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Sample records for alcohol benzyl alcohol

  1. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  2. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  3. Stereospecific Multiple Isotopic Labeling of Benzyl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    Isotopically labeled enzymatic substrates and biological metabolites are useful for many mechanistic analyses, particularly the study of kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects, determining the stereospecificity of enzymes, and resolving metabolic pathways. Here we present the 1-pot synthesis, purification, and kinetic analysis of 7R-[2H]-phenyl-[14C]-benzyl alcohol. The procedure involves a chemoenzymatic synthesis that couples formate dehydrogenase to alcohol dehydrogenase with a catalytic amount of nicotinamide cofactor. The reaction goes to completion overnight, and the measurement of a competitive kinetic isotope effect on the enzymatic oxidation of the purified product identified no 1H contamination. This measurement is very sensitive to such isotopic contamination and verified the high level of isotopic and enantiomeric purity yielded by the new synthetic procedure. PMID:24327376

  4. Pd-catalyzed benzylic C-H amidation with benzyl alcohols in water: a strategy to construct quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Hikawa, Hidemasa; Ino, Yukari; Suzuki, Hideharu; Yokoyama, Yuusaku

    2012-08-17

    A novel method for the synthesis of 4-phenylquinazolinones via a palladium-catalyzed domino reaction of o-aminobenzamides with benzyl alcohols is developed. This protocol involves N-benzylation, benzylic C-H amidation, and dehydrogenation in water, which may play an important role in the smooth generation of the (η(3)-benzyl)palladium species by activation of the hydroxyl group of the benzyl alcohol. PMID:22852777

  5. Copper catalyzed oxidative ortho-C-H benzoxylation of 2-phenylpyridines with benzyl alcohols and benzyl amines as benzoxylation sources.

    PubMed

    Khemnar, Ashok B; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2014-12-21

    A simple and efficient protocol for the oxidative ortho benzoxylation of 2-phenylpyridines with benzyl alcohols and benzyl amines via C-H bond activation has been developed. The present protocol uses benzyl alcohol and benzyl amine as inexpensive and easily available starting materials to afford benzoxylation products in moderate to good yields in the presence of the Cu/TBHP catalytic system. PMID:25341003

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  7. Chemoselective C-benzylation of unprotected anilines with benzyl alcohols using Re2O7 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nallagonda, Rajender; Rehan, Mohammad; Ghorai, Prasanta

    2014-04-01

    An unprecedented dehydrative C-C bond formation between unprotected anilines with benzyl alcohols is disclosed. Re2O7 catalyst (5 mol %) at elevated reaction temperature (80 °C) provided C-benzylanilines with high to excellent yields and with good chemoselectivities (over N-alkylation). A probable mechanism has been proposed based on mechanistic studies.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  11. Pentanol and Benzyl Alcohol Attack Bacterial Surface Structures Differently

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Takehisa; Miyahara, Yoshiko; Morii, Noriyuki; Okano, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium tolerates hygiene agents like benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and infection with this organism is an important public health issue. Here, we found that the combination of BAC with particular alcohols at nonlethal concentrations in terms of their solitary uses significantly reduced bacterial viability after only 5 min of exposure. Among the alcohols, Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that pentanol (pentyl alcohol [PeA]) and benzyl alcohol (BzA) accelerated the cellular accumulation of BAC. Fluorescence spectroscopic assays and morphological assays with giant vesicles indicated that PeA rarely attacked membrane structures, while BzA increased the membrane fluidity and destabilized the structures. Other fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that PeA and BzA inactivate bacterial membrane proteins, including an efflux pump for BAC transportation. These findings suggested that the inactivation of membrane proteins by PeA and BzA led to the cellular accumulation but that only BzA also enhanced BAC penetration by membrane fluidization at nonlethal concentrations. PMID:26519389

  12. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  13. Mercaptobenzoic acid-palladium(0) complexes as active catalysts for S-benzylation with benzylic alcohols via (η(3)-benzyl)palladium(II) cations in water.

    PubMed

    Hikawa, Hidemasa; Azumaya, Isao

    2014-08-21

    Mercaptobenzoic acid-palladium(0) complexes show high catalytic activity for S-benzylation with benzylic alcohols via the (η(3)-benzyl)palladium(II) cation in water. Notably, these palladium(0) complexes could play an important role in formation of active (η(3)-benzyl)palladium(II) cation complexes followed by S-benzylation. Hammett studies on the rate constants of S-benzylation by various substituted alcohols show good correlation between log(kX/kH) and the σ(+) value of the respective substituents. From the slope, negative ρ values are obtained, suggesting that there is a build-up of positive charge in the transition state. Water plays an important role in the catalytic system for sp(3) C-O bond activation and stabilization of the activated Pd(II) cation species. The catalytic system can be performed using only 2.5 mol% Pd2(dba)3 without the phosphine ligand or other additives.

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. Ultrasound-assisted direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols catalyzed by graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Ganjbakhsh, Nahid; Molaee Tavana, Mahdieh; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was successfully applied for the direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols with amines into the corresponding amides using graphite oxide (GO) as an oxidative and reusable solid acid catalyst in acetonitrile as solvent at 50°C under air atmosphere. The direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols takes place under mild conditions yielding the corresponding amides in good to high yields (69-95%) and short reaction times under metal-free conditions.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols catalyzed by graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Ganjbakhsh, Nahid; Molaee Tavana, Mahdieh; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was successfully applied for the direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols with amines into the corresponding amides using graphite oxide (GO) as an oxidative and reusable solid acid catalyst in acetonitrile as solvent at 50°C under air atmosphere. The direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols takes place under mild conditions yielding the corresponding amides in good to high yields (69-95%) and short reaction times under metal-free conditions. PMID:27150743

  17. Effect of benzyl alcohol on lipid bilayers. A comparisons of bilayer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, L; Hall, J E; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Simon, S A

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the small anesthetic molecule, benzyl alcohol, on the structure of various bilayer system has been studied by optical, electrical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. We find that the modifications in bilayer thickness caused by benzyl alcohol differ dramatically for planar (or black lipid) bilayers containing solvent, planar bilayers containing little or no solvent, and vesicular bilayers. Benzyl alcohol increases the thickness of planar bilayers containing n-alkane solvents, yet decreases the thickness of "solvent-free" planar bilayers. The effect of benzyl alcohol on vesicular bilayers below the phase transition temperature also depends on whether solvent is present in the bilayers. Without solvent, gel-state bilayers are reduced in thickness by benzyl alcohol, whereas in the presence of solvent, the thickness is unchanged. Above the phase transition temperature, benzyl alcohol has no measurable effect on vesicular bilayer thickness, whether solvent is present or not. These results indicate that different model membrane systems respond quite differently to a particular anesthetic. PMID:263698

  18. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  19. Structural micellar transition for fluorinated and hydrogenated sodium carboxylates induced by solubilization of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2004-09-28

    The solubility of benzyl alcohol in micellar solutions of sodium octanoate and sodium perfluorooctanoate was studied. From the isotherms of specific conductivity versus molality at different alcohol concentrations, the critical micelle concentration and the degree of ionization of the micelles were determined. The cmc linearly decreases upon increasing the amount of benzyl alcohol present in aqueous solutions with two distinct slopes. This phenomenon was interpreted as a clustering of alcohol molecules above a critical point, around 0.1 mol kg(-1). Attending to the equivalent conductivity versus square root of molality, the presence of a second micellar structure for the fluorinated compound was assumed. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the process of micellization were estimated by applying Motomura's model for binary surfactant mixtures, modified by Pérez-Villar et al. (Colloid Polym. Sci 1990, 268, 965) for the case of alcohol-surfactant solutions. A comparison of the hydrogenated and fluorinated compounds was carried out and discussed.

  20. In situ activation of benzyl alcohols with XtalFluor-E: formation of 1,1-diarylmethanes and 1,1,1-triarylmethanes through Friedel-Crafts benzylation.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Justine; Champagne, Pier Alexandre; Benhassine, Yasmine; Paquin, Jean-François

    2015-02-28

    The Friedel-Crafts benzylation of arenes using benzyl alcohols activated in situ with XtalFluor-E is described. A wide range of 1,1-diarylmethanes and 1,1,1-triarylmethanes were prepared under experimentally simple and mild conditions, without the need for a transition metal or a strong Lewis acid. Notably, the reactivity observed demonstrates the potential of XtalFluor-E to induce C-OH bond ionization and SN1 reactivity of benzylic alcohols.

  1. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  2. Microkinetic Modeling of Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on Carbon-Supported Palladium Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Savara, Aditya; Rossetti, Ilenia; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Prati, Laura; Villa, Alberto

    2016-07-14

    Six products are formed from benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd nanoparticles using O2 as the oxidant: benzaldehyde, toluene, benzyl ether, benzene, benzoic acid, and benzyl benzoate. Three experimental parameters were varied here: alcohol concentration, oxygen concentration, and temperature. Microkinetic modeling using a mechanism published recently with surface intermediates was able to produce all 18 trends observed experimentally with mostly quantitative agreement. Approximate analytical equations derived from the microkinetic model for isothermal conditions reproduced the isothermal trends and provided insight. The most important activation energies are Ea2=57.9 kJ mol₋1, Ea5=129 kJ mol₋1, and Ea6=175 kJ mol₋1, which correspond to alcohol dissociation,more » alkyl hydrogenation, and the reaction of alkyl species with alkoxy species. Upper limits for other activation energies were identified. The concepts of a sticking coefficient and steric factor in solution were applied.« less

  3. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol by K2FeO4 to benzaldehyde over zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Hua; Song, Hua-Lin; Jin, Zai-Shun

    2016-10-01

    A novel and green procedure for benzaldehyde synthesis by potassium ferrate oxidation of benzyl alcohol employing zeolite catalysts was studied. The prepared oxidant was characterized by SEM and XRD. The catalytic activity of various solid catalysts was studied using benzyl alcohol as a model compound. USY was found to be a very efficient catalyst for this particular oxidation process. Benzaldehyde yields up to 96.0% could be obtained at the following optimal conditions: 0.2 mL of benzyl alcohol, 4 mmol of K2FeO4, 0.5 g of USY zeolite; 20 mL of cyclohexene, 0.3 mL of acetic acid (36 wt %), 30°C temperature, 4 h reaction time.

  4. Role of benzyl alcohol in the prevention of heat-induced aggregation and inactivation of hen egg white lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Monu Kumari; Roy, Ipsita; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Sharma, Vikas Kumar; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the stability of a model protein, lysozyme, in the presence of the commonly used preservative benzyl alcohol. Techniques including lytic assay, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering were used to study the overall stability of lysozyme in the presence of benzyl alcohol. The stability of lysozyme against thermal stress was higher in the presence of benzyl alcohol. In the presence of 0.5%, 0.9% and 2% v/v benzyl alcohol, the enzyme showed 33%, 42% and 75% residual activity, respectively, when exposed to 75 degrees C for 2 h, as compared to the 22% activity of control sample. A gradual increase in the size of aggregates was observed for the control sample relative to the samples containing benzyl alcohol, as a result of loss of monomer concentration. The effect was found to be concentration-dependent with 2% benzyl alcohol showing maximum prevention of heat-induced unfolding and aggregation. This effect is remarkable since the thermal transition temperature of the enzyme decreases in the presence of benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol favours the thermal denaturation of lysozyme but stabilizes the lysozyme against the heat-induced aggregation.

  5. Hydrosilane and bismuth-accelerated palladium catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of benzylic alcohols with air.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xing-Feng; Ye, Fei; Zheng, Long-Sheng; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Xia, Chun-Gu; Xu, Li-Wen

    2012-09-01

    In a palladium-catalyzed oxidative esterification, hydrosilane can serve as an activator of palladium catalyst with bismuth, thus leading to a novel ligand- and silver-free palladium catalyst system for facile oxidative esterification of a variety of benzylic alcohols in good yields.

  6. Stereoselective carbon-carbon bond formation via the Mitsunobu displacement of chiral secondary benzylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Michael C; Desrosiers, Jean-Nicolas; Marcoux, Jean-François; Grabowski, Edward J J

    2004-02-19

    [reaction: see text] The stereoselective displacement of a variety of chiral benzylic alcohols with triethylmethanetricarboxylate (TEMT) under Mitsunobu conditions (DEAD, PMe(3)) has been demonstrated to proceed in good yield (70-94%) and with a high degree of inversion. Subsequent saponification and decarboxylation of the products thus obtained provide chiral 3-aryl-3-substituted propanoic acids without racemization.

  7. Hydrosilane and bismuth-accelerated palladium catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of benzylic alcohols with air.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xing-Feng; Ye, Fei; Zheng, Long-Sheng; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Xia, Chun-Gu; Xu, Li-Wen

    2012-09-01

    In a palladium-catalyzed oxidative esterification, hydrosilane can serve as an activator of palladium catalyst with bismuth, thus leading to a novel ligand- and silver-free palladium catalyst system for facile oxidative esterification of a variety of benzylic alcohols in good yields. PMID:22814568

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Nair, B

    2001-01-01

    Benzyl Alcohol is an aromatic alcohol used in a wide variety of cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component, preservative, solvent, and viscosity-decreasing agent. Benzoic Acid is an aromatic acid used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a pH adjuster and preservative. Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of Benzoic Acid used as a preservative, also in a wide range of cosmetic product types. Benzyl Alcohol is metabolized to Benzoic Acid, which reacts with glycine and excreted as hippuric acid in the human body. Acceptable daily intakes were established by the World Health Organization at 5 mg/kg for Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate are generally recognized as safe in foods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. No adverse effects of Benzyl Alcohol were seen in chronic exposure animal studies using rats and mice. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate in chronic exposure animal studies were limited to reduced feed intake and reduced growth. Some differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated populations were noted in one reproductive toxicity study using mice, but these were limited to lower maternal body weights and decreased mean litter weights. Another study also noted that fetal weight was decreased compared to controls, but a third study showed no differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated groups. Benzoic Acid was associated with an increased number of resorptions and malformations in hamsters, but there were no reproductive or developmental toxicty findings in studies using mice and rats exposed to Sodium Benzoate, and, likewise, Benzoic Acid was negative in two rat studies. Genotoxicity tests for these ingredients were mostly negative, but there were some assays that were positive. Carcinogenicity studies, however, were negative. Clinical data indicated that these ingredients can produce nonimmunologic contact urticaria and nonimmunologic immediate contact reactions

  9. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes. Based on metabolic studies, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (BADH) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) were hypothesized to be involved in the detoxification pathway. BADH and BZDH were purified to apparent homogeneity and were (1) homodimers with subunit molecular mass of 38 and 57 kDa, respectively, (2) NAD(+) dependent, (3) broad substrate specific accepting mono- and di-aromatic alcohols and aldehydes but not aliphatic compounds, and (4) BADH contained iron and magnesium, while BZDH contained magnesium. BADH in the forward reaction converted alcohol to aldehyde and required NAD(+), while in the reverse reaction it reduced aldehyde to alcohol in NADH-dependent manner. BZDH showed low K (m) value for benzaldehyde as compared to BADH reverse reaction. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed that BADH and BZDH do not form multi-enzyme complex. Thus, the conversion of aromatic alcohol to acid is due to low K (m) and high catalytic efficiency of BZDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BADH is a novel enzyme and diverged during the evolution to gain the ability to utilize mono- and di-aromatic compounds. The wide substrate specificity of these enzymes enables strain to detoxify methylnaphthalenes to naphthoic acids efficiently.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of benzyl alcohol: kinetics and mechanism of reaction with OH radicals.

