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Sample records for alcohol body mass

  1. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics.

  2. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  3. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women.

  4. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  5. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M.; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study on Pattern of Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Health Institution Students in Bagalkot

    PubMed Central

    Ramadurg, Umesh Y; Dorle, Ashok S; Ghattargi, Chandrasekar H; Banada, Jambaiah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescence is a vulnerable period, where they try to initiate new things, sometimes wicked habits or high risk behaviours like smoking or alcohol consumption. Due to change in lifestyle a considerable number of social drinkers have shifted to heavy episodic drinking. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of obesity but the relationship between alcohol and weight is still unclear. Objectives To find the association between pattern of drinking and Body Mass Index (BMI). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 395 students from five health Institutions in Bagalkot. A pre tested, semi structured questionnaire was used and BMI was noted. Results were tabulated using Microsoft excel 2007 and analysis were performed using OpenEpi, version 2.3.1. Chi square tests was used to find the association. Results In the present study 68% were girls and 32% were boys. About one fifth (20.53%) were current alcohol drinkers. Alcohol quantity and frequency had inverse association with BMI. As quantity increases from 1 drink/drinking day to ≥4 drinks/drinking day, BMI increases from 20.49 (95%CL 14.66-26.33) to 22.66 (95%CL 12.62-32.70). As frequency increased from low to high quintiles of drinking days/year, BMI significantly decreases (p <0.003) from 21.44 (95% CI 20.31-22.58) to 20.38 (95% CI 13.05-27.72). Conclusion Alcohol contributes to increase in body weight in certain types of drinking pattern while in others it was not associated. PMID:26814469

  7. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  8. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  9. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  10. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  11. Impact of alcohol consumption and body mass index on mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aerodigestive tract cancers, and alcohol use disorders in Korean older middle-aged men: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for the global disease burden including liver diseases. However, the combined effect of alcohol use and body mass index (BMI) on alcohol-related diseases has seldom been examined. We examined whether alcohol consumption and BMI could act together to increase mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers, and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in middle-aged Korean men.107,735 men (mean age, 58.8 years) participated in a postal survey in 2004 and were followed until 2010, by linkage to national death records. Hazard ratios (HRs) of cause-specific death were calculated after adjustment for confounders.Each 5-drink (approximately 45 g alcohol) higher weekly alcohol consumption was associated with increased mortality, by approximately 70% for nonneoplastic liver disease mortality (HR = 1.70, P < 0.001), approximately 60% for UADT cancer mortality (HR = 1.64, P < 0.001), and approximately 70% for AUD mortality (HR = 1.71, P < 0.001). Generally, BMI was inversely associated with these alcohol-related diseases (HR per each 5 kg/m higher BMI = 0.18-0.46, P < 0.001 for each cause), while, in participants with BMI ≥25 kg/m, each 5 kg/m higher BMI was also associated with an elevated mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases of approximately 150% (HR = 2.52, P = 0.001). Men with BMI < 21 kg/m and weekly alcohol consumption ≥14 drinks showed markedly higher mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases (HR = 5.7), alcoholic liver diseases (HR = 9.3), UADT cancers (HR = 10.5), and esophageal cancer (HR = 15.5), compared to men drinking less than 1 drink/wk with BMI ≥25 kg/m. The combined effect of low BMI and high weekly alcohol consumption was 2.25- to 3.29-fold greater than the additive effect of each factor for these alcohol-related diseases (P < 0.05 for each cause).Alcohol consumption and low BMI were related to deaths from nonneoplastic liver diseases, UADT

  12. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  13. No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Mälarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rückerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Völzke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:25551457

  14. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  15. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  16. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  17. Gravity and body mass regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  18. Correlates of body mass evolution in primates.

    PubMed

    Soligo, Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Body mass is undoubtedly central to the overall adaptive profile of any organism. Despite this, very little is known of what forces drive evolutionary changes in body mass and, consequently, shape patterns of body mass distribution exhibited by animal radiations. The search for factors that may influence evolutionary processes in general frequently focuses on environmental parameters such as climate change or interspecific competition. With respect to body mass, there is also the suggestion that evolutionary lineages may follow an inherent trend toward increased body mass, known as Cope's rule. The present paper investigates whether overall directional trends of body mass change, or correlations between patterns of body mass evolution and environmental factors have influenced the evolution of body mass in plesiadapiforms and primates. Analyses of the global fossil record of plesiadapiforms and primates suggest that the former did indeed follow an overall trend toward increased body mass compatible with the predictions of Cope's rule. In contrast, neither primates as a whole, nor a number of individual primate radiations (Adapiformes, Omomyiformes, and Anthropoidea), show any indication of overall directional patterns of body mass change. No correlations of primate body mass change with either the latitudinal distribution of fossil species, or with estimates of global temperature trends, were found. There is evidence, however, that direct competition between omomyiforms and adapiforms (the two main primate radiations known from the Paleogene) influenced processes of body mass evolution in omomyiforms.

  19. Body mass index in amputees.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, A H; Patron, A; Malhotra, D

    1994-01-01

    Whereas estimates of percent deviation of body weight from ideal (F delta weight) are corrected for amputation, those of body mass index (BMI) are not, creating discrepancies in evaluating obesity. A correction of the BMI formula for amputation is proposed. The formula for BMI was corrected for amputation mathematically. The mathematical model predicts that the uncorrected BMI formula underestimates body fat in unilateral amputees and overestimates body fat in subjects with bilateral amputations at the same length of the legs. F delta weight and corrected and uncorrected BMI estimates were computed in 15 subjects with unilateral leg amputation and in 8 subjects with multiple amputations. BMI estimates were as follows: in unilateral amputees, corrected 24.1 +/- 4.1 kg/m2, uncorrected 22.2 +/- 3.9 kg/m2 (p < .001); and in multiple amputees, corrected 21.6 +/- 2.4 kg/m2, uncorrected 32.6 +/- 11.8 kg/m2 (p = .043). Linear regressions of F delta weight obtained from standard nutrition assessment on F delta weight computed from uncorrected and corrected BMI values were as follows: in unilateral amputees, uncorrected F delta weight = -0.079 + 0.932 x actual F delta weight, r = .974, p < .01, and corrected F delta weight = 0.002 + 1.005 x actual F delta weight, r = .997, p < .01; in multiple amputees, uncorrected F delta weight = 0.528 + 1.930 x actual F delta weight, r = .607, p is not significant, and corrected F delta weight = -0.010 + 0.920 x actual F delta weight, r = .936, p < .01.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    PubMed

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. PMID:26348220

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  2. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  3. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. As a part of healthy aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both ...

  4. Total body water adjustment of mean alcohol intakes.

    PubMed

    Mirand, A L; Welte, J W

    1994-01-01

    Total body water volume (TBW) is one factor that determines the functional effect of a standard dose of alcohol. Because women and the elderly generally have lower TBW values than men and younger persons, respectively, less alcohol needs to be consumed by women and elders to achieve the same or higher blood alcohol levels compared to men and younger persons. An existing data set on elderly drinkers was analyzed with and without TBW adjustment of intakes using mean TBW estimates per decade for each gender. The estimates were obtained from a published report that pooled cross-sectional data to produce mean TBW values and TBW prediction equations applicable to Western populations. As the analyses confirm, the use of cutoff points of alcohol intake not adjusted for TBW results in drinking-level misclassification and findings biased towards younger males. This report supports the standard use of TBW-adjusted alcohol intakes in analyses of samples with both genders and/or a wide age range.

  5. Body Mass Index and Mortality in CKD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse survival in the general population, but appears to confer a survival advantage in patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis. Data are limited on the relationship of BMI with mortality in patients in the earlier stages of c...

  6. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Wechsler, Howell; McKenna, Mary; Odom, Erica; Reinold, Chris; Thompson, Diane; Grummer-Strawn, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) measurement has attracted much attention across the nation from researchers, school officials, legislators, and the media as a potential approach to address obesity among youth. Methods: An expert panel, convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2005, reviewed and provided…

  7. Characterization of genetic and lifestyle factors for determining variation in body mass index, fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and lean mass.

    PubMed

    Deng, H W; Lai, D B; Conway, T; Li, J; Xu, F H; Davies, K M; Recker, R R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we simultaneously characterized genetic and lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption) in determining variation in body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (PFM), and lean mass while adjusting for the effects of age and sex. Six hundred fifty-eight Caucasian individuals from 48 pedigrees were studied for BMI. Among these individuals, 289 from 38 pedigrees were studied for fat mass, PFM, and lean mass measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After adjusting for age, sex, and lifestyle factors, the heritabilities (h(2)) of BMI, fat mass, PFM, and lean mass ranged from 0.52 to 0.57 with associated standard errors ranging from 0.09 to 0.14. After accounting for significant sex and age effects, exercise had significant effects for all the phenotypes studied, and the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption were not significant. Therefore, significant proportions of variation in BMI, fat mass, PFM, and lean mass were under genetic control, and exercise had a significant effect in reducing BMI, fat mass, and PFM and in increasing lean mass. This study warrants further genetic linkage analyses to search for genes for the obesity-related phenotypes measured by DXA in our population.

  8. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  9. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  10. Body mass index and suicide methods.

    PubMed

    Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with lower rates of suicide. However, little is known about the association with different suicide methods. We studied the association between groups of body mass index and suicide methods. We identified all medicolegal autopsy cases with a cause of death due to external causes in Sweden during 1999-2013 (N = 39,368) and included 11,715 suicides and 13,316 accidents or homicides as controls. We applied multinomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, year and season of death. Obesity was associated with suicidal intoxication, OR 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.30] and negatively associated with all other suicide methods studied. Underweight showed a negative association with suicidal drowning and there was an indication towards a negative association with hanging in men OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.01). We conclude that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the choice of suicide method. This may be of importance in a public health perspective, e.g. potential for prevention of intoxications. In the practice of forensic medicine, the physician's level of suspicion may rise if the apparent suicidal method is less common for the individual characteristics of the deceased, such as BMI. PMID:27239953

  11. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L.; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B.; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy+/− but not Npy−/− rats, while Npy−/− rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy+/+ rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy−/− rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy+/− rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  12. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight.

  13. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  14. Effects of body mass index, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and solid fuel use on the risk of asthma: Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis of 175 000 individuals from 51 nationally representative surveys

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Maher, Yurie Izawa; Mishra, Sujata; Bhatia, Mehak; Alam, Dewan; Malini, Doki S; Gupta, Prakash C; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the relationship of body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking and solid fuel use (r; SFU), and the individual and combined effects of these factors on wheezing symptoms (WS) and on diagnosed asthma (DA). Methods We analysed 175 000 individuals from 51 nationally representative surveys, using self-reports of WS and DA as the measures of asthma. The fixed-effects and random-effects estimates of the pooled ORs between asthma and underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), smoking, drinking and SFU were reported. Results The pooled risks of all individual risk factors were significantly associated with WS and DA (with the exception of current smoking with DA in women and SFU with DA in both genders). Stronger dose–response relationships were seen in women for smoking amounts and duration; BMI showed stronger quadratic relationships. The combined risks were generally larger in women than in men, with significant risks for underweight (OR=2.73) as well as obese (OR=2.00) smokers for WS (OR=2.13 and OR=1.58 for DA, respectively). The magnitude of the combined effects from low/high BMI, smoking and drinking were also consistently higher among women than among men in WS and DA. SFU among underweight smokers also had positive association with WS (men and women) and DA (women). Conclusions BMI, smoking, drinking and SFU—in combination—are associated with double or triple the risk of development of asthma. These risk factors might help explain the wide variation in asthma burden across countries. PMID:27099758

  15. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  16. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  17. Increasing serum Pre-adipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) correlates with decreased body fat, increased free fatty acids, and level of recent alcohol consumption in excessive alcohol drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Bennett, Rachel; Westerhold, Chi; Ross, Ruth A.; Crabb, David W.; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with alcoholic liver disease have been reported to have a significantly lower percentage of body fat (%BF) than controls. The mechanism for the reduction in %BF in heavy alcohol users has not been elucidated. In adipose tissue, Pref-1 is specifically expressed in pre-adipocytes but not in adipocytes. Pref-1 inhibits adipogenesis and elevated levels are associated with reduced adipose tissue mass. We investigated the association between serum Pref-1 and %BF, alcohol consumption, and serum free fatty acids (FFA) in a well-characterized cohort of heavy alcohol users compared to controls. Methods One hundred forty-eight subjects were prospectively recruited. The Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB) questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed over the 30-day period before their enrollment. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate %BF. Serum Pref-1 and FFA were measured. Results Fifty-one subjects (mean age 32 ± 9 years, 88% men) were non-excessive drinkers whereas 97 were excessive drinkers (mean age 41 ± 18 years, 69% men). Compared to non-excessive drinkers, individuals with excessive drinking had significantly higher levels of Pref-1 (p < 0.01), FFA (p < 0.001), and lower %BF (p = 0.03). Serum levels of Pref-1 were associated with the amount of alcohol consumed during the previous 30 days. Serum Pref-1 was negatively correlated with %BF, but positively associated with serum FFA. Conclusions Our data suggest that elevated Pref-1 levels in excessive drinkers might inhibit the expansion of adipose tissue, decreasing %BF in alcoholics. Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use. PMID:25449367

  18. Increasing serum pre-adipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) correlates with decreased body fat, increased free fatty acids, and level of recent alcohol consumption in excessive alcohol drinkers.

