by transfer of an electron in these reactions according to outer- and inner-sphere mechanism, respectively.

  16. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  17. [Quantitative aspects of the percutaneous uptake of wool wax alcohols (cetyl alcohol) and paraffins (octadecane) from different ointment bases].

    PubMed

    Zesch, A; Bauer, E

    1985-01-01

    Since topical vehicles are partly responsible for the effects of active agents--both the wanted and the unwanted effects--attempt was made to obtain quantitative data on the possible penetration of cetyl alcohol contained in an aqueous hydrophilie cream (DAB 8) and in a wool fat alcohol ointment (lanoline) (DAB 8). Also the behaviour of the long-chained hydrocarbon, paraffin (octadecan), in these vehicles and in petrolatum (DAB 8) was studied. We found that the emulsifying agent in a W/O emulsion was detectable in the epidermis in low concentrations after 100 min, but the same agent in O/W emulsions only after 1000 min. It is, therefore, unlikely that cetyl alcohol penetrates the intact skin in allergicologically relevant concentrations. However, with diseased skin, a marked percutaneous absorption of cetyl alcohol, but not with paraffin, must be expected. PMID:3987517

  18. [Quantitative aspects of the percutaneous uptake of wool wax alcohols (cetyl alcohol) and paraffins (octadecane) from different ointment bases].

    PubMed

    Zesch, A; Bauer, E

    1985-01-01

    Since topical vehicles are partly responsible for the effects of active agents--both the wanted and the unwanted effects--attempt was made to obtain quantitative data on the possible penetration of cetyl alcohol contained in an aqueous hydrophilie cream (DAB 8) and in a wool fat alcohol ointment (lanoline) (DAB 8). Also the behaviour of the long-chained hydrocarbon, paraffin (octadecan), in these vehicles and in petrolatum (DAB 8) was studied. We found that the emulsifying agent in a W/O emulsion was detectable in the epidermis in low concentrations after 100 min, but the same agent in O/W emulsions only after 1000 min. It is, therefore, unlikely that cetyl alcohol penetrates the intact skin in allergicologically relevant concentrations. However, with diseased skin, a marked percutaneous absorption of cetyl alcohol, but not with paraffin, must be expected.

  19. Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A.H.; Abeyasinge, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure the drinking pattern before and at 6 and 24 months after the intervention in males over 18 years of age in both villages. The recall and the impact of various components of the intervention were assessed at 24 months post-intervention. Results: The intervention was associated with the development of an active community action group in the village and a significant reduction in illicit alcohol outlets. The drama component of the intervention had the highest level of recall and preference. Comparing the control and intervention villages, there were no significant difference between baseline drinking patterns and the AUDIT. There was a significant reduction in the AUDIT scores in the intervention village compared with the control at 6 and 24 months (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A community-based education program had high acceptance and produces a reduction in alcohol use that was sustained for 2 years. PMID:23161893

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  1. (E)-Specific direct Julia-olefination of aryl alcohols without extra reducing agents promoted by bases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chuan-Zhi; Li, Qiang-Qiang; Wang, Mei-Mei; Ning, Xiao-Shan; Kang, Yan-Biao

    2015-05-01

    An unprecedented base-promoted direct olefination of aryl alcohols with sulfones via a Julia-type reaction has been described. No extra reductants are needed for Julia reaction since alcohols work as double sources of aldehydes and the hydride. Generally high yields were given for both terminal and highly (E)-selective internal olefins.

  2. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1 years.…

  3. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  4. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  5. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions: Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Luo; Fanlong, Meng; Junying, Zhang; Masao, Doi

    2016-07-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based Lagrangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21434001, 51561145002, and 11421110001).

  6. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-09-01

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  7. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  8. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-07-07

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  9. The effects of alcohol on gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas: evidence-based suggestions for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Federico, A; Cotticelli, G; Festi, D; Schiumerini, R; Addolorato, G; Ferrulli, A; Merli, M; Lucidi, C; Milani, S; Panella, C; Domenico, M; Vantini, I; Benini, L; Ubaldi, E; Romano, M; Loguercio, C

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol has a direct impact on the digestive system due to its contact with mucosal lining and interference with digestive functions. Various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including tumors, may be related to an excess of alcohol intake and the relationship between alcohol abuse and hepatic and pancreatic damage is well established. According to WHO, alcohol and alcohol-related diseases represent a major health problem and will probably continue to do so in the foreseeable future. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on clinically relevant alcohol-related problems in order to provide practicing physicians with evidence-based general suggestions which might help in the management of alcohol-related gastrointestinal disorders. A thorough clinical history together with a number of questionnaires are essential for detecting alcohol dependence or abuse. Biochemical tests (nonspecific and specific) have been considered to be less sensitive than questionnaires in screening for alcohol abuse, but they may be useful in identifying relapses. Protracted behavior modification, cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological counseling, and mutual support groups have been considered the most effective long-term treatments. Several drugs have been developed that are able to interfere with the neurotransmitters involved in craving mechanisms, and we summarize the evidence of their efficacy to increase abstinence and to prevent relapse.

  10. High efficiency solution processed fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diode through fluorinated alcohol treatment at the emissive layer/cathode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Calvin Yi Bin; Yeoh, Keat Hoe; Whitcher, Thomas J.; Azrina Talik, Noor; Woon, Kai Lin; Saisopa, Thanit; Nakajima, Hideki; Supruangnet, Ratchadaporn; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon

    2014-01-01

    We compare solvent treatments using fluorinated alcohol (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro- 1-pentanol) and ethanol in improving the efficiency of a polymer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) by spin coating the solvent on top of the emissive layer. The presence of fluorinated alcohol is confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron current is found to be significantly enhanced following solvent treatment while the hole current remains the same. The solvent treatment by fluorinated alcohol on top of a ‘super-yellow’ poly-(p-phenylenevinylene) (SY-PPV) based OLED results in efficiency as high as 19.2 lm W-1 (20.9 cd A-1) at a brightness of 1000 cd m-2. The improvement of device efficiency through the use of fluorinated alcohol treatment can be attributed to its large dipole, which lowers the electron injection barrier. This work also suggests that fluorinated alcohol might be a better trap passivator for electrons than ethanol.

  11. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  12. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spirit-based beverages are alcoholic drinks; their production processes are dependent on the type and origin of raw materials. The composition of this complex matrix is difficult to analyze, and scientists commonly choose gas chromatography techniques for this reason. With a wide selection of extraction methods and detectors it is possible to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis for many chemical compounds with various functional groups. This article describes different types of gas chromatography techniques and their most commonly used associated extraction techniques (e.g., LLE, SPME, SPE, SFE, and SBME) and detectors (MS, TOFMS, FID, ECD, NPD, AED, O or EPD). Additionally, brief characteristics of internationally popular spirit-based beverages and application of gas chromatography to the analysis of selected alcoholic drinks are presented.

  13. Epidemiological features of alcohol use in rural India: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to estimate the proportion of adults in Sehore District, India, who consumed alcohol, and the proportion who had behaviours consistent with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among men who drank, we identified individual-level, household-level and community-level factors associated with AUDIT scores. Men with AUDs (AUDIT score ≥8) reported on whether and where they had sought treatment, and about alcohol-related internal stigma. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Rural villages and urban wards in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants n=3220 adult (≥18 years of age) residents of Sehore District. Primary outcome measure Score on the AUDIT. Results Nearly one in four men (23.8%) had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, while few (0.6%) women were consumers. Among drinkers, 33.2% (95% CI 28.6% to 38.1%) had AUDIT scores consistent with hazardous drinking, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1% to 5.1%) with harmful drinking and 5.5% (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%) with dependent drinking. We observed that AUDIT scores varied widely by village (intraclass correlation=0.052). Among men who had recently consumed alcohol, AUDIT scores were positively associated with depression, having at least one child, high-quality housing, urban residence, tobacco use and disability. AUDIT scores were negatively associated with land ownership, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and participation in the national employment programme. While 49.2% of men with AUDs felt embarrassed by their problems with alcohol, only 2.8% had sought treatment in the past 12 months. Conclusions A need exists for effectively identifying and treating adults with AUDs. Health promotion services, informed by commonly-expressed stigmatised beliefs held among those affected by AUDs and which are targeted at the most affected communities, may be an effective step in closing the treatment gap. PMID:26685035

  14. A Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkku, Leigh E.; Mengel, Mark B.; Nicholson, Robert A.; Hile, Matthew G.; Morris, Daniel S.; Salas, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Despite warnings that drinking during pregnancy is unsafe, many women are still at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). This article describes the outcomes of a web-based, self-guided change intervention designed to lower the risk for AEPs in a community. A sample of 458 women, between the ages of 18 and 44 years and at risk for an AEP…

  15. Efficacy of novel alcohol-based hand rub products at typical in-use volumes.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; Shumaker, David J; Arbogast, James W

    2013-03-01

    In vivo efficacies of 2 alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) products (gel and foam) were evaluated at a volume of 1.1 mL. Both met US Food and Drug Administration log(10) reduction requirements after a single application and 10 consecutive applications. This is the first study to identify ABHR formulations capable of meeting efficacy requirements with a single-dispenser actuation. PMID:23388365

  16. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  17. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cu (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.

  18. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cumore » (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.« less

  19. Numerical investigation on the structural characteristics of multiple RBCs in a stenotic microcapillary under plasma-alcohol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Aleksey; Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Park, Cheol Woo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol significantly affects blood rheology and influences the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs). Previous studies indicate that plasma-RBC and multiple RBC interaction are important indicators for atherosclerosis progression. Therefore, multiphysics interactions under highly viscous conditions of alcohol consumption and stenosis structure must be investigated. A 2D microcapillary model, wherein multiple RBCs float through a stenotic structure, was established to investigate the effect of alcohol on cell motion and deformability under various flow conditions. Results show that the deformed cells inside the stenosis increase flow resistance and increase plasma velocity gradient in the pre and post stenotic regions. Moreover, the effect of the initial RBC position is important describing the RBC deformation pattern. The structural properties of RBCs may be significantly affected when the stenosis path is filled by cells that increase flow resistance.

  20. [The development of evidence-based psychotherapy for use in alcoholism. A review].

    PubMed

    Loeber, S; Mann, K

    2006-05-01

    Past decades have seen enormous advances in the development and validation of evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy for alcoholism. While psychoanalytic and early behavioral techniques were the original basis of psychotherapy in this field, evidence-based approaches are now built up on the principles of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavior therapy. Different techniques have been developed to modify preceding and persisting conditions favoring problem behavior, e.g., training in coping/social skills and the community reinforcement approach. According to the results of the project MATCH, one of the largest treatment trials, "cognitive-behavioral intervention" combines motivational enhancement therapy, the 12-step approach, and cognitive-behavior therapy, with the aim of providing new and even more efficacious psychotherapy for alcohol dependent patients. These very promising developments are beset with huge problems, however, insofar as few of the new evidence-based treatment approaches are accepted as standard treatment in Germany, in addition to which only a fraction of all alcohol-dependent persons in the country find their way into the care system, for various reasons. Early diagnosis and facilitation of access to the various treatment options available could be a future task for general practitioners and also for company / industrial medical schemes. PMID:16374642

  1. Effectiveness of various hospital-based solutions against community- acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Perona, Paul J; Johnson, Aaron J; Perona, John P; Issa, Kimona; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Bonutti, Peter M; Mont, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Periprosthetic infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be particularly burdensome and difficult to eradicate. One of the measures that infection control officers have emphasized in our hospitals has been the use of various hand sanitizers throughout the hospital. Our objective was to determine the level of growth inhibition of common hand sanitizers and surgical scrub solutions that are used to prevent the spread of community-acquired strains of MRSA. Various hospital and surgical agents (n = 13) were applied to community-acquired MRSA bacteria that had been cultured on agar plates. These different commercially available solutions were incubated for 48 h, and the plates were assessed to determine the level of growth inhibition (0, 25, 75, or 100%). The negative control was a test in which no agent was added to the MRSA culture, while a positive control tested 100% alcohol. Eight of the solutions tested had 100% growth inhibition, four solutions had partial growth inhibition effects, and one solution did not inhibit MRSA. Of the solutions with alcohol, the 62% solution did not kill MRSA, while the 80% solution only inhibited MRSA. Both the 95 and 100% alcohol solutions had 100% growth inhibition. Of the two surgical scrub solutions, only the one with iodine had 100% growth inhibition, whereas the solution with chloroxylenol (PCMX 3%) had only partial growth inhibition. This study suggests that the solutions with high levels of alcohol, chlorhexidine, or iodine appear to better kill MRSA and might best be used to prevent the spread of community-acquired MRSA in both the hospital and the surgical environment. PMID:24266441

  2. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  3. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  4. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  5. The relationship between the adhesion work, the wettability and composition of the surface layer in the systems polymer/aqueous solution of anionic surfactants and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2010-11-01

    Measurements of advancing contact angle ( θ) were carried out on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDDS) mixtures with methanol, ethanol and propanol in the range of SDDS concentration from 10 -5 to 10 -2 M, and for sodium hexadecyl sulfonate (SHS) with the same alcohols at the SHS concentration ranging from 10 -5 to 8 × 10 -4 M at 293 K. The concentration of methanol, ethanol and propanol used for measurements varied from 0 to 21.1, 11.97 and 6.67 M, respectively. On the basis of the contact angles the critical surface tension of PTFE and PMMA wetting was determined by using for this purpose the relationship between the adhesion and the surface tension and cos θ and surface tension both at constant alcohol and surfactant concentration, respectively. The obtained contact angles were also used in the Young Dupre' equation for calculations of the adhesion work of aqueous solution of mixtures of anionic surfactants and short chain alcohols to PTFE and PMMA surface. The adhesion work calculated in this way was compared to that of the particular components of aqueous solution to these surfaces determined on the basis of the surface tension components and parameters of the surface tension of the surface active agents, water, PTFE and PMMA from van Oss et al. equation. The calculated adhesion work was discussed in the light of the concentration of surface active agents at polymer-water and water-air interface determined from Lucassen-Reynders, Gibbs and Guggenheim-Adam equations.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol based multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Nagy, L.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition over an Fe-Co/alumina catalyst. Nanotubes were then oxidized and grafted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained nanostructure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, SEM, TEM and TGA methods. FTIR confirmed the presence of the characteristic peaks of the anticipated ester group. The formation of polymer nanocomposites based on polyvinyl alcohol and multiwalled carbon nanotubes was confirmed by SEM and TEM. High resolution electron micrographs revealed that the primary binding sites for PVA grafting are the sidewall defects of the nanotubes. The novelty of this work is the use of the Fischer esterification reaction for creating the permanent link between the nanotubes and the PVA matrix.

  7. Promoting an Alcohol-Free Childhood: A Novel Home-Based Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Denise M.; Hayes, Kim A.; Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Lawson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Few alcohol prevention programs focus on elementary school-aged youth, yet children develop expectancies and norms about alcohol use during the elementary school years, and many elementary school children are allowed to have sips or tastes of alcohol at home. Research on consequences of early alcohol use indicates that it can put children at…

  8. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  9. Assessing the Usability of Web-Based Alcohol Education for Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Lorna; Osterweil, Dan; Van Draanen, Jenna; Cooke, Alexis; Beck, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults can experience unfavorable health effects from drinking at relatively low consumption levels because of age-related physiological changes and alcohol’s potentially adverse interactions with declining health, increased medication-use and diminishing functional status. At the same time, alcohol use in older adults may be protective against heart disease, stroke, and other disorders associated with aging. We developed “A Toast to Health in Later Life! Wise Drinking as We Age,” a web-based educational intervention to teach older adults to balance drinking risks and benefits. Objective To examine the intervention’s feasibility in a sample of community-dwelling current drinkers ≥55 years of age and examine its effects on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, adherence to standard drinking guidelines, and alcohol-related risks. Methods Participants were recruited in person, by mail and by telephone between September and October 2014 from a community-based social services organization serving Los Angeles County. Once enrolled, participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a control group. The conceptual frameworks for the intervention were the Health Belief Model, models of adult learning, and the US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for designing easy-to-use websites. The intervention’s content focuses on the relationship between drinking and its effects on older adults’ medical conditions, use of medications, and ability to perform daily activities. It also addresses quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking and driving and binge drinking. The control group did not receive any special intervention. Data on alcohol use and risks for both groups came from the online version of the Alcohol-Related Problems Survey and were collected at baseline and four weeks later. Data on usability were collected online from the intervention group immediately after it completed its review of the website

  10. Difficulties with telephone-based surveys on alcohol consumption in high-income countries: the Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Accurate information concerning alcohol consumption level and patterns is vital to formulating public health policy. The objective of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which survey design, response rate and alcohol consumption coverage obtained in random digit dialling, telephone-based surveys impact on conclusions about alcohol consumption and its patterns in the general population. Our analysis will be based on the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) 2008, a national survey intended to be representative of the general population. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) ignoring people who are homeless, institutionalized and/or do not have a home phone may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related problems; (2) weighting of observations to population demographics may lead to a increase in the design effect, does not necessarily address the underlying selection bias, and may lead to overly influential observations; and (3) the accurate characterization of alcohol consumption patterns obtained by triangulating the data with the adult per capita consumption estimate is essential for comparative analyses and intervention planning especially when the alcohol coverage rate is low like in the CADUMS with 34%. PMID:22337654

  11. Difficulties with telephone-based surveys on alcohol consumption in high-income countries: the Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Accurate information concerning alcohol consumption level and patterns is vital to formulating public health policy. The objective of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which survey design, response rate and alcohol consumption coverage obtained in random digit dialling, telephone-based surveys impact on conclusions about alcohol consumption and its patterns in the general population. Our analysis will be based on the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) 2008, a national survey intended to be representative of the general population. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) ignoring people who are homeless, institutionalized and/or do not have a home phone may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related problems; (2) weighting of observations to population demographics may lead to a increase in the design effect, does not necessarily address the underlying selection bias, and may lead to overly influential observations; and (3) the accurate characterization of alcohol consumption patterns obtained by triangulating the data with the adult per capita consumption estimate is essential for comparative analyses and intervention planning especially when the alcohol coverage rate is low like in the CADUMS with 34%.

  12. Alcohol quantity and type on risk of recurrent gout attacks: An internet-based case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara; Niu, Jingbo; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David J.; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although beer and liquor have been associated with risk of incident gout, wine has not. Yet anecdotally, wine is thought to trigger gout attacks. Further, how much alcohol intake is needed to increase the risk of gout attack is not known. We examined the quantity and type of alcohol consumed on risk of recurrent gout attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective internet-based case-crossover study in the United States among participants with gout and who had at least one attack during the one year of follow-up. We evaluated the association of alcohol intake over the prior 24 hours as well as the type of alcoholic beverage with risk of recurrent gout attack, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders. Results This study included 724 participants with gout (78% men, mean age 54 years). There was a significant dose-response relationship between amount of alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent gout attacks (p<0.001 for trend). The risk of recurrent gout attack was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.88) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.09 to 2.09) times higher for >1–2 and >2–4 alcoholic beverages, respectively, compared with no alcohol consumption in the prior 24 hours. Consuming wine, beer, or liquor, was each associated with an increased risk of gout attack. Conclusions Episodic alcohol consumption, regardless of type of alcoholic beverage, was associated with an increased risk of recurrent gout attacks, including potentially with moderate amounts. Persons with gout should limit alcohol intake of all types to reduce the risk of recurrent gout attacks. PMID:24440541

  13. Dispersive wave processing: a model-based solution

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    Wave propagation through various media represents a significant problem in many applications in acoustics and electromagnetics especially when the medium is dispersive. We post a general dispersive wave propagation model that could easily represent many classes of dispersive waves and proceed to develop a model-based processor employing this underlying structure. The general solution to the model-based dispersive wave estimation problem is developed using the Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach which leads to the nonlinear extended Kalman filter processor.

  14. Health Care Burden and Cost Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Based on Official Canadian Data

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10). This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008–2009). Methods Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008–2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient’s length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00–F99). It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing −1.6 times greater in 2008–2009, compared to 2002–2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000–2008), may be underreported, and are likely invalid. Discussion The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD. PMID:22900084

  15. Evidence-based surgery: The obstacles and solutions.

    PubMed

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Surgeons are often accused of lagging behind their medical colleagues in embracing evidence based medicine and utilizing new research tools to conducting high quality randomized controlled trials. Although there has been a noticeable improvement in the quantity and quality of high quality studies in surgical journals, the widespread practice of evidence based surgery is still poor. Unlike evidence based medicine, the practice of evidence based surgery is hampered by inherent problems and obstacles. This article reviews these difficulties and the limitations of randomized controlled trials in surgical practice. It also outlines some solutions that may help remedy this ongoing problem.