    PubMed

    Bernard, François; Magneron, Isabelle; Eyglunent, Grégory; Daële, Véronique; Wallington, Timothy J; Hurley, Michael D; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of benzyl alcohol has been investigated using smog chambers at ICARE, FORD, and EUPHORE. The rate coefficient for reaction with OH radicals was measured and an upper limit for the reaction with ozone was established; kOH = (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10(-11) at 297 ± 3 K (averaged value including results from Harrison and Wells) and kO(3) < 2 × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 299 K. The products of the OH radical initiated oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the presence of NOX were studied. Benzaldehyde, originating from H-abstraction from the -CH(2)OH group, was identified using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, HPLC-UV/FID, and GC-PID and quantified in a yield of (24 ± 5) %. Ring retaining products originating from OH-addition to the aromatic ring such as o-hydroxybenzylalcohol and o-dihydroxybenzene as well as ring-cleavage products such as glyoxal were also identified and quantified with molar yields of (22 ± 2)%, (10 ± 3)%, and (2.7 ± 0.7)%, respectively. Formaldehyde was observed with a molar yield of (27 ± 10)%. The results are discussed with respect to previous studies and the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of benzyl alcohol.

  11. Evaluation of Fe and Ru Pincer-Type Complexes as Catalysts for the Racemization of Secondary Benzylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Christoph; Gustafson, Karl P J; Verho, Oscar; Beller, Matthias; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2016-08-01

    Fe and Ru pincer-type catalysts are used for the racemization of benzylic alcohols. Racemization with the Fe catalyst was achieved within 30 minutes under mild reaction conditions, with a catalyst loading as low as 2 mol %. This reaction constitutes the first example of an iron-catalyzed racemization of an alcohol. The efficiency for racemization of the Fe catalyst and its Ru analogue was evaluated for a wide range of sec-benzylic alcohols. The commercially available Ru complex proved to be highly robust and even tolerated the presence of water in the reaction mixture. PMID:27311070

  12. Influence of Fluorination on the Conformational Properties and Hydrogen-Bond Acidity of Benzyl Alcohol Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Elena; Compain, Guillaume; Mtashobya, Lewis; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Besseau, François; Galland, Nicolas; Linclau, Bruno; Graton, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fluorination on the conformational and hydrogen-bond (HB)-donating properties of a series of benzyl alcohols has been investigated experimentally by IR spectroscopy and theoretically with quantum chemical methods (ab initio (MP2) and DFT (MPWB1K)). It was found that o-fluorination generally resulted in an increase in the HB acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas a decrease was observed upon o,o′-difluorination. Computational analysis showed that the conformational landscapes of the title compounds are strongly influenced by the presence of o-fluorine atoms. Intramolecular interaction descriptors based on AIM, NCI and NBO analyses reveal that, in addition to an intramolecular OH⋅⋅⋅F interaction, secondary CH⋅⋅⋅F and/or CH⋅⋅⋅O interactions also occur, contributing to the stabilisation of the various conformations, and influencing the overall HB properties of the alcohol group. The benzyl alcohol HB-donating capacity trends are properly described by an electrostatic potential based descriptor calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, provided solvation effects are taken into account for these flexible HB donors. PMID:26130594

  13. Preparation of halloysite nanotube-supported gold nanocomposite for solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on halloysite nanotubes (Au/HNTs) were prepared by a homogeneous deposition-precipitation method. The specific characteristics of the catalyst were characterized in detail, in relation to their performance for solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The particular structure of the catalyst resulted in high catalytic activity and stability compared with other supported gold catalysts. The enhanced catalytic activity of the Au/HNTs catalyst was mainly attributed to the presence of a higher amount of oxidized gold species and the tubular structure of the HNTs. PMID:24948899

  14. Solvent-free catalytic dehydrative etherification of benzyl alcohol over graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiyou; Wang, Xinde; Zhu, Yuanshuai; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jian-guo

    2013-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), prepared from oxidation of graphite powders using a modified Hummers method, exhibits a promising catalytic activity and a high selectivity for the solvent-free catalytic dehydrative etherification of benzyl alcohol (BA). A maximum yield (85.4%) of dibenzyl ether (DE) was achieved at 150 °C for 24 h when the BA/GO ration was 20 ml/g under solvent-free condition. This discovery provided a new insight into the development of GO as a carbocatalysts for a variety of applications in carbocatalysis.

  15. Reduced graphene oxide supported Au nanoparticles as an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianqin; Huo, Yujia; Yang, Jing; Chang, Sujie; Ma, Yunsheng; Huang, Weixin

    2013-09-01

    Various Au/C catalysts were prepared by Au nanoparticels supported on different carbonaceous supports including reduced graphene oxide (RGO), activated carbon (AC) and graphite (GC) using sol-immobilization method. Au/RGO shows a much higher activity than Au/AC and Au/GC in the liquid phase aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The superior catalytic performance of Au/RGO may be related to the presence of surface O-containing functional groups and moderate graphite character of RGO supports.

  16. Preparation of halloysite nanotube-supported gold nanocomposite for solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaobo; Ding, Zhan; Zhang, Xuan; Weng, Wanliang; Xu, Yongjun; Liao, Junxu; Xie, Zhenkui

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on halloysite nanotubes (Au/HNTs) were prepared by a homogeneous deposition-precipitation method. The specific characteristics of the catalyst were characterized in detail, in relation to their performance for solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The particular structure of the catalyst resulted in high catalytic activity and stability compared with other supported gold catalysts. The enhanced catalytic activity of the Au/HNTs catalyst was mainly attributed to the presence of a higher amount of oxidized gold species and the tubular structure of the HNTs.

  17. Radiation cross-linking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer functionalized with m-isopropenyl-{alpha},{alpha}-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, K.B.; Naesman, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    In order to allow radiation cross-linking at low radiation doses, pendant unsaturation was introduced by reactive processing of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-{alpha},{alpha}-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate. Oxygen permeability of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer decreased with increasing degree of functionalization, while irradiation of the samples form trapped radicals, which act as oxygen scavengers and consequently no oxygen permeability was detected. However, radical activity was inhibited by annealing the samples at 110{degrees}C for 2.5 h, resulting in a 24% higher oxygen permeability value for the irradiated unfunctionalized copolymer, while the oxygen permeability values of the irradiated functionalized samples were 13% lower. Laminates, of m-isopropenyl-{alpha},{alpha}-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-{alpha},{alpha}-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer acquired improved adhesive strength both at dry and wet conditions as well as at elevated temperatures upon exposure to radiation.

  18. Visible light driven benzyl alcohol dehydrogenation in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjing; Vannucci, Aaron K; Farnum, Byron H; Lapides, Alexander M; Brennaman, M Kyle; Kalanyan, Berç; Alibabaei, Leila; Concepcion, Javier J; Losego, Mark D; Parsons, Gregory N; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    Light-driven dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol (BnOH) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen has been shown to occur in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC). In the DSPEC, the photoanode consists of mesoporous films of TiO2 nanoparticles or of core/shell nanoparticles with tin-doped In2O3 nanoparticle (nanoITO) cores and thin layers of TiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition (nanoITO/TiO2). Metal oxide surfaces were coderivatized with both a ruthenium polypyridyl chromophore in excess and an oxidation catalyst. Chromophore excitation and electron injection were followed by cross-surface electron-transfer activation of the catalyst to -Ru(IV)═O(2+), which then oxidizes benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The injected electrons are transferred to a Pt electrode for H2 production. The nanoITO/TiO2 core/shell structure causes a decrease of up to 2 orders of magnitude in back electron-transfer rate compared to TiO2. At the optimized shell thickness, sustained absorbed photon to current efficiency of 3.7% was achieved for BnOH dehydrogenation, an enhancement of ~10 compared to TiO2. PMID:24933178

  19. Efficacy of postmilking disinfection with benzyl alcohol versus lodophor in the prevention of new intramammary infections in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Sears, P M; Bartlett, P C; Gage, C R

    1998-01-01

    Five Michigan dairy herds participated in a split-herd study to compare the efficacy of two postmilking teat dips in the prevention of new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating cows. Three hundred seventy cows were assigned to 4% benzyl alcohol, and 387 cows were assigned to 1% iodophor germicidal teat dip. The teat dips were applied by directly immersing the teats immediately after milking. Once a group was assigned to a teat dip, cows in that group maintained on that same teat dip throughout the trial. Total new IMI numbered 254 and 201 for cows treated with benzyl alcohol and iodophor germicidal teat dip, respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (52.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%), and Corynebacterium bovis (12.2%) were the predominant pathogens that caused new IMI in cows treated with benzyl alcohol. Staphylococcus spp., Staph. aureus, and C. bovis, respectively, were the pathogens responsible for 69.7, 12.4, and 4.5% of the new IMI in cows treated with iodophor. The incidences of new IMI caused by Staph. aureus (0.66 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), C. bovis (0.38 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), and all pathogens (3.15 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo) were higher in cows treated with benzyl alcohol than in cows treated with iodophor (0.29, 0.11, and 2.35 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo, respectively). Incidence of new IMI did not differ between groups for other pathogens. One percent iodophor prevented new IMI caused by contagious pathogens more effectively than did benzyl alcohol. PMID:9493086

  20. In vitro benzyl alcohol cytotoxicity: implications for intravitreal use of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Chao-Liang; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Kuo, Pao-Ying; Tseng, Shih-Ya

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of benzyl alcohol (BA), the preservative in commercial triamcinolone acetonide (TA) suspensions, on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Cultured RPE cells from a human cell line (ARPE-19) and from rabbits were exposed to the balanced salt solution (control) or BA (0.0225, 0.225, 0.9, 3 or 9mg/mL) for 5, 30, 60, or 120min. Morphological changes of RPE cells were evaluated by the trypan blue in situ staining. The proportions of dead cells were quantitatively measured by the trypan blue exclusion assay, and those of functional cells were assessed by a mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay. The mechanism of cytotoxicity was determined by the acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and DNA laddering technique. Furthermore, ultrastructural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that RPE cell damage was dose- and time-dependent. BA 0.225mg/mL, the clinically relevant concentration in TA following intravitreal injection, caused ultrastructural damage and impaired human RPE cell function at 2h; but BA 0.0225mg/mL did not. BA 9.0mg/mL, the concentration in commercial TA suspensions, was toxic within 5min on each assay for both human and rabbit RPE cells. The major mechanism of cell death was necrosis. In conclusion, BA in commercial TA suspensions injected intravitreally (0.225-9mg/mL) can damage RPE cells. Our in vitro study on benzyl alcohol cytotoxicity has significant clinical implications for intravitreal use of TA. We suggest that, before a commercial TA solution is used intravitreally, the vehicle should be removed to prevent damaging the RPE layer, particularly during macular hole surgery. Commercial development of a preservative-free TA suspension for intraocular use is urged.

  1. Hot water-promoted S(N)1 solvolysis reactions of allylic and benzylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-Bing; Qu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    During the studies of hydrolysis of epoxides in water, we found that the hydrolysis of (-)-α-pinene oxide at 20 °C gave enantiomerically pure trans-(-)-sobrerol, whereas the same reaction in water heated at reflux unexpectedly gave a racemic mixture of trans- and cis-sobrerol (trans/cis = 6:4). We have examined this remarkable difference in detail and found that hot water, whose behavior is quite different compared with room- or high-temperature water, could promote S(N)1 solvolysis reactions of allylic alcohols and thus caused the racemization of trans-(-)-sobrerol. The effect of reaction temperature, the addition of organic co-solvent, and the concentration of the solute on the rate of the racemization of trans-(-)-sobrerol were further examined to understand the role that hot water played in the reaction. It was proposed that the catalytic effects of hot water are owing to its mild acidic characteristic, thermal activation, high ionizing power, and better solubility of organic reactant. Further investigation showed that the racemization of other chiral allylic/benzylic alcohols could efficiently proceed in hot water.

  2. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1 mmol substrate, 10 mol % copper(I) iodide, 10 mol % 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1 mol % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  3. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-04-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1 mmol substrate, 10 mol % copper(I) iodide, 10 mol % 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1 mol % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  5. Gene order of the TOL catabolic plasmid upper pathway operon and oxidation of both toluene and benzyl alcohol by the xylA product

    SciTech Connect

    Harayama, S.; Leppik, R.A.; Rekik, M.; Mermod, N.; Lehrbach, P.R.; Reineke, W.; Timmis, K.N.

    1986-08-01

    TOL plasmid pWW0 specifies enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of toluene and xylenes. The upper pathway converts the aromatic hydrocarbons to aromatic carboxylic acids via corresponding alcohols and aldehydes and involves three enzymes: xylene oxygenase, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The synthesis of these enzymes is positively regulated by the product of xylR. Determination of upper pathway enzyme levels in bacteria carrying Tn5 insertion mutant derivatives of plasmid pWW0-161 has shown that the genes for upper pathway enzymes are organized in an operon with the following order: promoter-xylC (benzaldehyde dehydrogenase gene(s))-xylA (xylene oxygenase gene(s))-xylB (benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene). Subcloning of the upper pathway genes in a lambda p/sub L/ promoter-containing vector and analysis of their expression in Escherichia coli K-12 confirmed this order. Two distinct enzymes were found to attack benzyl alcohol, namely, xylene oxygenase and benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase; and their catalytic activities were additive in the conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The fact that benzyl alcohol is both a product and a substrate of xylene oxygenase indicates that this enzyme has a relaxed substrate specificity.