    PubMed

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Bennett, Rachel; Westerhold, Chi; Ross, Ruth A; Crabb, David W; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease have been reported to have a significantly lower percentage of body fat (%BF) than controls. The mechanism for the reduction in %BF in heavy alcohol users has not been elucidated. In adipose tissue, Pref-1 is specifically expressed in pre-adipocytes but not in adipocytes. Pref-1 inhibits adipogenesis and elevated levels are associated with reduced adipose tissue mass. We investigated the association between serum Pref-1 and %BF, alcohol consumption, and serum free fatty acids (FFA) in a well-characterized cohort of heavy alcohol users compared to controls. One hundred forty-eight subjects were prospectively recruited. The Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB) questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed over the 30-day period before their enrollment. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate %BF. Serum Pref-1 and FFA were measured. Fifty-one subjects (mean age 32 ± 9 years, 88% men) were non-excessive drinkers whereas 97 were excessive drinkers (mean age 41 ± 18 years, 69% men). Compared to non-excessive drinkers, individuals with excessive drinking had significantly higher levels of Pref-1 (p<0.01), FFA (p < 0.001), and lower %BF (p = 0.03). Serum levels of Pref-1 were associated with the amount of alcohol consumed during the previous 30 days. Serum Pref-1 was negatively correlated with %BF, but positively associated with serum FFA. Our data suggest that elevated Pref-1 levels in excessive drinkers might inhibit the expansion of adipose tissue, decreasing %BF in alcoholics. Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use.

  19. Invited commentary: Body mass index and mortality.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-15

    In the midst of an epidemic of obesity, epidemiologists are seeking to establish the relationship of body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mortality. In an accompanying article, Adams et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(2):135-144) used a subsample of the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort, recruited in 1995-1996 (109,947 people), to examine associations of BMI in early (18 years) and middle (35 and 50 years) adulthood with mortality, as well as the effect of weight gain between these ages on subsequent mortality during 12.5 years' follow-up. They report a positive association between BMI and mortality at each age (using BMI 18.5-22.4 as the referent). Furthermore, there were strong positive associations of weight gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years with mortality. Attainment of a BMI of 25 or higher at a younger age increased risk of death. The findings contrast sharply with those of a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 97 studies, which found that only the grade 2 and 3 obesity categories (i.e., BMI ≥ 35) were responsible for elevated risk of mortality, with slight protection from overweight (25.0-29.9). Due consideration of the limitations of BMI as a measure of detrimental adiposity and of mortality measures alone to inform clinical practice is indicated. PMID:24173547

  20. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  1. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  2. Lifestyle factors and inflammation: associations by body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Elizabeth D; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation, which is associated with obesity, may play a role in the etiology of several diseases. Thus, reducing inflammation may offer a disease-prevention strategy, particularly among the obese. Several modifiable factors have been associated with inflammation, including: dietary fiber intake, saturated fat intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, and use of certain supplements and medications (glucosamine, chondroitin, fish oil, vitamin E, statins and aspirin). To study whether these associations differ by body mass index (BMI), we used data on 9,895 adults included in the 1999-2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Survey-weighted linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between modifiable factors and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations across the following groups: underweight/normal weight (BMI<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-<30 kg/m(2)) and obese (30+ kg/m(2)). While several factors were significantly associated with decreased hsCRP among the normal weight or overweight groups (increased fiber intake, lower saturated fat intake, physical activity, not smoking, and use of chondroitin, fish oil and statins), only increasing dietary fiber intake and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with reduced hsCRP among the obese. Effect modification by BMI was statistically significant for the saturated fat-hsCRP and smoking-hsCRP associations. These results suggest that posited anti-inflammatory drugs and behaviors may be less strongly associated with inflammation among the obese than among lower weight persons.

  3. Mallory bodies in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease contain a common antigenic determinant.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K A; Morton, J A; Barbatis, C; Burns, J; Canning, S; McGee, J O

    1981-05-01

    An immunohistochemical technique is described for the detection of Mallory bodies (MBs) in paraffin sections of liver tissue. This is based on proteolytic digestion of sections before exposure to an antiserum which recognises a unique antigenic determinant in MBs. With the use of this procedure it has been shown in alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis. Indian childhood cirrhosis, Wilson's disease, diabetes mellitus, and hepatocellular cancer that the MBs found in these disorders contain this unique antigenic determinant. It is postulated, therefore, that the mechanism of formation of MBs is similar in liver diseases of diverse aetiology. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the immunohistochemical procedure is more sensitive than routine staining; MBs were detected in five out of 12 fatty livers by immunohistochemical and only in one by H and E staining. As MBs in fatty livers were not associated with polymorph filtration or fibrogenesis it is argued that MB formation is not an absolute prerequisite for the progression of acute to chronic liver disease.

  4. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    PubMed

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-01

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses.

  5. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    PubMed

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-10-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  6. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  7. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  8. Body mass reconstruction on the basis of selected skeletal traits.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Anna; Piontek, Janusz; Vancata, Vaclav

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is: to estimate the body mass of the skeletons with the mechanical method (femoral head body mass estimation method--FH) and non-mechanical method (stature/living bi-iliac breadth body mass estimation method--ST/LBIB); to compare the reliability and potential use of results obtained with both methods. The material (46 skeletons, 26 males, 20 females) used in the study came from the medieval burial ground in Cedynia, Poland. Body mass reconstruction according to non-mechanical method was made using equations proposed by Ruff et al. (2005). Body mass estimation based on the mechanical method was calculated using formulas proposed by Ruff et al. (1995). In the mechanical body mass reconstruction method, femoral superoinferior breadth was used. Reconstruction of body weight using the non-mechanical method was based on maximum pelvic breadth and reconstructed body height. The correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height were also calculated. The significance of differences between the body mass of male and female individuals was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The significance of differences between body mass values obtained with the mechanical (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/ LBIB) was tested using Pearson's correlation. The same test was used for the calculation of the relationship between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and between femoral head and reconstructed body height. In contrast to females, in males there is no statistically significant correlation between body mass estimated with the mechanical method (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/LBIB). In both sexes there was not statistically significant correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements. Only in the females group the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height was statistically significant. It is worth to continue

  9. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  10. Body mass index of tannery workers in Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Ory, F G; Shukla, A; Kumar, S; Harte, J M

    1996-04-01

    During two cross sectional surveys in 1988 and 1994 the body mass index among tannery workers in Kanpur, India and its association with exposure to chemicals, dust and awkward ergonomic conditions, socio-economic and health status were studied. Fifty six per cent of the workers had in 1988 a BMI of less than 18.50, the cut-off value for malnutrition. In 1994 the proportion of malnourished workers had decreased to 41 per cent, being statistically significant lower than in 1988. Workers with a high exposure to lifting weights of more than 20 kg had significantly lower BMI than workers without this exposure. No other differences in mean BMI were found between workers without exposure to chemicals, dust and other awkward ergonomic conditions and workers with high or very high exposures, nor did the mean BMI of workers with occupational related conditions such as dermatitis, work related respiratory symptoms and low back pain differ from those without these conditions. There was no association between mean BMI and industrial modifications. In the 1994 survey workers who took sick leave in the year prior to the survey, workers of small/medium sized tanneries and workers without an ESI card had significantly lower BMI than workers without sick leave, workers of large tanneries and workers with an ESI card. Mean BMI of labourers with a monthly income of less than Rs 550 was significantly lower than that of tannery staff not engaged in leather work in this income group. No association was found between mean BMI and smoking, use of alcohol, educational level and income. The nutritional status of labourers in developing countries deserves more attention within the field of occupational health and safety.

  11. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  12. Sonographic surface localization of subcutaneous foreign bodies and masses.

    PubMed

    Creel, Stephanie A; Girish, Gandikota; Jamadar, David A; Morag, Yoav; Jacobson, Jon A

    2009-01-01

    We report a sonographic technique of skin marking of the projection of nonpalpable subcutaneous foreign bodies and masses using a paperclip. Localization and marking of the overlying skin assists in preoperative planning and further management.

  13. The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of body mass in the calculation of power and the subsequent effect on the load-power relationship in the jump squat, squat, and power clean. Twelve Division I male athletes were evaluated on their performance across various intensities in all the 3 lifts. Power output was calculated using 3 separate techniques: (a) including the contribution of body mass in force output (IBM), (b) including the contribution of the mass of body less the mass of the shanks and feet in force output (IBMS), and (c) excluding the contribution of body mass in force output (EBM). Peak power, peak power relative to body mass, and peak force calculated using EBM were significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower than outputs calculated with IBM and IBMS. The load that maximized power output was unchanged between the 3 techniques in the jump squat (0% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and power clean (80% 1RM) but was shifted from 56% (IBM and IBMS) to 71% 1RM (EBM) in the squat. Across all 3 movements, the shape of the load-power curve was affected when derived via the EBM method as a result of the underrepresentation of power output at light loads. This was due to the majority of the load being neglected when the mass of the body was removed from the system mass used in the calculation of force. This study indicates that not only is the actual power output significantly lower when body mass is excluded from the force output of a lower body movement, but the load-power relationship is altered as well. Therefore, it is imperative that the mass of the individual being tested is incorporated into the calculation of force used to determine power output during lower-body movements. PMID:18076268

  14. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  15. Pharmacology of manipulating lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Patricio V; Bush, Ernest D; Baar, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dysfunction and wasting of skeletal muscle as a consequence of illness decreases the length and quality of life. Currently, there are few, if any, effective treatments available to address these conditions. Hence, the existence of this unmet medical need has fuelled large scientific efforts.Fortunately, these efforts have shown many of the underlying mechanisms adversely affecting skeletal muscle health.With increased understanding have come breakthrough disease-specific and broad spectrum interventions, some progressing through clinical development.The present review focuses its attention on the role of the antagonistic process regulating skeletal muscle mass before branching into prospective promising therapeutic targets and interventions. Special attention is given to therapies in development against cancer cachexia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy before closing remarks on design and conceptualization of future therapies are presented to the reader. PMID:25311629

  16. Hydrodynamic Mass of Bluff Bodies with a Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgabaili, Mohamed; Desabrais, Kenneth; Johari, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Hydrodynamic mass of an object may be used to compute the contribution of unsteady drag resulting from potential flow. Even though the hydrodynamic mass of certain bluff bodies such as cylinder and sphere have been available from analytical considerations for a long time, there are no analytical solutions for a general bluff body with a cavity such as a cup facing the flow or a round parachute canopy. There is, however, an analytical solution for spherical shells of various concavities. The translational hydrodynamic mass of cups having various depth and thickness as well as round parachute canopies during inflation was computed using a finite element solver. The kinetic energy of the potential flow around the body was used to extract the hydrodynamic mass. Results indicate that the hydrodynamic mass of a cup can be decomposed into two components, the hydrodynamic mass of a cylinder whose axis is aligned with the flow and the mass of fluid within the cup cavity. Similarly, the hydrodynamic mass of a parachute canopy during various stages of inflation may be written as the hydrodynamic mass of a disk having the same area as the projected area of the canopy plus the mass of fluid enclosed by the canopy. Sponsored by the US Army Natick RDEC.

  17. The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, M. de L.; Hanley, S.; Laughlin, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a simple method that uses skulls to estimate the diameter, and hence the mass, of birds' eyes. Allometric analysis demonstrated that, within five orders (parrots, pigeons, petrels, raptors and owls) and across 104 families of flying birds, eye mass is proportional to (body mass)0.68 over a range of body masses (6 g to 11.3 kg). As expected from their habits and visual ecology, raptors and owls have enlarged eyes, with masses 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than average birds of the same weight. Taking existing relationships for flight speed on body mass, we find that resolution increases close to (flight speed)1.333. Consequently, large birds resolve objects at a longer time to contact than small birds. Eye radius and skull size co-vary in strict proportion, suggesting common physiological, aerodynamic and mechanical constraints. Because eye mass scales close to brain mass, metabolic rate and information processing could also be limiting, but the precise factors determining the scaling of eye to body have not been identified.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  19. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  20. Regulation of body mass in rats exposed to chronic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Female rats approximately 6 mo old were chronically centrifuged for up to 30 days at 2.76 G or 3.18 G and sacrificed at intervals for body-composition study. Both fat and the fat-free body mass (FFBM) were reduced during the 1st wk of centrifugation, with the fat showing considerably more variation both within and between groups. The FFBM was reduced below control level to the same extent in rats fed commercial chow, a high-fat diet, or a high-protein diet or in rats prefasted to produce a body-mass deficit at the start of centrifugation. There were no centrifugation-associated changes in body water content. It was concluded that body fat showed no evidence of regulation, FFBM is regulated at any constant level of acceleration between 1 and 4.15 G, and the change in FFBM induced by a change in acceleration is probably not regulated.