  16. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  17. Biometrics based novel key distribution solution for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    The security of wireless body sensor network (BSN) is very important to telemedicine and m-healthcare, and it still remains a critical challenge. This paper presents a novel key distribution solution which allows two sensors in one BSN to agree on a changeable cryptographic key. A previously published scheme, fuzzy vault, is firstly applied to secure the random cryptographic key generated from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. Simulations based on ECG data from MIT PhysioBank database, produce a minimum half total error rate (HTER) of 0.65%, which demonstrates our key distribution solution is promising compared with previous method, with HTER of 4.26%. PMID:19964960

  18. Biometrics based novel key distribution solution for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    The security of wireless body sensor network (BSN) is very important to telemedicine and m-healthcare, and it still remains a critical challenge. This paper presents a novel key distribution solution which allows two sensors in one BSN to agree on a changeable cryptographic key. A previously published scheme, fuzzy vault, is firstly applied to secure the random cryptographic key generated from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. Simulations based on ECG data from MIT PhysioBank database, produce a minimum half total error rate (HTER) of 0.65%, which demonstrates our key distribution solution is promising compared with previous method, with HTER of 4.26%.

  19. NMR-based dynamics of free glycosaminoglycans in solution.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-08-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) comprise a special class of complex carbohydrates endowed with numerous biological functions. Most of these functions are regulated by conformational arrangements or dynamical properties of GAGs in solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique used for dynamic analyses. Spin relaxation, scalar couplings, chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser effect resonances are the commonest NMR parameters utilized in such analyses. Computational molecular dynamics are also very often employed in conjunction with, or restrained by, the NMR dataset. This report aims at describing the major NMR-based information available so far concerning the dynamical properties of free GAGs in solution.

  20. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Rezaee, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Shirin Sadeghi; Montazeri, Naser; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (43.0 µL 1,2-dichloroethane) and disperser solvent (1.0 mL acetonitrile) for the formation of a cloudy solution in a 5.0-mL aqueous sample containing benzaldehyde. The linear range was 1.0-1000 µg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.2 µg L(-1) for benzaldehyde.

  1. UPLC/Q-TOFMS-Based Metabolomics Studies on the Protective Effect of Panax notoginseng Saponins on Alcoholic Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Bai, Xu; Ding, Ren-Bo; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Consistent, excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver injury. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible efficacy of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury using LC-MS-based urinary metabolomics. Mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as a control diet with or without PNS (200 mg/kg/BW) for 4 weeks. Treatment with PNS significantly reduced the increases in plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which induced by chronic alcohol exposure. Conversely, PNS was also found to restore the glutathione (GSH) depletion and increase the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The end-point urine sample of each mouse was collected overnight (24 h) in metabolic cages and their metabolic profiling changes were analyzed using UPLC/Q-TOFMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. After 4 week of Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet feeding, the metabolic profile experienced great perturbation in PCA score plot, and the treatment of PNS could assist to regulate the disturbed metabolic profile induced by alcohol exposure. Additionally, sixteen potential biomarkers responsible for derivations of the metabolic profile induced by alcohol exposure were identified, and the alcohol-induced changes in these biomarkers, except hexanoylglycine, could be partially or nearly reversed by PNS treatment. Taken together, PNS protects against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. Our findings demonstrated that the LC-MS-based metabolomics approach is a useful tool to investigate the efficacy of Chinese medicines. PMID:26133752

  2. Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence. PMID:9253268

  3. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  4. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  5. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit.

  6. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  7. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  8. A reliable Doppler-based solution for single sensor geolocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzgall, H.

    This paper examines the ability of particle filters to provide accurate Doppler-based frequency of arrival (FOA) geolocation of radio frequency (RF) emitters. Most existing non-differential Doppler geolocation techniques simplify their geolocation solution by assuming that the emitter's carrier frequency is unknown but stable over the course of the triangulation. This assumption is often violated by today's commercial devices whose applications allow for significant carrier frequency drift, with the result of erroneous FOA solutions. The proposed approach uses particles to discretely represent a state's hypothesized emitter location and conditionally updates the particle's associated frequency drift based on that location and the observations. The performance of this approach is examined for the case of a relatively slow-moving unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The results show it is significantly more accurate and robust than Newton's iterative gradient descent techniques, and closely approaches the FOA Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for location estimation.

  9. Alcohol-induced blackout as a criminal defense or mitigating factor: an evidence-based review and admissibility as scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Mark R; Caudill, David S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol-related amnesia--alcohol blackout--is a common claim of criminal defendants. The generally held belief is that during an alcohol blackout, other cognitive functioning is severely impaired or absent. The presentation of alcohol blackout as scientific evidence in court requires that the science meets legal reliability standards (Frye, FRE702/Daubert). To determine whether "alcohol blackout" meets these standards, an evidence-based analysis of published scientific studies was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were identified including nine in which an alcohol blackout was induced and directly observed. No objective or scientific method to verify the presence of an alcoholic blackout while it is occurring or to confirm its presence retrospectively was identified. Only short-term memory is impaired and other cognitive functions--planning, attention, and social skills--are not impaired. Alcoholic blackouts would not appear to meet standards for scientific evidence and should not be admissible. PMID:23692320

  10. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Steven Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.

  11. Solution spinning of a high-? oxide superconductor: the effect of poly(vinyl alcohol) spinning medium on the critical current density of melt-processed ? superconducting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Hisayo; Sunohara, Makoto; Goto, Tomoko; Takahashi, Kiyohisa

    1996-12-01

    The precursor 0953-2048/9/12/014/img9 filament was prepared by solution spinning through a homogeneous aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution of Y, Ba and Cu acetates. The solution spinning was successfully performed using PVA with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 1700 and 2450 and a degree of saponification of 85 mol%. The as-drawn filament was heated to remove volatile components and partially melted to generate a superconducting phase. The effects of the DP of PVA and a content of mixed acetates in the precursor filament on the critical current density 0953-2048/9/12/014/img10 of the melt-processed filament were examined. The higher 0953-2048/9/12/014/img11 was obtained for the filament spun from PVA solution of higher DP and lower acetate content. The highest 0953-2048/9/12/014/img11 value of 0953-2048/9/12/014/img13 at 77 K and 0 T was achieved for the filament spun from the DP 2450 PVA with an acetate to PVA ratio of two.

  12. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Daniel L; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Hickner, Michael A; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-11-01

    Separators are used to protect cathodes from biofouling and to avoid electrode short-circuiting, but they can adversely affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. A spray method was used to apply a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) separator to the cathode. Power densities were unaffected by the PVA separator (339±29mW/m(2)), compared to a control lacking a separator in a low conductivity solution (1mS/cm) similar to wastewater. Power was reduced with separators in solutions typical of laboratory tests (7-13mS/cm), compared to separatorless controls. The PVA separator produced more power in a separator assembly (SEA) configuration (444±8mW/m(2)) in the 1mS/cm solution, but power was reduced if a PVA or wipe separator was used in higher conductivity solutions with either Pt or activated carbon catalysts. Spray and cast PVA separators performed similarly, but the spray method is preferred as it was easier to apply and use.

  13. Alcohols solubilization in a nonionic fluorinated surfactant based system: effects on the characteristics of mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Blin, J L; Du, N; Stébé, M J

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we have used hydrogenated alcohols with different chain lengths and one fluorinated alcohol as additives to determine their effect on the characteristics of mesoporous materials prepared from fluorinated micelles.

  14. Composite films based on biorelated agro-industrial waste and poly(vinyl alcohol). Preparation and mechanical properties characterization.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, E; Cinelli, P; Imam, S H; Mao, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byproducts, derived from sugar cane (SC) and apple (AP) and orange (OR) fruit juice extraction, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. The effect of fiber type and composition on the relative properties of cast films was evaluated and compared. OR resulted to be suitable for blending in higher amounts by weight than SC and AP. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and were observed to be effective in giving flexible films. Additionally, cornstarch was added to further increase the composition of polymers from renewable resources in cost-effective and ecoefficient composite film formulations. The prepared films resulted sensitive to moisture and water. To reduce water sensitivity, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) was tested as a cross-linking agent for the present composite formulations. Cross-linked films exhibited significant improvement in water-resistance that can be taken as a tuneable structural feature for customized applications. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite films (elongation at break, tensile strength, Young modulus) were found to be dependent upon the nature and content of the filler and on environmental conditions.

  15. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent. PMID:25057467

  16. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R

    2002-07-11

    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  17. [What control solutions should be used in studies on the acute effect of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract?].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1983-10-01

    There exists still a considerable confusion in the literature about the appropriate control solution for ethanol. In many studies either no control or equimolar solutions of urea, mannitol or sodium chloride were used as an osmotic control for ethanol; distilled water being given only in a few cases. The confusion is mainly derived from the opinion that the osmolality of the ethanol solution as measured by freezing point depression (= "theoretical osmotic pressure") is the determinant factor for the action of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract. This opinion, however, is not correct. Since biological membranes are not perfectly semipermeable (i. e., they are permeable to certain solutes) the "effective osmotic pressure" produced by permeant solutes is always less than the ("theoretical") osmotic pressure as determined by freezing point depression. The ratio of the "effective" to the "theoretical" osmotic pressure of a solute is defined by the Stavermann reflection coefficient for a certain membrane. The Stavermann reflection coefficient may have any value between 1 and 0. For an impermeant solute the reflection coefficient equals 1 and for increasingly permeant solutes it becomes progressively less than 1 and closer to 0. The Stavermann reflection coefficient of ethanol for some gastrointestinal organs tested is about 0.1. The ideal osmotic control for ethanol would be a solute which exerts the same effective osmotic pressure on the gastrointestinal membrane as ethanol, i. e. which has the same Stavermann reflection coefficient as ethanol, and has no specific pharmacologic effect. Distilled water seems to be the most suitable osmotic control for ethanol because it has a Stavermann reflection coefficient of 0 and has no pharmacological actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649735

  18. [What control solutions should be used in studies on the acute effect of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract?].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1983-10-01

    There exists still a considerable confusion in the literature about the appropriate control solution for ethanol. In many studies either no control or equimolar solutions of urea, mannitol or sodium chloride were used as an osmotic control for ethanol; distilled water being given only in a few cases. The confusion is mainly derived from the opinion that the osmolality of the ethanol solution as measured by freezing point depression (= "theoretical osmotic pressure") is the determinant factor for the action of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract. This opinion, however, is not correct. Since biological membranes are not perfectly semipermeable (i. e., they are permeable to certain solutes) the "effective osmotic pressure" produced by permeant solutes is always less than the ("theoretical") osmotic pressure as determined by freezing point depression. The ratio of the "effective" to the "theoretical" osmotic pressure of a solute is defined by the Stavermann reflection coefficient for a certain membrane. The Stavermann reflection coefficient may have any value between 1 and 0. For an impermeant solute the reflection coefficient equals 1 and for increasingly permeant solutes it becomes progressively less than 1 and closer to 0. The Stavermann reflection coefficient of ethanol for some gastrointestinal organs tested is about 0.1. The ideal osmotic control for ethanol would be a solute which exerts the same effective osmotic pressure on the gastrointestinal membrane as ethanol, i. e. which has the same Stavermann reflection coefficient as ethanol, and has no specific pharmacologic effect. Distilled water seems to be the most suitable osmotic control for ethanol because it has a Stavermann reflection coefficient of 0 and has no pharmacological actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Web-based Treatment for Rural Women with Alcohol Problems: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among women in rural areas is a concern, particularly since treatment is not readily accessible, and women are highly susceptible to the ill affects of alcohol misuse. The Internet may offer a treatment delivery alternative for women who cannot easily take part in gender-focused programs that are located in urban centers. The purpose of this randomized study was to evaluate a 90-day web-based treatment program for women in rural areas of Missouri with problem drinking habits. The online treatment program consisted of reference and decision-making modules, synchronous and asynchronous communication features, and the option to interact privately with the researcher. Preliminary findings relating to participant demographics, website use, and satisfaction are reported in this article. The enrolled participants (n = 46) averaged 50 (SD = 11) years of age, were relatively well educated and, to a large extent, financially secure. Based on their website usage, participants appeared to prefer reading communiqués over actively posting messages to the asynchronous bulletin board. In general, participants indicated satisfaction with the program, and 83% noted that they would recommend it to a friend. PMID:19901570

  20. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  1. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization’s internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations. PMID:24634639

  2. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  3. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  4. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  5. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  6. MPEG-4 solutions for virtualizing RDP-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joveski, Bojan; Mitrea, Mihai; Ganji, Rama-Rao

    2014-02-01

    The present paper provides the proof-of-concepts for the use of the MPEG-4 multimedia scene representations (BiFS and LASeR) as a virtualization tool for RDP-based applications (e.g. MS Windows applications). Two main applicative benefits are thus granted. First, any legacy application can be virtualized without additional programming effort. Second, heterogeneous mobile devices (different manufacturers, OS) can collaboratively enjoy full multimedia experiences. From the methodological point of view, the main novelty consists in (1) designing an architecture allowing the conversion of the RDP content into a semantic multimedia scene-graph and its subsequent rendering on the client and (2) providing the underlying scene graph management and interactivity tools. Experiments consider 5 users and two RDP applications (MS Word and Internet Explorer), and benchmark our solution against two state-of-the-art technologies (VNC and FreeRDP). The visual quality is evaluated by six objective measures (e.g. PSNR<37dB, SSIM<0.99). The network traffic evaluation shows that: (1) for text editing, the MPEG-based solutions outperforms the VNC by a factor 1.8 while being 2 times heavier then the FreeRDP; (2) for Internet browsing, the MPEG solutions outperform both VNC and FreeRDP by factors of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively. The average round-trip times (less than 40ms) cope with real-time application constraints.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  9. Psoriasis, cardiovascular events, cancer risk and alcohol use: evidence-based recommendations based on systematic review and expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Richard, M-A; Barnetche, T; Horreau, C; Brenaut, E; Pouplard, C; Aractingi, S; Aubin, F; Cribier, B; Joly, P; Jullien, D; Le Maître, M; Misery, L; Ortonne, J-P; Paul, C

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between psoriasis, chronic inflammation, cardiovascular risk and risk of cancer has long been debated. In addition, it has been suggested that alcohol consumption may be a risk factor for psoriasis onset and severity. The aim of this study was to develop evidence-based recommendations on the risk of comorbidities and its management for daily clinical use, focusing on cardiovascular risk, risk of cancer and alcohol use in psoriasis. A scientific committee identified and selected through the Delphi method clinically relevant questions about cardiovascular risk, risk of cancer and alcohol use in psoriasis. To address these questions, a systematic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases. Systematic literature reviews including meta-analysis whenever possible were performed. Subsequently, an Expert board meeting involving 39 dermatologists took place to analyse the evidence and to elaborate recommendations on the selected questions. Recommendations were graded according to the Oxford level of evidence grading system. The degree of agreement of these recommendations was assessed on a 10-point scale, as well as their potential impact on daily clinical practice. A total of 3242 articles were identified through the systematic literature searches, among which 110 were included in the systematic reviews. Overall, 12 recommendations were elaborated regarding comorbidities management in psoriasis patients. A moderate increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), mainly myocardial infarction (MI) [meta-analysis of cohort studies: OR = 1.25 (95% CI 1.03-1.52) and of cross-sectional studies: OR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.08-2.27)], and coronary artery disease (CAD) [meta-analysis of cross-sectional: OR = 1.19 (95% CI 1.14-1.24), of cohort studies: OR = 1.20 (95% CI 1.13-1.27) and of case-control studies: OR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.09-3.09)] was acknowledged. This increased cardiovascular risk requires appropriate prevention

  10. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness. PMID:27424165

  11. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness.

  12. X-ray diffraction study of the molecular propolis films deposited from an alcohol solution onto the cleavage surfaces of layered V2VI3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapak, S. I.; Gavrylyuk, S. V.; Kaminskii, V. M.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2008-09-01

    The structures of the molecular propolis films deposited from an alcohol solution on the (0001) cleavage surface of layered bismuth selenide and telluride are studied by X-ray diffraction. Despite the chemical interaction between the semiconductor substrates and the organic-substance components, the molecular structural ordering of the propolis films is shown to be identical to that in the films of this substance on the surface of amorphous glass substrates. The chemical and deformation interaction between the organic substance and the layered V2VI3 compounds is found to result in the formation of an organic-inorganic sandwich nanostructure at a distance of ˜0.3 μm from the layered crystal-propolis film interface.

  13. A logical functional analysis of reinforcement-based disorders: alcoholism and pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Wulfert, E; Greenway, D E; Dougher, M J

    1996-12-01

    This article discusses a nomothetic functional strategy, termed logical functional analysis, as an approach to the refinement of the structural diagnostic categories of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e.g., 4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). As heterogeneous diagnostic categories are more the norm than the exception in the DSM-IV, an argument is made for the identification of homogenous subgroups within diagnostic classes based on functional principles. Outlines of a logical functional analysis for 2 reinforcement-based disorders, alcoholism and pedophilia, are presented. The outlines show how topographically similar behavior patterns can serve different functions that are important to consider when making treatment decisions. The logical functional analysis is a strategy that helps practitioners to identify motivational conditions, antecedents, consequences, and concomitant behavioral repertoires associated with a given disorder. It also provides guidance for the selection of intervention strategies.

  14. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  15. Free-standing gallium nitride membrane-based sensor for the impedimetric detection of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifragis, Y.; Roussos, G.; Pantazis, A. K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Chaniotakis, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of single-crystal Gallium Nitride (GaN) membrane organic gas sensor. The sensing device is based on the highly stable free-standing III-nitride membrane, and it is probed using non-destructive impedance spectroscopy. Monitoring the effect of a series of polar organic molecules on the electrochemical impedance spectrum of the sensing membrane in the frequency range of 1 mHz to 0.1 MHz at room temperature, we concluded that the sensor is highly sensitive to alcohols, in the gas phase, with selectivity that depends on the molecular weight and vapor pressure of the molecules. The highly robust and stable GaN crystalline membrane and the ability to test these sensors using impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical probing techniques suggest that single crystal GaN-based sensors can find a wide range of applications in harsh and extreme environments.

  16. Solution-Processed Indium Oxide Based Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wangying

    Oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) have attracted considerable attention over the past decade due to their high carrier mobility and excellent uniformity. However, most of these oxide TFTs are usually fabricated using costly vacuum-based techniques. Recently, the solution processes have been developed due to the possibility of low-cost and large-area fabrication. In this thesis, we have carried out a detailed and systematic study of solution-processed oxide thin films and TFTs. At first, we demonstrated a passivation method to overcome the water susceptibility of solution-processed InZnO TFTs by utilizing octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The unpassivated InZnO TFTs exhibited large hysteresis in their electrical characteristics due to the adsorbed water at the semiconductor surface. Formation of a SAM of ODPA on the top of InZnO removed water molecules weakly absorbed at the back channel and prevented water diffusion from the surroundings. Therefore the passivated devices exhibited significantly reduced hysteretic characteristics. Secondly, we developed a simple spin-coating approach for high- k dielectrics (Al2O3, ZrO2, Y 2O3 and TiO2). These materials were used as gate dielectrics for solution-processed In2O3 or InZnO TFTs. Among the high-k dielectrics, the Al2O3-based devices showed the best performance, which is attributed to the smooth dielectric/semiconductor interface and the low interface trap density besides its good insulating property. Thirdly, the formation and properties of Al2O3 thin films under various annealing temperatures were intensively studied, revealing that the sol-gel-derived Al2O3 thin film undergoes the decomposition of organic residuals and nitrate groups, as well as conversion of aluminum hydroxides to form aluminum oxide. Besides, the Al2O 3 film was used as gate dielectric for solution-processed oxide TFTs, resulting in high mobility and low operating voltage. Finally, we proposed a green route for

  17. Closing the hand hygiene gap in the postanesthesia care unit: a body-worn alcohol-based dispenser.

    PubMed

    Petty, William Clayton

    2013-04-01

    Clinicians who work in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), operating room (OR), and intensive care unit (ICU) have a greater opportunity to cross-contaminate patients because of high workloads and frequent patient contact events. Much progress has been made to increase hand hygiene compliance with the introduction of alcohol-based wall, bedside, and pocket dispensers. The introduction of body-worn alcohol-based dispensers to anesthesia and ICU providers has been shown to decrease ICU hospital-acquired infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias, and decrease contamination of the anesthesia workplace. Body-worn alcohol-based dispensers are an improvement in ergonomics, especially for those working in high intensity areas. The unit worn on the belt or scrubs waist is readily accessible, can be activated with one hand, and can be a vital tool to close the gap for hand hygiene.