  6. Polydopamine-Coated TiO2 Nanotubes for Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde Under Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Jyotsna; Loget, Gabriel; Altomare, Marco; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-05-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by anodization were coated with thin layers of polydopamine as visible light sensitizer. The PDA-coated TiO2 scaffolds were used as photocatalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol under monochromatic irradiation at 473 nm. Benzaldehyde was selectively formed and no by-products could be detected. A maximized reaction yield was obtained in O2-saturated acetonitrile. A mechanism is proposed that implies firstly the charge carrier generation in polydopamine as a consequence of visible light absorption. Secondly, photo-promoted electrons are injected in TiO2 conduction band, and subsequently transferred to dissolved O2 to form O*2- radicals. These radicals react with benzyl alcohol and lead to its selective dehydrogenation oxidation towards benzaldehyde. PMID:27483930

  7. Polydopamine-Coated TiO2 Nanotubes for Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde Under Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Jyotsna; Loget, Gabriel; Altomare, Marco; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-05-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by anodization were coated with thin layers of polydopamine as visible light sensitizer. The PDA-coated TiO2 scaffolds were used as photocatalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol under monochromatic irradiation at 473 nm. Benzaldehyde was selectively formed and no by-products could be detected. A maximized reaction yield was obtained in O2-saturated acetonitrile. A mechanism is proposed that implies firstly the charge carrier generation in polydopamine as a consequence of visible light absorption. Secondly, photo-promoted electrons are injected in TiO2 conduction band, and subsequently transferred to dissolved O2 to form O*2- radicals. These radicals react with benzyl alcohol and lead to its selective dehydrogenation oxidation towards benzaldehyde.

  8. Transformation of masked benzyl alcohols to o-aminobenzaldehydes through C-H activation: a facile approach to quinazolines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolan; Han, Jian; Zhu, Yan; Yuan, Chunchen; Zhang, Jingyu; Zhao, Yingsheng

    2016-08-11

    Direct transformation of a directing group to important synthetic units would provide a high atom efficiency synthetic approach in synthetic chemistry. Herein, a convenient protocol for the synthesis of o-aminobenzaldehyde and benzoxazole derivatives from benzyl alcohols has been developed by employing (N,N-dimethyl)oxamoyl amide as a directing group in a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination. Furthermore, the attached directing center may not only be transformed into the product, but may also be further applied to generate synthetically important quinazoline and quinoline units. Finally, a high atom efficiency one-pot, two-step approach to form quinazolines from benzyl alcohol derivatives has been achieved in good yields, thus demonstrating its high utility. PMID:27470264

  9. Pd@Cu(II)-MOF-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols in Air with High Conversion and Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong-Jun; Wang, Jing-Si; Jin, Fa-Zheng; Liu, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Chao-Wei; Li, Yan-An; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-03-21

    A new 3D porous Cu(II)-MOF (1) was synthesized based on a ditopic pyridyl substituted diketonate ligand and Cu(OAc)2 in solution, and it features a 3D NbO motif which is determined by the X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, the Pd NPs-loaded hybrid material Pd@Cu(II)-MOF (2) was prepared based on 1 via solution impregnation, and its structure was confirmed by HRTEM, SEM, XRPD, gas adsorption-desorption, and ICP measurement. 2 exhibits excellent catalytic activity (conversion, 93% to >99%) and selectivity (>99% to benzaldehydes) for various benzyl alcohol substrates (benzyl alcohol and its derivatives with electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups) oxidation reactions in air. In addition, 2 is a typical heterogeneous catalyst, which was confirmed by hot solution leaching experiment, and it can be recycled at least six times without significant loss of its catalytic activity and selectivity. PMID:26959340

  10. Phase-reversal emulsion catalysis with CNT-TiO2 nanohybrids for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang; Fan, Liman; Yang, Juan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-11-25

    Mix it up: Carbon nanotube (CNT)-TiO2 nanohybrids with the potential to control the phase of an emulsion were successfully developed with a simple yet efficient method. When ruthenium was deposited on these CNT-TiO2 nanohybrid supports, they demonstrated catalytic potential for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The relationship between the emulsion properties and the catalytic mechanism is also discussed.

  11. Disposition of benzyl alcohol after topical application to human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saiyasombati, Penpan; Kasting, Gerald B

    2003-10-01

    Dissipation of a volatile compound or mixture from the skin surface after topical application involves both diffusion and evaporation. This report presents a detailed test of a previously described first-order kinetic approach to modeling this problem. Modified Franz diffusion cells fitted with a vapor trap were used to obtain absorption and evaporation data for benzyl alcohol (1% solution in ethanol) after application to human skin in vitro. Airflow over the skin surface (upsilon) was controlled in the experiment and accounted for in the model by allowing the evaporation rate constant(s) to vary as a function of upsilon. A linear dependence was found over the working range of the system, 10-100 mL/min. Three kinetic models were developed, all of which satisfactorily correlated cumulative absorption and evaporation results over the full range of upsilon (n = 120, s = 4-5%, r2 = 0.98-0.99). One of these was the model presented previously, in which all dissipation occurs from a single skin compartment. However, more details of the evaporation and absorption profiles could be accounted for by means of two-compartment models that explicitly consider the surface film present in the early stages post-application. The latter models seem to be better candidates for describing the time evolution of the volatile mixture evolving from the skin surface after topical application of, e.g., a complex fragrance or perfume.

  12. Ruthenium(II)-PNN pincer complex catalyzed dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to ester: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jingcong; Wen, Li; Lv, Xiaobo; Qi, Yong; Yin, Hailiang

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of the dehydrogenation of primary alcohol to ester catalyzed by the ruthenium(II)-PNN pincer complex Ru(H)(η2-BH4)(PNN), [PNN: (2-(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)-6-(diethlaminomethyl)-pyridine)] has been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The catalytic cycle includes three stages: (stage I) alcohol dehydrogenation to form aldehyde, (stage II) coupling of aldehyde with alcohol to give hemiacetal or ester, and (stage III) hemiacetal dehydrogenation to form ester. Two dehydrogenation reactions occur via the β-H elimination mechanism rather than the bifunctional double hydrogen transfer mechanism, which could be rationalized as the fluxional behavior of the BH4- ligand. At the second stage, the coupling reaction requires alcohol or the ruthenium catalyst as mediator. The formation of hemiacetal through the alcohol-mediated pathway is kinetically favorable than the ruthenium catalyst-mediated one, which may be attributed to the smaller steric hindrance when the aldehyde approaches the alcohol moiety in the reaction system. Our results would be helpful for experimental chemists to design more effective transition metal catalysts for dehydrogenation of alcohols.

  13. CeO2-modified Au@SBA-15 nanocatalysts for liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tuo; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Shuirong; Zeng, Liang; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-04-01

    Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts under identical conditions along with the high selectivity towards benzaldehyde (>99%). The turnover frequency of benzyl alcohol over the Au-100CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst is about nine-fold and four-fold higher than those of Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts, respectively. The supported catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the Au and small CeO2 nanoparticles (~5 nm) were homogeneously mixed in the channels of SBA-15, which led to an increase in the interfacial area between Au and CeO2 and consequently a better catalytic performance of Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde compared with that of Au/CeO2. The prevention of agglomeration and leaching of Au nanoparticles by restricting them inside the mesopores of SBA-15 was conducive to the stable existence of large quantities of Au-CeO2 interface, which leads to high stability of the Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst.Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts

  14. Photochemical transformations. 30. Photosolvolysis of benzyl chlorides in tert-butyl alcohol. 2. Nature of excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Cristol, S.J.; Bindel, T.H.

    1981-12-02

    The photosolvolysis of a number of benzyl chlorides in tert-butyl alcohol, both as a result of direct irradiation and ketone triplet sensitization, has been studied. A variety of sensitization and quenching techniques have been used. The results obtained are rationalized by the assumption that there are two triplet states of the benzyl chlorides accessible in these experiments-one a short-lived upper state, which leads to solvolysis product, and another a long-lived (lower energy) state, which reverts to ground-state reactant. Consistent with this idea, m-methoxybenzyl chloride is shown to quench the photoreactions of benzophenone with benzhydrol without the formation of a significant amount of reactive species. The effects of wavelength on the reactions of p-acetobenzyl chloride are measured and discussed in terms of the two-triplet concept.

  15. CeO2-modified Au@SBA-15 nanocatalysts for liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Shuirong; Zeng, Liang; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts under identical conditions along with the high selectivity towards benzaldehyde (>99%). The turnover frequency of benzyl alcohol over the Au-100CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst is about nine-fold and four-fold higher than those of Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts, respectively. The supported catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the Au and small CeO2 nanoparticles (∼5 nm) were homogeneously mixed in the channels of SBA-15, which led to an increase in the interfacial area between Au and CeO2 and consequently a better catalytic performance of Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde compared with that of Au/CeO2. The prevention of agglomeration and leaching of Au nanoparticles by restricting them inside the mesopores of SBA-15 was conducive to the stable existence of large quantities of Au-CeO2 interface, which leads to high stability of the Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst.

  16. CeO2-modified Au@SBA-15 nanocatalysts for liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Shuirong; Zeng, Liang; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts under identical conditions along with the high selectivity towards benzaldehyde (>99%). The turnover frequency of benzyl alcohol over the Au-100CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst is about nine-fold and four-fold higher than those of Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts, respectively. The supported catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the Au and small CeO2 nanoparticles (∼5 nm) were homogeneously mixed in the channels of SBA-15, which led to an increase in the interfacial area between Au and CeO2 and consequently a better catalytic performance of Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde compared with that of Au/CeO2. The prevention of agglomeration and leaching of Au nanoparticles by restricting them inside the mesopores of SBA-15 was conducive to the stable existence of large quantities of Au-CeO2 interface, which leads to high stability of the Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst. PMID:25670350

  17. A study of transglucosylation kinetic in an enzymatic synthesis of benzyl alcohol glucoside by α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, M.; Dimitrijević, A.; Trbojević, J.; Milosavić, N.; Gavrović-Jankulović, M.; Bezbradica, D.; Veličković, D.

    2013-12-01

    α-1,4-Glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an enzyme which is widely used in synthesis of different drugs. Glucosidase inhibitors are studied as potential drugs for prevention of HIV and diabetes. For understanding of these processes it is very important to have insights in the transglucosylation activity of this enzyme. In this paper the kinetics of transglucosylation reaction catalyzed by this enzyme in the synthesis of benzyl alcohol glucoside was studied and all relevant kinetic constants for this system are found. It was shown one additional property of transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by glycosidases—inhibition by both, glucose acceptor and glucose donor, and mechanisms for these inhibitions were proposed.

  18. Visible-light-driven selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol and thioanisole by molecular ruthenium catalyst modified hematite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lichen; Li, Fei; Wang, Yong; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Sun, Licheng

    2016-08-11

    Molecular ruthenium catalysts were found to selectively catalyze the oxidation of thioanisole to sulfoxide with a yield up to 100% in the presence of visible light and sacrificial reagents when they were anchored onto hematite powder. The composite photocatalysts also showed about 5 times higher efficiencies in benzyl alcohol oxidation than the system composed of dispersed molecular catalysts and hematite particles in aqueous solution. A photoelectrochemical cell based on a molecular catalyst modified hematite photoanode was further fabricated, which exhibited high activity towards the oxidation of organic substrates. PMID:27411498

  19. Correlation between the microstructures of graphite oxides and their catalytic behaviors in air oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Geng, Longlong; Wu, Shujie; Zou, Yongcun; Jia, Mingjun; Zhang, Wenxiang; Yan, Wenfu; Liu, Gang

    2014-05-01

    A series of graphite oxide (GO) materials were obtained by thermal treatment of oxidized natural graphite powder at different temperatures (from 100 to 200 °C). The microstructure evolution (i.e., layer structure and surface functional groups) of the graphite oxide during the heating process is studied by various characterization means, including XRD, N2 adsorption, TG-DTA, in situ DRIFT, XPS, Raman, TEM and Boehm titration. The characterization results show that the structures of GO materials change gradually from multilayer sheets to a transparent ultrathin 2D structure of the carbon sheets. The concentration of surface COH and HOCO groups decrease significantly upon treating temperature increasing. Benzyl alcohol oxidation with air as oxidant source was carried out to detect the catalytic behaviors of different GO materials. The activities of GO materials decrease with the increase of treating temperatures. It shows that the structure properties, including ultrathin sheets and high specific surface area, are not crucial factors affecting the catalytic activity. The type and amount of surface oxygen-containing functional groups of GO materials tightly correlates with the catalytic performance. Carboxylic groups on the surface of GO should act as oxidative sites for benzyl alcohol and the reduced form could be reoxidized by molecular oxygen.

  20. Effects of ring fluorination on the transient atropisomerism of benzyl alcohol: the rotational spectrum of 3,4-difluorobenzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Gou, Qian; Feng, Gang; Caminati, Walther

    2013-08-01

    The rotational spectra of the -OH and -OD isotopologues of 3,4-difluorobenzyl alcohol have been measured by pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectrum of one conformer has been assigned, characterised by a OCα-C1C2 dihedral angle of approximately 50°, and with the hydroxyl group zusammen with respect to the meta-F atom. μ c-type transitions of the -OH species are split into two evenly spaced component lines by 0.132(2) MHz, showing that the CH2OH group undergoes a tunnelling motion which connects two equivalent minima above and below the aromatic ring. The barrier for the interconversion of the two mirror forms has been calculated to be 155 cm-1.

  1. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  2. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

    2013-08-27

    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  3. High efficient photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by solvothermal-synthesized ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhixin; Xu, Jingjing; Ren, Zhuyun; He, Yunhui; Xiao, Guangcan

    2013-09-15

    Hexagonal ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} samples have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Their properties have been determined by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible-light diffuse reflectance spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These results demonstrate that ethanol solvent has significant influence on the morphology, optical and electronic nature for such marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres. The visible light photocatalytic activities of the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The results show that 100% conversion along with >99% selectivity are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in ethanol solvent under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of 2 h, but only 58% conversion and 57% yield are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in aqueous solvent. A possible mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} is proposed and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The high visible photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under mild conditions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. • The solvents have a remarkably influence on the morphology and properties of samples. • It is the first time to apply ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. • ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} shows high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

  4. Influence of Preparation Methods of Nano Au/MCM-41 Catalysts for Vapor Phase Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Vishwanathan, Venkataraman; Chary, V R

    2015-12-01

    The Au/MCM-41 nano catalysts were synthesized from four different methods, viz., homogeneous deposition-precipitation, micro-emulsion, impregnation and polyol and their catalytic activities were tested for the vapor phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were investigated by XRD, TEM, BET surface area, PSD, CO-chemisorption and XPS techniques. The effect of preparation methods, nature of the metal, support and the metal-support interaction in Au/MCM-41 catalysts were studied for the title reaction. The Au/MCM-41 catalysts synthesized from HDP method has shown higher and better catalytic activity as compared to the catalysts prepared by other methods.