  1. Alcohol in the mass media and drinking by adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G M; Casswell, S; Zhang, J F; Silva, P A

    1994-10-01

    Data from a longitudinal study carried out in Dunedin, New Zealand, were used to investigate associations between alcohol consumption at age 18 years and alcohol-related mass media communications recalled at ages 13 and 15 years. The respondents' recall of alcohol-related mass media material were categorized as: commercial alcohol advertising, alcohol moderation messages or the portrayal of alcohol in entertainment. An additional media variable was the number of hours spent watching television. Non-media variables, such as peer approval of drinking, living situation and occupation (all at age 18 years) were also included in the analyses. The period between the interviews at ages 13 and 15 years saw an increase in the broadcast of commercial alcohol advertisements on television in New Zealand and this was reflected in an increase in the proportion of the mass media material recalled which was categorized as commercial advertising. At age 15 years television advertising, mostly for beer companies, was the predominant material recalled. No relationships were found between the commercial advertising and wine and spirits consumption, among either men or women, but young women who had watched more hours of television drank more wine/spirits. Among women there were two unexpected negative relationships between recall of alcohol in the media at age 13 years and beer consumption. However, among men there was a consistent positive relationship such that those who had recalled more alcohol advertisements at age 15 years drank larger quantities of beer at age 18 years. PMID:7804086

  2. Independent metabolic costs of supporting body weight and accelerating body mass during walking.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena; Farley, Claire T; Kram, Rodger

    2005-02-01

    The metabolic cost of walking is determined by many mechanical tasks, but the individual contribution of each task remains unclear. We hypothesized that the force generated to support body weight and the work performed to redirect and accelerate body mass each individually incur a significant metabolic cost during normal walking. To test our hypothesis, we measured changes in metabolic rate in response to combinations of simulated reduced gravity and added loading. We found that reducing body weight by simulating reduced gravity modestly decreased net metabolic rate. By calculating the metabolic cost per Newton of reduced body weight, we deduced that generating force to support body weight comprises approximately 28% of the metabolic cost of normal walking. Similar to previous loading studies, we found that adding both weight and mass increased net metabolic rate in more than direct proportion to load. However, when we added mass alone by using a combination of simulated reduced gravity and added load, net metabolic rate increased about one-half as much as when we added both weight and mass. By calculating the cost per kilogram of added mass, we deduced that the work performed on the center of mass comprises approximately 45% of the metabolic cost of normal walking. Our findings support the hypothesis that force and work each incur a significant metabolic cost. Specifically, the cost of performing work to redirect and accelerate the center of mass is almost twice as great as the cost of generating force to support body weight.

  3. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  4. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  5. The Tromsø Study: body height, body mass index and fractures.

    PubMed

    Joakimsen, R M; Fønnebø, V; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A; Søgaard, A J

    1998-01-01

    Tall persons suffer more hip fractures than shorter persons, and high body mass index is associated with fewer hip and forearm fractures. We have studied the association between body height, body mass index and all non-vertebral fractures in a large, prospective, population-based study. The middle-aged population of Tromsø, Norway, was invited to surveys in 1979/80, 1986/87 and 1994/95 (The Tromsø Study). Of 16,676 invited to the first two surveys, 12,270 attended both times (74%). Height and weight were measured without shoes at the surveys, and all non-vertebral fractures in the period 1988-1995 were registered (922 persons with fractures) and verified by radiography. The risk of a low-energy fracture was found to be positively associated with increasing body height and with decreasing body mass index. Furthermore, men who had gained weight had a lower risk of hip fractures, and women who had gained weight had a lower risk of fractures in the lower extremities. High body height is thus a risk factor for fractures, and 1 in 4 low-energy fractures among women today might be ascribed to the increase in average stature since the turn of the century. Low body mass index is associated with a higher risk of fractures, but the association is probably too weak to have any clinical relevance in this age category.

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. Comments on Body Mass Changes During Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Thornton, William

    2015-12-01

    The paper "Body Mass Changes During Long-Duration Spaceflight" allows a comparison of devices, their application, results obtained and their interpretation from the two programs of such studies to date. There were significant differences in all aspects of the two programs which are briefly commented on here. PMID:26630057

  9. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle

    2016-05-01

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this work we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction of the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an "event mixing" technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. Taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.

  10. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As the United States continues to search for answers to the growing problem of obesity among children and adolescents, much attention has focused on body mass index (BMI) measurement programs in schools. The BMI is the ratio of weight to height squared. It is often used to assess weight status because it is relatively easy to measure and it…

  11. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  12. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  13. Maternal Employment, Work Schedules, and Children's Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that mothers' employment is associated with increases in children's body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height. Nonstandard work (working evenings or nights, weekends, or an irregular shift) may also be associated with children's BMI. This article examines the association between maternal work and children's BMI…

  14. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    DOE PAGES

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle

    2016-05-24

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this study, we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction ofmore » the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an “event mixing” technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. In conclusion, taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.« less

  15. Relationships between kidney mass and body size in some Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    Kalisińska, E; Dańczak, A; Pierko, M; Wysocki, D

    1999-03-01

    Relationships between kidney mass (KM) and body mass (BM), body length (BL), and sternum length (SL) were studied in adults of both sexes of 4 Mergini anseriforms: Clangula hyemalis (n = 74), Melanitta fusca (n = 29), M. nigra (n = 15), and Somateria mollissima (n = 8). The following indices were established for the four species and for the Mergini tribe: KM/BM (as per cent body mass), KM/BL, and KM/SL. Additionally, allometric equations describing the relationships studied were developed for the tribe using mean kidney weights and body parameters of males and females of the species examined. The KM/BM indices for several anseriform tribes (i.e. Anserini, Anatini, Aythyini and Mergini), differing in food and feeding modes, were determined, based on the literature data and those obtained in this study. In addition, an allometric equation describing the kidney weight-body weight relationship in the Anseriformes order was developed as log KM = 0.797 log BM-1.346 (n = 22). The relative kidney size in the sea duck species studied showed significant intra- and interspecific differences. In addition, clear between-tribes differences in KM/BM were revealed. The highest value (1.57%) of the index is typical of the Mergini, grouping diving carnivorous sea ducks, while the lowest index (0.65%) is typical of the Anserini, a tribe which groups non-diving herbivorous birds. PMID:10208037

  16. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  17. Density of fat-free body mass: relationship with race, age, and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Gallagher, D; Deurenberg, P; Wang, J; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1997-05-01

    The two-compartment body composition method assumes that fat-free body mass (FFM) has a density of 1.100 kg/l. This study tested the hypothesis that FFM density is independent of race, age, and body fatness. Subjects were 703 black and white subjects, ages 20-94 yr, with body mass index (BMI) 17-35 kg/m2. Body composition was assessed using a four-compartment model based on tritium dilution volume, body density by underwater weighing, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body weight. No relationship was observed between FFM density and race or BMI. A tendency was observed for a lower FFM density only in older white women. The difference in percent body fat (delta fat) between the four-compartment model and underwater weighing was < 2% for all groups. Race, age, and BMI explained only 2.3 (women) and 1.4% (men) of the variance in delta fat, whereas the total body water fraction of FFM explained 77%. In contrast to current thinking, these results show that the assumption of constant FFM density is valid in black, elderly, and obese subjects.

  18. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  19. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  20. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm.

  1. Analysis of Relationship between the Body Mass Composition and Physical Activity with Body Posture in Children

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Joanna; Czenczek-Lewandowska, Ewelina; Leszczak, Justyna; Mazur, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children's body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys. Each study participant had the posture evaluated with the photogrammetric method using the projection moiré phenomenon. Moreover, body mass composition and the level of physical activity were evaluated. Results. Children with the lowest content of muscle tissue showed the highest difference in the height of the inferior angles of the scapulas in the coronal plane. Children with excessive body fat had less slope of the thoracic-lumbar spine, greater difference in the depth of the inferior angles of the scapula, and greater angle of the shoulder line. The individuals with higher level of physical activity have a smaller angle of body inclination. Conclusion. The content of muscle tissue, adipose tissue, and physical activity level determines the variability of the parameter characterizing the body posture. PMID:27761467

  2. Body mass prediction from skeletal frame size in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C B

    2000-12-01

    Body mass can be estimated from measures of skeletal frame size (stature and bi-iliac (maximum pelvic) breadth) fairly accurately in modern human populations. However, it is not clear whether such a technique will lead to systematic biases in body mass estimation when applied to earlier hominins. Here the stature/bi-iliac method is tested, using data available for modern Olympic and Olympic-caliber athletes, with the rationale that these individuals may be more representative of the general physique and degree of physical conditioning characteristic of earlier populations. The average percent prediction error of body mass among both male and female athletes is less than 3%, with males slightly underestimated and females slightly overestimated. Among males, the ratio of shoulder to hip (biacromial/bi-iliac) breadth is correlated with prediction error, while lower limb/trunk length has only a weak inconsistent effect. In both sexes, athletes in "weight" events (e.g. , shot put, weight-lifting), which emphasize strength, are underestimated, while those in more endurance-related events (e.g., long distance running) are overestimated. It is likely that the environmental pressures facing earlier hominins would have favored more generalized physiques adapted for a combination of strength, speed, agility, and endurance. The events most closely approximating these requirements in Olympic athletes are the decathlon, pentathlon, and wrestling, all of which have average percent prediction errors of body mass of 5% or less. Thus, "morphometric" estimation of body mass from skeletal frame size appears to work reasonably well in both "normal" and highly athletic modern humans, increasing confidence that the technique will also be applicable to earlier hominins. PMID:11102884

  3. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    PubMed

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations. PMID:23906357

  4. Contribution of tissues to body mass in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, S.D.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for Reference Man has been developed to express the relative contribution of tissues and organs to total body mass in humans. The objectives of this study are to (1) develop a Reference Elk model for the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elophus nelsoni) and (2) compare the model developed with similar data for Reference Man and mule deer. Five female elk were collected from the eastern slope of the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Relative weights of tissue and organs were determined. Relative amounts of skeletal muscle, bone, and lung tissues are similar between the three species. Tissues showing the greatest differences in relative mass were the adrenals and brain. The brain of man contributed 13 times more to total body mass than did the brain of elk. Percentages for most other tissues and organs varied by a factor of about 2 to 3 between species. (RJC)

  5. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  6. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID:27293729

  7. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally ‘active’ individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. PMID:26094042

  10. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins.

  11. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  12. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. PMID:25147244

  13. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  14. Body-esteem, body mass index, and risk for disordered eating among adolescents in synchronized swimming.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Magnan, Claire; Philippe, Roberta Antonini

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dimensions of body-esteem, Body Mass Index, and their relations with eating disorder symptoms among 42 elite adolescent athletes engaged in competitive synchronized swimming (M = 15.4 yr., SD = 1.2) and to compare them with 40 athletes in sports with no emphasis on leanness (M = 16.5 yr., SD = .93), and 50 nonathlete college female students (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.1). They completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed synchronized swimmers reported greater negative feelings about their appearance than the two other groups and low perceptions of how others evaluate their physical appearance. Participants did not differ on the EAT-26. Regression analyses showed that Body Mass Index and Body-esteem Appearance accounted for 38% of the variance in log-transformed Dieting scores of synchronized swimmers. Results are discussed in relation to the literature. PMID:16491692

  15. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  16. How important are changes in body weight for mass perception?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Helen E.

    It is often assumed that weight judgements depend primarily on the effort experienced in lifting an object against a 1-G force. Changes in effort and in other weight-cues certainly alter apparent heaviness; but there is a tendency towards mass-constancy when such changes are unrelated to mass. Under water or altered G, both the observer's body and other objects change their effective weight: the change in the former probably provides a cue to the latter. Mass-constancy increases with opportunity for adaptation to the change, leaving a negative aftereffect on return to normal circumstances. The discrimination of weight or mass also deteriorates with sudden changes in arm weight, just as it does with other types of maladaptation and with a reduction in sensory cues. The relative importance of arm weight and other factors has not been precisely measured, but experiments in prolonged spaceflight should help to elucidate the issue.