  18. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  19. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  20. Dermatological aspects of a successful introduction and continuation of alcohol-based hand rubs for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Löffler, H

    2003-09-01

    With the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline on hand hygiene, hospitals often introduce alcohol-based hand rubs for hand disinfection. Healthcare workers, however, may reject the new products because of skin irritation or other skin-related problems, which they experience after years of handwashing. In order to facilitate a successful introduction and continued use of alcohol-based hand rubs in hospitals, we have reviewed and summarized the major studies on the topic. Occupational hand dermatitis may occur in up to 30% of healthcare workers. It is mainly described as an irritant contact dermatitis caused by detergents. The diagnosis is usually clinical. Allergic reactions are very rare. After using an alcohol-based hand rub for the first time, healthcare workers may have a burning skin sensation that can be explained by pre-irritated skin. In this case the skin barrier has usually been impaired by frequent handwashing or occlusive gloves. This may result in a vicious circle whereby the healthcare worker increases the frequency of handwashing and reduces the frequency of hand disinfection. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis is possible by selection of a low-irritating hand rub, which contains emollients, the correct use of the hand rub and a clear guideline when to disinfect and wash hands in the clinical setting. Common mistakes in the use of alcohol-based hand rubs are application to pre-irritated skin and washing hands before hand disinfection, which is, in general, not necessary, or after hand disinfection, which results in washing off the emollients. Clear preparation and guidance of healthcare workers before the introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs can help to enhance compliance in hand hygiene. The switch from handwash to alcohol-based hand rub will improve healthcare workers skin if mistakes are avoided and hand rinses are used correctly.

  1. Synthesis of novel chiral Schiff base and amino alcohol derivatives of calix[4]arene and chiral recognition properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the synthesis and liquid phase extraction properties towards some amino acid methylesters and amino alcohols of Schiff base and amino alcohol substituted calix[4]arene are reported. The Schiff base substituted calix[4]arene 5 has been synthesized via condensation reaction involving 5,17-diformyl-11,23-di- tert-butyl-25,27-di[3-(4-formylphenoxy)propoxy]-26,28 dihydroxycalix[4]arene 4 and ( R)-(-)-2-phenylglycine methyl ester in CHCl 3:MeOH. To give the amino alcohol substituted calix[4]arene 6, the synthesized chiral compound 5 was reduced by LiAlH 4. The new chiral Schiff base and amino alcohol derivatives of calix[4]arene have been characterized by a combination of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FAB-MS and elemental analysis. Also, the extraction behaviors of 5 and 6 towards some selected amino acid methylesters and amino alcohols have been studied by liquid-liquid extraction.

  2. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  3. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-27

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.

  4. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01-90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b-effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b-effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater.

  5. Mechanism of the formation of carboxylate from alcohols and water catalyzed by a bipyridine-based ruthenium complex: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Hall, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic mechanism for oxidizing alcohols to carboxylate in basic aqueous solution by the bipyridine-based ruthenium complex 2 (BIPY-PNN)Ru(H)(Cl)(CO) (Nat. Chem. 2013, 5, 122) is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with the ωB97X-D functional. Using water as the oxygen donor with liberation of dihydrogen represents a safe and clean process for such oxidations. Under NaOH, the active catalyst is 3 (BIPY-PNN)Ru(H)(CO). Four steps are involved: dehydrogenation of alcohol to aldehyde (Step 1); coupling of aldehyde and water to form the gem-diol (Step 2); dehydrogenation of gem-diol to carboxylic acid (Step 3); and deprotonation of carboxylic acid to carboxylate anion under base (Step 4). The dehydrogenations of alcohol (Step 1) and gem-diol (Step 3) prefer the double hydrogen transfer mechanism to the β-H elimination mechanism. The coupling of aldehyde and water (Step 2) proceeds through cleavage of water by catalyst 3 followed by concerted hydroxyl and hydrogen transfer to the aldehyde. The formation of the carboxylate anion occurs via direct deprotonation of the carboxylic acid under base (Step 4), while in the absence of base a stable carboxylic acid-addition complex 6 was formed. Added base was found to play important roles in the generation of catalyst 3 from both the stable carboxylic acid-addition complex 6 and its chloride precursor complex 2. The chemoselectivity for the formation of carboxylic acid rather than ester is ascribed to the favorable cleavage of water and the subsequent generation of the stable carboxylate anion that leads to carboxylic acid upon acidification. PMID:24328295

  6. Smartphone-Based, Self-Administered Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Theory and Empirical Evidence Basis

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; King, Diane K.; Giroux, Danielle; Bacon, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology provide an opportunity to deliver in-the-moment interventions to individuals with alcohol use disorders, yet availability of effective “apps” that deliver evidence-based interventions is scarce. We developed an immediately available, portable, smartphone-based intervention system whose purpose is to provide stand-alone, self-administered assessment and intervention. In this paper, we describe how theory and empirical evidence, combined with smartphone functionality contributed to the construction of a user-friendly, engaging alcohol intervention. With translation in mind, we discuss how we selected appropriate intervention components including assessments, feedback and tools, that work together to produce the hypothesized outcomes. PMID:24347811

  7. Smartphone-Based, Self-Administered Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Theory and Empirical Evidence Basis.

    PubMed

    Dulin, Patrick L; Gonzalez, Vivian M; King, Diane K; Giroux, Danielle; Bacon, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology provide an opportunity to deliver in-the-moment interventions to individuals with alcohol use disorders, yet availability of effective "apps" that deliver evidence-based interventions is scarce. We developed an immediately available, portable, smartphone-based intervention system whose purpose is to provide stand-alone, self-administered assessment and intervention. In this paper, we describe how theory and empirical evidence, combined with smartphone functionality contributed to the construction of a user-friendly, engaging alcohol intervention. With translation in mind, we discuss how we selected appropriate intervention components including assessments, feedback and tools, that work together to produce the hypothesized outcomes. PMID:24347811

  8. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%), community programs (61.4%) and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%). Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%), community programs (33.8%) and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%). Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated. PMID:22233608

  9. Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Cunningham, John A.; Faouzi, Mohamed; Gaume, Jacques; Gmel, Gerhard; Burnand, Bernard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is one of the leading modifiable morbidity and mortality risk factors among young adults. Study Design 2 parallel-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1 and 6 months. Setting/Participants Internet based study in a general population sample of young men with low-risk drinking, recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Intervention: Internet-based brief alcohol primary prevention intervention (IBI). The IBI aims at preventing an increase in alcohol use: it consists of normative feedback, feedback on consequences, calorific value alcohol, computed blood alcohol concentration, indication that the reported alcohol use is associated with no or limited risks for health. Intervention group participants received the IBI. Control group (CG) participants completed only an assessment. Main Outcome Measures Alcohol use (number of drinks per week), binge drinking prevalence. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results Of 4365 men invited to participate, 1633 did so; 896 reported low-risk drinking and were randomized (IBI: n = 451; CG: n = 445). At baseline, 1 and 6 months, the mean (SD) number of drinks/week was 2.4(2.2), 2.3(2.6), 2.5(3.0) for IBI, and 2.4(2.3), 2.8(3.7), 2.7(3.9) for CG. Binge drinking, absent at baseline, was reported by 14.4% (IBI) and 19.0% (CG) at 1 month and by 13.3% (IBI) and 13.0% (CG) at 6 months. At 1 month, beneficial intervention effects were observed on the number of drinks/week (p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed at 6 months. Conclusion We found protective short term effects of a primary prevention IBI. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55991918 PMID:26642329

  10. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  11. Formation of nanometric HT-LiCoO(2) by a precipitation and aging process in an alcoholic solution.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Dominique; Delobel, Bruno; Dantras-Laffont, Lydia; Simon, Evelyne; Blach, Jean-François; Baudrin, Emmanuel

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we detailed the formation/evolution of precipitates in alcoholic media containing Co(II+) and Li(+) species, together with the evolution of the composition and structure/texture of the resulting solid phases during the aging process at controlled constant temperature. While the end product is found to be well-crystallized HT-LiCoO(2), its formation is shown to result from a two-step process enlisting the initial fast precipitation of β-HCoO(2) and then its slow dissolution followed by recrystallization of the lithium-containing material. These results were obtained through combined X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy, elemental and oxidation-state analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/selected-area electron diffraction observations. Depending on the cationic concentration, the size of the precipitated material can be controlled within the nanometric range. The electrochemical performances of these aged materials are slightly improved compared to those of the directly precipitated ones that we previously reported. The main limitation of these materials remains the presence of surface protons.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over AmberlystTM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  13. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    PubMed

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  14. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghiță, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codruța; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  15. Advanced solutions in combustion-based WtE technologies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Johannes J E; Koralewska, Ralf; Wohlleben, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment of waste by means of combustion in grate-based systems has gained world-wide acceptance as the preferred method for sustainable management and safe disposal of residual waste. In order to maintain this position and to address new challenges and/or priorities, these systems need to be further developed with a view to energy conservation, resource and climate protection and a reduction in the environmental impact in general. MARTIN GmbH has investigated continuously how the implementation of innovative concepts in essential parts of its grate-based Waste-to-Energy (WtE) combustion technology can be used to meet the above-mentioned requirements. As a result of these efforts, new "advanced solutions" were developed, four examples of which are shown in this article. PMID:25305685

  16. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  17. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, S. A. Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.

  18. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhudesai, S. A.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Mitra, S.; Desa, J. A. E.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2015-06-01

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D2O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10-5 cm2/sec.

  19. Novel polyvinyl alcohol-bioglass 45S5 based composite nanofibrous membranes as bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kumar, Manishekhar; Mandal, Biman B; Srinivasan, A

    2016-12-01

    Composite nanofibrous membranes based on sol-gel derived 45SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 (bioglass, BG) and 43SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 2Fe2O3 (magnetic bioglass, MBG) blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been electrospun. These low cost membranes were mostly amorphous in structure with minor crystalline (sodium calcium phosphate) precipitates. All membranes were biodegradable. Among these, the composites exhibited higher tensile strength, better proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells and higher alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity than the bare PVA membrane, indicating their potential in bone tissue engineering. The magnetic PVA-MBG scaffold was also found to be a promising candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. PMID:27612814

  20. Hydrogen Bonding Based Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Poly(vinyl alcohol) with Weak Polyacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyomin; Mensire, Remy; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Multilayer thin films that consist of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and weak polyacids such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) were prepared by hydrogen bonding interactions. Both the degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight of PVA were investigated in terms of their influence on growth behavior and pH stability. Multilayer films containing PVA and PAA could be assembled successfully only by using partially hydrolyzed PVA and low pH solutions. By comparing films containing PAA with those containing a more strongly interacting partner, PMAA, it was shown that the extent of PVA hydrolysis becomes significant only when weak hydrogen bonding pairs such as PVA and PAA were used. pH-triggered dissolution experiments demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis can be used as an additional parameter by which to tune the pH stability of the film. Also, the presence of an abundance of free hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups in the multilayer allowed enhanced pH stability to be obtained by thermal and chemical methods as well as numerous opportunities for post-assembly functionalization.

  1. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite. PMID:25439870

  2. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite.

  3. Spinning of hydroalcoholic chitosan solutions.

    PubMed

    Desorme, Mylène; Montembault, Alexandra; Lucas, Jean-Michel; Rochas, Cyrille; Bouet, Thierry; David, Laurent

    2013-10-15

    We investigated the spinning of hydroalcoholic chitosan solutions. The dope composition was optimized in order to obtain a continuous alcogel fiber by water evaporation on heating the extruded hydroalcoholic solution. This alcogel fiber was then neutralized in aqueous alkali baths and washed in water to eliminate the residual alcohol and salts before final drying. Depending on the alcohol content in the filament at the neutralization step, on specific alcohol-chitosan interactions and on the nature and concentration of the coagulation base, the process yielded semicrystalline chitosan fibers with different proportions of anhydrous and hydrated allomorphs. Contrarily to the classical annealing method, the formation of mainly anhydrous crystals was obtained without significant molecular weight decrease by neutralizing the polymer in hydrophobic conditions. The control of allomorph content was shown to be related to the hydrophobicity of the solvent (alcohol fraction) at the neutralization step.

  4. Thematic Review Series: Sphingolipids. Biodiversity of sphingoid bases (“sphingosines”) and related amino alcohols*

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, Sarah T.; Bushnev, Anatoliy; Hagedorn, Kerri; Adiga, Madhura; Haynes, Christopher A.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Liotta, Dennis C.; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2008-01-01

    “Sphingosin” was first described by J. L. W. Thudichum in 1884 and structurally characterized as 2S,3R,4E-2-aminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol in 1947 by Herb Carter, who also proposed the designation of “lipides derived from sphingosine as sphingolipides.” This category of amino alcohols is now known to encompass hundreds of compounds that are referred to as sphingoid bases and sphingoid base-like compounds, which vary in chain length, number, position, and stereochemistry of double bonds, hydroxyl groups, and other functionalities. Some have especially intriguing features, such as the tail-to-tail combination of two sphingoid bases in the α,ω-sphingoids produced by sponges. Most of these compounds participate in cell structure and regulation, and some (such as the fumonisins) disrupt normal sphingolipid metabolism and cause plant and animal disease. Many of the naturally occurring and synthetic sphingoid bases are cytotoxic for cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms or have other potentially useful bioactivities; hence, they offer promise as pharmaceutical leads. This thematic review gives an overview of the biodiversity of the backbones of sphingolipids and the broader field of naturally occurring and synthetic sphingoid base-like compounds. PMID:18499644

  5. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na2SO3 microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yanmin; Liu, Fei; Shang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yanzhao

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl(4)(-)CTAB(+). The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol(-1) and -84.87 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E%>99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach.

  6. Stability of fluctuating and transient aggregates of amphiphilic solutes in aqueous binary mixtures: Studies of dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-10-01

    In aqueous binary mixtures, amphiphilic solutes such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), etc., are known to form aggregates (or large clusters) at small to intermediate solute concentrations. These aggregates are transient in nature. Although the system remains homogeneous on macroscopic length and time scales, the microheterogeneous aggregation may profoundly affect the properties of the mixture in several distinct ways, particularly if the survival times of the aggregates are longer than density relaxation times of the binary liquid. Here we propose a theoretical scheme to quantify the lifetime and thus the stability of these microheterogeneous clusters, and apply the scheme to calculate the same for water-ethanol, water-DMSO, and water-TBA mixtures. We show that the lifetime of these clusters can range from less than a picosecond (ps) for ethanol clusters to few tens of ps for DMSO and TBA clusters. This helps explaining the absence of a strong composition dependent anomaly in water-ethanol mixtures but the presence of the same in water-DMSO and water-TBA mixtures.

  7. Common Issues and Collaborative Solutions: A Comparison of Student Alcohol Use Behaviors at the Community College and 4-Year Institutional Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Jerimy

    2009-01-01

    The literature exploring commonalities between four-year and community college student alcohol use is relatively scarce. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the heavy focus on alcohol issues at university colleges. Coll (1999) presented one of the first brief assessments comparing community and four-year colleges on alcohol use and related…

  8. Gender-based Violence, Alcohol use, and Sexual Risk Among Female Patrons of Drinking Venues in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior. PMID:22526526

  9. Anharmonic densities of states: A general dynamics-based solution.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Julius; Aleinikava, Darya

    2016-06-01

    Density of states is a fundamental physical characteristic that lies at the foundation of statistical mechanics and theoretical constructs that derive from them (e.g., kinetic rate theories, phase diagrams, and others). Even though most real physical systems are anharmonic, the vibrational density of states is customarily treated within the harmonic approximation, or with some partial, often limited, account for anharmonicity. The reason for this is that the problem of anharmonic densities of states stubbornly resisted a general and exact, yet convenient and straightforward in applications, solution. Here we formulate such a solution within both classical and quantum mechanics. It is based on actual dynamical behavior of systems as a function of energy and as observed, or monitored, on a chosen time scale, short or long. As a consequence, the resulting anharmonic densities of states are fully dynamically informed and, in general, time-dependent. As such, they lay the ground for formulation of new statistical mechanical frameworks that incorporate time and are ergodic, by construction, with respect to actual dynamical behavior of systems. PMID:27276941

  10. Hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub consumption.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Kearney, M P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub on monthly hospital antibiotic usage, retrospectively. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate the monthly use of all antibiotics grouped together with age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub over a 5-year period (April 2005-March 2010). The results showed that monthly antibiotic use was positively related to the age-adjusted comorbidity index (concomitant effect, coefficient 1·103, P = 0·0002), and negatively related to the use of alcohol-based hand rub (2-month delay, coefficient -0·069, P = 0·0533). Alcohol-based hand rub is considered a modifiable factor and as such can be identified as a target for quality improvement programmes. Time-series analysis may provide a suitable methodology for identifying possible predictive variables that explain antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Future research should examine the relationship between infection control practices and antibiotic use, identify other infection control predictive factors for hospital antibiotic use, and evaluate the impact of enhancing different infection control practices on antibiotic use in a healthcare setting. PMID:23657218

  11. Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Service: Impact on Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Transports at a Small Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…

  12. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  13. Adsorption of organic molecules at the mercury-solution interface: effect of anion specific adsorption on double layer properties. [Benzyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Buckfelder, J.J. III

    1980-08-01

    Adsorption of iso-pentanol, pentanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol at the mercury-solution interface was studied in HC1O/sub 4/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaNO/sub 3/, and NaF electrolytes. The Frumkin isotherm equation Ba = (theta/(1-theta))exp(2..cap alpha..theta) together with the implied charge vs. surface excess relation: q = (1-theta)q/sub w/ + thetaQ were used to analyze the experimental data. Linear charge vs surface excess plots were obtained for the aliphatic compounds over the entire potential region studied; for benzyl alcohol, plots were linear only at anodic potentials. The slopes of these lines agreed with those predicted by the above equation, with Q = C/sub org/(V-V/sub n/), for cathodic potentials. At potentials anodic to the electrocapillary maximum, deviations between experimental and theoretical slopes appeared. In the model proposed, the double layer consists of two parts. The layer closest to the surface is restricted to water molecules and specifically adsorbed ions. The second layer contains organic molecules exclusively; any charge necessary to balance the surface charge is considered to be in a monolayer adjacent to the organic layer. From the slope of the charge vs surface excess plots, it is possible to calculate the charge on the covered portion of the surface and then calculate the amount of specific adsorption. The relative amounts of specific adsorption are in agreement with known strengths of adsorption of the anions of the electrolyte. Capacity curves were also calculated and were in good agreement with experimental curves.

  14. Web-based intervention to change perceived norms of college student alcohol use and sexual behavior on spring break.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an adapted web-based multi-component personalized feedback intervention to reduce college student alcohol use and risky sexual behavior during Spring Break. This is one of the first interventions focused on Spring Break alcohol use and related sexual behavior. Personalized feedback intervention components addressed intentions, expected consequences, norms, motivations, protective behavioral strategies, and pacts with friends. Participants were college students (N=263; 55% women) between the ages of 18 and 21 who planned to go on a Spring Break trip with their friends. Effects were not significant in reducing alcohol use or sexual behavior during Spring Break or some of the proposed intervention mechanisms. However, consistent results showed that the intervention succeeded in reducing perceived social norms for Spring Break drinking and sexual behavior. Findings suggest that changing norms alone is not sufficient for changing risk behavior during this event and alternative strategies are needed to impact other putative mediators.

  15. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  16. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  17. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

    2014-11-01

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. PMID:25241068

  18. Characteristics of nano-sized yttria powder synthesized by a polyvinyl alcohol solution route at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Jung, Choong-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Nano-sized yttria (Y2O3) powders were successfully synthesized at a low temperature of 400 degrees C by a simple polymer solution route. PVA polymer, as an organic carrier, contributed to an atom-scale homogeneous precursor gel and it resulted in fully crystallized, nano-sized yttria powder with high specific surface area through the low temperature calcination. In this process, the content of PVA, calcination temperature and heating time affected the microstructure and crystallization behavior of the powders. The development of crystalline phase and the final particle size were strongly dependant on the oxidation reaction from the polymer burn-out step and the PVA content. In this paper, the PVA solution technique for the fabrication of nano-sized yttria powders is introduced. The effects of PVA content and holding time on the powder morphology and powder specific surface area are also studied. The characterization of the synthesized powders is examined by using XRD, DTA/TG, SEM, TEM and nitrogen gas adsorption. The yttria powder synthesized from the PVA content of 3:1 ratio and calcined at 400 degrees C had a crystallite size of about 20 nm or less with a high surface areas of 93.95-120.76 m2 g(-1).