  5. Orientation and dynamics of benzyl alcohol and benzyl alkyl ethers dissolved in nematic lyotropic liquid crystals. 2H NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, H; Montecinos, R; Tieleman, D P; Weiss-López, B E

    2005-08-01

    Most drugs have to cross cell membranes to reach their final target. A better understanding of the distribution, interactions, and dynamics of biologically active molecules in model bilayers is of fundamental importance in understanding drug functioning and design. 2H NMR quadrupole splittings (delta nu(Q)) and longitudinal relaxation times (T1) from the aromatic ring of benzyl alcohol-d5 (C0), a commonly used anesthetic, and a series of linear alkyl benzyl-d5 ethers with chain lengths from 1 to 12 carbon atoms (C1-C12), were measured. The molecules were dissolved in a nematic discotic lyotropic liquid crystal solution made of tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride (TTAC)/decanol (DeOH)/NaCl/H2O. Values of delta nu(Q) and T1 from 1,1-dideuteriodecanol (15% enriched) and DHO (H2O with 0.2% D2O) were also measured. Delta nu(Q) of DeOH and DHO remained constant throughout the series. The value of delta nu(Q) of the para position of the ring (delta nu(p)) in C1 is 30% smaller than the delta nu(p) of C0. This is attributed to the existence of an H-bond between the alcohol hydroxyl proton and the solvent, which influences the average orientation of the ring. The relaxation data show that T1o,m is always longer than T1p and both decrease with the increase in alkyl chain length. Molecular dynamics simulations of the experimentally studied systems were performed. The aggregate was represented as a bilayer. The distribution, average orientation, and order parameters of the aromatic ring of the guest molecules in the bilayer were examined. Rotational correlation functions of all the C-D bonds and the OH bond from H2O were evaluated, allowing an estimate of the correlation times and T1. According to these results all spins relax in extreme narrowing conditions, except DeOH. Experimental and calculated T1 values differ at most by a factor of 3. However, the order of magnitude and the observed trends are well reproduced by the calculations. The aromatic ring of C0 possesses a

  6. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  7. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  8. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  9. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  10. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  11. Synthesis and activity of (R)-(-)-m-trimethylacetoxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride: a prodrug form of (R)-(-)-phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S S; Bador, N

    1976-06-01

    Optically pure (R)-(-)-m-trimethylacetoxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride was synthesized by the following sequence: (R)-(-)-phenylephrine was condensed with acetone in the presence of calcium carbide to give an oxazolidine derivative and then treated with thallous ethoxide in ether followed by trimethylacetyl chloride to yield the phenolic ester. Finally, the oxazolidine ring was cleaved by one equivalent of hydrogen chloride in ethanol. Condensation of phenylephrine with benzaldehyde, with or without solvents, gave either 1,1,2-trimethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline or a mixture of side-chain oxazolidine and the tetrahydroisoquinoline. Condensation of epinephrine with opianic acid in pyridine also gave a tetrahydroisoquinoline only. When applied on rabbit eyes, the prodrug (R)-(-)-m-trimethylacetoxy-alpha[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride exhibited an unexpected, three times higher mydriatic activity than the corresponding racemic prodrug and was 15 times more active than the parent, (R)-(-)-phenylephrine.

  12. Unsymmetrical Diarylmethanes by Ferroceniumboronic Acid Catalyzed Direct Friedel-Crafts Reactions with Deactivated Benzylic Alcohols: Enhanced Reactivity due to Ion-Pairing Effects.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaobin; Yakiwchuk, Joshua; Dansereau, Julien; McCubbin, J Adam; Hall, Dennis G

    2015-08-01

    The development of general and more atom-economical catalytic processes for Friedel-Crafts alkylations of unactivated arenes is an important objective of interest for the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Ferroceniumboronic acid hexafluoroantimonate salt (1) was identified as a superior air- and moisture-tolerant catalyst for direct Friedel-Crafts alkylations of a variety of slightly activated and neutral arenes with stable and readily available primary and secondary benzylic alcohols. Compared to the use of classical metal-catalyzed alkylations with toxic benzylic halides, this methodology employs exceptionally mild conditions to provide a wide variety of unsymmetrical diarylmethanes and other 1,1-diarylalkane products in high yield with good to high regioselectivity. The optimal method, using the bench-stable ferroceniumboronic acid salt 1 in hexafluoroisopropanol as cosolvent, displays a broader scope compared to previously reported catalysts for similar Friedel-Crafts reactions of benzylic alcohols, including other boronic acids such as 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorophenylboronic acid. The efficacy of the new boronic acid catalyst was confirmed by its ability to activate primary benzylic alcohols functionalized with destabilizing electron-withdrawing groups like halides, carboxyesters, and nitro substituents. Arene benzylation was demonstrated on a gram scale at up to 1 M concentration with catalyst recovery. Mechanistic studies point toward the importance of the ionic nature of the catalyst and suggest that factors other than the Lewis acidity (pKa) of the boronic acid are at play. A SN1 mechanism is proposed where ion exchange within the initial boronate anion affords a more reactive carbocation paired with the non-nucleophilic hexafluoroantimonate counteranion. PMID:26158198

  13. Real-Time Detection of Traces of Benzaldehyde in Benzyl Alcohol as a Solvent by a Flexible Lanthanide Microporous Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Chen, Diming; Ma, Huili; Cheng, Peng

    2015-10-26

    Luminescent 3D lanthanide metal-organic framework (Ln-MOF) {[Tb2 (TATAB)2 ]⋅4 H2 O⋅6 DMF}n (1) was synthesized under solvothermal conditions by using flexible ligand 4,4',4''-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB). A phase transition was observed between low temperature and room temperature. The luminescence of 1 could be enhanced by formaldehyde and quenched efficiently by trace amounts of benzaldehyde in solvents such as benzyl alcohol (0.01-2.0 vol %) and ethanol (0.01-2.5 vol %). This is the first use of a Ln-MOF as chemical sensor for both formaldehyde and benzaldehyde. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the luminescence response of 1 to benzaldehyde allows it to be used as an excellent sensor for identifying benzaldehyde and provides a simple and convenient method for detecting traces of benzaldehyde in benzyl alcohol based injections. This work establishes a new strategy for detection of benzaldehyde in benzyl alcohol by luminescent MOFs.

  14. Importance of solute partitioning in biphasic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by free and immobilized whole cells of Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Koei; Nakahara, Takehiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-25

    Using free and immobilized whole cells of Pichia pastoris, the biocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol was investigated in different two-phase systems. This reaction was strongly influenced by both the substrate and product inhibitions, and the production rate of benzaldehyde in the aqueous system became maximum at the initial substrate concentration of ca. 29 g/L with the aldehyde formation less than 4 to 5 g/L even after a longer reaction period. The reaction rates in the two-liquid phase systems were predominantly determined by the partitioning behaviors of the substrate and the product between the two phases rather than by enzyme deactivation by the organic solvents. In the two-liquid phase systems, consequently, the organic solvent acted as a reservoir to reduce these inhibitory effects, and it was essential to select the organic solvent providing the optimal partitioning of the substrate into the aqueous phase as well as the preferential extraction of the product into the organic phase. The whole cells immobilized in a mixed matrix composed of silicone polymer and Ca alginate gel worked well in the xylene and decane media, providing comparable activities with the free cells. The production rate of aldehyde was also influenced by the solute partitioning into the hydrophilic alginate phase where the cells existed.

  15. X-ray reflectivity measurements and Landau theory of smectic wetting in liquid crystal--benzyl alcohol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, G.J.; Pershan, P.S.; Kawamoto, E.H.; Foster, W.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.M.

    1995-05-01

    Smectic layering has been observed at the free surface of decylcyanobiphenyl (10CB) and dodecylcyanobiphenyl (12CB) and mixtures of 10CB and 12CB with benzyl alcohol (BA). The effect of BA is to suppress the bulk isotropic-smectic transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital I}{ital A}} and surface layer ``transition`` temperatures {ital T}{sub {ital j}}, as well as sharpening these surface transitions by reducing the temperature range {Delta}{ital T} over which layers grow. The observed sharpening appears to saturate for concentrations {ital x}{ge}0.118. A Landau theory for the growth of a single layer {ital j} has been developed, in which the free energy contains a term coupling the concentration {ital x} to the local smectic order parameter {psi}{sub {ital j}} such that {ital F}{sub {ital j}}{similar_to}{ital x}{psi}{sub {ital j}}{sup 2}. Applying this theory to pure 12CB and eight mixtures of 12CB-BA, we find that the {ital j}=1{minus}{gt}{ital j}=2 transition is continuous in pure 12CB, but that the addition of small amounts of impurity drives the transition first order.

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  17. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  18. Bacterial uptake of 14C-chlorhexidine diacetate and 14C-benzyl alcohol and the influence of phenoxyethanol and azolectin: studies with gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, K A; Davies, A; Russell, A D

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of 14C-chlorhexidine (14C-CHA) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and smooth, rough and deep rough strains of Escherichia coli was very rapid with maximum uptake occurring within 20 s. Despite the rapid binding, the lethal action of CHA, although concentration-dependent, is comparatively slow and occurs in minutes rather than seconds. This indicates that the initial rapid binding is followed by a second slower action, responsible for the lethal effects of CHA. The lethal action could be accelerated, particularly at modest concentrations of CHA, by the simultaneous presence of phenoxyethanol (POE) or benzyl alcohol (BZA), although the magnitude of the effect was small. Both alcohols had little effect on the binding of 14C-CHA, which does not explain the enhanced bactericidal action of CHA. Uptake of 14C-benzyl alcohol (14C-BZA) by the same strains showed very different patterns with slower and time-related binding. CHA had a marked effect on BZA absorption but no direct link was established between binding patterns and cell death. The CHA neutraliser, azolectin, removed bound CHA (in the presence or absence of POE) very efficiently even at contact times of only 20 s.

  19. Ultrafine MnO2 nanoparticles decorated on graphene oxide as a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zonggao; Zhao, Yafei; Liu, Jindun; Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Bing; Xiang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    The highly active and selective aerobic oxidation of aromatic alcohols over earth-abundant, inexpensive and recyclable catalysts is highly desirable. We fabricated herein MnO2/graphene oxide (GO) composites by a facile in-situ growth approach at room temperature and used them in selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. TEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis were employed to systematically investigate the morphology, particle size, structure and surface properties of the catalysts. The 96.8% benzyl alcohol conversion and 100% benzaldehyde selectivity over the MnO2/GO (10/100) catalyst with well dispersive ultrafine MnO2 nanoparticles (ca. 3nm) can be obtained within 3h under 383K. Simultaneously, no appreciable loss of activity and selectivity occurred after recycling use up to six times. Due to their significant low cost, excellent catalytic performance, the MnO2/GO composites have huge application prospect in organic synthesis. PMID:27544446

  20. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  1. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-20

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the RuV=O3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to RuIV=O2+ and for the RuIV=O2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway involving concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  2. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-20

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the RuV=O3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to RuIV=O2+ and for the RuIV=O2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  3. Benzyl alcohol and block copolymer micellar lithography: a versatile route to assembling gold and in situ generated titania nanoparticles into uniform binary nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Polleux, Julien; Rasp, Matthias; Louban, Ilia; Plath, Nicole; Feldhoff, Armin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2011-08-23

    Simultaneous synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles that exhibit unique physicochemical properties are critically important for designing new functional devices at the macroscopic scale. In the present study, we report a simple version of block copolymer micellar lithography (BCML) to synthesize gold and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoarrays by using benzyl alcohol (BnOH) as a solvent. In contrast to toluene, BnOH can lead to the formation of various gold nanopatterns via salt-induced micellization of polystyrene-block-poly(vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). In the case of titania, the use of BCML with a nonaqueous sol-gel method, the "benzyl alcohol route", enables the fabrication of nanopatterns made of quasi-hexagonally organized particles or parallel wires upon aging a (BnOH-TiCl(4)-PS(846)-b-P2VP(171))-containing solution for four weeks to grow TiO(2) building blocks in situ. This approach was found to depend mainly on the relative lengths of the polymer blocks, which allows nanoparticle-induced micellization and self-assembly during solvent evaporation. Moreover, this versatile route enables the design of uniform and quasi-ordered gold-TiO(2) binary nanoarrays with a precise particle density due to the absence of graphoepitaxy during the deposition of TiO(2) onto gold nanopatterns.

  4. A comparative study of silver-graphene oxide nanocomposites as a recyclable catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol: Support effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahed, Bahareh; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Three different nanocomposites of silver and graphene oxide, namely silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO), partially reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) and thiolated partially reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/GOSH), were synthesized in order to compare their properties. Characterizations were carried out by infrared and UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, ICP, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM, confirming both the targeted chemical modification and the composite formation. The nanocomposites were successfully employed in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol at atmospheric pressure. AgNPs/GOSH is stable and recyclable catalyst which showed the highest activity in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the presence of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) to give benzaldehyde with 58% selectivity in 24 h at 61% conversion. The favorite properties of AgNPs/GOSH are reasonably attributed to the stable and well distributed AgNPs over GOSH due to strong adhesion between AgNPs and GOSH.

  5. High efficient photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by solvothermal-synthesized ZnIn2S4 microspheres under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixin; Xu, Jingjing; Ren, Zhuyun; He, Yunhui; Xiao, Guangcan

    2013-09-01

    Hexagonal ZnIn2S4 samples have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Their properties have been determined by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible-light diffuse reflectance spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These results demonstrate that ethanol solvent has significant influence on the morphology, optical and electronic nature for such marigold-like ZnIn2S4 microspheres. The visible light photocatalytic activities of the ZnIn2S4 have been evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The results show that 100% conversion along with >99% selectivity are reached over ZnIn2S4 prepared in ethanol solvent under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of 2 h, but only 58% conversion and 57% yield are reached over ZnIn2S4 prepared in aqueous solvent. A possible mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol over ZnIn2S4 is proposed and discussed.

  6. [Application of gas chromatography-high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry to the analysis of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol acetophenone and phenylacetaldehyde in complex aromatic samples].