  17. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  18. Body mass index in young adults: Associations with parental body size and education in the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, K J; Liu, K; Dyer, A R; Kiefe, C I; Burke, G L; Yunis, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations of parental education, parental body size, and offspring's education with body mass index and 7-year change in body mass index were examined among participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: CARDIA is a study of coronary artery disease risk factors in 5115 Black and White persons aged 18 to 30 at baseline. Analyses of covariance were carried out with body mass index and change in body mass index as the dependent variables, and with parental education, parental body size, and participant education as the major independent variables. RESULTS: Father's body size was positively associated with participant's baseline body mass index among Black men, White men, and White women. Mother's body size was positively associated with baseline body mass index among all race-sex groups, and with change in body mass index among White women. Father's education was inversely associated with baseline body mass index among Black men and White women, and with change among White women. CONCLUSIONS: Parental education may influence body mass index and changes in young adulthood, especially among White women. Such associations may be both genetic and environmental and may be important for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:8604777

  19. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass

    PubMed Central

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. Objectives: In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. Patients and Methods: The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28th days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28th day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. Results: By the 28th day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P < 0.001; -0.36 ± 0.371 kg/m2, P < 0.001; -0.484 ± 0.597 kg, P < 0.001; -0.293 ± 0.486 kg, P = 0.001; -0.054 ± 0.059 kg, P < 0.001, respectively). Protein body mass and calorie intake did not significantly change (-0.049 ± 0.170 kg, P = 0.561; 12.94 ± 760.608 Kcal, P = 0.082 respectively). By 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting

  20. [Body mass and excretion of phosphorus in aqueous invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Golubkov, S M

    2014-01-01

    Empirical materials on the dependence of the intensity of mineral phosphorus excretion (Ex) on the body mass (W) in invertebrates are summarized. The parameters of the average dependence of Ex on Win animals at 20 degrees C are determined. The main factors that influence the parameters ofthis dependence are discussed. It is shown that the decrease of Ex with an increase of Win animals is, as a rule, more significant compared with the decrease in the intensity of metabolism.

  1. Craniodental body mass estimators in the dwarf bushbaby (Galagoides).

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, F P

    2001-06-01

    This study reports data on 17 craniodental body mass estimators in a sample (n = 38) of dwarf galagos (Galagoides). Correlation coefficients (r) range from a high of 0.64 for bizygomatic breadth and body mass to a low of 0.10 for M(3) length and body mass. Of the 17 variables studied, 7 exhibit significant (P < 0.05) correlation coefficients, with 5 of the 7 being multitooth (i.e., tooth row) or cranial variables. In contrast to the correlation coefficients of greater than 0.90 (e.g., Martin [1980] Z Morphol Anthropol 71:115-124; Steudel [1981] Int J Primatol 2:81-90; Gingerich et al. [1982] Am J Phys Anthropol 58:81-100; Conroy [1987] Int J Primatol 8:115-137) published for higher taxonomic level analyses (i.e., all-primate or prosimian) for many of the same variables studied here, the current data indicate weaker relationships when analyzed at the generic level. Possible explanations for the contrast in correlation coefficients between the current and many previous studies include the following: 1) individual variation due to a geographically dispersed sample, 2) individual body mass fluctuations due to seasonal food availability, and 3) individual variation within the sample due to variation in life-history parameters. Because the overall size range of the individuals in a specific or generic level analysis is smaller than that in an ordinal or subordinal sample, the individual variation normally masked when using species means represents a larger proportion of the total variation in a more limited sample. This may then be a cause of these weaker correlations. PMID:11385605

  2. Lumped mass formulations for modeling flexible body systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampalli, Rajiv

    1989-01-01

    The efforts of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. in obtaining a general formulation for flexible bodies in a multibody setting are discussed. The efforts being supported by MDI, both in house and externally are summarized. The feasibility of using lumped mass approaches to modeling flexibility in a multibody dynamics context is examined. The kinematics and kinetics for a simple system consisting of two rigid bodies connected together by an elastic beam are developed in detail. Accuracy, efficiency and ease of use using this approach are some of the issues that are then looked at. The formulation is then generalized to a superelement containing several nodes and connecting several bodies. Superelement kinematics and kinetics equations are developed. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method is illustrated by the use of some examples illustrating phenomena common in the context of spacecraft motions.

  3. Body mass-corrected molecular rate for bird mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Nabholz, Benoit; Lanfear, Robert; Fuchs, Jérome

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA remains one of the most widely used molecular markers to reconstruct the phylogeny and phylogeography of closely related birds. It has been proposed that bird mitochondrial genomes evolve at a constant rate of ~0.01 substitution per site per million years, that is that they evolve according to a strict molecular clock. This molecular clock is often used in studies of bird mitochondrial phylogeny and molecular dating. However, rates of mitochondrial genome evolution vary among bird species and correlate with life history traits such as body mass and generation time. These correlations could cause systematic biases in molecular dating studies that assume a strict molecular clock. In this study, we overcome this issue by estimating corrected molecular rates for birds. Using complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes of 475 species, we show that there are strong relationships between body mass and substitution rates across birds. We use this information to build models that use bird species' body mass to estimate their substitution rates across a wide range of common mitochondrial markers. We demonstrate the use of these corrected molecular rates on two recently published data sets. In one case, we obtained molecular dates that are twice as old as the estimates obtained using the strict molecular clock. We hope that this method to estimate molecular rates will increase the accuracy of future molecular dating studies in birds.

  4. The influence of body mass on foot dimensions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chiu, Hsin-Tzu; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a time-series approach was used to measure women's feet to accurately analyze changes in foot size and body mass during pregnancy. One-hundred women who were pregnant for the first time were asked to respond to questions on subjective complaints of foot discomfort listed in a questionnaire. Among these 100 women, a sample of 30 was obtained and used to measure the women's feet from the twentieth week of the gestation period until labor. The data (from 5 of the 30 women) were used to establish a prediction model for the influence of body mass on changes in foot size during pregnancy. The results indicate that the women subjectively complained that their shoes were too tight, resulting in foot discomfort. From the twentieth to the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy, the average increase in foot length, width, and back foot surface was 0.86 cm (3.6%), 0.25 cm (2.6%), and 18.36 cm(2) (11.9%), respectively. The height of the arch decreased by an average of 0.52 cm (-24.2%). Body mass accounted for more than 90% of the variation (R(2)) in foot dimensions during pregnancy and, thus indicated satisfactory predictive ability. The prediction model developed in this study can serve as a reference for clinical applications and shoe design to prevent women from experiencing extreme discomfort in their feet during pregnancy.

  5. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass.

  6. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  7. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    PubMed

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data.

  8. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  9. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  10. [Body height, body weight and body mass index of German military recruits. Historical retrospect and current status].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, U; Zellner, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Lüdde, R; Eisele, R; Hebebrand, J

    2001-09-01

    Surveys of conscripts give a chance to pursue the somatic development and the nourishment situation of young men over long times. At the beginning a historical view is given of the organization and methodological basis of medical examinations of German recruits since the introduction of the general conscription at the beginning of the 19th century. Secular changes of the body height are sketched out for selected regions of Germany until the middle of the 20th century. Data of the body weight hardly exist for this time. Until now the greatest continuous documentation of data for body height and body weight is available for West Germany since 1957 and for East Germany between 1973 and the reunion in 1989. The body height of German conscripts has nearly permanently increased since 1957 and reached in 1994 a maximum with 180.0 cm. In general East German conscripts have body height data which are smaller on an average than those of West German conscripts. But in the last years a catch-up in body height could be seen. The body weight of German conscripts also shows an increase apart from some short-time exceptions. The data of West German conscripts are also higher than those of the East German conscripts. Until the reunion the West-East-differences could partly be due to the different mustering age. But the differences also continue in the nineties despite the now identical mustering age. The Body Mass Index (BMI) of the German conscripts (calculated from the average values of body height and body weight) is characterized by increments in the last years. This indicates greater changes in body weight than in body height. The BMI also shows marked West-East-differences. There is no uniform tendency in differences between urban and country side regions for body height and body weight. On the other hand until now differences between selected professional groups are existing. Especially the over-proportional increase of the number of conscripts in the higher body

  11. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    PubMed

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  12. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  13. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  14. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth. PMID:17692872

  15. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth.

  16. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  17. Body mass and antler development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Carlson, E.; Schmitt, S.M.; Haufler, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    We documented mean and maximum body mass, mass accretion patterns and ander development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Mean body mass of bulls averaged 9-11% heavier, and maximum body mass 23-27% heavier, in Michigan than in other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Mean live body mass of cows averaged 11% heavier in Michigan, but mean eviscerated body mass did not differ. Maximum body mass of cows was 10-24% heavier in Michigan. Body mass peaked at age 7.5 for bulls and 8.5 for cows, similar to other Rocky Mountain elk populations despite the greater body mass achieved in Michigan. Sexual dimorphism in bull and cow body mass increased until peak body mass was attained, whereupon bulls were ???38% heavier than cows. Antler development of bull elk peaked at age 10.5, comparable to other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Relations between antler development and body mass within age classes were highly variable, but generally weak. Greater body mass seen in Michigan, and the peaking of antler development well after body mass in bulls, suggested a phenotypic response to nutritional conditions that allow Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan to maximize the species growth potential.

  18. N-body modeling of globular clusters: Masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardt, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well observed clusters we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of =1.98 ± 0.03, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease of the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globular clusters are incompatible with the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with more than a few thousand M⊙ in them. The only clear exception is ω Cen, where the velocity dispersion profile provides strong evidence for the presence of a ˜40,000 M⊙ IMBH in the centre of the cluster.

  19. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-02-09

    The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation for Obesity: Beyond Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Derrick; Lessig, Bailey A; Nasr, Elie

    2016-06-01

    Many factors contribute to the diagnosis of obesity in a patient. Anthropometric measurements, such as the waist circumference and percentage of body fat, are used in the newly released obesity algorithm to risk stratify patients. Staging methods, which use the identification of comorbidities and disease burden to assess the severity of obesity, can result in treating a patient sooner than if the traditional body mass index is used. Obesity is a growing concern in the medical field, and providing additional avenues through which to diagnose obesity and address obesity-related health risks can improve prevention efforts and lead to expedited weight management. Obesity is a growing concern in the medical field, and providing additional avenues through which to diagnose obesity and address obesity-related health risks can improve prevention efforts and lead to expedited weight management. PMID:27214774

  1. Body mass evolution and diversification within horses (family Equidae).

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Lauren; Clauset, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Horses (family Equidae) are a classic example of adaptive radiation, exhibiting a nearly 60-fold increase in maximum body mass and a peak taxonomic diversity of nearly 100 species across four continents. Such patterns are commonly attributed to niche competition, in which increased taxonomic diversity drives increased size disparity. However, neutral processes, such as macroevolutionary 'diffusion', can produce similar increases in disparity without increased diversity. Using a comprehensive database of Equidae species size estimates and a common mathematical framework, we measure the contributions of diversity-driven and diffusion-driven mechanisms for increased disparity during the Equidae radiation. We find that more than 90% of changes in size disparity are attributable to diffusion alone. These results clarify the role of species competition in body size evolution, indicate that morphological disparity and species diversity may be only weakly coupled in general, and demonstrate that large species may evolve from neutral macroevolutionary diffusion processes alone.

  2. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  4. Determination of the Subunit Molecular Mass and Composition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by SDS-PAGE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2007-01-01

    SDS-PAGE is a simple, rapid technique that has many uses in biochemistry and is readily adaptable to the undergraduate laboratory. It is, however, a technique prone to several types of procedural pitfalls. This article describes the use of SDS-PAGE to determine the subunit molecular mass and composition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase employing…

  5. Effects of Lifestyle Exposure and Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality Parameters of Fertile Men.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spermatogenesis is vulnerable to disruption. Some sperm quality studies have reported unfavorable trends in male reproductive health indicators, and lifestyle exposures (LE) and excess body adiposity have been among the factors implicated. LE (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumpt...

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H. W.; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths. PMID:26509531

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    PubMed

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  8. Relationships Between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Herrmann, Lynn K

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI compared to peers who reported no drug use. There was a positive relationship between drug use and BMI as well as the number of drugs used and BMI. The results suggested that the positive relationship between the use of illicit drugs and BMI is largely due to smoking. Further research needs to ascertain whether smoking, illicit drug use, or both are among the first of many unhealthy behaviors that can subsequently lead to greater gains in BMI. Implications for health educators are discussed. PMID:25842387

  9. Blood alcohol concentration at 0.06 and 0.10% causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of body movement control.

    PubMed

    Modig, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Patel, Mitesh

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol-related falls are recognized as a major contributor to the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The control of upright standing balance is complex and composes of contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as appropriate information from multiple sensory systems and correct feedback and feed forward movement control. Analysis of multisegmented body movement offers a rarely used option for detecting the fine motor problems associated with alcohol intoxication. The study aims were to investigate whether (1) alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the body movements under unperturbed and perturbed standing; and (2) alcohol affected the ability for sensorimotor adaptation. Body movements were recorded in 25 participants (13 women and 12 men, mean age 25.1 years) at five locations (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and head) during quiet standing and during balance perturbations from pseudorandom pulses of calf muscle vibration over 200s with eyes closed or open. Tests were performed at 0.00, 0.06, and 0.10% BAC. The study revealed several significant findings: (1) an alcohol dose-specific effect; (2) a direction-specific stability decrease from alcohol intoxication; (3) a movement pattern change related to the level of alcohol intoxication during unperturbed standing and perturbed standing; (4) a sensorimotor adaptation deterioration with increased alcohol intoxication; and (5) that vision provided a weaker contribution to postural control during alcohol intoxication. Hence, alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% BAC causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of human postural control.