  19. The effect of thiolated additives on the properties of wheat gluten based plastics, aqueous solutions and electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing

    Wheat gluten (WG) is a promising substitute for petroleum-based plastics due to its unique ability to form a cohesive blend with viscoelastic properties once plasticized. Previous work blending WG with thiolated poly(vinyl alcohol) (TPVA) showed that both the strength and elongation of compression molded native WG bars can be improved via thiol/disulfide interchange reactions between WG and TPVA. In this study, the morphology of WG/TPVA blends was investigated by atomic force (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as by modulated dynamic scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Consistent with our earlier results, AFM and TEM imaging clearly indicated that TPVA is much more compatible with WG compared with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) although there are still two phases in the blend: one WG rich phase and another TPVA rich phase. TPVA was also blended with WG in an aqueous solvent (1/1 (v/v) water/1-propanol mixture) to improve its solubility and spinnability. Control experiments were conducted with PVA and dithiothreitol (DTT) for comparison purposes. The concentration and the thiolation level of TPVA were also varied to explore the parameter space. The interactions of thiol groups from TPVA and soluble WG were found to be important during electrospinning. The fiber diameter became more uniform and the fiber quality increased very noticeably when TPVA was included. Furthermore, the time-dependent rheology behaviors of TPVA/WG and DTT/WG electrospinning solutions were investigated by using steady shear sweeps, oscillatory frequency sweeps, SE-HPLC and free -SH content determination. A two-step mechanism of interaction was proposed for DTT/WG and TPVA/WG solutions based on current results and other earlier studies. In comparison with WG and PVA/WG solutions, the reduction and reformation of disulfide linkages in both TPVA/WG and DTT/WG solutions were believed to play a key role in determining the rheological properties and molecular weight distribution of WG

  20. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01–90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b–effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b–effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater. PMID:26887357

  1. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens' information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  2. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens’ information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  3. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-12-24

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens' information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing.

  4. Alcohol Dimer is Requisite to Form an Alkyl Oxonium Ion in the Proton Transfer of a Strong (Photo)Acid to Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Young Min; Kwac, Kijeong; Jung, Yousung; Kwon, Oh-Hoon

    2016-03-18

    Alcohols, the simplest amphiprotic organic compounds, can exhibit either acidic or basic behavior by donating or accepting a proton. In this study, proton dissociation of a model photoacid in solution is explored by using time-resolved spectroscopy, revealing quantitatively for the first time that alcohol acts as a Brønsted base because of H-bonded cluster formation to enhance the reactivity. The protonated alcohol cluster, the alkyl oxonium ion, can be regarded as a key reaction intermediate in the well-established alcohol dehydration reaction. This finding signifies, as in water, the cooperativity of protic solvent molecules to facilitate nonaqueous acid-base reactions. PMID:26757097

  5. Bringing the Evidence Base to the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelling, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The National Drug Sector Information Service is committed to supporting those who work to prevent or reduce the harm to individuals, families, communities and the nation caused by alcohol and other drugs. This paper describes a project to assist particular members of the alcohol and other drugs sector to improve quality and the transfer of…

  6. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use.

  7. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. PMID:22832324

  8. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  9. Synthesis, micellization behavior and alcohol induced amphipathic cellulose film of cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Liu, Ya-nan; Yu, Jian-ling; Li, Hai-peng; Li, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presented a novel preparation method of the cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant, and the surfactant was used to prepare amphipathic cellulose membrane. The native cotton cellulose was tailored to cellulose segments in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Then, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification of cellulose segments were carried out by esterification and graft polymerization of the ɛ-caprolactone (ɛ-CL) monomer onto the hydroxyl group of cellulose as well as sulphonation with sulfamic acid. The amphipathic cellulose membrane was made by cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The molecular structure of amphipathic cellulose surfactant was confirmed by FT-IR, and its surface active properties were investigated by Wilhelmy plate method and Steady-state fluorescence probe method, respectively. Experimental results showed that cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant caused low interfacial tension of 48.62 mN/m and its critical micelle concentration (cmc) value was 0.65 wt% when the grafting ratio of cellulose-g-PCL (poly-caprolactone) was 25.40%. The contact angle between a droplet of water and the surface of membrane was 90.84o, and the surface free energy of the alcohol induced cellulose membrane was 15.7 mJ/m2. This study may help increase using natural and biodegradable surface-activity materials with improved properties as surfactants.

  10. Synthesis, micellization behavior and alcohol induced amphipathic cellulose film of cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Liu, Ya-nan; Yu, Jian-ling; Li, Hai-peng; Li, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presented a novel preparation method of the cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant, and the surfactant was used to prepare amphipathic cellulose membrane. The native cotton cellulose was tailored to cellulose segments in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Then, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification of cellulose segments were carried out by esterification and graft polymerization of the ɛ-caprolactone (ɛ-CL) monomer onto the hydroxyl group of cellulose as well as sulphonation with sulfamic acid. The amphipathic cellulose membrane was made by cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The molecular structure of amphipathic cellulose surfactant was confirmed by FT-IR, and its surface active properties were investigated by Wilhelmy plate method and Steady-state fluorescence probe method, respectively. Experimental results showed that cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant caused low interfacial tension of 48.62 mN/m and its critical micelle concentration (cmc) value was 0.65 wt% when the grafting ratio of cellulose-g-PCL (poly-caprolactone) was 25.40%. The contact angle between a droplet of water and the surface of membrane was 90.84o, and the surface free energy of the alcohol induced cellulose membrane was 15.7 mJ/m2. This study may help increase using natural and biodegradable surface-activity materials with improved properties as surfactants.

  11. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses.

  12. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  13. In vivo efficacy of an alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectant containing a synergistic combination of ethylhexylglycerin and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, T A; Geraldo, I; Shintre, M; Modak, S M

    2006-08-01

    Alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants are widely available in healthcare settings. Some currently marketed alcohol-based products use active concentrations of antimicrobials to achieve the required efficacy, raising the risk for exposure to potentially irritating levels of antimicrobials. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of an alcohol-based surgical hand preparation containing 70% ethanol and preservative levels of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and benzalkonium chloride (BZK) in synergistic combination with ethylhexylglycerin (Surgicept) with a surgical hand disinfectant containing 61% ethanol and 1% CHG (Avagard). The in vivo efficacy of Surgicept and Avagard was evaluated in volunteers using the Tentative Final Monograph method of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and their prolonged effect against transient pathogens was compared using a pig skin model. Surgicept exceeded the FDA requirements for surgical hand antiseptic with mean log(10) reductions of 2.36, 3.3 and 3.54 in resident flora 1 min after initial application, and showed a persistent effect with mean log(10) reductions of 2.23, 2.73 and 3.3, 6h post application on days 1, 2 and 5, respectively. Surgicept showed a superior prolonged effect against transient bacteria compared with Avagard. Surgicept (70% alcohol and preservative levels of CHG and BZK) may provide similar in vivo efficacy as Avagard (61% ethanol and 1% CHG).

  14. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:26276763

  15. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption.

  16. An Ecologically Based Model of Alcohol-Consumption Decision Making: Evidence for the Discriminative and Predictive Role of Contextual Reward and Punishment Information*

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. Method: The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). Results: The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. PMID:19371496

  17. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  18. General base catalysis in a glutamine for histidine mutant at position 51 of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ehrig, T; Hurley, T D; Edenberg, H J; Bosron, W F

    1991-01-29

    On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase determined by X-ray crystallography, His 51 has been proposed to act as a general base during catalysis by abstracting a proton from the alcohol substrate. A hydrogen-bonding system (proton relay system) connecting the alcohol substrate and His 51 has been proposed to mediate proton transfer. We have mutated His 51 to Gln in the homologous human liver beta 1 beta 1 alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme which is expected to have a similar proton relay system. The mutation resulted in an about 6-fold drop in V/Kb (Vmax for ethanol oxidation divided by Km for ethanol) at pH 7.0 and a 12-fold drop at pH 6.5. V/Kb could be restored completely or partially by the presence of high concentrations of glycylglycine, glycine, and phosphate buffers. A Brønsted plot of the effect on V/Kb versus the pKa of these bases plus H2O and OH- was linear. Only secondary or tertiary amine buffers differed from linearity, presumably due to steric hindrance. These results suggest that His 51 acts as a general base catalyst during alcohol oxidation in the wild-type enzyme and can be functionally replaced in the mutant enzyme by general base catalysts present in the solvent. Steady-state kinetic constants for NAD+ and the trifluoroethanol inhibition patterns were similar between the wild-type and the mutant enzyme. Differences in the inhibition constants (Ki) of caprate and trifluoroethanol below pH 7.8 and in the pH dependence of Ki can be explained by the substitution of neutral Gln for positively charged His. PMID:1989677

  19. Effectiveness of brief school-based interventions for adolescents: A meta-analysis of alcohol use prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of school-based brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) among adolescents, and to examine possible iatrogenic effects due to deviancy training in group-delivered interventions. Method A systematic search for eligible studies was undertaken, current through December 31, 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they used an experimental/quasi-experimental design; focused on school-based BAIs; enrolled adolescent participants; and reported an alcohol-related outcome measure. Studies were coded for key variables, and outcome effect sizes were analyzed as standardized mean differences adjusted for small samples (Hedges’ g). Analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted mixed effects meta-regression models. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results Across all 17 studies eligible for inclusion, school-based BAIs were associated with significant improvements among adolescents, whereby adolescents in the BAI groups reduced their alcohol consumption relative to the control groups (ḡ = 0.34, 95% CI [0.11, 0.56]). Subgroup analyses indicated that whereas individually-delivered BAIs were effective (ḡ = 0.58, 95% CI [0.23, 0.92]), there was no evidence that group-delivered BAIs were associated with reductions in alcohol use (ḡ = −0.02, 95% CI [−0.17, 0.14]). Delivery format was confounded with program modality, however, such that motivational enhancement therapy was the most effective modality, but was rarely implemented in group-delivered interventions. Conclusions Some school-based BAIs are effective in reducing adolescent alcohol consumption, but may be ineffective if delivered in group settings. Future research should explore whether group-delivered BAIs that use motivational enhancement therapy components may yield beneficial outcomes like those observed in individually-delivered programs. PMID:25294110

  20. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  1. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    PubMed

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-07-23

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions.

  2. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    PubMed Central

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  3. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    PubMed

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  4. The Interactive Effects of Emotion Regulation and Alcohol Intoxication on Lab-Based Intimate Partner Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Laura E.; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C.

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt’s (2013) I3 framework to examine the interactive effects of two emotion regulation strategies, anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor), on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants’ trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while employing one of three randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I3 theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  5. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  6. A potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor based on immobilization of alcohol oxidase on acryloxysuccinimide-modified acrylic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor's analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3-316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R(2) = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor's performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  7. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods. PMID:22163450

  8. Guided and Unguided Internet-Based Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use – A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Johansson, Magnus; Blankers, Matthijs; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Stenlund-Gens, Erik; Berman, Anne H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. Methods An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of ≥ 6 for women and ≥ 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. Results In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Conclusion Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more

  9. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  10. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  11. Modeling Project Management Competences: An Ontology-Based Solution for Competency-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodea, Constanţa-Nicoleta; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana

    Due to growing requirements for skilled workers, the education should value the outcome and address students' real performance in life. A learning process turns out to be good when the degree of transformation made possible through that process is high or the degree of competences increases. Current paper indicates e-learning as a suitable activity for competences development. The authors also argue that a proper competences modeling solution would increase the efficiency of competence-based learning. Consequently, an ontology based solution is presented for project management domain.

  12. Influence of ultrasonic frequency on Swan band sonoluminescence and sonochemical activity in aqueous tert-butyl alcohol solutions.

    PubMed

    Pflieger, Rachel; Ndiaye, Abdoul Aziz; Chave, Tony; Nikitenko, Sergey I

    2015-01-01

    The multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) spectra of t-BuOH aqueous solutions submitted to power ultrasound at 20, 204, 362, and 613 kHz show emissions for the Δυ = -1 to Δυ = +2 vibrational sequences of C2* Swan system (d(3)Πg → a(3)Πu). The Δυ=+2 emission overlaps with the CH(A-X) emission band. The maximal Swan band emission is observed when the MBSL of water itself is almost completely quenched. In general, MBSL is more intense at high-frequency compared to 20 kHz ultrasound. However, in the presence of Xe, the MBSL of C2* at 20 kHz is so bright that it can be seen by the unaided eye as a blue glow in the close vicinity of the ultrasonic tip. The intensity of the C2* band emission exhibits a maximum vs t-BuOH concentration: 0.1-0.2 M at 20 kHz and (1-8) × 10(-3) M at high-frequency ultrasound. Such a huge difference is attributed to a much smaller bubble size at high ultrasonic frequency or, in other words, to a much higher bubble surface/volume ratio providing more efficient saturation of the bubble interior with t-BuOH vapors and to the fact that high frequency bubbles remain active for many more cycles than 20 kHz ones, thus accumulating more hydrocarbon decomposition products. Simulation of the emission spectra using Specair software demonstrated the absence of thermal equilibrium for C2* radicals (Tv > Tr), where Tv and Tr are the vibrational and the rotational temperature, respectively. In Ar, Tv decreases with increasing t-BuOH concentration reaching a steady value in the concentration domain that corresponds to C2* emission maximum intensity. In the presence of Xe an extremely high Tv is obtained, which is explained by the relatively low ionization potential of Xe providing a higher electron temperature of nonequilibrium plasma generated during bubble collapse. Analysis of the gaseous products of t-BuOH sonolysis reveals a significant sonochemical activity even at high t-BuOH concentration when MBSL is totally quenched, indicating that drastic

  13. Two RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chung; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    2012-10-01

    Medication error can easily cause serious health damage to inpatients in hospital. Consequently, the whole society has to spend huge amount of extra resources for additional therapies and medication on those affected inpatients. In order to prevent medication errors, secure inpatient medication administration system is required in a hospital. Using RFID technology, such administration system provides automated medication verification for inpatient's medicine doses and generates corresponding medication evidence, which may be audited later for medical dispute. Recently, Peris-Lopez et al. (Int. J. Med. Inform., 2011) proposed an IS-RFID system to enhance inpatient medication safety. Nevertheless, IS-RFID system does not detect the denial of proof attack efficiently and the generated medication evidence cannot defend against counterfeit evidence generated from the hospital. That is, the hospital possesses enough privilege from the design of IS-RFID system to modify generated medication evidence whenever it is necessary. Hence, we design two lightweight RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration, one for online verification environment and the other for offline validation situation, to achieve system security on evidence generation and provide early detection on denial of proof attack.

  14. Radiation effects on viscosimetry of protein based solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    Due to their good functional properties allied to their excellent nutritional value, milk protein isolates and soy protein concentrates have gained a crescent interest. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as gamma irradiation, alone or in presence of other compounds, as a plasticizer. In this work, solutions of those proteins were mixed with a generally recognized as safe plasticizer, glycerol. These mixtures (8% protein (w/v) base) at two ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to a gamma irradiation treatment ( 60Co), at doses 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy, and their rheological performance was studied. As irradiation dose increased viscosity measurements decayed significantly ( p<0.05) for mixture soy/glycerol and calcium caseinate/glycerol. The mixture sodium caseinate/glycerol showed a trend to form aggregation of macromolecules with dose of 5 kGy, while the apparent viscosity for dispersions containing whey/glycerol remained almost constant as irradiation dose increases. In the case of soy protein isolate and sodium caseinate, a mixture of 2:1 showed a significant higher viscosity ( p<0.05) than a mixture of 1:1.

  15. A comparison of solute-transport solution techniques based on inverse modelling results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Five common numerical techniques (finite difference, predictor-corrector, total-variation-diminishing, method-of-characteristics, and modified-method-of-characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using randomly distributed homogeneous blocks of five sand types. This experimental model provides an outstanding opportunity to compare the solution techniques because of the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution of known structure, and the availability of detailed measurements with which to compare simulated concentrations. The present work uses this opportunity to investigate how three common types of results-simulated breakthrough curves, sensitivity analysis, and calibrated parameter values-change in this heterogeneous situation, given the different methods of simulating solute transport. The results show that simulated peak concentrations, even at very fine grid spacings, varied because of different amounts of numerical dispersion. Sensitivity analysis results were robust in that they were independent of the solution technique. They revealed extreme correlation between hydraulic conductivity and porosity, and that the breakthrough curve data did not provide enough information about the dispersivities to estimate individual values for the five sands. However, estimated hydraulic conductivity values are significantly influenced by both the large possible variations in model dispersion and the amount of numerical dispersion present in the solution technique.Five common numerical techniques (finite difference, predictor-corrector, total-variation-diminishing, method-of-characteristics, and modified-method-of-characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using randomly

  16. Radiation sensitive indicator based on tetrabromophenol blue dyed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshir, W. B.

    2013-05-01

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing acid- sensitive dye (tetrabromophenol blue, TBPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl3·CH·(OH)2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo color change from blue (the alkaline form of TBPB) to yellow (the acidic form of TBPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maximum of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 8 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 0 to 70% as good post irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature. The overall combined uncertainty (at 2σ) associated with measurement of response (ΔA mm-1) at 623 nm for dose range 1-8 kGy is 4.53%.

  17. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited. PMID:21976190

  18. Multiwall carbon nanotube polyvinyl alcohol-based saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Ismail, M F; Hassan, S N M; Ahmad, F; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W

    2014-10-20

    In this work, we demonstrated a compact Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser capable of generating high-energy pulses using a newly developed multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film based saturable absorber. Q-switched pulse operation is obtained by sandwiching the thin film between two fiber ferrules forming a saturable absorber. A saturable absorber with 1.25 wt. % of PVA concentration shows a consistency in generating pulsed laser with a good range of tunable repetition rate, shortest pulse width, and produces a high pulse energy and peak power. The pulse train generated has a maximum repetition rate of 29.9 kHz with a corresponding pulse width of 3.49 μs as a function of maximum pump power of 32.15 mW. The maximum average output power of the Q-switched fiber laser system is 1.49 mW, which translates to a pulse energy of 49.8 nJ. The proposed method of multiwall CNT/PVA thin film fabrication is low in cost and involves uncomplicated processes. PMID:25402790

  19. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  20. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  1. Synthesis of magnetic and multiferroic materials from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes results on the synthesis of the magnetic materials including modified nickel ferrite (Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ), yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), lanthanum-containing manganites (MxLa1-xMnO3 (M=Pb, Ba or Sr; x=0.3-0.35)), and multiferroics (BiFeO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3) from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels. It is shown that the ammonium nitrate accelerates destruction of organic components of xerogels and thus Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ and BiFeO3 can be prepared at record low temperatures (100 and 250 °C, respectively) which are 200-300 °C lower compared to the process where air is used as an oxidizing agent. As for the synthesis of Y3Fe5O12, MxLa1-xMnO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, the presence of NH4NO3 favors formation of foreign phases, which ultimately complicate reaction mechanisms and lead to the higher temperature to synthesize target products. Developed methods provide nanoscale magnetic and multiferroic materials with an average particle size of ∼20-50 nm.

  2. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  3. Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

    2012-06-01

    A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy.

  4. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE) are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776) subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a) had daily use, (b) commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c) those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day). Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:22204498

  5. Cortical and subcortical gray matter shrinkage in alcohol-use disorders: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Tian, Fangfang; Zhang, Handi; Zeng, Jianguang; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Song; Jia, Zhiyun; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-07-01

    Although gray matter (GM) damages caused by long term and excessive alcohol consumption have long been reported, the structural neuroimaging findings on alcohol-use disorders (AUD) are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis, using a novel voxel-based meta-analytic method effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM), to characterize GM changes in AUD patients. Twelve studies including 433 AUD patients and 498 healthy controls (HCs) were retrieved. The AUD group demonstrated significant GM reductions in the corticostriatal-limbic circuits, including bilateral insula, superior temporal gyrus, striatum, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left thalamus and right hippocampus compared to HCs. GM reduction in the right striatum is significantly negatively related to duration of alcohol dependence, while GM shrinkage of the left superior, middle frontal gyrus, and left thalamus is related to lifetime alcohol consumption. The findings demonstrate that the GM abnormalities caused by AUD are in corticostriatal-limbic circuits whose dysfunctions may involve in craving and observed functional deficits. PMID:27108216

  6. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  7. Solute-Solvent Energetics Based on Proximal Distribution Functions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2016-08-25

    We consider the hydration structure and thermodynamic energetics of solutes in aqueous solution. On the basis of the dominant local correlation between the solvent and the chemical nature of the solute atoms, proximal distribution functions (pDF) can be used to quantitatively estimate the hydration pattern of the macromolecules. We extended this technique to study the solute-solvent energetics including the van der Waals terms representing excluded volume and tested the method with butane and propanol. Our results indicate that the pDF-reconstruction algorithm can reproduce van der Waals solute-solvent interaction energies to useful kilocalorie per mole accuracy. We subsequently computed polyalanine-water interaction energies for a variety of conformers, which also showed agreement with the simulated values. PMID:27095487

  8. Evaluation of a Brief Web-Based Genetic Feedback Intervention for Reducing Alcohol-Related Health Risks Associated with ALDH2

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Jacqueline M.; Collins, Susan E.; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in health interventions that incorporate genetic risk information. Although genetic feedback has been evaluated as an adjunct to smoking cessation interventions, its efficacy for reducing alcohol-related risks is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a web-based alcohol intervention incorporating genetic feedback and risk information specific to ALDH2 genotype. The ALDH2*2 variant is associated with partial protection against alcohol dependence but confers significantly increased risk for alcohol-related cancers as a function of alcohol exposure. Two hundred Asian-American young adults were randomly assigned to receive web-based personalized genetic feedback or attention-control feedback. Genetic feedback included health risk information specific to alcohol-related cancer or alcohol dependence, depending on genotype. Outcomes included postintervention drinking behavior and theoretical correlates of behavior change. Genetic feedback and risk information resulted in significant reductions in 30-day drinking frequency and quantity among participants with the ALDH2*1/*2 genotype. Genetic feedback was rated highly by participants and also showed some effects on theoretical correlates of behavior change. Results provide initial evidence of the feasibility, acceptability, and brief efficacy of web-based genetic feedback for reducing alcohol-related health risks associated with ALDH2 genotype. PMID:20652463

  9. A School with Solutions: Implementing a Solution-Focused/Adlerian-Based Comprehensive School Counseling Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFountain, Rebecca M.; Garner, Nadine E.