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Cao, Zhe; Li, Jiwen; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Chuan; Gu, Songyuan

    2015-02-01

    The study focuses on the quantitative analytical characterization of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone and phenylacetaldehyde in complex aromatic samples by gas chromatography-high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS). The four compounds in real sample were accurately qualified and quantified through a comprehensive analysis of the GC retention times and the accurate masses of the ion fragments obtained by the high resolution MS. The new method therefore effectively avoids the interference of the real sample substrate, which reduces the accuracy of the analysis results. The peak area of the characteristic ion fragment for each compound was used for quantitation calculation. The MS signal responses of the four compounds showed good linear relationships with the corresponding mass concentrations and the linear regression coefficients were greater than 0. 99. The method recoveries were 87. 97% - 103.01%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0. 01, 0. 03, 0. 02 and 0. 01 mg/L for benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone and phenylacetaldehyde respectively. The contents of the four compounds in three real samples were analyzed. The study provided a new strategy for oxygenate analysis in complex aromatic samples using GC-QTOF MS. By measuring the accurate masses, the new method reduces the reliance on chromatographic separation ability and makes up the shortcomings of the traditional GC-MS methods.

  7. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  8. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  9. Oxidation of primary and secondary benzylic alcohols with hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide catalyzed by a "helmet" phthalocyaninato iron complex in the absence of added organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian M; Herried, Morgan E; Neve, Rachel L; McGaff, Robert W

    2014-12-28

    The oxidation of four benzylic alcohols employing hydrogen peroxide and TBHP as oxidants, catalyzed by an iron(III) complex bearing a 14,28-[1,3-diiminoisoindolinato]phthalocyaninato (diiPc) ligand has been studied and found to proceed with good selectivity, high turnover numbers, and high turnover frequencies in the absence of organic solvents other than the substrates themselves.

  10. Gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles on heterostructured TiO2 nanobelts as plasmonic photocatalysts for benzyl alcohol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tongtong; Jia, Chuancheng; Zhang, Lanchun; He, Shuren; Sang, Yuanhua; Li, Haidong; Li, Yanqing; Xu, Xiaohong; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly facilitates the flow of hot electrons from the metal NPs to TiO2 and promotes benzyl alcohol oxidation. This efficient electron transfer was identified by the much higher photocurrent response measured for the Au/TiO2-NB nanostructure with the TiO2(B)/anatase heterojunction than those with either of the single phases under visible light irradiation. Alloying Au with Pd in Au-Pd/TiO2-NB results in a significant improvement in the visible light-promoted activity compared to the monometallic Au/TiO2-NB sample. It is supposed that the plasmon-mediated charge distribution within the alloy NPs is mainly responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the bimetallic nanostructures.Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly

  11. Nano Pd(0) supported on cellulose: a highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Suzuki coupling and aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohols under liquid phase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Navjot; Sodhi, Ravinderpal Kour; Gupta, Princy; Paul, Satya

    2011-12-01

    Nano palladium(0) supported on cellulose was found to be highly efficient recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Suzuki coupling between aryl bromides and phenyl boronic acid in water and aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohols using air as the source of molecular oxygen in acetonitrile. The Cell-Pd(0) was prepared by stirring commercially available cellulose with Pd(OAc)(2) in ethanol at 25°C followed by reduction with hydrazine hydrate, leading finally to nano Pd(0) particles uniformly distributed on surface of cellulose. This catalytic system provides biaryls and polyaryls in excellent yields with very high turn over numbers via Suzuki coupling; and benzaldehyde derivatives in high yields and selectivity by oxidation in air. Cell-Pd(0) was characterized by X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  12. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Rezaee, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Shirin Sadeghi; Montazeri, Naser; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (43.0 µL 1,2-dichloroethane) and disperser solvent (1.0 mL acetonitrile) for the formation of a cloudy solution in a 5.0-mL aqueous sample containing benzaldehyde. The linear range was 1.0-1000 µg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.2 µg L(-1) for benzaldehyde.

  13. Adsorption of organic molecules at the mercury-solution interface: effect of anion specific adsorption on double layer properties. [Benzyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Buckfelder, J.J. III

    1980-08-01

    Adsorption of iso-pentanol, pentanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol at the mercury-solution interface was studied in HC1O/sub 4/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaNO/sub 3/, and NaF electrolytes. The Frumkin isotherm equation Ba = (theta/(1-theta))exp(2..cap alpha..theta) together with the implied charge vs. surface excess relation: q = (1-theta)q/sub w/ + thetaQ were used to analyze the experimental data. Linear charge vs surface excess plots were obtained for the aliphatic compounds over the entire potential region studied; for benzyl alcohol, plots were linear only at anodic potentials. The slopes of these lines agreed with those predicted by the above equation, with Q = C/sub org/(V-V/sub n/), for cathodic potentials. At potentials anodic to the electrocapillary maximum, deviations between experimental and theoretical slopes appeared. In the model proposed, the double layer consists of two parts. The layer closest to the surface is restricted to water molecules and specifically adsorbed ions. The second layer contains organic molecules exclusively; any charge necessary to balance the surface charge is considered to be in a monolayer adjacent to the organic layer. From the slope of the charge vs surface excess plots, it is possible to calculate the charge on the covered portion of the surface and then calculate the amount of specific adsorption. The relative amounts of specific adsorption are in agreement with known strengths of adsorption of the anions of the electrolyte. Capacity curves were also calculated and were in good agreement with experimental curves.

  14. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  15. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  16. Variation of transition-state structure as a function of the nucleotide in reactions catalyzed by dehydrogenases. 1. Liver alcohol dehydrogenase with benzyl alcohol and yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase with benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Scharschmidt, M; Fisher, M A; Cleland, W W

    1984-11-01

    Primary intrinsic deuterium and 13C isotope effects have been determined for liver (LADH) and yeast (YADH) alcohol dehydrogenases with benzyl alcohol as substrate and for yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with benzaldehyde as substrate. These values have also been determined for LADH as a function of changing nucleotide substrate. As the redox potential of the nucleotide changes from -0.320 V with NAD to -0.258 V with acetylpyridine-NAD, the product of primary and secondary deuterium isotope effects rises from 4 toward 6.5, while the primary 13C isotope effect drops from 1.025 to 1.012, suggesting a trend from a late transition state with NAD to one that is more symmetrical. The values of Dk (again the product of primary and secondary isotope effects) and 13k for YADH with NAD are 7 and 1.023, suggesting for this very slow reaction a more stretched, and thus symmetrical, transition state. With ALDH and NAD, the primary 13C isotope effect on the hydride transfer step lies in the range 1.3-1.6%, and the alpha-secondary deuterium isotope effect on the same step is at least 1.22, but 13C isotope effects on formation of the thiohemiacetal intermediate and on the addition of water to the thio ester intermediate are less than 1%. On the basis of the relatively large 13C isotope effects, we conclude that carbon motion is involved in the hydride transfer steps of dehydrogenase reactions.

  17. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  18. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  19. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  20. First stereoselective synthesis of (+)-magnostellin C, a tetrahydrofuran type of lignan bearing a chiral secondary benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, S; Kinoshita, Y

    2001-07-01

    (+)-Magnostellin C, which is a tetrahydrofuran type of lignan bearing a chiral secondary benzylic hydroxy group, was stereoselectively synthesized from L-arabinose by using threo selective aldol condensation.

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  2. Syntheses and molecular structures of novel Ru(II) complexes with bidentate benzimidazole based ligands and their catalytic efficiency for oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayan, Osman; Tercan, Melek; Özdemir, Namık

    2016-11-01

    Five bidentate ligands derived from quinoline-2-carboxylic acid, i.e. 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (L1), 2-(1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (L2), 2-[1-(2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L3), 2-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L4), and 2-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L5) were synthesized. Treatment of L1-5 with [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 and KPF6 afforded six-coordinate piano-stool Ru(II) complexes, namely, [RuCl(L1)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C1), [RuCl(L2)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C2), [RuCl(L3)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C3), [RuCl(L4)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C4), and [RuCl(L5)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C5). Synthesized compounds were characterized with different techniques such as 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The solid state structure of L1 and C3 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The single crystal structure of C3 verified coordination of L3 to the Ru(II) center. The Ru(II) center has a pseudo-octahedral three legged piano stool geometry. The complexes C1-5 were tested as catalysts for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in the presence of periodic acid (H5IO6) (Substrate/Catalyst/Oxidant = 1/0.01/0.5). The best result was obtained with C2 (3 h→90%).

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  5. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  8. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  9. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  10. Benzyl alcohol protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes but causes mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death at higher doses.

    PubMed

    Du, Kuo; McGill, Mitchell R; Xie, Yuchao; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is a serious public health problem in western countries. Current treatment options for APAP poisoning are limited and novel therapeutic intervention strategies are needed. A recent publication suggested that benzyl alcohol (BA) protects against APAP hepatotoxicity and could serve as a promising antidote for APAP poisoning. To assess the protective mechanisms of BA, C56Bl/6J mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP and/or 270 mg/kg BA. APAP alone caused extensive liver injury at 6 h and 24 h post-APAP. This injury was attenuated by BA co-treatment. Assessment of protein adduct formation demonstrated that BA inhibits APAP metabolic activation. In support of this, in vitro experiments also showed that BA dose-dependently inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. Correlating with the hepatoprotection of BA, APAP-induced oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were reduced. Similar results were obtained in primary mouse hepatocytes. Interestingly, BA alone caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cell toxicity at high doses, and its protective effect could not be reproduced in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). We conclude that BA protects against APAP hepatotoxicity mainly by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes in mice. Considering its toxic effect and the loss of protection in PHH, BA is not a clinically useful treatment option for APAP overdose patient. PMID:26522885

  11. The clinical trials supporting benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (Ulesfia): a safe and effective topical treatment for head lice (pediculosis humanus capitis).

    PubMed

    Meinking, Terri L; Villar, Maria E; Vicaria, Maureen; Eyerdam, Debbie H; Paquet, Diane; Mertz-Rivera, Kamara; Rivera, Hector F; Hiriart, Javier; Reyna, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (BAL 5%) is a non-neurotoxic topical head lice treatment that is safe and effective in children as young as 6 months of age. The safety and efficacy of this pediculicide has been studied in 695 (confirm number) subjects in all phases of clinical development. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) demonstrated that the active agent appears to stun the breathing spiracles open, enabling the vehicle to penetrate the respiratory mechanism (spiracles), therefore asphyxiating the lice. Initial phase II trials compared this novel product to RID using identical volumes of treatment (4 oz/application) and yielding, almost, identical efficacy. This outcome pointed to the significant importance of completely saturating the hair with the product in order to achieve maximum treatment success. A second phase II trial, which allowed the use of sufficient product to saturate the hair, resulted in 100% efficacy after both 10 and 30 minute treatments. A third phase II trial verified an effective dose. Phase III trials compared BAL 5% to vehicle placebo for two 10-minute applications. It proved to be safe and effective (p < 0.001) for treatment of head lice and is the first FDA-approved non-neurotoxic lice treatment, now available in the United States as Ulesfia lotion.

  12. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Hany W; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Saad, Ahmed S; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-01

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models. PMID:27327260

  13. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  15. Core-Shell Structural CdS@SnO₂ Nanorods with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhang, Ping; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Core-shell structural CdS@SnO2 nanorods (NRs) were fabricated by synthesizing SnO2 nanoparticles with a solvent-assisted interfacial reaction and further anchoring them on the surface of CdS NRs under ultrasonic stirring. The morphology, composition, and microstructures of the obtained samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It was found that SnO2 nanoparticles can be tightly anchored on the surface of CdS NRs, and the thickness of SnO2 shells can be conveniently adjusted by simply changing the addition amount of SnO2 quantum dots. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum indicated that SnO2 shell layer also can enhance the visible light absorption of CdS NRs to a certain extent. The results of transient photocurrents and photoluminescence spectra revealed that the core-shell structure can effectively promote the separation rate of electron-hole pairs and prolong the lifetime of electrons. Compared with the single CdS NRs, the core-shell structural CdS@SnO2 exhibited a remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BA) to benzaldehyde (BAD) under visible light irradiation, attributed to the more efficient separation of electrons and holes, improved surface area, and enhanced visible light absorption of core-shell structure. The radical scavenging experiments proved that in acetonitrile solution, ·O2- and holes are the main reactive species responsible for BA to BAD transformation, and the lack of ·OH radicals is favorable to obtaining high reaction selectivity.

  16. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Liu, Di; Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui; Zhao, Fuhua; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. • The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. • Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. • Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  17. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  18. Kinetics of oxidation of benzyl alcohols by the dication and radical cation of ABTS. Comparison with laccase-ABTS oxidations: an apparent paradox.

    PubMed

    Branchi, Barbara; Galli, Carlo; Gentili, Patrizia

    2005-07-21

    Laccase, a blue copper oxidase, in view of its moderate redox potential can oxidise only phenolic compounds by electron-transfer. However, in the presence of ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) as a redox mediator, laccase reacts with the more difficult to oxidise non-phenolic substrates, such as benzyl alcohols. The role of ABTS in these mediated oxidations is investigated. Redox interaction with laccase could produce in situ two reactive intermediates from ABTS, namely ABTS++ or ABTS*+. These species have been independently generated by oxidation with Ce(iv) or Co(iii) salts, respectively, and their efficiency as monoelectronic oxidants tested in a kinetic study towards a series of non-phenolic substrates; a Marcus treatment is provided in the case of ABTS++. On these grounds, intervention of ABTS++ as a reactive intermediate in laccase-ABTS oxidations appears unlikely, because the experimental conditions under which ABTS++ is unambiguously generated, and survives long enough to serve as a diffusible mediator, are too harsh (2 M H2SO4 solution) and incompatible with the operation of the enzyme. Likewise, ABTS*+ seems an intermediate of limited importance in laccase-ABTS oxidations, because this weaker monoelectronic oxidant is unable to react directly with many of the non-phenolic substrates that laccase-ABTS can oxidise. To solve this paradox, it is alternatively suggested that degradation by-products of either ABTS++ or ABTS*+ are formed in situ by hydrolysis during the laccase-ABTS reactions, and may be responsible for the observed oxidation of non-phenolics.