  10. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  11. Androgens exert opposite effects on body mass of heavy and light meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Dark, J; Whaling, C S; Zucker, I

    1987-12-01

    The influence of gonadal hormones on body mass of adult male meadow voles varied systematically as a function of the animals' baseline body weight; heavier voles decreased and lighter voles increased their body mass after castration. Testosterone replacement reversed the effects of castration; changes in body mass during hormone treatment were negatively correlated with changes observed after castration. Body mass of intact males was not correlated with plasma testosterone titers. Individual differences in body mass of male voles appear to reflect variations among animals in substrate responsiveness to hormones rather than differences in circulating hormone levels. PMID:3323026

  12. Body mass index and musculoskeletal pain: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain is one of the most common complaints that patients report to physicians and two-thirds of the population has an elevated body mass index (BMI), indicating they are either overweight or obese. It was once assumed that extra body weight would stress the low back and lead to pain, however, researchers have reported inconsistencies association between body weight and back pain. In contrast, more recent studies do indicate that an elevated BMI is associated with back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes due to the presence of a chronic systemic inflammatory state, suggesting that the relationship between BMI and musculoskeletal pains be considered in more detail. Objective To describe how an elevated BMI can be associated with chronic systemic inflammation and pain expression. To outline measurable risk factors for chronic inflammation that can be used in clinical practice and discuss basic treatment considerations. Discussion Adiposopathy, or “sick fat” syndrome, is a term that refers to an elevated BMI that is associated with a chronic systemic inflammatory state most commonly referred to as the metabolic syndrome. The best available evidence suggests that the presence of adiposopathy determines if an elevated BMI will contribute to musculoskeletal pain expression. It is not uncommon for physicians to fail to identify the presence of adiposopathy/metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Patients with an elevated BMI should be further examined to identify inflammatory factors associated with adiposopathy, such as the metabolic syndrome, which may be promoting back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes. PMID:23687943

  13. Spontaneous resolution of pancreatic masses (pseudocysts?)--Development and disappearance after acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, A J; Fisher, M; Marin, G A

    1975-04-01

    To determine the incidence and the natural history of retroperitoneal masses complicating acute pancreatitis, 104 cases of acute alcoholic pancreatitis were evaluated prospectively for mass formation. Abdominal masses detected by physical examination and serial x-ray films of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract were localized to the retroperitoneum by additional contrast studies, including abdominal angiography. Nonoperative management was urged only for patients with an asymptomatic mass. An abdominal mass developed in 19 patients (18%). In eight of these, it disappeared rapidly, but in 11 (11%), it persisted, and was considered to be a pancreatic pseudocyst. Eight of the 11 patients were treated nonoperatively, and the mass resolved without complication three weeks to three months after diagnosis. In three patients, a pseudocyst was confirmed at laparotomy. Exploration was justified by an unstable clinical course in only one instance. A routine surgical approach to an asymptomatic retroperitoneal mass developing after acute alcoholic pancreatitis may not be necessaary in patients who are improving clinically because the mass may resolve without complication.

  14. Body Mass Index, Perceived Health, and Happiness: Their Determinants and Structural Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R.; Antonides, Gerrit; Van Ophem, Johan A. C.; Van Den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both education and smoking had a negative effect on…

  15. Positive body image and young women's health: Implications for sun protection, cancer screening, weight loss and alcohol consumption behaviours.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the link between positive body image and a range of health behaviours. Participants were 256 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, body dissatisfaction, sun protection, cancer screening, seeking medical attention, weight-loss behaviour and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results indicated that body appreciation was positively related to sun protection, skin screening and seeking medical attention and negatively related to weight-loss behaviour. Body appreciation explained unique variance, over and above body dissatisfaction, in sun protection, skin screening and weight-loss behaviour. These results have implications for interventions to improve adherence to health behaviours.

  16. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  17. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities.

  18. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p < 0.0001). Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p < 0.05). Serum sodium concentration ([Na⁺]) and the concentration of aldosterone increased with increasing loss in body mass (p < 0.05). Urine-specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to postrace serum [Na⁺] (p < 0.05). Fluid intake was significantly and positively related to both running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed.

  19. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p < 0.0001). Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p < 0.05). Serum sodium concentration ([Na⁺]) and the concentration of aldosterone increased with increasing loss in body mass (p < 0.05). Urine-specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to postrace serum [Na⁺] (p < 0.05). Fluid intake was significantly and positively related to both running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed. PMID:22614141

  20. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  1. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  2. Effects of Body Mass Index and Full Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Speed

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Francis KH; Keung, Jackie HK; Lau, Newman ML; Ng, Douglas KS; Chung, Joanne WY; Chow, Daniel HK

    2014-01-01

    Effective training to improve serve speed is important for competitive tennis players. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of anthropometric factors and whole body kinematics of elite players on ball speed and to propose possible training strategies for improving the quality of tennis serves. Body and racket kinematics of tennis serves of 12 male elite Hong Kong players were investigated. The tennis serve was divided into four phases: I) Back-Swing Phase, II) Lead-Leg-Drive Phase, III) Forward-Swing Phase, and IV) Follow-Through Phase. It was shown that racket-side knee range of motion during phases II and III (r=0.705; p<0.05), racket-side knee peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.751; p<0.01), racket-side hip peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.657; p<0.05), racket-side shoulder range of motion in the coronal plane during phase III (r=0.616; p<0.05), racket-side elbow peak extension velocity during phase III (r=0.708; p<0.01) and body mass index (r=0.577; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with ball speed. Body mass index and the identified kinematic parameters that were significantly correlated with ball speed could be used as training guidelines for coaches and players to improve serve speed. Players should pay particular attention in training to increasing the extension velocity and range of motion of the identified joints. PMID:25031669

  3. A contemporary approach to body mass regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Andrzej; Czkwianianc, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of factors and mechanisms regulating body mass have been discovered, although there are still many unknowns. Their effect on the development of many diseases related to nutritional disorders (obesity, anorexia, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease) means that the understanding of these mechanisms will make it possible to determine new therapeutic goals and create new medicinal products. This is even more important because nowadays there is no effective medication to cure nutritional disorders. It is necessary to conduct further research to evaluate dependencies and relationships between particular hormones and to study newly discovered substances so that we could progress towards achieving the overall objectives while keeping the ultimate goals in mind. PMID:27350833

  4. Women's health in India: the role of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    We examined the health status of women in relation to their body mass indices and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) by analyzing data from a follow-up study of 325 women, selected from the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2/1998-99) Delhi samples, reinterviewed after 4 years (2003). Obese women were five times more likely (OR = 4.87; p <.0001) and women with a higher WHR (> 0.90) were two times more likely (OR = 1.70; p =.050) to perceive their health condition as worse than others. Arthritis, hypertension, and shortness of breath were found to be higher among obese women and women with a high WHR. Healthy lifestyle choices must be promoted to contain the growing burden of obesity-related health problems among Indian women.

  5. Predictors of increased body mass index in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wall, Denise; Kennedy, Christine; Unnithan, Viswanath; Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study design was used to examine factors related to change of body mass index (BMI) over a 1-year period in 307 Chinese children, aged 7 and 8 years, in Taiwan. Standardized instruments were used to measure the children's food intake, physical activity/inactivity, and physical fitness, as well as maternal BMI. Results suggested that a high baseline BMI, poor aerobic capacity, and a high maternal BMI were significantly correlated with increased BMI at 12 months' follow-up. A higher baseline BMI, an overweight mother, increased television viewing and computer time, and poorer aerobic capacity were identified as predictors for weight gain in children (F=207.67; P<.001; adjusted R(2)=0.752). These findings suggest that health care providers need to include the family in children's health care visits and incorporate an assessment of maternal weight status and children's BMI status, activity levels, and aerobic capacity into patient care and education.

  6. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  7. Methods of body mass reduction by combat sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ciro José; Roas A, Fernanda Castro Martins; Brito I, Surian Souza; Marins J, Carlos Bouzas; Córdova, Claudio; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methods adopted to reduce body mass (BM) in competitive athletes from the grappling (judo, jujitsu) and striking (karate and tae kwon do) combat sports in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An exploratory methodology was employed through descriptive research, using a standardized questionnaire with objective questions self-administered to 580 athletes (25.0 ± 3.7 yr, 74.5 ± 9.7 kg, and 16.4% ± 5.1% body fat). Regardless of the sport, 60% of the athletes reported using a method of rapid weight loss (RWL) through increased energy expenditure. Strikers tend to begin reducing BM during adolescence. Furthermore, 50% of the sample used saunas and plastic clothing, and only 26.1% received advice from a nutritionist. The authors conclude that a high percentage of athletes uses RWL methods. In addition, a high percentage of athletes uses unapproved or prohibited methods such as diuretics, saunas, and plastic clothing. The age at which combat sport athletes reduce BM for the first time is also worrying, especially among strikers.

  8. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  9. Increases in body mass index following initiation of methadone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Jennifer M.; Laurent, Jennifer S.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear efficacy of methadone for opioid dependence, one less desirable phenomenon associated with methadone may be weight gain. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) among patients entering methadone treatment. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 96 patients enrolled in an outpatient methadone clinic for ≥6 months. The primary outcome of BMI was assessed at intake and a subsequent physical examination approximately 1.8±0.95 years later. Demographic, drug use and treatment characteristics were also examined. There was a significant increase in BMI following intake (p < 0.001). Mean BMIs increased from 27.2±6.8 to 30.1±7.7 kg/m2, translating to a 17.8-pound increase (10% increase in body weight) in the overall patient sample. Gender was the strongest predictor of BMI changes (p < 0.001), with significantly greater BMI increases in females than males (5.2 vs. 1.7 kg/m2, respectively). This translates to a 28-pound (17.5%) increase in females vs. a 12-pound (6.4%) increase in males. In summary, methadone treatment enrollment was associated with clinically significant weight gain, particularly among female patients. This study highlights the importance of efforts to help patients mitigate weight gain during treatment, particularly considering the significant health and economic consequences of obesity for individuals and society more generally. PMID:25441923

  10. Interpretation of low body mass indices: Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    1994-06-01

    Low body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) has been proposed as a practical measure of energy undernutrition although it has some well-known limitations. Some reports have suggested that those Australian Aborigines living a largely traditional way of life have low BMI without compromised health status and may have paradoxically high levels of subcutaneous adipose tissue. The evidence for low BMI in Australian Aborigines is reviewed from the mean data of 1,174 individuals in 26 groups of adults and from the individual data of 349 of these individuals, collected before 1970. Three of the nine groups of women had mean BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 and 4% of the individual men and 14% of the individual women had values less than 16 kg/m2, a value regarded as indicating severe chronic energy deficiency. Skinfold thicknesses were greater than expected from the BMI, suggesting paradoxically high subcutaneous fatness. The contribution of long-leggedness to low BMI was estimated from the regression of BMI on the sitting height to stature ratio (SH/S). For the 26 groups, this was estimated to be 2 kg/m2, r2 = 31%. The relationship was weaker with the individual data, r2 = 15%. Body shape as evinced by low SH/S does contribute to low BMI in these Australian Aborigines. Single cut-offs of BMI are not applicable to all population groups and allowance may have to be made for body form when using BMI to assess nutritional status. PMID:8085614

  11. Evidence for an early onset of endogenous alcohol production in bodies recovered from the water: implications for studying alcohol and drowning.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Jeffrey A; Smith, Gordon S

    2003-09-01

    Endogenous alcohol production can increase the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drowning victims following submersion and confound epidemiological studies of the role of alcohol. This study seeks to determine how soon after a drowning death a victim's BAC is influenced by post-mortem alcohol production. The drop in mean lung weight that occurs over time in the water was hypothesized to serve as a proxy for the time course of decomposition, and thus provide an empirical measure to determine how soon after death to first suspect endogenous alcohol. The autopsy lung weights of 562 previously healthy males who drowned were compared across six submersion time groups (0-11.9, 12-23.9, 24-47.9, 48-95.9, 96-167.9 and >or=168 h) and two times of year (winter and non-winter). The hypothesis that a drop in lung weight is sensitive to the time course of decomposition was supported by (1). a statistically significant drop in mean lung weight that occurred 12-23.9 h post-submersion in the non-winter months, but not until 96-167.9 h in the colder winter months; and (2). a significant drop in lung weight was not observed in the group of cases with zero BAC. With a parallel finding that an increase in the proportion of cases with a positive BAC first occurred at the 12-23.9 h submersion group during the warmer non-winter months, we concluded that production of alcohol can occur in bodies recovered from the water as early as 12 h after death. Because excluding drownings with submersion durations greater than 12 h would exclude almost half of our cases from epidemiological studies of alcohol and drowning, additional evidence from the forensic literature was used to develop an adjustment procedure to account for endogenous alcohol production for submersion times of up to 1 week.

  12. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  13. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI.