    This book explains how counselors can integrate the theories of solution focused and Adlerian counseling into a comprehensive developmental counseling curriculum. Following an introduction in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 explains how support needs to be developed among the staff to implement a comprehensive school program. The comprehensive developmental…

  10. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  11. Relaxor-based solid solutions for piezoelectric and electrostrictive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberta, Edward F.

    This thesis explores the dielectric, piezoelectric, and electrostrictive properties of a number of relaxor ferroelectric-based solid solution systems. The components of these solid solution systems have a variety of characteristics ranging from normal- to relaxor- to anti-ferroelectric. Some of the relaxor end-members investigated were Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 [PIN], Pb(In1/2Ta1/2)O3 [PIT], Pb(Sc 1/2Nb1/2)O3 [PSN], Pb(Ni1/3Nb 2/3)O3 [PNN], Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O 3 [PMN], and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 [PZN]. Several of these systems have Curie temperatures [Tc] that are among the highest known for MPB compositions. Some examples are PIN-0.38PT with a Tc of 319°C, PIT-0.38PT with a Tc of 248°C, and PSN 0.42PT with a Tc of 254°C. While these are slightly lower that those of typically found in PZT, the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric properties was found to be minimal. The electromechanical coupling coefficients were largely unchanged upon heating to as high as 150°C. This is approximately equal to the Tc of PMN-PT and PZN-PT and significantly exceeds the generally accepted maximum operating temperature for these materials. Many of the materials studied were found to have very large electromechanical coupling factors and produce extraordinarily high field-induced strains. Both PSN-0.42PT and PNN-0.15PZ-0.34PT were found to produce strain levels of ˜0.30% under unipolar drive with limited hysteresis. Peak-to-peak strain levels of as much as 0.60% were possible under bipolar drive conditions. Both of these MPB compositions had very large piezoelectric properties, with the slightly larger values of d33 = 810pC/N, kp = 0.69, kt = 0.56, and k33 = 0.80 occurring in PNN-PZ-PT. Each of the MPB compositions studied has features that can be exploited for specific applications. The combination of high Tc and coercive field found in both PIN-PT and Bi(Ni1/2T1/2)O3 -PT should allow these materials to be used at high drive levels and/or at high temperatures. The high strain, low hysteresis

  12. Risk of Depressive Disorder following Non-Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Hung, Yi-Ping; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Hu, Yu-Wen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims To evaluate the risk of depressive disorders among non-alcoholic patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a matched cohort of 52 725 participants (10 545 non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 42 180 control patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 11 years to determine the rates of newly onset depressive disorders, and Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with depressive disorders in cirrhotic patients. Results During the 11-year follow-up period, 395 (3.75%) non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 1 183 (2.80%) control patients were diagnosed with depressive disorders. The incidence risk ratio of depressive disorders between non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and control patients was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57–1.98, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients were 1.75 times more likely to develop depressive disorders (95% CI, 1.56–1.96, P<.001) compared with the control patients. The hazard ratios for patients younger than 60 years old (1.31) and female (1.25) indicated that each is an independent risk factor for depressive disorders in non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Conclusions The likelihood of developing depressive disorders is greater among non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients than among patients without cirrhosis. Symptoms of depression should be sought in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24533141

  13. Electron-transfer reaction of cinnamic acids and their methyl esters with the DPPH(*) radical in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Foti, Mario C; Daquino, Carmelo; Geraci, Corrada

    2004-04-01

    The kinetic behavior of cinnamic acids, their methyl esters, and two catechols 1-10 (ArOH) in the reaction with DPPH(*) in methanol and ethanol is not compatible with a reaction mechanism that involves hydrogen atom abstraction from the hydroxyl group of 1-10 by DPPH(*). The rate of this reaction at 25 degrees C is, in fact, comparatively fast despite that the phenolic OH group of ArOH is hydrogen bonded to solvent molecules. The observed rate constants (k(1)) relative to DPPH(*) + ArOH are 3-5 times larger for the methyl esters than for the corresponding free acids and, for the latter, decrease as their concentration is increased according to the relation k(1) = B/[ArOH](0)(m), where k(1) is given in units of M(-1) s(-1), m is ca. 0.5, and B ranges from 0.02 (p-coumaric acid) to ca. 3.48 (caffeic acid) in methanol and from 0.04 (p-coumaric acid) to ca. 13 (sinapic acid) in ethanol. Apparently, the reaction mechanism of DPPH(*) + ArOH involves a fast electron-transfer process from the phenoxide anion of 1-10 to DPPH(*). Kinetic analysis of the reaction sequence for the free acids leads to an expression for the observed rate constant, k(1), proportional to [ArOH](0)(-1/2) in excellent agreement with the experimental behavior of these phenols. The experimental results are also interpreted in terms of the influence that adventitious acids or bases present in the solvent may have. These impurities dramatically influence the ionization equilibrium of phenols and cause a reduction or an enhancement, respectively, of the measured rate constants. PMID:15049623

  14. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jürgen; Parker, Jeffrey; à Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes.

  15. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide 'Na Toll!' campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12-20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  16. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide ‘Na Toll!’ campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12–20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  17. Direct voxel-based comparisons between grey matter shrinkage and glucose hypometabolism in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène; Pitel, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Alcoholism is associated with widespread brain structural abnormalities affecting mainly the frontocerebellar and the Papez's circuits. Brain glucose metabolism has received limited attention, and few studies used regions of interest approach and showed reduced global brain metabolism predominantly in the frontal and parietal lobes. Even though these studies have examined the relationship between grey matter shrinkage and hypometabolism, none has performed a direct voxel-by-voxel comparison between the degrees of structural and metabolic abnormalities. Seventeen alcoholic patients and 16 control subjects underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography examinations. Structural abnormalities and hypometabolism were examined in alcoholic patients compared with control subjects using two-sample t-tests. Then, these two patterns of brain damage were directly compared with a paired t-test. Compared to controls, alcoholic patients had grey matter shrinkage and hypometabolism in the fronto-cerebellar circuit and several nodes of Papez's circuit. The direct comparison revealed greater shrinkage than hypometabolism in the cerebellum, cingulate cortex, thalamus and hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Conversely, hypometabolism was more severe than shrinkage in the dorsolateral, premotor and parietal cortices. The distinct profiles of abnormalities found within the Papez's circuit, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the parietal gyrus in chronic alcoholism suggest the involvement of different pathological mechanisms. PMID:26661206

  18. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  20. Analysis of the structure of aqueous solutions of isopropanol based on optical, volumetric, and elastic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, A. I.; Lanshina, L. V.

    2015-07-01

    The curve of the concentration dependence of the total molecular light scattering coefficient of xC3H7OH-(1 - x)H2O solutions showed two sharp maxima (at x = 0.04 and 0.09) and a minimum at x = 0.06 mole fractions, suggesting a considerable rearrangement of the structure of the solutions near these concentrations. The concentration dependences of excess molar volume, adiabatic compressibility, and molar refraction showed negative deviations from the ideal with a minimum in the range x = 0.18-0.3. The structure of water was assumed to undergo a rearrangement at x = 0.04 accompanied by structural fluctuations, which dispersed at 0.04 < x < 0.06. At x = 0.06, associates of isopropanol molecules started to form, whose number and size increased linearly up to x = 0.13. In the 0.13 < x < 0.35 concentration range, some kind of an aqueous alcohol emulsion containing pure alcohol "nanodrops" formed and the solutions became microheterogeneous.

  1. Conical intersections of free energy surfaces in solution: Effect of electron correlation on a protonated Schiff base in methanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Toshifumi; Nakano, Katsuhiro; Kato, Shigeki

    2010-08-14

    The minimum energy conical intersection (MECI) optimization method with taking account of the dynamic electron correlation effect [T. Mori and S. Kato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 97 (2009)] is extended to locate the MECI of nonequilibrium free energy surfaces in solution. A multistate electronic perturbation theory is introduced into the nonequilibrium free energy formula, which is defined as a function of solute and solvation coordinates. The analytical free energy gradient and interstate coupling vectors are derived, and are applied to locate MECIs in solution. The present method is applied to study the cis-trans photoisomerization reaction of a protonated Schiff base molecule (PSB3) in methanol (MeOH) solution. It is found that the effect of dynamic electron correlation largely lowers the energy of S{sub 1} state. We also show that the solvation effect strongly stabilizes the MECI obtained by twisting the terminal C=N bond to become accessible in MeOH solution, whereas the conical intersection is found to be unstable in gas phase. The present study indicates that both electron correlation and solvation effects are important in the photoisomerization reaction of PSB3. The effect of counterion is also examined, and seems to be rather small in solution. The structures of free energy surfaces around MECIs are also discussed.

  2. [Investigation of in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel alcohol based hand rub, MR06B7].

    PubMed

    Okunishi, Junji; Okamoto, Kazuki; Nishihara, Yutaka; Tsujitani, Kumiko; Miura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuse, Hitoshi; Yagi, Toshikazu; Wada, Yuji; Goto, Junko; Seto, Masahiko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol based hand rubs have been used for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Compared with hand scrubbing, using suitable alcohol based hand rub provides several advantages like usability in a ward with no tap, requiring less time and mildly-irritating. Alcohol provides immediate activity, but poor virucidal activity against certain viruses including norovirus. It is important to develop further improved alcohol based hand rubs which have characteristics of sufficient effectiveness, skin-safe and extended spectrum to non-enveloped viruses for infection control. In the study, in vitro microbicidal evaluations and in vivo efficacy evaluation study were investigated to clarify the characteristics of a novel hand antiseptic MR06B7 composed of additives with synergetic activities. MR06B7 showed bactericidal activity of more than 5 Log(10) reduction within 15 sec against 20 challenged strains. MR06B7 also demonstrated potent fungicidal activities at exposure time of 30 sec (more than 4 Log(10) reduction). Against all test viruses including non-enveloped viruses (adenovirus, feline calicivirus, murine norovirus and poliovirus), MR06B7 had excellent virucidal activity to reduce the titer of viability to the limit of detection within 30 sec exposure (more than 4 Log(10) reduction), whereas 83%(v/v) ethanol indicated the inadequate effectiveness. On the clinical study conducted in accordance with standard method for Healthcare Personnel Handwash of American Society for Testing and Materials, MR06B7 showed excellent immediate antimicrobial activity. The result surpassed the critical indices set forth in the FDA's Tentative Final Monograph. These findings suggest MR06B7 which satisfies most requirements of efficacy qualifications including potent virucidal activity against non-enveloped viruses may contribute to accomplish advanced infection control in clinical practice.

  3. Potential and Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioral Data on Adolescent Alcohol Norms: Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter; Allsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method successfully used to research hard-to-access populations. Few studies have explored the use of the Internet and social media with RDS, known as Web-based RDS (WebRDS). This study explored the use of combining both “traditional” RDS and WebRDS to examine the influences on adolescent alcohol use. Objective This paper reports on the recruitment processes and the challenges and enablers of both RDS and WebRDS. It details comparative recruitment data and provides a summary of the utility of both methods for recruiting adolescents to participate in an online survey investigating youth alcohol norms. Methods Process evaluation data collected from research staff throughout the study were used to assess the challenges and solutions of RDS and WebRDS. Pearson chi-square test (Fisher’s exact test if applicable) was used to compare the differences in sociodemographics and drinking behavior between data collected by RDS and WebRDS. Results Of the total sample (N=1012), 232 adolescents were recruited by RDS and 780 by WebRDS. A significantly larger proportion of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (P<.001) participants who spoke English as their main language at home (P=.03), and of middle and lower socioeconomic status (P<.001) was found in the RDS sample. The RDS sample was also found to have a higher occurrence of past 7-day drinking (P<.001) and past 7-day risky drinking (P=.004). No significant differences in gender, age, past month alcohol use, and lifetime alcohol use were observed between the RDS and WebRDS samples. This study revealed RDS and WebRDS used similar lengths of chains for recruiting participants; however, WebRDS conducted a faster rate of recruitment at a lower average cost per participant compared to RDS. Conclusions Using WebRDS resulted in significant improvements in the recruitment rate and was a more effective and efficient use of resources than the traditional RDS method. However, Web

  4. Nitrogen and carbon removal efficiency of a polyvinyl alcohol gel based moving bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Singh, Jasdeep; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Ali, Muntjeer; Rose, Vipin; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads in treating domestic wastewater was investigated: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) configuration (oxic-anoxic and oxic) with 10% filling fraction of biomass carriers was operated in a continuously fed regime at temperatures of 25, 20, 15 and 6 °C with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 32 h, 18 h, 12 h and 9 h, respectively. Influent loadings were in the range of 0.22-1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) (total nitrogen (TN)), 1.48-7.82 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) (organic) and 0.12-0.89 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3)d(-1) (ammonia nitrogen). MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) when the temperature and HRT were 6 °C and 9 h, respectively. The carbon removal rate at this temperature and HRT was 6.82 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Ammonium removal rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.75 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) during the study. Total phosphorus and suspended solid removal efficiency ranged from 84 to 98% and 85 to 94% at an influent concentration of 3.3-7.1 mg/L and 74-356 mg/L, respectively. The sludge wasted from the MBBR exhibited light weight features characterized by sludge volume index value of 185 mL/g. Experimental data obtained can be useful in further developing the concept of PVA gel based wastewater treatment systems.

  5. Impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer intervention on the spread of viruses in homes.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Carlino, Sheri; Edmonds, Sarah; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the movement of a virus throughout a household and the impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) on reducing the movement and exposure of the virus to household members. Bacterial virus MS-2 was used as the surrogate for human enteric and respiratory viruses. Seven households with families having at least two children in the age range of 2-18 living in the home were used in this study. The hands of one adult family member were contaminated with 1 × 10(8). MS-2 bacteriophage in each home. After 8 h, the hands of each family member (10 fingers) and 20 frequently touched fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. Within 8 h, MS-2 was detected on all of the family member's hands and most of the fomites. The intervention consisted of providing the families in all selected homes with bottles of an ABHS, which were placed in the kitchen, bathrooms, and nurseries. Smaller individual bottles were provided for each family member greater than 12 years old to place in purses, pockets, backpacks, etc. The families were instructed to use the ABHS one time or three times during the day. For one and three uses, a statistically significant reduction of virus on un-inoculated and inoculated hands of ~99% occurred within 8 h. Similar reductions occurred on fomites throughout the households (97-99%). These results demonstrate that the use of an ABHS can significantly reduce transfer of a virus to the hands, and to the commonly touched surfaces within the household. PMID:24728950

  6. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  7. Perceptions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – an Asian community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, George B.B.; Kwan, Clarence; Lim, Sze Ying; Venkatanarasimha, Nanda KK; Abu-Bakar, Rafidah; Krishnamoorthy, Thinesh L; Shim, Hang Hock; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Chow, Wan Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is closely related to metabolic syndrome and its risk factors. Worldwide, epidemiological studies have reported NAFLD prevalence rates of 5% to 30% depending on geographical variations. While epidemiological data suggest a progressively increasing prevalence of metabolic risk factors in Singapore, there are limited data about NAFLD per se in the community. We aim to explore the prevalence and perceptions of NAFLD in Singapore. Methods: Attendees at a gastroenterology public forum were enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study evaluating demographic, anthropometric and clinical information. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on sonographic criteria. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation guidelines. Perceptions of NAFLD were explored using a self-administered survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 227 subjects were recruited, with NAFLD being diagnosed in 40% of the cohort. Relative to those without NAFLD, subjects with NAFLD had higher male preponderance, older age, higher body mass index, waist circumference and more metabolic syndrome (all P < 0.05). Although 71.2% subjects had heard about NAFLD before, only 25.4% of them felt that they were at risk of NAFLD. Comparable responses were observed in subjects with no metabolic risk factors relative to subjects with one or more metabolic risk factors (P > 0.05). Of note, 75.6% of subjects with one or more metabolic risk factors did not think that they were at risk of NAFLD. Conclusion: Our study suggests a significant local prevalence of NAFLD in the community including non-obese individuals. Considering the tendency to underestimate risk of NAFLD, enhanced public education about NAFLD is warranted to improve understanding. PMID:26463276

  8. Nitrogen and carbon removal efficiency of a polyvinyl alcohol gel based moving bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Singh, Jasdeep; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Ali, Muntjeer; Rose, Vipin; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads in treating domestic wastewater was investigated: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) configuration (oxic-anoxic and oxic) with 10% filling fraction of biomass carriers was operated in a continuously fed regime at temperatures of 25, 20, 15 and 6 °C with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 32 h, 18 h, 12 h and 9 h, respectively. Influent loadings were in the range of 0.22-1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) (total nitrogen (TN)), 1.48-7.82 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) (organic) and 0.12-0.89 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3)d(-1) (ammonia nitrogen). MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) when the temperature and HRT were 6 °C and 9 h, respectively. The carbon removal rate at this temperature and HRT was 6.82 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Ammonium removal rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.75 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) during the study. Total phosphorus and suspended solid removal efficiency ranged from 84 to 98% and 85 to 94% at an influent concentration of 3.3-7.1 mg/L and 74-356 mg/L, respectively. The sludge wasted from the MBBR exhibited light weight features characterized by sludge volume index value of 185 mL/g. Experimental data obtained can be useful in further developing the concept of PVA gel based wastewater treatment systems. PMID:27054722

  9. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  10. A versatile synthetic approach for the synthesis of CoO, CoxC, and Co based nanocomposites: tuning kinetics and crystal phase with different polyhydric alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Huba, ZJ; Carpenter, EE

    2014-07-04

    The solution synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles allows for precise control of a particle's shape, size, and crystal phase on the nanoscale, key parameters in tuning the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles. In this study, we investigate the role of polyhydric alcohols for the solution synthesis of cobalt carbide nanoparticles, a newly discovered hard ferromagnetic material. The oxidative stability of the polyhydric alcohol at reaction temperatures plays a significant role in the kinetics of carbide formation, as well as the phase produced (Co2C vs. Co3C). By tuning the oxidation rate of the polyhydric alcohol, composites of CoO, CoxC, and Co phases can be produced, allowing for magnetic composites comprised of anti ferromagnetic, hard ferromagnetic and soft ferromagnetic phases.