  19. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  20. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  1. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  3. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  4. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  5. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  6. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  7. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  10. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  11. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  12. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  15. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  16. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  17. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  18. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  19. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  20. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  1. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  2. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  3. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  4. Nanoscaled copper metal-organic framework (MOF) based on carboxylate ligands as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for aerobic epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of benzylic and allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Luan, Yi; Yu, Jie; Peng, Xiong; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-19

    Aerobic epoxidation of olefins at a mild reaction temperature has been carried out by using nanomorphology of [Cu3(BTC)2] (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) as a high-performance catalyst through a simple synthetic strategy. An aromatic carboxylate ligand was employed to furnish a heterogeneous copper catalyst and also serves as the ligand for enhanced catalytic activities in the catalytic reaction. The utilization of a copper metal-organic framework catalyst was further extended to the aerobic oxidation of aromatic alcohols. The shape and size selectivity of the catalyst in olefin epoxidation and alcohol oxidation was investigated. Furthermore, the as-synthesized copper catalyst can be easily recovered and reused several times without leaching of active species or significant loss of activity. PMID:25430789

  5. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed N-alkylation of (hetero) aromatic primary amines and N1,C5-dialkylation of 4-phenyl-2-aminothiazoles with benzyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Donthiri, Ramachandra Reddy; Pappula, Venkatanarayana; Mohan, Darapaneni Chandra; Gaywala, Hiren H; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa

    2013-07-01

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of NaOH, the selective N-alkylation of various heteroaromatic primary amines is reported. With 1 equiv of NaOH, N1,C5-dialkylation of 4-phenyl-2-aminothiazoles has been investigated. Reaction of in situ generated aldehyde with amine yields the N-alkylated and N1,C5-dialkylated products through hydride ion transformation from alcohol.

  6. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  7. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  8. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  9. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  10. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  11. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  13. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  14. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  15. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  16. Alcohol-Induced Histone Acetylation Reveals a Gene Network Involved in Alcohol Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Alfredo; Krishnan, Harish R.; Lew, Linda; Prado, Francisco J.; Ong, Darryl S.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained or repeated exposure to sedating drugs, such as alcohol, triggers homeostatic adaptations in the brain that lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. These adaptations involve long-term changes in the transcription of drug-responsive genes as well as an epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions that is thought to signal and maintain the altered transcriptional state. Alcohol-induced epigenetic changes have been shown to be important in the long-term adaptation that leads to alcohol tolerance and dependence endophenotypes. A major constraint impeding progress is that alcohol produces a surfeit of changes in gene expression, most of which may not make any meaningful contribution to the ethanol response under study. Here we used a novel genomic epigenetic approach to find genes relevant for functional alcohol tolerance by exploiting the commonalities of two chemically distinct alcohols. In Drosophila melanogaster, ethanol and benzyl alcohol induce mutual cross-tolerance, indicating that they share a common mechanism for producing tolerance. We surveyed the genome-wide changes in histone acetylation that occur in response to these drugs. Each drug induces modifications in a large number of genes. The genes that respond similarly to either treatment, however, represent a subgroup enriched for genes important for the common tolerance response. Genes were functionally tested for behavioral tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol and benzyl alcohol using mutant and inducible RNAi stocks. We identified a network of genes that are essential for the development of tolerance to sedation by alcohol. PMID:24348266

  17. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  19. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  20. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  1. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  4. Acceptorless photocatalytic dehydrogenation for alcohol decarbonylation and imine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D

    2012-08-20

    It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H(2). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H(2). PMID:22847764

  5. Acceptorless Photocatalytic Dehydrogenation for Alcohol Decarbonylation and Imine Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2012-07-29

    It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H2 (see scheme). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H2.

  6. Oxo-rhenium catalyzed reductive coupling and deoxygenation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kasner, Gabrielle R; Boucher-Jacobs, Camille; Michael McClain, J; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Representative benzylic, allylic and α-keto alcohols are deoxygenated to alkanes and/or reductively coupled to alkane dimers by reaction with PPh3 catalyzed by (PPh3)2ReIO2 (1). The newly discovered catalytic reductive coupling reaction is a rare C-C bond-forming transformation of alcohols. PMID:27174412

  7. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  8. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  9. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  10. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  11. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  12. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  13. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  14. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  15. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  16. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  19. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  1. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  2. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  3. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  4. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  5. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  6. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  7. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  9. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  11. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  12. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  13. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  14. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  15. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  16. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  17. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  18. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  19. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  1. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  2. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  5. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  6. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  7. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  8. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  11. Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and reduction of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Hirbod

    2016-03-01

    The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) performance was studied in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under solvent-free conditions. The influences of reaction conditions like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of H2O2:BzOH, reaction temperature and times on the oxidation of BzOH by using CoFe2O4 NPs were investigated in details. Under optimum conditions, excellent result, >99% conversation of BzOH to BzH as the only product, was obtained. The nanocatalyst was also used for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR), Methylene blue (MB) in water at room temperature. The magnetic properties of the catalyst provided a convenient and easy route for the separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture by an external bar magnet. No obvious loss of activity was observed when the spent catalyst reused in three consecutive runs.

  12. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  13. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  14. Reactivity to alcohol cues and induced moods in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Cooney, N L; Kadden, R M; Gaupp, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been theorized that respondent conditioning processes in part underlie desire for alcohol and thus contribute to relapse after alcoholism treatment. One implication of this theory is that the relevant conditioned responses could be eliminated by respondent extinction, in which the alcoholic patient is exposed to alcohol-related stimuli while being prevented from consuming alcohol. However, exteroceptive cues such as the sight and smell of alcoholic beverages are not always sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol. In view of this, it has been suggested that interoceptive cues, such as mood states, may also play a role in eliciting desire for alcohol. To test this, eight alcoholic subjects were induced to experience negative or neutral moods on four separate days, and then exposed to the sight and smell of their favorite alcoholic drink, and to a neutral stimulus (seltzer water), in a within-subjects design. Results from this work indicate that: (a) negative moods can be reliably induced in the laboratory as confirmed by subjects' reports; (b) exposure to alcohol cues had no effect on desire for alcohol while subjects were in a relaxed, neutral mood state; (c) the presence of negative mood states alone appeared to be sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol in some subjects, regardless of whether alcohol or water was presented. These data argue that negative mood states may cue desire for alcohol independent of other cues. The data also suggest that reactivity to alcohol cues may be substantially reduced by relaxation.

  15. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  16. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  17. [Genetic predisposition for alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, D P

    2000-04-01

    A number of socio-economic, cultural, biobehavioral factors and ethnic/gender differences are among the strongest determinants of drinking patterns in a society. Both epidemiological and clinical studies have implicated the excessive use of alcohol in the risk of developing a variety of organ, neuronal and metabolic disorders. Alcohol abuse related metabolic derangements affect almost all body organs and their functions. Race and gender differences in drinking patterns may play an important role in the development of medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse. The incidence of alcoholism in a community is influenced by per capita alcohol consumption and covariates with the relative price and availability of alcoholic drinks. The majority of the family, twin and adoption studies suggest that alcoholism is familial, a significant proportion of which can be attributed to genetic factors. The question is how much of the variance is explained by genetic factors and to what degree is this genetically mediated disorder moderated by personal characteristics. Among the most salient personal characteristics moderating, the genetic vulnerability may be factors such as age, ethnicity, and presence of psychiatric co morbidity. Cultural factors and familial environmental factors are most likely predictors as well.

  18. Antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds and aromatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, J J; Corre, J; Cremieux, A

    1990-05-01

    The antibacterial properties of phenolic compounds and aromatic alcohols (growth inhibition, lethal effect and cytological damage) were investigated. The role of protein and RNA synthesis in the bactericidal action was also determined. All compounds tested demonstrated lethal properties and the ability to alter membranes, especially in Gram-negative bacteria. Efficacious concentrations, however, varied greatly among the compounds. These data corroborate previous findings which suggest that the mechanism of action of these compounds is related to their lipophilia. Moreover, since it was demonstrated that the lethal effect of two aromatic alcohols (phenethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol) stops when protein synthesis is inhibited, it is likely that both possess specific mechanisms of action.

  19. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  20. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  1. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  2. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  3. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  4. Bone Changes in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Raymond O.

    1979-01-01

    Man has consumed alcohol for its euphoric and sedative effect down through the ages. Attention in the medical literature has been primarily focused on the effects of alcohol on the nervous system and liver. In the past few years, isolated reports have appeared in the medical literature concerning the effects of alcohol on the bony skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to classify these lesions, discuss their pathophysiology, and briefly review their clinical course. The lesions discussed include osteoporosis, hip fractures, aseptic necrosis of the hip, and fat embolism. For the purpose of this discussion these lesions are divided into two groups. Group I includes the battered alcoholic syndrome. Group II includes fat embolism, both acute and chronic, and aseptic necrosis of the hip. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:522187

  5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  6. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  7. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  8. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  9. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  10. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  11. Alcohol and masculinity.

    PubMed

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  12. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  13. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  14. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  15. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  16. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  17. [Clinical concept of alcoholic dementia].

    PubMed

    Kato, N

    1991-06-01

    Intellectual deterioration, changing in behavior and affect are often seen in association with long continued and heavy alcohol ingestion and such deteriorated states of patients are called alcoholic dementia. A large number of investigators have attempted to designate clinical concept of alcoholic dementia throughout the centuries and many kinds of term like as alcoholic pseudo-paralysis, alcoholic mental deficiency and alcoholic deterioration, etc, have been submitted since the beginning of 19th century. Numerous psychometric studies have indicated cognitive impairment and memory disturbance in chronic alcohol abusers and moreover brain PEG and CT-scan studies have shown sulcal widening and enlarged ventricles to be common in alcoholics. However, alcoholic dementia is hard to classify as a distinct disorder caused by alcoholic ingestion. The reason is lack of specific findings, both clinical and histopathological, like as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other nutritional disorders in alcoholics. Victor, M. describes in his work the majority of patients who have come to autopsy with the clinical diagnosis of primary alcoholic dementia have shown the lesions of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and he postulates alcoholic dementia is heavily contaminated with burned-out Wernicke-Korsakoff disease. The clinical and pathological observations presented by this time represent alcoholic dementia is a residual category for cases in which there are severe impairment of intelligence with marked deterioration of personality following prolonged and heavy drinking.

  18. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  19. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  20. Alcoholic myopathy and acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Victor R; Crabb, David W; Farrés, Jaume; Emery, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathy is characterized by biochemical and morphological lesions within muscle, ranging from impairment of muscle strength and loss of lean tissue to cellular disturbances and altered gene expression. The chronic form of the disease is five times more common than cirrhosis and is characterized by selective atrophy of type 11 (anaerobic) fibres: type I (aerobic) fibres are relatively protected. Although the causative agent is known (i.e. ethanol), the intervening steps between alcohol ingestion and the development of symptoms and lesions are poorly understood. However, acetaldehyde appears to have an important role in the aetiology of the disease. For example, alcohol is a potent perturbant of muscle protein synthesis in vivo, and this effect is exacerbated by cyanamide pre-dosage, which raises acetaldehyde concentrations. Acetaldehyde alone also reduces muscle protein synthesis in vivo and proteolytic activity in vitro. The formation of acetaldehyde protein adducts is another mechanism of putative importance in alcoholic myopathy. These adducts are formed within muscle in response to either acute or chronic alcohol exposure and the adducts are located preferentially within the sarcolemmal and sub-sarcolemmal regions. However, the significance of protein adduct formation is unclear since we do not currently know the identity of the adducted muscle proteins nor whether adduction alters the biochemical or functional properties of skeletal muscle proteins.

  1. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  2. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols.

  3. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:23317450

  4. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  5. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  6. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  7. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  8. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  9. Cardiac effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Singh, B K; Zen, B

    1980-11-01

    There is little information on the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance after the ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, we obtained echocardiograms and systolic time intervals in 9 normal subjects before and after a cocktail party. These subjects drank 5-6 ounces of 87 proof whiskey during the party. An additional 19 normal subjects drank 3 ounces of 87 proof whiskey and had similar studies performed. The results of the study with 5-6 ounces of alcohol are in Table 3. The 19 subjects who drank 3 ounces of alcohol showed no statistical changes except that the systolic ejection time fell from a control of 0.31 +/- 03 (see formula in text) to 0.30 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that 5-6 ounces of whiskey can depress left ventricular function in normal subjects.

  10. Commentary: Doxasozin for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A

    2013-02-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that α(1) -blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on α(1) -blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O'Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another α(1) -blocker, doxazosin, which has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O'Neil and colleagues' main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O'Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis.

  11. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  12. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  13. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  14. ALCOHOL AND THE SOLDIER

    PubMed Central

    Saldanka, D.; Goel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted during a two year period in a zonal referral hospital were studied. Vie majority of the subject were between the age of 30 to 50 years and had more than 10 year's history of alcohol abuse. 19.26% of the subjects had to be invalided out of service. 66.09% remained under various categories of observation after the treatment. At the end of two year′s follow-up only 12% of them had recovered completely. Preventive measures in the light of state policies are discussed. PMID:21776144

  15. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  16. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  17. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  20. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  1. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  2. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of reality and ability to make good decisions. ... drinking include: distorted vision, hearing, and coordination altered perceptions and emotions impaired judgment, which can lead to ...

  3. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  4. Alcohol-medical drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Seneviratne, Chamindi

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant use of alcohol and medications may lead to potentially serious medical conditions. Increasing prescription medication abuse in today's society necessitates a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-medication interactions in order to help prevent adverse events. Interactions of medications with alcohol result in altered bioavailability of the medication or alcohol (pharmacokinetic interactions) or modification of the effects at receptor or ion channel sites to alter behavioral or physical outcome (pharmacodynamic interactions). The nature of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions involved in alcohol-medication interactions may differ between acute and chronic alcohol use and be influenced by race, gender, or environmental or genetic factors. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between alcohol and medications and provides examples for such interactions from replicated research studies. In conclusion, further translational research is needed to address several gaps in our current knowledge of alcohol-medication interactions, including those under various pathologic conditions.

  5. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  6. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  7. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  8. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  9. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  10. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  11. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Ponnudrai, R.; Jayakar, J.; Raju, B.; Pattamuthu, R.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of alcoholism in Madras City. A locality in North Madras was chosen and the houses were selected at random. The family members in these houses were assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening test. 222 persons were thus studied. 16.67 of the males were found to be suffering from alcoholism. PMID:21927497

  12. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  13. Saying No to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  14. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  15. [Ambulatory alcohol withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Grehl, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol addiction is a common problem in daily life as well as in medicine. Apart from inpatient therapy programs, ambulatory withdrawal is a relatively new option, which may be done safely, efficient and cost-effective close to the domicile an without stigmatisation of the patient.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... childhood and last a lifetime. The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are brain damage and the resulting impairments ... these individuals. Risk Factors 9 The severity of alcohol’s effects on a fetus primarily depends on the following: » ...