  14. Seasonal variation in body mass, body temperature and thermogenesis in the Hwamei, Garrulax canorus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Xiu; Zhou, Li-Meng; Zhao, Li-Dan; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    The basal thermogenesis of birds is beginning to be viewed as a highly flexible physiological trait influenced by environmental fluctuations, particularly changes in ambient temperature (Ta). Many birds living in regions with seasonal fluctuations in Ta typically respond to cold by increasing their insulation and adjusting their metabolic rate. To understand these metabolic adaptations, body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate (MR), thermal neutral zone (TNZ) and thermal conductance were measured within a range of temperatures from 5 to 40°C in free-living Hwamei, Garrulax canorus, in both winter and summer. Body mass was 61.2±0.3g in winter and 55.5±1.0g in summer, and mean Tb was 41.6±0.1°C in winter and 42.3±0.1°C in summer. TNZ was between 28.3 and 35.1°C in winter and between 28.7 and 33.2°C in summer. The mean basal metabolic rate (BMR) within TNZ was 203.32±11.81ml O2 h(-1) in winter and 168.99±6.45ml O2 h(-1) in summer. Minimum thermal conductance was 3.73±0.09joulesg(-1)h(-1)°C(-1) in winter and 3.26±0.06joulesg(-1)h(-1)°C(-1) in summer. Birds caught in winter had higher body mass, MR, and more variable TNZ than those in summer. The increased winter BMR indicates improved ability to cope with cold and maintenance of a high Tb. These results show that the Hwamei's metabolism is not constant, but exhibits pronounced seasonal phenotypic flexibility associated with maintenance of a high Tb.

  15. Primate extinction risk and historical patterns of speciation and extinction in relation to body mass.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Arnold, Christian; Machanda, Zarin; Nunn, Charles L

    2011-04-22

    Body mass is thought to influence diversification rates, but previous studies have produced ambiguous results. We investigated patterns of diversification across 100 trees obtained from a new Bayesian inference of primate phylogeny that sampled trees in proportion to their posterior probabilities. First, we used simulations to assess the validity of previous studies that used linear models to investigate the links between IUCN Red List status and body mass. These analyses support the use of linear models for ordinal ranked data on threat status, and phylogenetic generalized linear models revealed a significant positive correlation between current extinction risk and body mass across our tree block. We then investigated historical patterns of speciation and extinction rates using a recently developed maximum-likelihood method. Specifically, we predicted that body mass correlates positively with extinction rate because larger bodied organisms reproduce more slowly, and body mass correlates negatively with speciation rate because smaller bodied organisms are better able to partition niche space. We failed to find evidence that extinction rates covary with body mass across primate phylogeny. Similarly, the speciation rate was generally unrelated to body mass, except in some tests that indicated an increase in the speciation rate with increasing body mass. Importantly, we discovered that our data violated a key assumption of sample randomness with respect to body mass. After correcting for this bias, we found no association between diversification rates and mass.

  16. Primate extinction risk and historical patterns of speciation and extinction in relation to body mass.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Arnold, Christian; Machanda, Zarin; Nunn, Charles L

    2011-04-22

    Body mass is thought to influence diversification rates, but previous studies have produced ambiguous results. We investigated patterns of diversification across 100 trees obtained from a new Bayesian inference of primate phylogeny that sampled trees in proportion to their posterior probabilities. First, we used simulations to assess the validity of previous studies that used linear models to investigate the links between IUCN Red List status and body mass. These analyses support the use of linear models for ordinal ranked data on threat status, and phylogenetic generalized linear models revealed a significant positive correlation between current extinction risk and body mass across our tree block. We then investigated historical patterns of speciation and extinction rates using a recently developed maximum-likelihood method. Specifically, we predicted that body mass correlates positively with extinction rate because larger bodied organisms reproduce more slowly, and body mass correlates negatively with speciation rate because smaller bodied organisms are better able to partition niche space. We failed to find evidence that extinction rates covary with body mass across primate phylogeny. Similarly, the speciation rate was generally unrelated to body mass, except in some tests that indicated an increase in the speciation rate with increasing body mass. Importantly, we discovered that our data violated a key assumption of sample randomness with respect to body mass. After correcting for this bias, we found no association between diversification rates and mass. PMID:20943699

  17. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  18. ATriple Iron triathlon leads to a decrease in total body mass but not to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-09-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running. Measurements were taken prior to starting the race and after arrival at the finish line. Total body mass decreased by 1.66 kg (SD = 1.92; -5.3 kg to +1.2 kg; p < .001), skeletal muscle mass by 1.00 kg (SD = 0.90; -2.54 kg to +2.07 kg; p < .001), and fat mass by 0.58 kg (SD = 0.78; -1.74 kg to +0.87 kg; p < .001). The decrease in total body mass was associated with the decrease in skeletal muscle mass (r = .44; p < .05) and fat mass (r = .51; p < .05). Total body water and urinary specific gravity did not significantly change. Plasma urea increased significantly (p < .001); the decrease in skeletal muscle mass and the increase in plasma urea were associated (r = .39; p < .05). We conclude that completing a Triple Iron triathlon leads to decreased total body mass due to reduced fat mass and skeletal muscle mass but not to dehydration. The association of decrease in skeletal muscle mass and increased plasma urea suggests a loss in skeletal muscle mass.

  19. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  20. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  1. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  2. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  3. Effects of weather on daily body mass regulation in wintering dunlin.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John P; Warnock, Nils; Page, Gary W; Weathers, Wesley W

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of changes in weather associated with winter storms on mass balance, activity and food consumption in captive dunlin (Calidris alpina) held in outdoor aviaries, and compared the aviary results with weather-related body mass differences in free-living dunlin collected at Bolinas Lagoon, California. Captive birds fed ad libitum increased their body mass at higher wind speeds and lower temperatures, suggesting regulation of energy stores, whereas free-living birds exhibited patterns suggesting thermoregulatory limits on body mass regulation. Daily energy expenditure in aviary dunlin was 2.85 kJ g d(-1), or 2.8x basal metabolic rate (BMR), with thermostatic costs averaging 59 % of daily expenditure. Slight but significant increases in body mass and energy expenditure in captive birds on rainy days, adjusted for possible external water mass, suggested rainfall as a proximate cue in regulating daily body mass. Body mass changes under artificial rainfall indicated similar results, and field masses suggested that free-living birds have greater body mass on days with measurable rainfall. Increased activity costs under artificial rainfall were associated with an increase in maintenance activities, relative to controls. Whether activity costs increased on days with natural rates of rainfall was unclear. Our results are consistent with current hypotheses regarding the role of body mass regulation in providing insurance against increased starvation risk during deteriorating thermal or foraging conditions, or in reducing the costs of extra mass as conditions improve.

  4. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, Laura N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  5. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate.

    PubMed

    Amos, William; Filipe, Laura N S

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  6. Maternal Body Mass Index during Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Wendy Y; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Haddow, James E

    2013-01-01

    Background: This hypothesis generating study explores second trimester maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development. Methods: Mothers and offspring served as controls in two earlier studies: 101 children at age two years and 118 children at age eight years. Results Frequency of maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m2 increased from 10% in 1987-1990 to 30% in 2004-2006 (P < 0.001); the socioeconomic gradient became more pronounced. At age two, one or more BSID-III (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd Edition) scores <85 were more frequent with higher maternal BMI (P = 0.029); regression analysis suggested an inverse relationship between language scores and BMI (P = 0.054). Among eight-year-olds, one or more WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition) scores <85 increased with maternal BMI (P = 0.017); regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between performance subscale IQ score and BMI (P = 0.023). Conclusion: Second trimester maternal obesity may be an independent risk factor for some aspects of children's neurocognitive development. Further study is indicated. PMID:27757147

  7. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  8. Body mass index and illness in rural Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Strickland, S S; Ulijaszek, S J

    1994-11-01

    This paper reports findings of a cross-sectional anthropometric survey of 447 men and 564 women aged > 18 years of the Iban tribe in rural Sarawak. The percentage of each approximately 10 year cohort with body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) < 18.5 increased progressively with age > 40 years in both sexes. BMI and arm-muscle plus bone cross-sectional area (AMBA) were influenced significantly by reported single symptoms in men and two concurrent symptoms in women. Sensitivity of BMI < 18.5 for identifying those reporting symptoms of illness was 21% in men and 29% in women. Independently of illness effects, values of stature, BMI and AMBA in men, and stature alone in women, were significantly greater in those farming plots with the shortest time left fallow, suggesting their comparative success. The BMI of men may reflect primarily their economic activities, while that of women their experience of illness; the AMBA may also be a better overall index of health than BMI in this population. PMID:7843165

  9. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients. PMID:27275199

  10. Influence of body mass index in revision total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Santos, Diego Benone; Chammas, Victor; Arrebola, Lucas Simões; Colombo, Mauricio Lebre; Scalizi, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on the functional assessment of patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS : Thirty patients who un-derwent RTKA between January 2008 and January 2012 were retrospectively assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. The patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI ca-tegories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): Group I with normal BMI (18-24.9 Kg/m2), with eight patients; Group II, overweight (BMI 25-29.9 Kg/m2), with 15 patients, and Group III obesity with BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2, with seven patients. The post-ope-rative function scores obtained through the WOMAC questionnaire were compared with the BMI of each group. The statistical analysis between BMI and WOMAC scores was performed with the Spe-arman correlation test. RESULTS : The average functional WOMAC score for individuals in Group I was 16.7; in Group II it was 47.7; and in Group III it was 69.9, with a statistically significant differen-ce between groups I, II and III (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION : Patients with BMI > 25 Kg/m2 had a worse functional evaluation through WOMAC scores when compared to patients with normal BMI after RTKA. Level of Evidence III, Tranversal Retrospective Study. PMID:27057139

  11. Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI.

  12. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  13. Binge Eating, Body Mass Index, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Peat, Christine M.; Huang, Lu; Thornton, Laura M.; Von Holle, Ann F.; Trace, Sara E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Overby, D. Wayne; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Symptoms of both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently reported by individuals who binge eat. Higher body mass index (BMI) has also been associated with these disorders and with binge eating (BE). However, it is unknown whether BE influences GERD/IBS and how BMI might affect these associations. Thus, we examined the potential associations among BE, GERD, IBS, and BMI. Methods Participants were from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) and provided information on disordered eating behavior, BMI, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, and commonly comorbid psychiatric and somatic illnesses. Key features of GERD and IBS were identified to create modified definitions of both disorders that were used as primary outcome variables. Logistic regression models were applied to determine the association between BE and each GERD/IBS both independently and in the context of BMI and other commonly comorbid psychiatric and somatic morbidities. Results Prevalence estimates for GERD and IBS were higher among women than men (all p-values < .001). Only the association between BE and IBS was significant in both men and women after adjustment for BMI and the psychiatric/somatic morbidities. Conclusion BE appears to be an important consideration in the presence of IBS symptoms in both men and women, even when considering the impact of BMI and other commonly comorbid conditions. This association underscores the importance of routine assessment of BE in patients presenting with IBS to effectively manage the concurrent presentation of these problems. PMID:24182635

  14. Relationship of body mass index and fitness levels among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Praphul; Bryan, Charity; Howat, Holly

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the U.S.A., and understanding aspects of fitness is critical in implementing effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of obesity levels with the fitness levels of public school children in Louisiana. Over 7,000 school children participated in body mass index (BMI) and Fitnessgram® subtests including the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (aerobic capacity), curl-ups, trunk lifts, push-ups (strength and endurance), and shoulder stretches (flexibility). The fitness measures and BMI were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression to test for any significant relationships. The results indicated that the participants with healthy BMIs have the highest levels of physical fitness. The differences between the fitness levels of obese and healthy children were statistically significant. This study demonstrated a direct relationship between BMI status and fitness levels as measured by the Fitnessgram® among study participants. This finding is not exceedingly surprising, as common sense tells us that the heavier a person is, the less likely he or she is to be physically fit. However, this study is an important first step in understanding weight issues in children. This information can be used to develop data-driven interventions to assist children in becoming healthier and more physically fit.

  15. Disentangling plastic and genetic changes in body mass of Siberian jays.

    PubMed

    Gienapp, P; Merilä, J

    2014-09-01

    Spatial and temporal phenotypic differentiation in mean body size is of commonplace occurrence, but the underlying causes remain often unclear: both genetic differentiation in response to selection (or drift) and environmentally induced plasticity can create similar phenotypic patterns. Studying changes in body mass in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) over three decades, we discovered that mean body mass declined drastically (ca. 10%) over the first two decades, but increased markedly thereafter back to almost the initial level. Quantitative genetic analyses revealed that although body mass was heritable (h(2) = 0.46), the pronounced temporal decrease in body mass was mainly a product of phenotypic plasticity. However, a concomitant and statistically significant decrease in predicted breeding values suggests a genetic component to this change. The subsequent increase in mean body mass was indicated to be entirely due to plasticity. Selection on body mass was estimated to be too weak to fully account for the observed genetic decline in body mass, but bias in selection differential estimates due to environmental covariance between body mass and fitness is possible. Hence, the observed body mass changes appear to be driven mainly by phenotypic plasticity. Although we were not able to identify the ecological driver of the observed plastic changes, the results highlight the utility of quantitative genetic approaches in disentangling genetic and phenotypic changes in natural populations.