  11. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  12. Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Meier, Petra; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age. Method Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage. Results We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, p<0.001) and a positive relationship between lower SES and AUDIT-Harm (β = 0.022, p<0.001) and AUDIT-Dependence (β = 0.024, p<0.001) scores. Individual measures of SES displayed different, and non-linear, relationships with AUDIT modules. For example, social-grade and income had a u-shaped relationship with AUDIT-Consumption scores while education had an inverse u-shaped relationship. Almost all measures displayed an exponential relationship with AUDIT-Dependence and AUDIT-Harm scores. We identified moderating effects from age and gender, with AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in men and both AUDIT-Harm and AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in younger age groups. Conclusion Different SES measures appear to influence whether the Alcohol Harm Paradox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or

  13. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G; Ferro, Jose M; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H; Dowling, Nicole F; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R; Price, Jackie F; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dai, James Y; Lanktree, Matthew B; Siscovick, David S; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Schreiner, Pamela J; Ellison, R Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y; Patel, Sanjay R; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John; Davey Smith, George; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie A; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (−0.88 (−1.19 to −0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (−5.2% (−7.8 to −2.4%)), waist circumference (−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1) cm), and body mass index (−0.17 (−0.24 to −0.10) kg/m2). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P=0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for

  14. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Moncher, Michael S.; Parms, Clifford A.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schinke, Steven P.; Miller, Samuel O.; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects’ attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions. PMID:17387376

  15. “I am a Muslim and My Dad is an Alcoholic -- What Should I Do?”: Internet-Based Advice for Muslims about Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Laurence; Trocki, Karen; Katz, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes 113 fatwas (pieces of advice from Muslim scholars) in response to Internet user-contributed questions about correct behavior in situations involving alcohol. The fatwas are from IslamOnline.net, a popular Islamic Web site. Most of the questions on the English site are submitted by individuals living in non-Muslim countries, who are more likely to confront difficult situations relating to alcohol. In spite of the general condemnation of alcohol consumption in Islam, many individuals face ethical dilemmas and feel the need to request advice about proper behavior in situations involving alcohol, relating to the family, society, work, and bodily purity, as well as more abstract theological questions. PMID:20514354

  16. Amino alcohol-derived reduced Schiff base V(IV)O and V(V) compounds as catalysts for asymmetric sulfoxidation of thioanisole with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Adão, Pedro; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Barroso, Sónia; Martins, Ana M; Avecilla, F; Costa Pessoa, João

    2012-11-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of several amino alcohol-derived reduced Schiff base ligands (AORSB) and the corresponding V(IV)O and V(V) complexes. Some of the related Schiff base variants (amino alcohol derived Schiff base = AOSB) were also prepared and characterized. With some exceptions, all compounds are formulated as dinuclear compounds {V(IV)O(L)}(2) in the solid state. Suitable crystals for X-ray diffraction were obtained for two of the AORSB compounds, as well as a rare X-ray structure of a chiral V(IV)O compound, which revealed a dinuclear {V(IV)O(AOSB)}(2) structure with a rather short V-V distance of 3.053(9) Å. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), (51)V NMR, and density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to identify the intervenient species prior to and during catalytic reactions. The quantum-chemical DFT calculations were important to determine the more stable isomers in solution, to explain the EPR data, and to assign the (51)V NMR chemical shifts. The V(AORSB) and V(AOSB) complexes were tested as catalysts in the oxidation of thioanisole, with H(2)O(2) as the oxidant in organic solvents. In general, high conversions of sulfoxide were obtained. The V(AOSB) systems exhibited greater activity and enantioselectivity than their V(AORSB) counterparts. Computational and spectroscopic studies were carried out to assist in the understanding of the mechanistic aspects and the reasons behind such marked differences in activity and enantioselectivity. The quantum-chemical calculations are consistent with experimental data in the assessment of the differences in catalytic activity between V(AOSB) and V(AORSB) peroxido variants because the V(AORSB) peroxido transition states correspond to ca. 22 kJ/mol higher energy activation barriers than their V(AOSB) counterparts. PMID:23092396

  17. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  18. Web-Based Intervention for Alcohol Use in Women of Childbearing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Katia Delrahim

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for more effective assessment and primary prevention programs aimed at accurately measuring and reducing alcohol consumption among women before conception in underserved, high-risk populations. Health Information Technology (HIT) may serve this purpose; however, the effectiveness of such tools is not known. We conducted a…

  19. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  20. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  1. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase and lignocellulosic fibres, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste were moulded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Corn starch was introduced as a bio...

  2. EXPLORING THE BIOTRANSFORMATION POTENTIAL OF FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL-BASED POLYMER FORMULATIONS DURING AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer alcohols have been widely used over the past 50 years in surface protection products for paper, packaging, textile, and carpet goods; in industrial surfactant mixtures; in aqueous fire-fighting foams, and as processing aids during the production of fluoropolymer pla...

  3. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  4. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  5. Parental Monitoring, Peer Activities and Alcohol Use: A Study Based on Data on Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  7. PRAZOSIN REDUCES ALCOHOL INTAKE IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF ALCOHOL RELAPSE

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett; Fischer, Stephen; Wise, Bradley; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many alcoholics and heavy drinkers undergo repeated cycles of alcohol abstinence followed by relapse to alcohol drinking; a pattern that contributes to escalated alcohol intake over time. In rodents, alcohol drinking that is interspersed with periods of alcohol deprivation (imposed abstinence) increases alcohol intake during reaccess to alcohol. This is termed the “alcohol deprivation effect” or “ADE” and is a model of alcohol relapse in humans. We have previously reported that prazosin reduces alcohol drinking during both brief and prolonged treatment in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (“P” rats). This study explores whether prazosin prevents alcohol “relapse” in P rats, as reflected by a reduced or abolished ADE. METHODS Adult male P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v solutions presented concurrently) for 2 hrs/day. After 5 weeks rats underwent imposed alcohol deprivation for 2 weeks, followed by alcohol reaccess for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were injected with prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, IP) once a day for the first 5 days of each alcohol reaccess cycle. RESULTS Alcohol intake increased on the first day of each alcohol reaccess cycle, demonstrating the formation of an ADE. The ADE was short-lived, lasting only 1 day, during each of the three cycles. Prazosin, in all doses tested, prevented the expression of an ADE in all three alcohol reaccess cycles. CONCLUSIONS Prazosin decreases alcohol intake in P rats even in a situation that would be expected to increase alcohol drinking, namely following periods of alcohol deprivation. This suggests that prazosin may be effective in reducing alcohol relapse that often occurs during attempts to achieve permanent alcohol abstinence in treatment-seeking alcoholics and heavy drinkers. PMID:26207767

  8. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  9. Alkali promoted molybdenum (IV) sulfide based catalysts, development and characterization for alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Belinda Delilah

    For more than a century transition metal sulfides (TMS) have been the anchor of hydro-processing fuels and upgrading bitumen and coal in refineries worldwide. As oil supplies dwindle and environmental laws become more stringent, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels and/or synthetic fuels. The depletion of oil reserves and a rapidly increasing energy demand worldwide, together with the interest to reduce dependence on foreign oil makes alcohol production for fuels and chemicals via the Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) very attractive. The original Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction is the heart of all gas-to-liquid technologies; it creates higher alcohols and hydrocarbons from CO/H2 using a metal catalyst. This research focuses on the development of alkali promoted MoS2-based catalysts to investigate an optimal synthesis for their assistance in the production of long chain alcohols (via FTS) for their use as synthetic transportation liquid fuels. Properties of catalytic material are strongly affected by every step of the preparation together with the quality of the raw materials. The choice of a laboratory method for preparing a given catalyst depends on the physical and chemical characteristics desired in the final composition. Characterization methods of K0.3/Cs0.3-MoS2 and K0.3 /Cs0.3-Co0.5MoS2 catalysts have been carried out through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET porosity and surface analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Various characterization methods have been deployed to correlate FTS products versus crystal and morphological properties of these heterogeneous catalysts. A lab scale gas to liquid system has been developed to evaluate its efficiency in testing FT catalysts for their production of alcohols.

  10. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  11. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  12. Explicating an Evidence-Based, Theoretically Informed, Mobile Technology-Based System to Improve Outcomes for People in Recovery for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Isham, Andrew; Baker, Timothy; Boyle, Michael G.; Levy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Post treatment relapse to uncontrolled alcohol use is common. More cost-effective approaches are needed. We believe currently available communication technology can use existing models for relapse prevention to cost-effectively improve long-term relapse prevention. This paper describes: 1) research-based elements of alcohol related relapse prevention and how they can be encompassed in Self Determination Theory (SDT) and Marlatt’s Cognitive Behavioral Relapse Prevention Model, 2) how technology could help address the needs of people seeking recovery, 3) a technology-based prototype, organized around Self Determination Theory and Marlatt’s model and 4) how we are testing a system based on the ideas in this article and related ethical and operational considerations. PMID:21190410

  13. Explicating an evidence-based, theoretically informed, mobile technology-based system to improve outcomes for people in recovery for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; Baker, Timothy; Boyle, Michael G; Levy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Post-treatment relapse to uncontrolled alcohol use is common. Currently available communication technology can use existing models for relapse prevention to cost-effectively improve long-term relapse prevention. This paper describes: (1) research-based elements of alcohol consumption-related relapse prevention and how they can be encompassed in self-determination theory (SDT) and Marlatt's cognitive behavioral relapse prevention model, (2) how technology could help address the needs of people seeking recovery, (3) a technology-based prototype, organized around sexual transmitted disease and Marlatt's model, and (4) how we are testing a system based on the ideas in this article and related ethical and operational considerations. PMID:21190410

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that insomnia and associated sleep disruptions, observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired sleep homeostasis. Based on our findings, we suggest that alcohol may disrupt sleep homeostasis to cause sleep disruptions. PMID:25499829

  15. Magnetic separation of iron-based nanosorbents from watery solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Zhakov, Sergey; Baerner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Iron and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) both naked and with chemically modified surface are promising agents for different environmental applications, in particular for water purification and for analytical control of water and soil pollution. The MNP can be used as sorbents with selective abilities due to designed surface functionalization. While a lot of research has been devoted to the impurity sorption processes, the second part, that is the efficient removal of the MNP sorbents from the watery solution, has not been sufficiently studied so far. For that particles with magnetic cores are especially attractive due to the possibility of their subsequent magnetic separation from water without using coagulants, i.e. without a secondary water pollution, just by applying external magnetic fields B. In order to remove magnetic sorbent nanoparticles ( 10-100 nm) effectively from the water solution gradient magnetic fields are required. Depending on the MNP size, the magnetic moment, the chemical properties of the solution, the water purification conditions , either the low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS) with dB/dz < 100 T/m or the high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) with dB/dz > 100 T/m is used. The gradient magnetic field is provided by permanent magnets or electromagnets of different configuration. In this work the sedimentation dynamics of naked Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (10-30 nm) in water was studied in a vertical gradient magnetic field (B1 ≤ 0.3T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm). By this LGMS , the sedimentation time of the naked Fe3O4 NP is reduced down from several days to several minutes. The sedimentation time for Fe3O4@SiO2 decreases from several weeks to several hours and to several minutes when salts Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaH2PO4 are added to the solution. The results are interpreted in terms of MNP aggregate formation caused by electrostatic, steric and magnetic inter-particle interactions in the watery solution. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work was

  16. Fluorinated Alkoxide-Based Magnesium-Ion Battery Electrolytes that Demonstrate Li-Ion-Battery-Like High Anodic Stability and Solution Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Adam J; Stringham, Kyle K; Bartlett, Bart M

    2016-09-01

    Based on DFT predictions, a series of highly soluble fluorinated alkoxide-based electrolytes were prepared, examined electrochemically, and reversibly cycled. The alcohols react with ethylmagnesium chloride to generate a fluoroalkoxy-magnesium chloride intermediate, which subsequently reacts with aluminum chloride to generate the electrolyte. Solutions starting from a 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methylpropan-2-ol precursor exhibit high anodic stability, 3.2 V vs Mg(2+/0), and a record 3.5 mS/cm solution conductivity. Excellent galvanostatic cycling and capacity retention (94%) is observed with more than 300 h of cycle time while employing the standard Chevrel phase-Mo6S8 cathode material.

  17. A biomimetic pathway for vanadium-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols: evidence for a base-assisted dehydrogenation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wigington, Bethany N; Drummond, Michael L; Cundari, Thomas R; Thorn, David L; Hanson, Susan K; Scott, Susannah L

    2012-11-19

    The first step in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols by molecular O(2), mediated by homogeneous vanadium(V) complexes [LV(V)(O)(OR)], is ligand exchange. The unusual mechanism of the subsequent intramolecular oxidation of benzyl alcoholate ligands in the 8-hydroxyquinolinato (HQ) complexes [(HQ)(2)V(V)(O)(OCH(2)C(6)H(4)-p-X)] involves intermolecular deprotonation. In the presence of triethylamine, complex 3 (X = H) reacts within an hour at room temperature to generate, quantitatively, [(HQ)(2)V(IV)(O)], benzaldehyde (0.5 equivalents), and benzyl alcohol (0.5 equivalents). The base plays a key role in the reaction: in its absence, less than 12% conversion was observed after 72 hours. The reaction is first order in both 3 and NEt(3), with activation parameters ΔH(≠)=(28±4) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(≠)=(-169±4) J K(-1)  mol(-1). A large kinetic isotope effect, 10.2±0.6, was observed when the benzylic hydrogen atoms were replaced by deuterium atoms. The effect of the para substituent of the benzyl alcoholate ligand on the reaction rate was investigated using a Hammett plot, which was constructed using σ(p). From the slope of the Hammett plot, ρ=+(1.34±0.18), a significant buildup of negative charge on the benzylic carbon atom in the transition state is inferred. These experimental findings, in combination with computational studies, support an unusual bimolecular pathway for the intramolecular redox reaction, in which the rate-limiting step is deprotonation at the benzylic position. This mechanism, that is, base-assisted dehydrogenation (BAD), represents a biomimetic pathway for transition-metal-mediated alcohol oxidations, differing from the previously identified hydride-transfer and radical pathways. It suggests a new way to enhance the activity and selectivity of vanadium catalysts in a wide range of redox reactions, through control of the outer coordination sphere. PMID:23080554

  18. Hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hojo, Masashi

    2006-10-01

    An alcoholic beverage is a type of water-ethanol solution with flavor and taste. The properties of the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages have not been clarified sufficiently. We investigated factors that could affect the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol on the basis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) chemical shifts of the OH of water-ethanol and Raman OH stretching spectra. Not only acids (H+ and HA: undissociated acids) but also bases (OH- and A-: conjugate-base anions from weak acids) strengthened the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol. It was also demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding is strengthened by chemical components in alcoholic beverages (whiskey, Japanese sake, shochu). It can be suggested that hydrogen-bonding donors as well as acceptors in alcohol beverages, which exist as the initial components or are gained later on, should cause the tight association between water and ethanol molecules. PMID:17116572

  19. An analytical solution to patient prioritisation in radiotherapy based on utilitarian optimisation.

    PubMed

    Ebert, M A; Li, W; Jennings, L

    2014-03-01

    The detrimental impact of a radiotherapy waiting list can in part be compensated by patient prioritisation. Such prioritisation is phrased as an optimisation problem where the probability of local control for the overall population is the objective to be maximised and a simple analytical solution derived. This solution is compared with a simulation of a waiting list for the same population of patients. It is found that the analytical solution can provide an optimal ordering of patients though cannot explicitly constrain optimal waiting times. The simulation-based solution was undertaken using both the analytical solution and a numerical optimisation routine for daily patient ordering. Both solutions provided very similar results with the analytical approach reducing the calculation time of the numerical solution by several orders of magnitude. It is suggested that treatment delays due to resource limitations and resulting waiting lists be incorporated into treatment optimisation and that the derived analytical solution provides a mechanism for this to occur.

  20. Enhanced proton conductivity by the influence of modified montmorillonite on poly (vinyl alcohol) based blend composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palani, P. Bahavan; Abidin, K. Sainul; Kannan, R.; Rajashabala, S.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-05-01

    The highest proton conductivity value of 0.0802 Scm-1 is obtained at 6wt% of protonated MMT added to the PVA/PEG blends. The polymer blend composite membranes are prepared with varied concentration of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and Montmorillonite (MMT) by solution casting method. The Na+ MMT was modified (protonated) to H+ MMT with ion exchange process. The prepared membranes were characterized by using TGA, FTIR, XRD, Ion Exchange Capacity, Water/Methanol uptake, swelling ratio and proton conductivity. The significant improvements in the hydrolytic stability were observed. In addition, thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved and controlled by the addition of MMT. All the prepared membranes are shown appreciable values of proton conductivity at room temperature with 100% relative humidity.

  1. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  2. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  3. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2009 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2010-12-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting research for the United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). This research has involved the screening of potential catalysts, and optimization of the more promising ones, using laboratory scale reactors. During 2009, the main goal of the testing program focused on optimizing selected supported catalysts containing rhodium (Rh) and manganese (Mn). Optimization involved examining different total concentrations and atomic ratios of Rh and Mn as well as that of the more promising promoters (Ir and Li) identified in the earlier screening studies. Evaluation of catalyst performance focused on attaining improvements with respect to the space-time-yield and converted carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates, with additional consideration given to the fraction of the oxygenates that were C2+ alcohols.

  4. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  5. Is it time for brushless scrubbing with an alcohol-based agent?

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, B J; Bjerke, N B

    2001-12-01

    The practice of surgical scrubbing in perioperative settings is changing rapidly. This article presents information about eliminating the traditional scrub brush technique and using an alcohol formulation for surgical hand scrubs. Also covered are antimicrobial agents, relevant US Food and Drug Administration classifications, skin and fingernail care, and implementation of changes. The article challenges surgical team members to evaluate a new and different approach to surgical hand scrubbing.

  6. Evaluating employee assistance policy in an HMO-based alcoholism project.

    PubMed

    Putnam, S L; Stout, R L

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of successful employee assistance program (EAP) implementation is the adoption of a formal, written policy, reflecting company commitment to EAP guidelines and goals. This study of criteria predictive of such policy adoption was conducted at the occupational alcoholism project of a New England health maintenance organization (HMO). Data on nearly 400 organizations contacted by occupational program consultants (OPCs) over a 20-month period were collected by questionnaire and interview. One third of these organizations adopted employee assistance policies and set about establishing formal programs. Stepwise multiple regression is the principal method used to pinpoint the correlates of policy adoption. Two of the most important of these are the attitudes of contact persons within the organization toward alcoholism and employee assistance programs, particularly their admission of alcohol problems within their social networks; and the consultants' persistence and marketing skills. The adopting organizations also had reputations for being progressive, and actively concerned about employee welfare; they tended to be large, their executives autonomous, and their union membership rates high. Inhibiting policy acceptance were fears that a written policy would jeopardize the reputation and image of the organization, and that an employee assistance program would remove internal control of personal procedures. The adequacy of the evaluative data and methods are discussed, and recommendations are offered in the interests of streamlining the efforts of OPCs and of achieving greater penetration of targeted organizations.

  7. Supply Chain-based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Daugherty, Michael; Siekmann, Adam; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Barker, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor fuel and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to fuel-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between $1 billion per year, or approximately 25% of the total tax collected. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This paper presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many fuel-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the fuel-hauling companies and their customers. The technology was deployed and successfully tested during an eight-month period on a real-world fuel-hauling fleet. Day-to-day operations of the fleet were minimally affected by their interaction with this system. The results of that test are discussed in this paper.