  17. Alcoholism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Vernelie

    1973-01-01

    A review of the research and literature on the subject of alcohol and youth which points out the complexity of the problem. Paper presented at the 14th Annual AMA-ASHA Session on School Health at San Francisco, California 1972. (JC)

  18. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  19. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering two…

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  1. Cognitive Studies in Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence

    1987-01-01

    Commends cognitive studies for extending our understanding of alcohol use and abuse. The role of vicarious learning and efficacy and outcome expectations in the development, maintenance, and prevention of drinking, is stressed. Reinterpreted concepts of craving and loss of control as well as models of relapse and prevention treatment strategies,…

  2. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  3. Anion solvation in alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Jonah, C.D.; Xujia, Zhang; Lin, Yi

    1996-03-01

    Anion solvation is measured in alcohols using pump-probe pulse radiolysis and the activation energy of solvation is determined. Solvation of an anion appears to be different than excited state solvation. The continuum dielectric model does not appear to explain the results.

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  5. Proteomics in alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Anni, Helen; Israel, Yedy

    2002-01-01

    The proteome is the complete set of proteins in an organism. It is considerably larger and more complex than the genome--the collection of genes that encodes these proteins. Proteomics deals with the qualitative and quantitative study of the proteome under physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., after exposure to alcohol, which causes major changes in numerous proteins of different cell types). To map large proteomes such as the human proteome, proteins from discrete tissues, cells, cell components, or biological fluids are first separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and multidimensional liquid chromatography. Then, individual proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. The huge amount of data acquired using these techniques is analyzed and assembled by fast computers and bioinformatics tools. Using these methods, as well as other technological advances, alcohol researchers can gain a better understanding of how alcohol globally influences protein structure and function, protein-protein interactions, and protein networks. This knowledge ultimately will assist in the early diagnosis and prognosis of alcoholism and the discovery of new drug targets and medications for treatment.

  6. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  7. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  8. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  9. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  10. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  11. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  12. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  14. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01). PMID:18173101

  16. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  17. Expression Profiling in Alcoholism Research.

    PubMed

    Bergeson, Susan E; Berman, Ari E; Dodd, Peter R; Edenberg, Howard J; Hitzemann, Robert J; Lewohl, Joanne M; Lodowski, Kerrie H; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2005-06-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in Mannheim, Germany, organized and co-chaired by Susan E. Bergeson and Wolfgang Sommer. The presentations and presenter were (1) Gene Expression in Brains of Alcohol-Preferring and Non-Preferring Rats, by Howard J. Edenberg (2) Candidate Treatment Targets for Alcoholism: Leads from Functional Genomics Approaches, by Wolfgang Sommer (3) Microarray Analysis of Acute and Chronic Alcohol Response in Brain, by Susan E. Bergeson (4) On the Integration of QTL and Gene Expression Analysis, by Robert J. Hitzemann (5) Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of the Human Alcoholic Brain, by Peter R. Dodd.

  18. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics.

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  20. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, R.W.

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  1. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  2. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  3. Alcoholic abstinence in elderly subjects with misuse of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Verny, Marc; Fernandez, Lydia; Ploton, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder does not disappear with aging, neither the associated induced-suffering. While the prevalence of alcohol use disorder still remains around 10% in the subjects over 65 year old age, and daily encountered by hospital or nursing-home caregivers. Alcohol misuse is often overlooked in elderly people, which then obtain lesser care than younger adults although the care prognosis remains as good as or better than before the age of 65, alcoholic abstinence gets always a place among care offers to elders suffering of alcohol use disorders and dependence. However abstinence is a complex notion gathering various representations or meanings, and induces necessary psychological changes. Alcoholic abstinence seems thus to be feared by families or caregivers, because of lack of knowledge about the addictive dimension of the disorder. On behalf of ultimate freedom, and allowing a last pleasure, alcohol use disorders and its associated suffering can be neglected because abstinence is considered as aggressive and harmful. However, modalities of reduction of alcohol consumption as well as access control or regulated supply of alcoholic beverages, keep having a place in graduate care offers. Beyond the choice of decreasing or suppress drinking alcohol beverages, which only are terms or conditions of improvement, the main point remains the improvement of well-fare, quality of life and elders' health. PMID:27277151

  4. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  5. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  6. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: pathophysiologic insights.

    PubMed

    Piano, Mariann R; Phillips, Shane A

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. ACM is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of ACM.

  7. Alcohol and error processing.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2003-08-01

    A recent study indicates that alcohol consumption reduces the amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), a negative deflection in the electroencephalogram associated with error commission. Here, we explore possible mechanisms underlying this result in the context of two recent theories about the neural system that produces the ERN - one based on principles of reinforcement learning and the other based on response conflict monitoring.

  8. Alcoholic myopathy: biochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Preedy, V R; Paice, A; Mantle, D; Dhillon, A S; Palmer, T N; Peters, T J

    2001-08-01

    Between one- and two-thirds of all alcohol abusers have impairment of muscle function that may be accompanied by biochemical lesions and/or the presence of a defined myopathy characterised by selective atrophy of Type II fibres. Perturbations in protein metabolism are central to the effects on muscle and account for the reductions in muscle mass and fibre diameter. Ethanol abuse is also associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate (as well as lipid) metabolism in skeletal muscle. Ethanol-mediated insulin resistance is allied with the inhibitory effects of ethanol on insulin-stimulated carbohydrate metabolism. It acutely impairs insulin-stimulated glucose and lipid metabolism, although it is not known whether it has an analogous effect on insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, insulin resistance occurs with respect to carbohydrate metabolism, although the actions of insulin to suppress protein degradation and stimulate amino acid uptake are unimpaired. In acute alcohol-dosing studies defective rates of protein synthesis occur, particularly in Type II fibre-predominant muscles. The relative amounts of mRNA-encoding contractile proteins do not appear to be adversely affected by chronic alcohol feeding, although subtle changes in muscle protein isoforms may occur. There are also rapid and sustained reductions in total (largely ribosomal) RNA in chronic studies. Loss of RNA appears to be related to increases in the activities of specific muscle RNases in these long-term studies. However, in acute dosing studies (less than 1 day), the reductions in muscle protein synthesis are not due to overt loss of total RNA. These data implicate a role for translational modifications in the initial stages of the myopathy, although changes in transcription and/or protein degradation may also be superimposed. These events have important implications for whole-body metabolism.

  9. Pharmacologic treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Schacht, Joseph P; Book, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy. This chapter summarizes work on clinically available medications (both approved by regulatory bodies and investigational) for the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as the psychiatric disorders that are commonly comorbid with AUD. Studies that have evaluated genetic influences on medication response and those that have employed neuroimaging to probe mechanisms of medication action or response are highlighted. Finally, new targets discovered in animal models for possible pharmacologic intervention in humans are overviewed and future directions in medications development provided.

  10. Alcoholics who drink mouthwash: the spectrum of nonbeverage alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Egbert, A M; Reed, J S; Powell, B J; Liskow, B I; Liese, B S

    1985-11-01

    Nonbeverage alcohol (NBA), or substitutes for traditional forms of beverage alcohol, includes such substances as mouthwash, aftershave lotion and alcohol-based fuels. Literature pertaining to the prevalence, clinical significance and toxicity of this practice is reviewed, using illustrative cases from a series of 48 NBA consumers. It was found that 10-15% of alcoholics hospitalized in detoxication units have consumed NBA; half of these patients are regular consumers. Addiction to NBA itself may occur. Its use is primarily related to easy accessibility, rather than social or monetary factors. Polydrug misuse and antisocial personality disorder are more frequent in NBA users, but use is not pathognomic of end-stage alcoholism. The 48 NBA users reported surprisingly few toxic symptoms from acute ingestion, perhaps because tolerance to some substances in NBA may occur. Isopropyl alcohol was the exception, reproducibly causing symptoms suggestive of severe gastritis.

  11. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  12. Alcohol and the young child.

    PubMed

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  13. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  14. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  15. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  16. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  17. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  18. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  19. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  20. Biomass resources for alcohol fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, J. E.

    The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

  1. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  2. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  3. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 11,...

  4. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  5. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  6. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  7. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  8. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  9. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  10. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  11. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  12. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  14. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  16. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  17. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  18. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  19. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  20. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  1. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  2. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  3. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  4. Choices & Careers; Free to Choose: Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Debbie Tucker

    This unit for American Indian girls 15 to 18 years old and for their parents is an attempt to create a better understanding of alcoholism. The narrative section focuses upon the following ideas: (1) what alcoholism is; (2) frequency of alcoholism; (3) physical effects; (4) the effect of alcoholism on the family; (5) causes of alcoholism; (6) signs…

  5. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14... alcohol content may be stated, but need not be stated if the type designation “table” wine (or...

  6. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  7. Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors. PMID:22254055

  8. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study.

  9. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  10. Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  11. [Alcohol at the work site].

    PubMed

    Buchmann, H; Müller, R

    2000-04-01

    In Switzerland in large companies alcohol prevention programmes are wide spread. Their basic aim is to reduce hidden costs and to improve security at the workplace. To reach these goals early detection of employees with alcohol problems has been introduced and referral systems to therapeutic measures have been developed. Many of the alcohol prevention programmes, however, do not meet the standards of good practice discussed in this article. In addition, the cost efficiency of these programmes could rarely be proved. A noticeable lack of alcohol prevention programmes exists, however, in small and medium companies.

  12. Children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, D I; Blume, S B

    1986-08-01

    One of every eight American children is the child of a parent who has a past or present drinking problem. Children of alcoholic parents are at great risk. They are significantly more likely to develop addiction problems and a variety of mental health disorders. They live in homes with high levels of stress. Poor communication, permissiveness, undersocialization, neglect, and violence are common and can be truly devastating. Because of the stigma and denial associated with chemical dependency, these children often suffer in silence, unidentified and unassisted.

  13. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  14. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  15. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  16. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  17. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  19. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  20. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  1. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  3. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  4. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  5. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  6. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  7. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  8. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  9. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  10. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  11. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism..., National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  12. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  13. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  14. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  15. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...

  17. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  18. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  19. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  20. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  1. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  3. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  4. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  5. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  6. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  7. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  8. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  9. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  10. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD...

  11. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  12. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  13. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of...

  14. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  15. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  16. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  17. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  19. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  20. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 12-13, 2013. Closed: June 12, 2013. Time: 5:00 p.m. to 7:30...

  1. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  2. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Alcohol Research ] Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  3. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. Health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Deena J.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol expectancies are developed, in part, through exposure to health messages, the understanding of which may be influenced by health literacy. This study explores the relationships among health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens. Methods We studied alcohol use behaviors in the past six months in youths aged 14–19 recruited from two adolescent medicine clinics. We assessed covariate-adjusted bivariate relationships between HL, expectancies, and four measures of alcohol use and tested health literacy as a moderator of the relationship between expectancies and use. Results Of the 293 study teens, 45 percent reported use of alcohol in the past six months. Use behaviors were positively associated with higher health literacy and positive expectancies. Our moderation model suggested that health literacy moderates the relationship between expectancies and use, with the expectancy/use relationship being significantly stronger in higher literacy teens. Conclusion Findings suggest that health literacy can influence alcohol expectancies and behaviors. Practice implications: Health literacy should be explicitly considered in the design of alcohol prevention messages. PMID:25085549

  5. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  6. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  7. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  8. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  9. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  10. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  11. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Screening and Counseling An effective but underused health ... for alcohol screening and counseling. Key points on alcohol consumption from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines for ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol and Pregnancy Why take the risk? Language: English ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are completely preventable. Problem Alcohol can harm a developing baby before a woman ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... less binge drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

  15. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  16. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  17. Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Swahn, Monica H.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states’ alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Methods We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0–100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization. Results Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84–0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions. Conclusions Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship. PMID:26469950

  18. [Suicidality and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Smulders, Yvo M; Biesaart, Monique C H I; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the role played by a patient's mental competency in the assessment and treatment of patients who are under the influence of alcohol and expressing suicidal thoughts. The factors that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of suicidality are not always clear: somatic complications or possible discharge from the emergency room. The treating physician at the emergency department should evaluate the mental competency. The risk of suicide should also be assessed by a psychiatrist. In order to make the right decisions about treatment and mental competency, the key concepts of proportionality, effectiveness and subsidiarity in the assessment of mental competency are crucial. These concepts require a personalized, multidisciplinary approach and result in unique decisions which may differ from case to case. In the assessment and treatment of patients under the influence of alcohol who are suicidal and do not want to have a proper medical evaluation, communication between the emergency physician, internist and psychiatrist is crucial to optimize both evaluation and treatment. In this context, tasks and responsibilities should be clearly defined in order to minimize the risk of errors and complications. PMID:26443116

  19. Translating Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  20. Mesler entrainment in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J. R.; Sundberg, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    When a drop impacts a flat surface of the same liquid at an intermediate velocity, the impact can result in the formation of a very large number of very small bubbles. At lower velocities, drops bounce or float, and at larger velocities a single bubble forms, or there is a splash. The formation of large numbers of small bubbles during intermediate velocity impacts is termed Mesler entrainment and its controlling mechanism is poorly understood. Existing research has shown that Mesler entrainment is highly irreproducible when water is the working fluid, and very reproducible when silicone oil is the working fluid. Whether this is because water is problematic, or silicone oil is uniquely well-suited, is unclear. To answer this question, experiments were conducted using three different alcohols. The results of these experiments were very reproducible for all alcohols tested, suggesting that there is something unique about water which accounts for its lack of reproducibility. The data from these experiments were also used to develop a dimensionless group that quantifies the conditions under which Mesler entrainment occurs. This dimensionless group is used to provide insight into the mechanism of this unique method of bubble formation.