  16. Change in body mass accurately and reliably predicts change in body water after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Lang, James A; Kenney, W Larry

    2009-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the change in body mass (DeltaBM) accurately reflects the change in total body water (DeltaTBW) after prolonged exercise. Subjects (4 men, 4 women; 22-36 year; 66 +/- 10 kg) completed 2 h of interval running (70% VO(2max)) in the heat (30 degrees C), followed by a run to exhaustion (85% VO(2max)), and then sat for a 1 h recovery period. During exercise and recovery, subjects drank fluid or no fluid to maintain their BM, increase BM by 2%, or decrease BM by 2 or 4% in separate trials. Pre- and post-experiment TBW were determined using the deuterium oxide (D(2)O) dilution technique and corrected for D(2)O lost in urine, sweat, breath vapor, and nonaqueous hydrogen exchange. The average difference between DeltaBM and DeltaTBW was 0.07 +/- 1.07 kg (paired t test, P = 0.29). The slope and intercept of the relation between DeltaBM and DeltaTBW were not significantly different from 1 and 0, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient between DeltaBM and DeltaTBW was 0.76, which is indicative of excellent reliability between methods. Measuring pre- to post-exercise DeltaBM is an accurate and reliable method to assess the DeltaTBW.

  17. A New Total Body Potassium Method to Estimate Total Body Skeletal Muscle Mass in Children12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chen, Zhao; Silva, Analiza M.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Wang, Jack; Gallager, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    A whole body skeletal muscle [(SM); kg] mass estimation model, based on total body potassium [(TBK); mmol] measured by whole body 40K counting (WBC) was developed (SM = 0.0082·TBK) and validated in adults in a previous study. It is unknown whether the adult TBK SM prediction model is applicable for pediatric use. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a pediatric TBK SM prediction equation. SM measured by MRI was used as the criterion and TBK was measured by WBC. The protocol was completed in 116 healthy children, 66 males and 50 females, 11.7 ± 3.5 y (mean ± SD, range = 5–17 y). A strong linear correlation was observed between TBK and SM (r = 0.984; P < 0.001). The SM:TBK ratio was 0.0071 ± 0.0008 kg/mmol in the children studied, much lower than the corresponding value of 0.0082 kg/mmol in adults. An empirical SM prediction equation was developed using TBK alone: SM = 0.0085·TBK − 2.83, r2 = 0.97, SEE = 1.39 kg. Bland-Altman analysis did not disclose a significant bias in the prediction of SM. When biological factors entered along with TBK in the general linear model, another prediction equation was developed: SM = 5.52 + 0.001·TBK (mmol) + 0.081·weight (kg) − 0.049·height (cm) + 0.00004·TBK · height + race (−0.60 for Caucasian, 0.49 for African-American, and 0 for Hispanic). Because the adult TBK SM prediction model is not applicable for pediatric use, this study provides new empirical TBK SM prediction equations that should prove useful for studies on nutrition, growth, and development in children. PMID:17634275

  18. Obesity in young Dutch adults: II, daily life-style and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Baecke, J A; Burema, J; Frijters, J E; Hautvast, J G; van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between aspects of daily life-style and age, level of education, and body mass index (BMI; weight/height) were studied in young adult males (n = 1765) and females (n = 2092) in three age groups (19-21, 24-26 and 29-31 yr) in a Dutch population. By means of principal-components analysis five conceptually meaningful factors could be distinguished within the aspects of daily life-style which were considered. These factors were interpreted as constructs of: (1) slimming behaviour; (2) behaviour characterized by the consumption of coffee and alcohol, smoking habits and the number of hours sleep per night (CASS behaviour); (3) eating sweet and savoury snacks between meals; (4) health-conscious behaviour; and (5) physical activity. After adjustments were made for age and level of education, multiple regression analysis showed that slimming behaviour was positively related to BMI in both sexes, CASS behaviour was positively related to BMI in males, and health-conscious behaviour was inversely related to BMI in both sexes. An observed positive relationship between BMI and occupational physical activity in males could be explained by a confounding effect of socio-economic status. The observed weak positive relationship between number of hours active sport per month and BMI in males is possibly due to a difference in lean body mass. The consumption of sweet and savoury snacks was not related to BMI in either sex. These findings suggest that the daily life-style variables should be interpreted as indicators of more general types of behaviour, some of which may be important determinants of obesity.

  19. Closing the hand hygiene gap in the postanesthesia care unit: a body-worn alcohol-based dispenser.

    PubMed

    Petty, William Clayton

    2013-04-01

    Clinicians who work in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), operating room (OR), and intensive care unit (ICU) have a greater opportunity to cross-contaminate patients because of high workloads and frequent patient contact events. Much progress has been made to increase hand hygiene compliance with the introduction of alcohol-based wall, bedside, and pocket dispensers. The introduction of body-worn alcohol-based dispensers to anesthesia and ICU providers has been shown to decrease ICU hospital-acquired infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias, and decrease contamination of the anesthesia workplace. Body-worn alcohol-based dispensers are an improvement in ergonomics, especially for those working in high intensity areas. The unit worn on the belt or scrubs waist is readily accessible, can be activated with one hand, and can be a vital tool to close the gap for hand hygiene.

  20. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  1. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  2. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  3. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs. PMID:25857647

  4. Skeletal Correlates for Body Mass Estimation in Modern and Fossil Flying Birds

    PubMed Central

    Field, Daniel J.; Lynner, Colton; Brown, Christian; Darroch, Simon A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling relationships between skeletal dimensions and body mass in extant birds are often used to estimate body mass in fossil crown-group birds, as well as in stem-group avialans. However, useful statistical measurements for constraining the precision and accuracy of fossil mass estimates are rarely provided, which prevents the quantification of robust upper and lower bound body mass estimates for fossils. Here, we generate thirteen body mass correlations and associated measures of statistical robustness using a sample of 863 extant flying birds. By providing robust body mass regressions with upper- and lower-bound prediction intervals for individual skeletal elements, we address the longstanding problem of body mass estimation for highly fragmentary fossil birds. We demonstrate that the most precise proxy for estimating body mass in the overall dataset, measured both as coefficient determination of ordinary least squares regression and percent prediction error, is the maximum diameter of the coracoid’s humeral articulation facet (the glenoid). We further demonstrate that this result is consistent among the majority of investigated avian orders (10 out of 18). As a result, we suggest that, in the majority of cases, this proxy may provide the most accurate estimates of body mass for volant fossil birds. Additionally, by presenting statistical measurements of body mass prediction error for thirteen different body mass regressions, this study provides a much-needed quantitative framework for the accurate estimation of body mass and associated ecological correlates in fossil birds. The application of these regressions will enhance the precision and robustness of many mass-based inferences in future paleornithological studies. PMID:24312392

  5. Skeletal correlates for body mass estimation in modern and fossil flying birds.

    PubMed

    Field, Daniel J; Lynner, Colton; Brown, Christian; Darroch, Simon A F

    2013-01-01

    Scaling relationships between skeletal dimensions and body mass in extant birds are often used to estimate body mass in fossil crown-group birds, as well as in stem-group avialans. However, useful statistical measurements for constraining the precision and accuracy of fossil mass estimates are rarely provided, which prevents the quantification of robust upper and lower bound body mass estimates for fossils. Here, we generate thirteen body mass correlations and associated measures of statistical robustness using a sample of 863 extant flying birds. By providing robust body mass regressions with upper- and lower-bound prediction intervals for individual skeletal elements, we address the longstanding problem of body mass estimation for highly fragmentary fossil birds. We demonstrate that the most precise proxy for estimating body mass in the overall dataset, measured both as coefficient determination of ordinary least squares regression and percent prediction error, is the maximum diameter of the coracoid's humeral articulation facet (the glenoid). We further demonstrate that this result is consistent among the majority of investigated avian orders (10 out of 18). As a result, we suggest that, in the majority of cases, this proxy may provide the most accurate estimates of body mass for volant fossil birds. Additionally, by presenting statistical measurements of body mass prediction error for thirteen different body mass regressions, this study provides a much-needed quantitative framework for the accurate estimation of body mass and associated ecological correlates in fossil birds. The application of these regressions will enhance the precision and robustness of many mass-based inferences in future paleornithological studies.

  6. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  7. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  8. Psychosocial predictors of body mass index at late childhood: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial circumstances under which children develop excessive body mass. A community sample was followed up from age 2-10 years to determine which early problems were predictive of increased body mass index. Hypothesized mediators (i.e. eating habits, physical activity, and "screen time") were also examined. After controlling for parental psychopathology, family income, child's gender, and child's body mass index, externalizing behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and anger predicted a relatively high body mass index. Exploratory analyses did not support hypothesized mediators, although low power was an issue.

  9. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption.

  10. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  11. Antibiotic Use and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Pollak, Jonathan; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Hirsch, Annemarie G.; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Nau, Claudia; Kress, Amii M.; Glass, Thomas A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children. Use of antibiotics early in life has been linked to weight gain but there are no large-scale, population-based, longitudinal studies of the full age range among mainly healthy children. Subjects/Methods We used electronic health record data on 163,820 children aged 3-18 years and mixed effects linear regression to model associations of antibiotic orders with growth curve trajectories of annual body mass index (BMI) controlling for confounders. Models evaluated three kinds of antibiotic associations – reversible (time-varying indicator for an order in year before each BMI), persistent (time-varying cumulative orders up to BMIj), and progressive (cumulative orders up to prior BMI [BMIj-1]) – and whether these varied by age. Results Among 142,824 children under care in the prior year, a reversible association was observed and this short-term BMI gain was modified by age (p < 0.001); effect size peaked in mid-teen years. A persistent association was observed and this association was stronger with increasing age (p < 0.001). The addition of the progressive association among children with at least three BMIs (n = 79,752) revealed that higher cumulative orders were associated with progressive weight gain; this did not vary by age. Among children with an antibiotic order in the prior year and at least seven lifetime orders, antibiotics (all classes combined) were associated with an average weight gain of approximately 1.4 kg at age 15 years. When antibiotic classes were evaluated separately, the largest weight gain at 15 years was associated with macrolide use. Conclusions We found evidence of reversible, persistent, and progressive effects of antibiotic use on BMI trajectories, with different effects by age, among mainly healthy children. The results suggest that antibiotic use may influence weight gain throughout childhood and not just during the earliest years as has been the primary focus of

  12. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  13. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Nasrin; Haghnazari, Lida; Rasolinia, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar), serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between leptin and insulin (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH. PMID:27186548

  14. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  15. The application of body cell mass index for studying muscle mass changes in health and disease conditions.

    PubMed

    Talluri, A; Liedtke, R; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Martinoli, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) fails to detect altered nutritional state in the presence of overweight or obesity, since malnutrition can be present and masked by the abnormal amount of fat mass. Measuring body cell mass (BCM) contents for the evaluation of muscle mass and protein tissue states is well accepted. The aim of the present study was to apply body cell mass index (BCMI) to monitor the muscular mass changes of male and female Olympic athletes, renal dialysis patients, and anorexia nervosa patients in comparison with healthy subjects. The BCMI values of male subjects from the healthy group and Olympic athletes groups, but not the renal dialysis group, were significantly higher ( p<0.0001) than those of female subjects from the same groups. In addition, subjects with normal or high BMI values may be malnourished as highlighted by a low BCMI. We believe the BCMI is more sensitive than the BMI for studying the nutritional status of the individual.

  16. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  17. Body mass is the primary determinant of midfemoral bone acquisition during adolescent growth.

    PubMed

    Moro, M; van der Meulen, M C; Kiratli, B J; Marcus, R; Bachrach, L K; Carter, D R

    1996-11-01

    To study the determinants of bone mass and structure during adolescence, we analyzed the femoral mid-diaphysis of 375 healthy adolescents and young adults, ages 9-26 years, from four ethnic cohorts (African-American, Asian-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic). Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine diaphyseal length and mid-diaphyseal diameter of the left femur, as well as linear bone mineral content (BMCL) of a region at the mid-diaphysis. Cross-sectional geometric properties were estimated and used to calculate two structural strength indicators: the section modulus and the whole bone strength index. When the relationships between the bone measurements and age, pubertal group, height, or body mass were evaluated, all cross-sectional femoral measures correlated most strongly with body mass. Multiple regressions accounting for gender and ethnicity provided little additional predictive value over the simple regressions with body mass alone. Furthermore, accounting for all developmental parameters (age, pubertal group, body mass, lean body mass, calcium intake, physical activity level) as well as ethnicity and gender in a single saturated model also did not generally significantly improve the predictive results achieved using only body mass. Our results indicate that increases in midfemoral bone mass and cross-sectional properties during adolescence are primarily related to increases in mechanical loading as reflected by body mass.