  8. A pilot study of an online universal school-based intervention to prevent alcohol and cannabis use in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Nicola C; Conrod, Patricia J; Rodriguez, Daniel M; Teesson, Maree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The online universal Climate Schools intervention has been found to be effective in reducing the use of alcohol and cannabis among Australian adolescents. The aim of the current study was to examine the feasibility of implementing this prevention programme in the UK. Design A pilot study examining the feasibility of the Climate Schools programme in the UK was conducted with teachers and students from Year 9 classes at two secondary schools in southeast London. Teachers were asked to implement the evidence-based Climate Schools programme over the school year with their students. The intervention consisted of two modules (each with six lessons) delivered approximately 6 months apart. Following completion of the intervention, students and teachers were asked to evaluate the programme. Results 11 teachers and 222 students from two secondary schools evaluated the programme. Overall, the evaluations were extremely positive. Specifically, 85% of students said the information on alcohol and cannabis and how to stay safe was easy to understand, 84% said it was easy to learn and 80% said the online cartoon-based format was an enjoyable way to learn health theory topics. All teachers said the students were able to recall the information taught, 82% said the computer component was easy to implement and all teachers said the teacher's manual was easy to use to prepare class activities. Importantly, 82% of teachers said it was likely that they would use the programme in the future and recommend it to others. Conclusions The Internet-based universal Climate Schools prevention programme to be both feasible and acceptable to students and teachers in the UK. A full evaluation trial of the intervention is now required to examine its effectiveness in reducing alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents in the UK before implementation in the UK school system. PMID:24840248

  9. Design of a Web-based individual coping and alcohol-intervention program (web-ICAIP) for children of parents with alcohol problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with parents having alcohol problems, which may result in negative outcomes among these children. Therefore, most Swedish municipalities provide resources for support, but at the same time figures reveal that not even 2% receive support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting these children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to children and adolescents via the Internet seems a promising strategy, but to date, the number of web-based interventions aimed at this target group is very scarce. We have therefore developed a novel internet-delivered therapist assisted self-management intervention called the web-ICAIP (Individual Coping and Alcohol Intervention Program) for adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents' coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. This paper describes the web-ICAIP and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to measure the efficacy of this intervention. Methods/Design The RCT will include at least 183 adolescents (15-19 year old) who will be randomly allocated to two conditions where one group has access to the web-ICAIP and the other is a waiting list control group. Participants will be recruited from websites containing information and facts for adolescents about alcohol and other drugs. Possible participants will be screened using the short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6). The assessment consists of a baseline and two follow-up measurements taking place after two and six months, respectively. The primary outcomes include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC), a coping behavior scale, and also the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Additional outcomes include the "Ladder of life

  10. An economic approach to animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Heyman, G M

    2000-01-01

    Researchers have long sought an animal model for human alcohol consumption. This article describes an economic-based approach to a model of alcohol preference in rats. The procedures are based on an analogy between clinical accounts of human drinking and the economic analysis of consumption. Both clinical and economic investigators typically define consumption patterns in terms of the influence of negative consequences. For example, the clinical account emphasizes the persistence of heavy drinking despite mounting alcohol-related aversive consequences, and in economic analyses, the term "inelastic demand" is used to refer to the persistence of consumption despite large increases in prices. In the experimental procedure described here, rats worked for alcohol and food. Presses on one lever earned a drink of 10 percent alcohol plus saccharin, and presses on a second lever earned isocaloric drinks of a starch solution. After behavior stabilized, the response requirements (which are analogous to prices) for one or both drinks were increased. The rats maintained baseline alcohol consumption levels despite large increases in the "price" of alcohol. In contrast, the same price increases markedly reduced starch intake. That is, food consumption was sensitive to price hikes, but alcohol consumption was not. The results demonstrate that a common economic framework can be used to describe human and animal behavior and, hence, the possibility of an animal model of human alcohol consumption. The article also points out that economic concepts provide a framework for understanding a wide range of human drinking patterns, including controlled social drinking and excessive alcoholic drinking. PMID:11199280

  11. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  12. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  14. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  15. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  16. Allowing for missing outcome data and incomplete uptake of randomised interventions, with application to an Internet-based alcohol trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Ian R; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Thompson, Simon G

    2011-01-01

    Missing outcome data and incomplete uptake of randomised interventions are common problems, which complicate the analysis and interpretation of randomised controlled trials, and are rarely addressed well in practice. To promote the implementation of recent methodological developments, we describe sequences of randomisation-based analyses that can be used to explore both issues. We illustrate these in an Internet-based trial evaluating the use of a new interactive website for those seeking help to reduce their alcohol consumption, in which the primary outcome was available for less than half of the participants and uptake of the intervention was limited. For missing outcome data, we first employ data on intermediate outcomes and intervention use to make a missing at random assumption more plausible, with analyses based on general estimating equations, mixed models and multiple imputation. We then use data on the ease of obtaining outcome data and sensitivity analyses to explore departures from the missing at random assumption. For incomplete uptake of randomised interventions, we estimate structural mean models by using instrumental variable methods. In the alcohol trial, there is no evidence of benefit unless rather extreme assumptions are made about the missing data nor an important benefit in more extensive users of the intervention. These findings considerably aid the interpretation of the trial's results. More generally, the analyses proposed are applicable to many trials with missing outcome data or incomplete intervention uptake. To facilitate use by others, Stata code is provided for all methods. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21948462

  17. Performance-based testing for drugs of abuse: dose and time profiles of marijuana, amphetamine, alcohol, and diazepam.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Emurian, C S; Fischman, M W

    1993-09-01

    The time courses of the effects of acute doses of amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), alcohol (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg), diazepam (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), and marijuana (2.0% and 3.5% delta 9-THC) on performance engendered by each of four computerized behavioral tasks were evaluated in six human subjects. These performance-based tasks have potential commercial utility for drug-use detection in the workplace. Alcohol and marijuana effects were reliably detected for up to three hours following dose administration with most procedures. Amphetamine and diazepam effects were also detected, but the dose effects and time courses were variable. The profile of behavioral effects varied across drugs, suggesting that performance-based testing procedures might be useful in discriminating which drug was administered and the time course of the drug's effects. Results indicate that repeated measurement with performance-based drug detection procedures can provide immediate indications of performance impairment in a cost-effective and noninvasive manner and, as such, would be a useful supplement to biological sample testing for drug-use detection.

  18. Combination of graph heuristics in producing initial solution of curriculum based course timetabling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Juliana; Hussin, Naimah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    The construction of population of initial solution is a crucial task in population-based metaheuristic approach for solving curriculum-based university course timetabling problem because it can affect the convergence speed and also the quality of the final solution. This paper presents an exploration on combination of graph heuristics in construction approach in curriculum based course timetabling problem to produce a population of initial solutions. The graph heuristics were set as single and combination of two heuristics. In addition, several ways of assigning courses into room and timeslot are implemented. All settings of heuristics are then tested on the same curriculum based course timetabling problem instances and are compared with each other in terms of number of population produced. The result shows that combination of saturation degree followed by largest degree heuristic produce the highest number of population of initial solutions. The results from this study can be used in the improvement phase of algorithm that uses population of initial solutions.

  19. Alcohol Use Disorder and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Rural Communities in Cambodia: Risk Factors and Community-Perceived Strategies.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wesley; Leong, Wei-Yee; Khoun, Kimsong; Ong, Warren; Sambi, Sundesh; Lim, Su-Min; Bieber, Bill; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol misuse is increasing in Southeast Asia. We investigated the extent of and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a rural community in Cambodia. We also attempted to explore the communities' perception of alcohol misuse and elicited potential community-based strategies to address the alcohol problem. A mixed-methods study design was used, combining a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with qualitative interviews (focus group discussions and key informant interviews). AUD and HED were measured using the AUDs Identification Test Alcohol Consumption questionnaire. The prevalence of AUD and HED was high: 25% and 31%, respectively. Male sex, younger age, and increasing income were significant risk factors. The communities were well aware of the harmful effects of alcohol, expressed the importance of implementing community-based measures, and proposed various community-led solutions. Evidence-based strategies that are culturally appropriate, accepted, and driven by communities are urgently needed.

  20. Business intelligence and capacity planning: web-based solutions.

    PubMed

    James, Roger

    2010-07-01

    Income (activity) and expenditure (costs) form the basis of a modern hospital's 'business intelligence'. However, clinical engagement in business intelligence is patchy. This article describes the principles of business intelligence and outlines some recent developments using web-based applications.

  1. Mask process matching using a model based data preparation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Brian; Saib, Mohamed; Figueiro, Thiago; Petroni, Paolo; Progler, Chris; Schiavone, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Process matching is the ability to precisely reproduce the signature of a given fabrication process while using a different one. A process signature is typically described as systematic CD variation driven by feature geometry as a function of feature size, local density or distance to neighboring structures. The interest of performing process matching is usually to address differences in the mask fabrication process without altering the signature of the mask, which is already validated by OPC models and already used in production. The need for such process matching typically arises from the expansion of the production capacity within the same or different mask fabrication facilities, from the introduction of new, perhaps more advanced, equipment to deliver same process of record masks and/or from the re-alignment of processes which have altered over time. For state-of-the-art logic and memory mask processes, such matching requirements can be well below 2nm and are expected to reduce below 1nm in near future. In this paper, a data preparation solution for process matching is presented and discussed. Instead of adapting the physical process itself, a calibrated model is used to modify the data to be exposed by the source process in order to induce the results to match the one obtained while running the target process. This strategy consists in using the differences among measurements from the source and target processes, in the calibration of a single differential model. In this approach, no information other than the metrology results is required from either process. Experimental results were obtained by matching two different processes at Photronics. The standard deviation between both processes was of 2.4nm. After applying the process matching technique, the average absolute difference between the processes was reduced to 1.0nm with a standard deviation of 1.3nm. The methods used to achieve the result will be described along with implementation considerations, to

  2. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001) and GGT (p=0.001), and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001) but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001), GGT (p<0.001) and ALP (p=0.001) values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Postnatal Acceptability of Nicotine Odor and Taste in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  4. An Examination of State and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Based on the Students' Alcohol Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalesky, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines anxiety and level of alcohol consumption among college freshman and sophomore student's to determine if state and trait anxiety are significant factors in high risk alcohol consumption or binge drinking. The State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to…

  5. Alcohol fuels: production. September 1985-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 75 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Why Has Competency-Based Training Become the "Solution"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Helen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the policy context of the adoption of competency-based training (CBT), including in English as a Second Language. The article argues that, although it is doubtful that CBT can deliver the substantive economic, educational, and equity goals claimed for it, it fulfilled important political and management objectives for the Labor government.…

  7. Mobile Access to the Internet: A Mediator-Based Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alanko, Timo; Kojo, Markku; Liljeberg, Mika; Raatikainen, Kimmo

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of problems related to wireless mobility, specifically the use of cellular telephones to access remote information stores, such as the Internet, and computing services. Presents a new software architecture and discusses a new paradigm for designing mobile-distributed applications based on a mediator, a distributed intelligent…

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Hospital Based Drug and Alcohol Consultation Liaison Services.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Rebecca; Arora, Sheena; Butler, Kerryn; Viney, Rosalie; Burns, Lucinda; Goodall, Stephen; van Gool, Kees

    2016-09-01

    Consultation liaison (CL) services provide direct access to specialist services for support, treatment advice and assistance with the management of a given condition. Alcohol and other drugs (AOD) CL services aim to improve identification and treatment of patients with AOD morbidity. Our objective was to evaluate the costs and consequences of AOD CL services in hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Patients were surveyed at eight hospitals and problematic AOD use was identified using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (n=1615). For consenting participants, medical record data were obtained from 18 months pre- to 12 months post-survey. We used interrupted time series analyses to compare utilization and costs for patients with and without AOD problems and changes over time between those who received AOD CL and similar patients. Approximately 35% of patients surveyed had AOD problems (excluding tobacco) with 7% requiring intensive treatment. Only 24% of patients requiring intensive treatment were treated by AOD CL. Those treated had relative improvements over time in the cost of presentations to emergency departments, emergency admission performance and increased uptake of appropriate pharmaceuticals. The estimated net benefit of AOD CL services was at least AUD$100,000 savings per hospital per year. Expanding AOD CL services to address current unmet need may lead to even greater cost savings for hospitals.

  9. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  10. Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols catalysed by an amino-acid-based small molecule.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Rodrigo, Jason; Hoveyda, Amir H; Snapper, Marc L

    2006-09-01

    Reliable, selective and environmentally friendly chemical transformations are crucial to the development of new therapeutics and the design of novel materials. Chiral catalysts that can be easily prepared and used to obtain organic molecules of high enantiomeric purity are critical to modern chemical synthesis. The development of protecting groups that shield reactive functionalities has also proved indispensable in the preparation of complex biologically active molecules. Here we present a chiral catalyst that promotes the enantioselective protection of a secondary alcohol as one of the most commonly used protected forms of an alcohol: a silyl ether. The catalyst is a small, simple molecule that can be prepared in three steps from commercial materials without the need for rigorously controlled conditions. Enantioselective silylations are performed with commercial silyl chlorides and produce yields of up to 96 per cent at an enantiomeric ratio of up to 98:2. Chiral catalysts for selective formation of commonly used protecting groups such as silyl ethers should significantly enhance the ability of chemical synthesis to deliver, in a more practical and efficient manner, important organic molecules.

  11. Solution-Focused Therapy: Strength-Based Counseling for Children with Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…

  12. Post-Adoption Issues Related to Cloud-Based IT Solutions: A Multi-Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low cost of implementation and considerable elasticity, cloud-based IT solutions are being widely adopted or considered in organizations across various industries. However, such IT solutions bring forth several unique challenges--challenges that make it difficult for organizations to achieve successful utilization of cloud-based…

  13. Distributed Cooperation Solution Method of Complex System Based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijin, Jiang; Yuhui, Xu

    To adapt the model in reconfiguring fault diagnosing to dynamic environment and the needs of solving the tasks of complex system fully, the paper introduced multi-Agent and related technology to the complicated fault diagnosis, an integrated intelligent control system is studied in this paper. Based on the thought of the structure of diagnostic decision and hierarchy in modeling, based on multi-layer decomposition strategy of diagnosis task, a multi-agent synchronous diagnosis federation integrated different knowledge expression modes and inference mechanisms are presented, the functions of management agent, diagnosis agent and decision agent are analyzed, the organization and evolution of agents in the system are proposed, and the corresponding conflict resolution algorithm in given, Layered structure of abstract agent with public attributes is build. System architecture is realized based on MAS distributed layered blackboard. The real world application shows that the proposed control structure successfully solves the fault diagnose problem of the complex plant, and the special advantage in the distributed domain.

  14. An N-soliton solution to the DNLS equation based on revised inverse scattering transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guo-Quan; Huang, Nian-Ning

    2007-11-01

    Based on a revised version of inverse scattering transform for the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation with vanishing boundary condition (VBC), the explicit N-soliton solution has been derived by some algebra techniques of some special matrices and determinants, especially the Binet-Cauchy formula. The one- and two-soliton solutions have been given as the illustration of the general formula of the N-soliton solution. Moreover, the asymptotic behaviors of the N-soliton solution have been discussed.

  15. How should prevalence of alcohol use disorders be assessed globally?

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for global burden of disease, and alcohol use disorders make up a considerable portion of this burden. Up to now, prevalence of alcohol use disorders has been estimated based on general population surveys with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as the gold standard for assessment. However, three major problems have been identified with the current conceptualization of alcohol use disorders and its measurement via CIDI: cultural specificity of key criteria measured such as loss of control; lack of convergence of diagnoses identified by CIDI with clinically relevant diagnoses in primary health care; and impact of stigma on measurement. As a solution, it is proposed to measure alcohol use disorders via heavy drinking over time, with thresholds taken from the European Medicines Agency (60 and more grams on average per day of pure alcohol for men, and 40+ grams for women). Current data on level of drinking (per capita consumption) assessed via taxation and other means allow for a measure of less bias. If these thresholds are considered too low and there is more emphasis on need for specialized treatment, then thresholds for very heavy drinking can be taken as alternatively (100+, and 60+ grams per day pure alcohol for men and women, respectively). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27133364

  16. Smoking, Alcohol Use, Obesity, and Overall Survival from Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Susan M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Allmer, Cristine; Davis, Scott; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Lynch, Charles F.; Wang, Sophia S.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Hartge, Patricia; Cerhan, James R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking, alcohol use, and obesity appear to increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but few studies have assessed their impact on NHL prognosis. METHODS We evaluated the association of pre-diagnosis cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and body mass index (BMI) on overall survival in 1,286 patients enrolled through population-based registries in the United States from 1998–2000. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS Through 2007, 442 patients died (34%), and the median follow-up on living patients was 7.7 years. Compared to never smokers, former (HR=1.59; 95% CI 1.12–2.26) and current (HR=1.50; 95% CI 0.97–2.29) smokers had poorer survival, and poorer survival was positively associated with smoking duration, number of cigarettes smoked per day, pack-years of smoking, and shorter time since quitting (all p-trend<0.01). Alcohol use was associated with poorer survival (p-trend=0.03); compared to non-users, those drinking more than 43.1 grams/week (median of intake among drinkers) had poorer survival (HR=1.55; 95% CI 1.06–2.27) while those drinkers consuming less than this amount showed no survival disadvantage (HR=1.13; 95% CI 0.75–1.71). Greater body mass index was associated with poorer survival (p-trend=0.046), but the survival disadvantage was only seen among obese individuals (HR=1.32 for BMI ≥30 versus 20–24.9 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.02–1.70). These results held for lymphoma-specific survival and were broadly similar for DLBCL and follicular lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS NHL patients who smoked, consumed alcohol or were obese prior to diagnosis had a poorer overall and lymphoma-specific survival. PMID:20564404

  17. Personalized feedback as a universal prevention approach for college drinking: a randomized trial of an e-mail linked universal web-based alcohol intervention.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first

  18. Earth Based Views of Solute Profiles on Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, R.

    2013-12-01

    'Historical accounts of planetary evolution are mostly written in stone' (1), but the last chapter of that history is embedded in its soil. Soil properties reflect the effects of prevailing environmental boundary conditions. Solute profiles are powerful indicators of the direction and magnitude of water flow. I briefly review the chemistry of salt profiles from deserts formed by upward vs. downward migrating water, use this as a basis for interpreting aspects of Mars hydrological history. The Noachian-aged Meridiani Planum land surface is exposed in the Endurance and Victoria Craters. These craters have been estimated to be ~ <10 My in age (2). During that time, wind erosion has sculpted the exposed walls, with possible secondary effects of moisture. The measurements by the MER Opportunity allow for an analysis of both post-excavation alteration of the craters and the pre-excavation alteration of the landscape by aqueous processes. Crater profiles include APXS 'asis' (fresh surface), brushed , and RAT'd samples. Using RAT'd samples as a baseline, the gains and losses of elements in the surficial samples can be assessed (Fig. 1). The calculations reveal similar trends of surface alteration within a crater (Victoria) and between two craters (Fig. 1). The asis samples are enriched in Na2O, Al2O3, CaO, and Br (and depleted in MgO, SO3, Cl, K2O, MnO, FeO) relative to the RAT'd material. Brushing drastically reduces these differences. These data show that the alteration is very surficial. The RAT'd samples appear to represent pre-impact chemical profiles of the sediment (Fig. 2). It has previously been reported that the upper ~1m at Victoria has been visibly altered by diagenesis (3). Both Endurance (4) and Victoria craters have remarkably similar depth profiles (relative to the lowest sampling point) of SO3, Cl, and Br. The salt profiles, combined with observations of physical alteration, suggest modest pedogenic alteration of the landsurface sometime prior to impact

  19. The surface structure and thermal properties of novel polymer composite films based on partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) with aluminum phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Saat, Asmalina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (PPVA)(100-y) - (ALPO4)(y) (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4.

  20. The Surface Structure and Thermal Properties of Novel Polymer Composite Films Based on Partially Phosphorylated Poly(vinyl alcohol) with Aluminum Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Saat, Asmalina

    2014-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (PPVA)100−y − (ALPO4)y (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4. PMID:25506069

  1. Methods of noninvasive electrophysiological heart examination basing on solution of inverse problem of electrocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Babich, L.

    2015-09-01

    The article represents the main noninvasive methods of heart electrical activity examination, theoretical bases of solution of electrocardiography inverse problem, application of different methods of heart examination in clinical practice, and generalized achievements in this sphere in global experience.

  2. A laser photolysis study of the pressure-induced viscosity dependence of the primary process of benzophenone photoreduction in alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Masami )

    1990-10-18

    Decay constants of the benzophenone triplet, k{sub T}, were measured for four alcohol solvents at pressures varying from 0.1 to 400 MPa. It was found that plots of ln k{sub T} were almost linearly with pressure up to ca. 150 MPa. However, at higher pressures these plots deviate significantly from linearity. This effect was attributed to the enhancement with pressure of the participation of diffusion in the abstraction of a hydrogen atom by benzophenone triplet from solvent molecules. The kinetics of this hydrogen-abstraction reaction in viscous alcohol solvents at higher pressure was analyzed by assuming the presence of a complex species which is associated with the diffusion processes.

  3. Evaluation of alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent in extraction and determination of flavonoids with response surface methodology optimization.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-04-12

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging rapidly as a new type of green solvent instead of an ionic liquid (IL), and are typically formed by mixing choline chloride with hydrogen bond donors. Few studies have applied DESs to the extraction and determination of bioactive compounds. Therefore, in the present study, DESs were used to extract flavonoids (myricetin and amentoflavone), which are well known and widely used antioxidants, to extend their applications. A range of alcohol-based DESs with different alcohols to choline chloride (ChCl) mixing ratios were used for extraction using several extraction methods. Other factors, such as temperature, time, water addition and solid/liquid ratio, were examined systematically using a response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 0.031 and 0.518 mg g(-1) of myricetin and amentoflavone were extracted under the optimized conditions: 35 vol% of water in ChCl/1,4-butanediol (1/5) at 70.0 °C for 40.0 min and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/1 (g 10 mL(-1)). Good linearity was obtained from 0.1 × 10(-3) to 0.1 mg mL(-1) (r(2)>0.999). The excellent properties of DESs highlight their potential as promising green solvents for the extraction and determination of a range of bioactive compounds or drugs.

  4. Preparation and loading buffer study of polyvinyl alcohol-based immobilized Ti4+ affinity chromatography for phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yufeng; Guo, Shuangxi; Ma, Hongbo; Ye, Ning; Ren, Xueqin

    2013-11-01

    Despite recent advances in phosphoproteomics, an efficient and simple enrichment protocol is still a challenge and of high demand aiming at large-scale plant phosphoproteomics studies. Here, we developed a novel loading buffer system for synthesized immobilized metal affinity chromatography material targeting plant samples, which was prepared by a simple one-step esterification between polyvinyl alcohol and phosphoric acid and then was subjected to immobilize Ti(4+). SEM and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy were used to assure the synthesis protocol of the polyvinyl alcohol-based Ti(4+) immobilized material, and the specific surface areas and pore volumes of the polymers were measured. The selectivity for phosphopeptide enrichment from α-casein was improved by optimizing the pH and components of the loading buffer. By using potassium hydrogen phthalate/hydrochloric acid with pH at 2.50 as the loading buffer, 19 phosphopeptides with high intensity were identified. The final optimized protocol was adapted to salt-stressed maize leaves for phosphoproteome analysis. A total of 57 phosphopeptides containing 59 phosphorylated sites from 50 phosphoproteins were identified in salt-stressed maize leaf. The research was meaningful to obtain much more information about phosphoproteins leading to the comprehension of salt resistance and salt-inducible phosphorylated processes of maize leaves.