  1. [Adolescence and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Pier Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Anna Freud defined adolescence "evolutional disorder", meaning also a compulsory and temporary shift. Corresponding, biologically, to the puberty, it is an age full of expectations and hopes, nevertheless not free from psychological and social risks: because of a changing relation with family, of the searching of new models, of the coming in contact with less protective contexts, of the differentiation of affective expectations. Therefore it can be that the passing from childhood to active subjectivity brings on anxiety, conflicts and deviance; and it can suggest illusory remedies as overindulgence in alcohol, alarming phenomenon denounced by WHO and by many other international and Italian institutions. After these preliminary remarks, the A. reminds as alcohol and its by-products reached Europe, describes its metabolism and its biological effects, the genetic factors which could predispose to the tolerance and/or to the addiction, the environmental and social ones, and the costs, both individual and public. Conclusions want suggest two omens: the reclamation of a new kind of family relation, based on listening and dialogue; and the achievement of a concrete alliance between society and young adult, which could conjugate the expectations of the community with the rights of the new subject for a free and integrated growing up. PMID:16209112

  2. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  3. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  4. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  5. Paternal Alcoholism and Toddler Noncompliance

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina Das; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Morrisey, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of fathers’ alcoholism and associated risk factors on toddler compliance with parental directives at 18 and 24 months of age. Methods Participants were 215 families with 12-month-old children, recruited through birth records, who completed assessments of parental substance use, family functioning, and parent-child interactions at 12, 18, and 24 months of child age. Of these families, 96 were in the control group, 89 families were in the father-alcoholic-only group, and 30 families were in the group with two alcohol-problem parents. Child compliance with parents during cleanup situations after free play was measured at 18 and 24 months. The focus of this paper is on four measures of compliance: committed compliance, passive noncompliance, overt resistance, and defiance. Results Sons of alcohol-problem parents exhibited higher rates of noncompliance compared with sons of nonalcoholic parents. Sons in the two-alcohol-problem parent group seemed to be following a trajectory toward increasing rates of noncompliance. Daughters in the two-alcohol-problem parent group followed an opposite pattern. Other risk factors associated with parental alcohol problems also predicted compliance, but in unexpected ways. Conclusions Results indicate that early risk for behavioral undercontrol is present in the toddler period among sons of alcoholic fathers, but not among daughters. PMID:11707637

  6. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  7. Grain production for alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lockeretz, W.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides primarily an assessment of the resource base for producing alcohol fuel from grain. The effect of different levels of alcohol production are discussed with respect to farm income, land conservation practices, food prices, and exports. The economics of ethanol production from the standpoint of feedstock availability and price are comprehensively examined.

  8. Dielectric spectroscopy of monatomic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baida, A. A.; Rudakov, A. V.; Agaev, S. G.

    2013-04-01

    The frequency dependences of permittivity ɛ( f) and dielectric loss tanδ( f) of monatomic alcohols are measured in range of frequencies f from 0.025 to 1000 kHz. Dielectric relaxation is observed in the investigated frequency range. Empirical correlation equations describing the relationships between the dielectric characteristics and physicochemical properties of monatomic alcohols are obtained.

  9. Recent Trends in Alcohol Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blane, Howard T.

    1976-01-01

    There are two basic trends in alcohol education--one aiming at containment and control, the other envisioning a society in which alcohol is morally neutral, its use integrated into activities that reflect social solidarity, and in which drinking is not associated with social hazard. (JD)

  10. Alcohol Effects on Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Sara K.; Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A significant amount of neurobiological research regarding the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has focused on alcohol-related activation and long-term alterations in the mesocortical dopaminergic reward pathways. However, alcohol does not only interact with brain reward systems. Many of its acute and chronic effects may be related to allostatic adaptations in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways. For example, acute binge intoxication is associated with hypothalamically driven increases in blood cortisol, norepinephrine, and sex steroid metabolite levels. This may contribute to the development of mesocortical sensitization to alcohol. Furthermore, chronic alcohol exposure is associated with systemic dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and sex steroid systems. This dysregulation appears to manifest as neuroendocrine tolerance. In this review, we first summarize the literature suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in these hypothalamic systems influence craving and contribute to the development of AUDs. We note that for women, the effects of alcohol on these neuroendocrine stress regulation systems may be influenced by the rhythmic variations of hormones and steroids across the menstrual cycle. Second, we discuss how changes in these systems may indicate progression of AUDs and increased risk of relapse in both sexes. Specifically, neuroendocrine tolerance may contribute to mesocortical sensitization, which in turn may lead to decreased prefrontal inhibitory control of the dopaminergic reward and hypothalamic stress systems. Thus, pharmacological strategies that counteract alcohol-associated changes in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways may slow the development and progression of AUDs. PMID:27254089

  11. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state" responses to arrest and…

  12. WHAT PSYCHIATRISTS THINK ABOUT ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Max

    1955-01-01

    The one approach most favored for alcoholism by psychiatrists in Southern California who answered a questionnaire is membership in Alcoholics Anonymous. Ninety-nine per cent of them approved Alcoholics Anonymous, and 80 per cent had referred patients to the organization. Yet they believed only 10 per cent of the persons who join A.A. remain sober for over two years. This against the claim of A.A. that 60 per cent or more of their fellowship are recovered emphasized the pessimism of the psychiatrists questioned. Ninety per cent of the psychiatrists who replied said they do not treat alcoholics or that they limit the number or the type they will accept for treatment. They obtain recovery, they said, of 10 per cent of patients, improvement of 50 per cent, and the rest are unchanged. The emphasis in psychiatry is on elimination of the anxieties leading to alcoholism; in Alcoholics Anonymous the emphasis is on the strength to bear these anxieties. Ninety per cent of the replies received were in favor of clinics for alcoholics, and the respondents felt that governmental agencies should support these clinics. Under such circumstances psychiatrists would combine their abilities with psychologists, social workers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Thirty-five per cent of psychiatrists said they are willing to work in a clinic, the majority without recompense. PMID:13270110

  13. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  14. Alcohol, signaling, and ECM turnover.

    PubMed

    Seth, Devanshi; D'Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B; Apte, Minoti; Mari, Montserrat; Dooley, Steven; Neuman, Manuela; Haber, Paul S; Kundu, Gopal C; Darwanto, Agus; de Villiers, Willem J; Vonlaufen, A; Xu, Z; Phillips, P; Yang, S; Goldstein, D; Pirola, R M; Wilson, J S; Moles, Anna; Fernández, Anna; Colell, Anna; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Meyer, Christoph; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is recognized as a direct hepatotoxin, but the precise molecular pathways that are important for the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced tissue injury are not completely understood. The current understanding of alcohol toxicity to organs suggests that alcohol initiates injury by generation of oxidative and nonoxidative ethanol metabolites and via translocation of gut-derived endotoxin. These processes lead to cellular injury and stimulation of the inflammatory responses mediated through a variety of molecules. With continuing alcohol abuse, the injury progresses through impairment of tissue regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, leading to fibrogenesis and cirrhosis. Several cell types are involved in this process, the predominant being stellate cells, macrophages, and parenchymal cells. In response to alcohol, growth factors and cytokines activate many signaling cascades that regulate fibrogenesis. This mini-review brings together research focusing on the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-mediated injury in a number of organs. It highlights the various processes and molecules that are likely involved in inflammation, immune modulation, susceptibility to infection, ECM turnover and fibrogenesis in the liver, pancreas, and lung triggered by alcohol abuse.

  15. [The concept of alcohol craving].

    PubMed

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna Agnieszka; Olajossy, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only in the clinical practice but also as a concept inherently associated with alcohol dependence. However, among experts and researchers, there was no consensus about the etiology of this phenomenon and its development. Some emphasize the emotional - motivational aspect of it, while in the literature also its cognitive - behavioral nature is highlighted. Craving as a symptom has been recognized as a diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD 10. In the year 2013, it was also indicated as a symptom of disorder resulting from alcohol abuse in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM 5. It seems to be significant also to discuss the tools used to measure craving, both in clinical trials and therapeutic practice, among them: the Alcohol Specific Role Play Test, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) Lubeck Craving Scale (LCRR) and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ).

  16. Training Alcoholism Trainers. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook is to be used in conjunction with the Trainer Manual entitled Training Alcoholism Trainers. The program was developed to upgrade training design and delivery skills of inservice trainers in the field of alcoholism. The workbook contains all the handout sheets necessary for participant sessions. (Author/BMW)

  17. Alcoholic Women on Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sandra C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined women (N=20) who were receiving alcoholism treatment in the skid-row area of Portland, Oregon. Women had histories of problem drinking and extensive treatment for alcoholism. Most had been married and had children. Despite transiency, the majority maintained contact with friends and relatives. Compared these women to New York City's…

  18. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  19. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol. PMID:27188823

  20. Alcohol consumption: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2008-12-01

    Alcohol has had a long and complicated role in human society and health. Excessive use of alcohol causes enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide, but the health effects of alcohol use within recommended guidelines are diverse and complex. Established effects include increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and antithrombotic activity, providing plausible mechanisms for the observed association of moderate drinking with lower risk of coronary heart disease but higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, moderate drinking increases sex steroid hormone levels and may interfere with folate metabolism, both of which are potential mechanisms for the observed associations of moderate drinking with several forms of cancer, particularly breast and colorectal. Genetic susceptibility to the effects of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease also differs across the population. Recommendations regarding moderate drinking must be individualized to reflect the potentially competing effects of alcohol on several chronic diseases.

  1. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  2. Racial differences in alcohol sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chan, A W

    1986-01-01

    The existence of racial differences in alcohol sensitivity between Oriental and Caucasian populations has been well documented. The primary manifestation is a highly visible facial flushing (47-85% in Orientals vs 3-29% in Caucasians) accompanied by other objective and subjective symptoms of discomfort. Even among different Oriental groups, subtle differences in the flushing response and alcohol consumption can exist. North and South American Indian populations differ in phenotypes for alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, but systematic studies comparing degree of flushing, alcohol elimination rates and blood acetaldehyde levels in these populations are lacking. Although flushing does not automatically 'immunize' an individual against alcohol use, those susceptible tend to consume less alcohol, at least in Orientals. However, the flushing phenomenon cannot be the sole explanation for differences in incidences of alcoholism among different racial groups. Socio-cultural, environmental and genetic factors also have to be considered. An increased incidence of flushing has been found to associate with a familial risk of development of future alcoholism in a Caucasian population. It remains to be determined whether the same is true in Orientals. Most biochemical investigations of the flushing phenomenon have focused on aspects of alcohol metabolism. Based on recent findings, a convincing mechanism is the higher accumulation of acetaldehyde in flushing subjects because they have an unusual, less-active liver aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (ALDHI). The possibility that an 'atypical' alcohol dehydrogenase, which is present in 85-90% of Oriental subjects, can contribute to increased blood acetaldehyde levels in flushing subjects cannot be ruled out. Based on results of a small number of pedigree studies which demonstrated familial resemblances in flushing, a pharmacogenetic defect in ALDHI has been proposed to be responsible for flushing. Other possible

  3. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  4. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dominic T; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Molteno, Christopher D; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure has the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  6. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: TNF alpha, IL1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL8, IL12 and MCP-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake. PMID:20020329

  7. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  8. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  9. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  10. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  11. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area.

  12. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols. PMID:27465852

  13. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  14. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  15. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  16. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  17. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  18. Gender comparisons of alcohol consumption in alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Welte, J W

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities and differences between male and female drinkers in terms of the estimated functional impact of alcohol intake on drinking occasions. Alcohol consumption on drinking occasions was documented in male and female alcoholics and occasional drinkers in face-to-face interviews and also in a general population statewide sample by means of a telephone survey. Expression of ethanol intake in terms of grams of ethanol consumed per kilogram of total body water yielded data consistent with the notion that blood concentrations of ethanol achieved by females on drinking occasions may have been quite similar to the values achieved by males. However, important gender differences were also found in terms of an older age of onset of regular drinking, less frequent alcohol intake and a higher percentage of abstainers among females.

  19. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  20. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  1. Advances in alcoholic liver disease: An update on alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Randy; Liu, Andy; Perumpail, Ryan B; Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a pro-inflammatory chronic liver disease that is associated with high short-term morbidity and mortality (25%-35% in one month) in the setting of chronic alcohol use. Histopathology is notable for micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, hepatocellular necrosis, perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis, and Mallory hyaline bodies found in ballooned hepatocytes. Other findings include the characteristic eosinophilic fibrillar material (Mallory’s hyaline bodies) found in ballooned hepatocytes. The presence of focal intense lobular infiltration of neutrophils is what typically distinguishes alcoholic hepatitis from other forms of hepatitis, in which the inflammatory infiltrate is primarily composed of mononuclear cells. Management consists of a multidisciplinary approach including alcohol cessation, fluid and electrolyte correction, treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and pharmacological therapy based on the severity of the disease. Pharmacological treatment for severe alcoholic hepatitis, as defined by Maddrey’s discriminant factor ≥ 32, consists of either prednisolone or pentoxifylline for a period of four weeks. The body of evidence for corticosteroids has been greater than pentoxifylline, although there are higher risks of complications. Recently head-to-head trials between corticosteroids and pentoxifylline have been performed, which again suggests that corticosteroids should strongly be considered over pentoxifylline. PMID:26576078

  2. Alcoholism and Personal Responsibility: A Philosopher Dissents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that a primary concern to the alcoholic and to those who try to help him is the behavior that causes alcohol dependency. While not disputing the view that alcoholism may be a disease, argues that full responsibility should be assigned to the alcoholic for his behavior. (NB)

  3. Topography of Drinking and Reinforcement from Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    Affective and physiological responses, interpersonal interaction, and alcohol consumption have been significantly correlated with cognitive factors in defining the behavioral effects of alcohol. To investigate alcohol reinforcement expectancies at the abusive end of the drinking continuum, 305 male and female adult alcoholics enrolled in alcohol…

  4. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  5. Conceptualizing the Suicide-Alcohol Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James R.

    Despite the strong empirical evidence linking alcohol use across varying levels to suicidal behavior, the field is lacking a unifying theoretical framework in this area. The concept of alcohol induced myopia to explain the varied effects of alcohol on the behaviors of individuals who drink has been proposed. The term "alcohol myopia" refers to its…

  6. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  7. Guide to Alcohol Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Susan K.

    This program guide was prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to assist program planners in the development of strategies to minimize the abuse of alcoholic beverages by youths. It provides information and direction to: (1) youth-serving organizations…

  8. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  9. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  10. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  11. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  12. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  13. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  14. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  15. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  16. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  17. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  18. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  19. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  20. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

  1. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  2. Children's Alcohol Initiation: An Analytic Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Bernadette; Snow, Pamela; Aroni, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Many parents support the "supervised introduction" of alcohol to children. While initiation to regular alcohol consumption in early adolescence has been linked with alcohol-related problems in adult life, the findings from these studies cannot be extrapolated to early childhood. The definition of initiation to alcohol in early childhood is often…

  3. How Do Underage College Students Get Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and related problems are common among underage college students, yet qualitative, in-depth information on how/where these students obtain alcohol is limited. We conducted focus groups pertaining to access to alcohol and related issues with 19 underage college students. They reported that alcohol is easy to obtain from a variety…

  4. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol may be present in the following foods... the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use of the hops extract only as...

  5. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  6. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  7. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  8. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  9. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  10. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  11. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  12. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol may be... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  13. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  14. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  15. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  16. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  17. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  18. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  19. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  20. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Adlerian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw-Bellemare, Robyne; Mosak, Harold H.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that children of alcoholics use common maladaptively successful methods to achieve their survival-oriented fictive goals and carry these behaviors with them into adulthood. Discusses insidious and enduring effects of alcoholism on lifestyle of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). Describes developmental legacy of alcoholism as legacy of…