  5. Network Pharmacology-Based Antioxidant Effect Study of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang Decoction for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Li; Feng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used for centuries to treat alcoholic liver disease. Reliable therapeutics of ZZDHD has also been validated in clinical practice. In this study, molecular docking and network analysis were carried out to explore the antioxidative mechanism of ZZDHD as an effective therapeutic approach to treat alcoholic liver disease. Multiple active compounds of ZZDHD were screened based on four key original enzymes (cytochrome P450 2E1, xanthine oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) involved in ethanol-induced oxidative stress damage. A drug-target network was constructed through network pharmacology analysis, which predicted the relationships of active ingredients to the targets. Some results had been verified by the previous experimental pharmacological studies; meanwhile, it was first reported that xanthine oxidase and eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, isorhoifolin, and poncirin had interactions. The network pharmacology strategy used provided a forceful tool for searching the mechanism of action of TCM formula and novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:25922610

  6. Network pharmacology-based antioxidant effect study of zhi-zi-da-huang decoction for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Feng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used for centuries to treat alcoholic liver disease. Reliable therapeutics of ZZDHD has also been validated in clinical practice. In this study, molecular docking and network analysis were carried out to explore the antioxidative mechanism of ZZDHD as an effective therapeutic approach to treat alcoholic liver disease. Multiple active compounds of ZZDHD were screened based on four key original enzymes (cytochrome P450 2E1, xanthine oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) involved in ethanol-induced oxidative stress damage. A drug-target network was constructed through network pharmacology analysis, which predicted the relationships of active ingredients to the targets. Some results had been verified by the previous experimental pharmacological studies; meanwhile, it was first reported that xanthine oxidase and eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, isorhoifolin, and poncirin had interactions. The network pharmacology strategy used provided a forceful tool for searching the mechanism of action of TCM formula and novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:25922610

  7. Improved solution accuracy for TDRSS-based TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Oza, D. H.; Bolvin, D. T.; Cox, C. M.; Nemesure, M.; Niklewski, D. J.; Samii, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    Orbit determination results are obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) using a batch-least-squares estimator available in the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and an extended Kalman filter estimation system to process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) measurements. GTDS is the operational orbit determination system used by the FDD in support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft navigation and health and safety operations. The extended Kalman filter was implemented in an orbit determination analysis prototype system, closely related to the Real-Time Orbit Determination System/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system. In addition, the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) team within the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch generated an independent set of high-accuracy trajectories to support the TOPEX/Poseidon scientific data. These latter solutions use the geodynamics (GEODYN) orbit determination system with laser ranging and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking measurements. The TOPEX/Poseidon trajectories were estimated for November 7 through November 11, 1992, the timeframe under study. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The batch-least-squares solutions were assessed based on the solution residuals, while the sequential solutions were assessed based on primarily the estimated covariances. The batch-least-squares and sequential orbit solutions were compared with the definitive POD orbit solutions. The solution differences were generally less than 2 meters for the batch-least-squares and less than 13 meters for the sequential estimation solutions. After the sequential estimation solutions were processed with a smoother algorithm, position differences with POD orbit solutions of less than 7 meters were obtained. The differences among the POD, GTDS, and filter

  8. A web-based solution for 3D medical image visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In this presentation, we present a web-based 3D medical image visualization solution which enables interactive large medical image data processing and visualization over the web platform. To improve the efficiency of our solution, we adopt GPU accelerated techniques to process images on the server side while rapidly transferring images to the HTML5 supported web browser on the client side. Compared to traditional local visualization solution, our solution doesn't require the users to install extra software or download the whole volume dataset from PACS server. By designing this web-based solution, it is feasible for users to access the 3D medical image visualization service wherever the internet is available.

  9. State-based coverage solutions: the California Health Benefit Exchange.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Micah; Haase, Leif Wellington

    2011-05-01

    California was the first state to create its own health insurance exchange after the passage of the Affordable Care Act. Because of its front-runner status and the sheer size of its coverage expansion, California's choices will have implications for other states as they address difficult issues, including minimizing adverse selection, promoting cost-conscious consumer choice, and seamlessly coordinating with public programs. California took advantage of the flexibility in the federal health reform law to create an exchange that will function as an active purchaser in the marketplace; take significant steps to combat adverse selection both against and within the exchange, including requiring all insurers to sell all tiers of products and making exchange participation a condition of selling catastrophic plans; and allow community-based health plans to develop commercial offerings for the exchange. This brief examines these decisions, which will provide a roadmap for other states as they set up their exchanges. PMID:21630546

  10. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-03-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment.

  11. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-03-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment. PMID:25809790

  12. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Web-Based Program to Increase Parental Awareness and Monitoring of Underage Alcohol Use: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela C.; Dunn, Michael E.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of a Web-based parent-focused intervention to improve parental awareness and monitoring of adolescent alcohol use was preliminarily evaluated. Upon completion of baseline assessment, 67 parents were randomly assigned to the experimental Web-based parent-focused intervention or an assessment-only control condition. Participants who…

  13. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

    2010-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

  14. A stimuli-responsive and bioactive film based on blended polyvinyl alcohol and cashew gum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio E F; Batista, Karla A; Di-Medeiros, Maria C B; Silva, Cassio N S; Moreira, Bruna R; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a stimuli-responsive, biodegradable and bioactive film was produced by blending cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The film presented malleability and mechanical properties enabling an easy handling. Wetting the film changed the optical property from opacity to levels of transparency higher than 70% and resulted in up to 2-fold increase in its superficial area. Different swelling indexes were obtained varying the pH of solvent, which allows classifying the CGP/PVA film as pH sensitive stimuli-responsive material. The bioactivity was achieved through covalent immobilization of papain, which remained active after storage of CGP/PVA-papain film for 24h in the presence of buffer or in a dry form. These results evidenced that CGP/PVA-papain film is a very promising material for biomedical applications.

  15. Asymmetric supercapacitor based on nanostructured graphene foam/polyvinyl alcohol/formaldehyde and activated carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Abdulhakeem; Barzegar, Farshad; Momodu, Damilola; Dangbegnon, Julien; Taghizadeh, Fatemeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-01-01

    We present the electrochemical results of highly porous and interconnected carbon material by activation of graphene foam/polyvinyl alcohol-formaldehyde composite material designated as GF/PVA-F. Asymmetric supercapacitor devices were fabricated using the activated material (GF/PVA-F) and activated carbon (AC) as the positive and negative electrodes respectively. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 42 mWh cm-2, a power density of 0.5 W cm-2 and 98% retention of its initial capacitance after 2000 cycles in an extended cell potential window of 1.8 V in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. This work shows the great potential of this material for high performance energy storage application.

  16. A stimuli-responsive and bioactive film based on blended polyvinyl alcohol and cashew gum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio E F; Batista, Karla A; Di-Medeiros, Maria C B; Silva, Cassio N S; Moreira, Bruna R; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a stimuli-responsive, biodegradable and bioactive film was produced by blending cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The film presented malleability and mechanical properties enabling an easy handling. Wetting the film changed the optical property from opacity to levels of transparency higher than 70% and resulted in up to 2-fold increase in its superficial area. Different swelling indexes were obtained varying the pH of solvent, which allows classifying the CGP/PVA film as pH sensitive stimuli-responsive material. The bioactivity was achieved through covalent immobilization of papain, which remained active after storage of CGP/PVA-papain film for 24h in the presence of buffer or in a dry form. These results evidenced that CGP/PVA-papain film is a very promising material for biomedical applications. PMID:26478388

  17. Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: • The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). • The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. • The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300°C and 325°C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. • When catalysts were heated to between 300°C and 325°C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

  18. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  19. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group) allatra-science.org, last accessed 10 April 2016. , offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  20. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group) allatra-science.org, last accessed 10 April 2016.

  1. Multigrid-based grid-adaptive solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Jess

    A finite volume scheme for solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions and axisymmetry is described. Solutions are obtained on nonorthogonal, solution adaptive BFC grids, based on the Brackbill-Saltzman generator. Adaptivity is achieved by the use of a single control function based on the local kinetic energy production. Nonstaggered allocation of pressure and Cartesian velocity components avoids the introduction of curvature terms associated with the use of a grid-direction vector-base. A special interpolation of the pressure correction equation in the SIMPLE algorithm ensures firm coupling between velocity and pressure field. Steady-state solutions are accelerated by a full approximation multigrid scheme working on the decoupled grid-flow problem, while an algebraic multigrid scheme is employed for the pressure correction equation.

  2. [Alcohol drinking behaviors--physiological and sociomedical factors].

    PubMed

    Komura, S

    1990-12-01

    Alcohol drinking behavior is usually studied from two perspectives, factors leading to drinking behavior and the behavioral effects of alcohol drinking. Many detailed medicolegal, pharmacological and psychiatric studies have been conducted on the behavioral effects of alcohol drinking. Few studies have considered the biological aspects of a desire for alcohol. However, these issues can not be ignored. The role of genetic, environmental and nutritional factors in alcohol preference has extensively debated. Recently, biochemical, physiological and pharmacological studies have also been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the desire for alcohol. In this study, the biological aspects of drinking behavior and alcohol preference have been studied using inbred strains of mice as an animal model on alcoholism. In addition, factors affecting drinking behavior of human beings are discussed based on the results obtained from a medico-legal study of alcohol-related cases. 1. Alcohol preference in several animal species The alcohol preference expressed as a ratio (%) of the volume taken (water and 10% (v/v) alcohol solution), was not constant in several animal species. The preference ratio was observed to be 2.7 +/- 0.7, 3.7 +/- 0.8, 22.0 +/- 19.8 and 39.6 +/- 5.4 in male inbred strains of SAMP2, DBA/2cr, B10.Br/Sg and C57BL/6J mice respectively, and 10.7 +/- 7.6, 15.9 +/- 13.6, 31.3 +/- 22.6 and 32.4 +/- 16.7 in male Donryu, DA, Wistar and Buffalo rats respectively, and 91.3 +/- 9.1 in male Golden hamster, and 2.1 +/- 0.3 in Hartley guinea pigs. Rabbits and Japanese monkeys do not demonstrate high alcohol preference. By comparison, the alcohol preference of a Japanese people was estimated to be approximately 11-35% on the basis of data obtained by questionnaire. 2. Development of alcohol dependence and withdrawal by voluntary alcohol intake in mice Eight strains of male mice, C57BL, C3H, SWM, SW, KK, KSB, KR and DBA, were offered a choice of water or 10% sake solution

  3. Analytic Solutions for the Spectral Responses of RCA-Grating-Based Waveguide Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Kai; Wei, Lai

    2012-12-01

    Analytic solutions (ASs) for the spectral responses of waveguide devices with raised-cosine-apodized (RCA) gratings are presented. The waveguide devices include short- and long-period RCA-gratings, RCA-grating-based interferometers as Fabry—Perot, Mach—Zehnder and Michelson interferometers. The calculations based on the analytic solutions are demonstrated and compared with those based on the transfer matrix (TM) method preferred, which has confirmed that the AS-based analysis is with enough accuracy and several thousands times the efficiency of the TM method.

  4. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  5. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  6. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  7. Analysis of cloud-based solutions on EHRs systems in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cardeñosa, Gonzalo; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays with the growing of the wireless connections people can access all the resources hosted in the Cloud almost everywhere. In this context, organisms can take advantage of this fact, in terms of e-Health, deploying Cloud-based solutions on e-Health services. In this paper two Cloud-based solutions for different scenarios of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) management system are proposed. We have researched articles published between the years 2005 and 2011 about the implementation of e-Health services based on the Cloud in Medline. In order to analyze the best scenario for the deployment of Cloud Computing two solutions for a large Hospital and a network of Primary Care Health centers have been studied. Economic estimation of the cost of the implementation for both scenarios has been done via the Amazon calculator tool. As a result of this analysis two solutions are suggested depending on the scenario: To deploy a Cloud solution for a large Hospital a typical Cloud solution in which are hired just the needed services has been assumed. On the other hand to work with several Primary Care Centers it's suggested the implementation of a network, which interconnects these centers with just one Cloud environment. Finally it's considered the fact of deploying a hybrid solution: in which EHRs with images will be hosted in the Hospital or Primary Care Centers and the rest of them will be migrated to the Cloud. PMID:22492177

  8. Analysis of cloud-based solutions on EHRs systems in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cardeñosa, Gonzalo; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays with the growing of the wireless connections people can access all the resources hosted in the Cloud almost everywhere. In this context, organisms can take advantage of this fact, in terms of e-Health, deploying Cloud-based solutions on e-Health services. In this paper two Cloud-based solutions for different scenarios of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) management system are proposed. We have researched articles published between the years 2005 and 2011 about the implementation of e-Health services based on the Cloud in Medline. In order to analyze the best scenario for the deployment of Cloud Computing two solutions for a large Hospital and a network of Primary Care Health centers have been studied. Economic estimation of the cost of the implementation for both scenarios has been done via the Amazon calculator tool. As a result of this analysis two solutions are suggested depending on the scenario: To deploy a Cloud solution for a large Hospital a typical Cloud solution in which are hired just the needed services has been assumed. On the other hand to work with several Primary Care Centers it's suggested the implementation of a network, which interconnects these centers with just one Cloud environment. Finally it's considered the fact of deploying a hybrid solution: in which EHRs with images will be hosted in the Hospital or Primary Care Centers and the rest of them will be migrated to the Cloud.

  9. Cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) embryos by DMSO-based vitrificant solutions.

    PubMed

    Keivanloo, Saeide; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Vitrification could provide a promising tool for the cryopreservation of fish embryos. To achieve successful cryopreservation, several parameters should be taken into account in the design of a vitrification protocol. In the present study, some relevant factors were investigated (choice of a proper vitrificant solutions and temperature for thawing) using neurulation-stage embryos. Six DMSO-based vitrificant solutions (V1-V6) were tested using a 6-step incorporation protocol. DMSO-based vitrificant solutions contained DMSO + permeable cryoprotectants + nonpermeable cryoprotectants. Embryos were immersed in vitrificant solutions for 7 minutes and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen. After vitrification (-196 °C for 10 minutes), the thawing was performed in a water bath at 0 or 20 °C and then embryos incubated until hatched. Our results demonstrated that some embryos vitrified in 5 of 6 vitrification solutions survived and hatched out, but none survived after vitrification in V2. The highest survival rate (45.45%) was observed in samples frozen with the best vitrificant solution (V6) and thawing combination (20 °C). These results establish that cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) embryos by DMSO-based vitrificant solutions is possible.

  10. Results of a Pilot Test of a Self-Administered Smartphone-Based Treatment System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Usability and Early Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Campbell, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides results from a pilot study focused on assessing early-stage effectiveness and usability of a smartphone-based intervention system that provides a stand-alone, self-administered intervention option, the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A). The LBMI-A provided numerous features for intervening with ongoing drinking, craving, connection with supportive others, managing life problems, high risk location alerting and activity scheduling. Methods Twenty-eight participants, ranging in age from 22 to 45, who met criteria for an alcohol use disorder used an LBMI-A enabled smartphone for 6 weeks. Results Participants indicated the LBMI-A intervention modules were helpful in highlighting alcohol use patterns. Tools related to managing alcohol craving, monitoring consumption, and identifying triggers to drink were rated by participants as particularly helpful. Participants also demonstrated significant reductions in hazardous alcohol use while using the system (56% of days spent hazardously drinking at baseline vs. 25% while using the LBMI-A) and drinks per day diminished by 52%. Conclusions Implications for system improvement as well as suggestions for designing ecological momentary assessment and intervention systems for substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:24821354

  11. Michael-type addition reactions for the in situ formation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester; Paradossi, Gaio

    2007-01-01

    Michael-type addition reactions offer the possibility to obtain in situ formation of polymeric hydrogels in the absence of a radical mechanism for the networking process. We explored such a synthetic route for obtaining a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based hydrogel as a potential biomaterial for applications in vitro-retinal replacement surgery. The presence of radicals in the reaction medium can represent a risk for in situ surgical treatment. To circumvent this problem we have applied nucleophilic addition to ad hoc modified PVA macromers. The gel formation has been studied with respect to the timing required in this surgery and in terms of the structural characteristics of the obtained network.

  12. High strength paper production based on esterification of thermomechanical pulp fibers in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Awada, Houssein; Bouatmane, Mohamed; Daneault, Claude

    2015-11-01

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers, generally used to produce newspapers and carton materials, have poor inter- and intra-fiber bonding contributing to low strength properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) was applied as a co-additive of 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), in the presence of sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as a catalyst, to esterify paper sheets based on TMP fibers. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique was used to confirm the formation of the ester bond. The effects of curing temperature, molar mass and mass amount of the PVOH on the tensile index were investigated. The increasing of the curing temperature improved further the wet tensile index. The presence of PVOH increased both the dry and the wet tensile index of the paper sheets. The rise of both the molar mass and the mass amount of PVOH improved the tensile index. PMID:27441224

  13. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of a Web-based Gratitude Exercise among Individuals in Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Mannella, Kristin A.; Hassett, Afton L.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Cranford, James A.; Brower, Kirk J.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Meyer, Piper S.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the ‘Three Good Things’ exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended. Participants associated TGT with gratitude, although there were no observed changes in grateful disposition over time. TGT had a significant effect on decreasing negative affect and increasing unactivated (e.g., feeling calm, at ease) positive affect, although there were no differences between groups at the 8 week follow up. Qualitative results converged on quantitative findings that TGT was convenient, feasible, and acceptable, and additionally suggested that TGT was beneficial for engendering positive cognitions and reinforcing recovery. PMID:27076837

  14. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  15. Development, mechanical evaluation and surface characteristics of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol based polymer composite coatings on titanium metal.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep K; Kannan, S

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical properties of orthopedic implants play important role in the regeneration and cell growth of the diseased body part. The present investigation was aimed at the development of a biocompatible, biodegradable and mechanically stable coating of chitosan (CS)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer composite on Titanium (Ti) metal by employing a simple methodology at ambient conditions. The PVA to CS concentrations were maintained in fixed ratios of 1:4 weight/weight (w/w) for the development of all the coatings on Ti metal. Four different concentrations of the polymers ranging in the order of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% weight/volume (w/v) solution of CS were selected in an aim to test their efficacy on mechanical stability. The results obtained from the analysis confirmed considerable improvement in mechanical properties of the composite polymer film comprising CS and PVA on Ti metal with the four different concentrations showing variable elastic modulus and hardness. The difference in mechanical properties of both dehydrated and hydrated coatings demonstrates the effective and efficient shielding of high mechanical properties of Ti metal in physiological conditions. The scratch tests performed on the coated specimens also indicated a good adhesion of the polymer on the Ti metal surface.

  16. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  18. A web-based rapid assessment tool for production publishing solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tong

    2010-02-01

    Solution assessment is a critical first-step in understanding and measuring the business process efficiency enabled by an integrated solution package. However, assessing the effectiveness of any solution is usually a very expensive and timeconsuming task which involves lots of domain knowledge, collecting and understanding the specific customer operational context, defining validation scenarios and estimating the expected performance and operational cost. This paper presents an intelligent web-based tool that can rapidly assess any given solution package for production publishing workflows via a simulation engine and create a report for various estimated performance metrics (e.g. throughput, turnaround time, resource utilization) and operational cost. By integrating the digital publishing workflow ontology and an activity based costing model with a Petri-net based workflow simulation engine, this web-based tool allows users to quickly evaluate any potential digital publishing solutions side-by-side within their desired operational contexts, and provides a low-cost and rapid assessment for organizations before committing any purchase. This tool also benefits the solution providers to shorten the sales cycles, establishing a trustworthy customer relationship and supplement the professional assessment services with a proven quantitative simulation and estimation technology.

  19. Palladium and gold nanotubes as oxygen reduction reaction and alcohol oxidation reaction catalysts in base.

    PubMed

    Alia, Shaun M; Duong, Kathlynne; Liu, Toby; Jensen, Kurt; Yan, Yushan

    2014-06-01

    Palladium (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) were synthesized by the galvanic displacement of silver nanowires. PdNTs and AuNTs have wall thicknesses of 6 nm, outer diameters of 60 nm, and lengths of 5-10 and 5-20 μm, respectively. Rotating disk electrode experiments showed that the PdNTs and AuNTs have higher area normalized activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than conventional nanoparticle catalysts. The PdNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 3.4, 2.2, and 3.7 times greater than that on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C), bulk polycrystalline palladium, and carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C), respectively. The AuNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 2.3, 9.0, and 2.0 times greater than that on carbon-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/C), bulk polycrystalline gold, and Pt/C, respectively. The PdNTs also had lower onset potentials than Pd/C and Pt/C for the oxidation of methanol (0.236 V), ethanol (0.215 V), and ethylene glycol (0.251 V). In comparison to Pt/C, the PdNTs and AuNTs further demonstrated improved alcohol tolerance during the ORR.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A; Spivey, James J

    2013-05-01

    Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.