  18. Identification of alcohol-dependent clopidogrel metabolites using conventional liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhe-Yi; Laizure, S. Casey; Herring, Vanessa L.; Parker, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Clopidogrel (CLO) is a prodrug used to prevent ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or with myocardial infarction. A previous study found ethyl clopidogrel (ECLO) is formed by transesterification of CLO when incubated with alcohol in human liver microsomes. We hypothesize that ECLO will be subject to further metabolism and developed an assay to identify its metabolites. METHODS A liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to identify metabolites of ECLO. According to the predicted metabolic pathway of ECLO, precursor–product ion pairs were used to screen the possible metabolites of ECLO in human liver S9 fractions. Subsequently, the detected metabolites were characterized by the results of product ion scan. RESULTS In the presence of alcohol, CLO was tranesterified to ECLO, which was further oxidized to form ethylated 2-oxo-clopidogrel and several ethylated thiol metabolites including the ethylated form of the H4 active metabolite. CONCLUSIONS The ECLO formed by transesterification with alcohol is subject to metabolism by CYP450 enzymes producing ethylated forms of 2-oxo-clopidogrel and the active H4 thiol metabolite. PMID:24760569

  19. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  20. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F.; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C.; López-Miranda, José

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P<0.001, Q = 0.002) when BMI was > 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  1. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.
METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.
RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ⩾30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.

 PMID:10212102

  2. Body Mass Index and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jian; Chen, Qi; Yu, Feifei; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Shuqi; Jin, Zhichao; Cai, Qing; Liu, Yu; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of rheumatoid (RA), the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a dose-response meta-analysis to quantify the dose-response association between BMI and RA risk. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases and reference lists of articles for relevant studies published before August 2014 using terms related to BMI and RA. Fixed or random-effects models were used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Several subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias Thirteen studies involving 400,609 participants and 13,562 RA cases were included. The RR of RA was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.02–1.44) for obesity, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.97–1.13) for overweight. The risk of RA increased by 13% (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01–1.26) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. The subgroup analyses showed a positive association between BMI and RA risk only in women with an RR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12–1.40) for obesity and 1.12(95% CI: 1.07–1.18) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Also, an increased risk of RA was found in sero-negative subgroup with an RR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.11–1.96) for obesity and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06–1.39) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. There is evidence that obesity is a risk factor for developing of RA. Furthermore, the positive association between BMI and RA risk may be stronger among women than men. PMID:26937917

  3. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Landa, Blanca B; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Camargo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P<0.001, Q = 0.002) when BMI was > 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  4. Body mass index and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yibin; Zhang, Tianyi; Wang, Zhiyong; Yu, Feifei; Xu, Qin; Guo, Wei; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on the dose–response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a systemic literature search in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant studies that were published until June 2015. A random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled relative risks (RRs) of all-cause mortality in COPD patients with normal weight compared with those who were underweight, overweight, or obese. In addition, a dose–response meta-analysis was conducted to explore the dose–response relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in COPD patients. A total of 17 observational studies involving 30,182 COPD patients among 285,960 participants were included. Compared with the reference category, the RRs of underweight, overweight, and obese individuals were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20–1.63), 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67–0.96), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62–0.95), respectively. A significant nonlinear relationship between BMI and mortality of COPD patients was found by using a random effects model. COPD patients with BMI of <21.75 kg/m2 had a higher risk of death. Moreover, an increase in the BMI resulted in a decrease in the risk of death. The risk of death was lowest when BMI was 30 kg/m2 (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53–0.89). The BMI was not associated with all-cause mortality when BMI was >32 kg/m2. Our findings indicate that overweight is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COPD whereas underweight is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in these patients. However, there is limited evidence to support the association between obesity and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with COPD. PMID:27428228

  5. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Vin-Raviv, Neomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Importance: Over one-third of American adults (36%) are obese and more than two-thirds (69%) are overweight. The impact of obesity on hospitalization outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific in-hospital mortality; postsurgical complications; and hospital length of stay (LOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Representative sample of US hospitals included in the Health Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Participants: We obtained data for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cancer, COPD, asthma, and CVD. Main Outcome: In-hospital mortality, postsurgical complications, and hospital LOS. Results: A total of 800,417 patients were included in this analysis. A higher proportion of Blacks (26.8%; 12.5%) and Whites (23.3%; 8.7%) had BMI of 40 to 49.9 and ≥50, respectively, compared with Hispanics (20.4%; 7.3%). Compared with normal BMI patients, the odds of in-hospital mortality increased 3.6-fold (odds ratio [OR] 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37–3.89) for preobese patients, 6.5-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 5.79–7.34) for patients with BMI: 30 to 31.9, 7.5-fold (OR: 7.57, 95% CI: 6.67–8.59) for patients with BMI: 34 to 35.9, and 1.6- fold (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56–1.79) for patients with BMI ≥ 50. Compared with normal BMI patients, preobese and overweight patients had shorter hospital stays (β preobese: −1.58, 95% CI: −1.63, −1.52); however, no clear trends were observed for postsurgical complications. Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients in this analysis had a BMI > 30, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of mortality and longer hospital stay. PMID:27428218

  6. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  7. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  8. Energy Cost of Walking in Boys Who Differ in Adiposity but Are Matched For Body Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Beatriz Volpe; Bar-Or, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Compared the energy cost of treadmill walking in pairs of obese and lean adolescent boys matched for total body mass. Results found no intergroup differences in the net energy cost at the two lower speeds, but obese boys expended more energy at a higher speed. Heart rate was considerably higher in obese boys. Body mass, rather than adiposity, was…

  9. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  10. Chemical derivatization for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 1. Alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines

    SciTech Connect

    Quirke, J.M.E.; Adams, C.L.; Van Berkel, G.J. )

    1994-04-15

    Derivatization strategies and specific derivatization reactions for conversion of simple alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines to ionic or solution-ionizable derivatives, that is [open quotes]electrospray active[close quotes] (ES-active) forms of the analyte, are presented. Use of these reactions allows detection of analytes among those listed that are not normally amenable to analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS). In addition, these reactions provide for analysis specificity and flexibility through functional group specific derivatization and through the formation of derivatives that can be detected in positive ion or in negative ion mode. For a few of the functional groups, amphoteric derivatives are formed that can be analyzed in either positive or negative ion modes. General synthetic strategies for transformation of members of these five compound classes to ES-active species are presented along with illustrative examples of suitable derivatives. Selected derivatives were prepared using model compounds and the ES mass spectra obtained for these derivatives are discussed. The analytical utility of derivatization for ES-MS analysis is illustrated in three experiments: (1) specific detection of the major secondary alcohol in oil of peppermint, (2) selective detection of phenols within a synthetic mixture of phenols, and (3) identification of the medicinal amines within a commercially available cold medication as primary, secondary or tertiary. 65 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Environmental Light Exposure Is Associated with Increased Body Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Cassandra L; Allan, Alicia C; Staton, Sally L; Thorpe, Karen J; Smith, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    The timing, intensity, and duration of exposure to both artificial and natural light have acute metabolic and physiological effects in mammals. Recent research in human adults suggests exposure to moderate intensity light later in the day is concurrently associated with increased body mass; however, no studies have investigated the effect of light exposure on body mass in young children. We examined objectively measured light exposure and body mass of 48 preschool-aged children at baseline, and measured their body mass again 12 months later. At baseline, moderate intensity light exposure earlier in the day was associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Increased duration of light exposure at baseline predicted increased BMI 12-months later, even after controlling for baseline sleep duration, sleep timing, BMI, and activity. The findings identify that light exposure may be a contributor to the obesogenic environment during early childhood.

  12. Environmental Light Exposure Is Associated with Increased Body Mass in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Cassandra L.; Allan, Alicia C.; Staton, Sally L.; Thorpe, Karen J.; Smith, Simon S.

    2016-01-01

    The timing, intensity, and duration of exposure to both artificial and natural light have acute metabolic and physiological effects in mammals. Recent research in human adults suggests exposure to moderate intensity light later in the day is concurrently associated with increased body mass; however, no studies have investigated the effect of light exposure on body mass in young children. We examined objectively measured light exposure and body mass of 48 preschool-aged children at baseline, and measured their body mass again 12 months later. At baseline, moderate intensity light exposure earlier in the day was associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Increased duration of light exposure at baseline predicted increased BMI 12-months later, even after controlling for baseline sleep duration, sleep timing, BMI, and activity. The findings identify that light exposure may be a contributor to the obesogenic environment during early childhood. PMID:26735299

  13. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  14. The use of body mass index for measurement of fat mass in children is highly dependant on abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    El Taguri, A; Dabbas-Tyan, M; Goulet, O; Ricour, C

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between body fat and body mass index (BMI) in a multiethnic population of obese children. BMI z-scores were compared to DEXA measures of whole body composition and regional fat distribution. Fat mass index (FMI) was best predicted by the equation: 1/[(0.159- 0.013 x percentile of total abdominal fat)- (0.01 x BMI z-score)], where percentile of abdominal fat ranges from 1 to 5. Predicted FMI had high agreement with FMI measured by DEXA. There were no detectable differences in this relation between different ethnic groups. Both BMI and abdominal fat should be used as a proxy to determine adiposity.

  15. Body girth as an alternative to body mass for establishing condition indexes in field studies: a validation in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre; Criscuolo, François; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Saraux, Claire; Pardonnet, Sylvia; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Prud'homme, Onésime; Handrich, Yves; Massemin, Sylvie; Groscolas, René; Robin, Jean-Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Body mass and body condition are often tightly linked to animal health and fitness in the wild and thus are key measures for ecophysiologists and behavioral ecologists. In some animals, such as large seabird species, obtaining indexes of structural size is relatively easy, whereas measuring body mass under specific field circumstances may be more of a challenge. Here, we suggest an alternative, easily measurable, and reliable surrogate of body mass in field studies, that is, body girth. Using 234 free-living king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at various stages of molt and breeding, we measured body girth under the flippers, body mass, and bill and flipper length. We found that body girth was strongly and positively related to body mass in both molting (R(2) = 0.91) and breeding (R(2) = 0.73) birds, with the mean error around our predictions being 6.4%. Body girth appeared to be a reliable proxy measure of body mass because the relationship did not vary according to year and experimenter, bird sex, or stage within breeding groups. Body girth was, however, a weak proxy of body mass in birds at the end of molt, probably because most of those birds had reached a critical depletion of energy stores. Body condition indexes established from ordinary least squares regressions of either body girth or body mass on structural size were highly correlated (r(s) = 0.91), suggesting that body girth was as good as body mass in establishing body condition indexes in king penguins. Body girth may prove a useful proxy to body mass for estimating body condition in field investigations and could likely provide similar information in other penguins and large animals that may be complicated to weigh in the wild. PMID:22902382

  16. Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and pubertal development: a longitudinal study of physical and hormonal sexual maturation of girls.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, C M; Thijssen, J H; Bruning, P F; Van den Brande, J L; Zonderland, M L; Erich, W B

    1992-08-01

    The rate at which girls progress through the stages of puberty in relation to body fat mass and body fat distribution and its relation to their hormonal profiles was studied. Sixty-eight schoolgirls participated in a longitudinal study during 3 yr. The girls were divided into subgroups with increasing skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio. They were also grouped depending on Tanner's breast development classification (M2 and M3). The age at M2 was only marginally correlated with the menarcheal age, but the age at M2 and the time interval from that age to menarche was negatively correlated. Age at the onset of puberty was not related to body fat mass or distribution. The rate of pubertal development after pubertal stage M3 was negatively related to the body fat mass. Age at M2 was only correlated with estrone (E1), while the rate of pubertal development was associated with higher FSH, E1, estradiol (E2), the fraction of E2 that was not bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound E2) and androstenedione plasma levels at the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass was related to the total and the non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound plasma levels of E2 and testosterone at the onset of puberty. Changes in body fat distribution in early female puberty were chiefly related to the waist circumferences. We found no evidence that body fat mass or body fat distribution triggers the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution was related to early pubertal endocrine activity. Body fat mass was negatively related to the rate of pubertal development toward menarche, but no clear indications for an endocrine-related process is found. We conclude that onset of puberty and menarche are not parallel pubertal events, and that early pubertal plasma E1, E2 and androstenedione levels are predictors for the rate of pubertal development toward menarche. We propose that the control of the onset of puberty and maturation of the

  17. Increased Body Mass Index may lead to Hyperferritinemia Irrespective of Body Iron Stores

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor; Fatima, Syeda Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obesity causes subclinical inflammation which results in the secretion of various bioactive peptides that are key players in metabolic regulation of iron homeostasis. We sought to establish correlation of one such peptide (ferritin) with marker of subclinical inflammation (CRP) in various BMI. Methods: Total 150 subjects between the ages of 20-60 years were included in the cross-sectional study conducted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by weight (kg) /height (m2). The given values were used as reference for Group A: normal weight (18.0-22.9 kg/m2), Group B: overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), Group C: obese (>25.0 kg/m2) according to South Asian criteria. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, serum Transferrin Saturation, serum Ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured by commercially available kits. ANNOVA with Tukey’s minimum significant difference and Spearman Rho correlation were used considering p<0.05 significant. Results: The results identified an increased serum Ferritin and CRP in obese versus lean subjects (p < 0.001). BMI showed significantly positive correlation with serum CRP (r = 0.815; p-value < 0.01) and Ferritin (r = 0.584; p-value < 0.01). However, serum Iron levels and Transferrin saturation decreased in obese versus normal weight individuals (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This integrated new data reveals that individuals with high BMI had high levels of Serum Ferritin despite low levels of iron with high levels of C- reactive protein. This might be caused due to inflammatory conditions prevailing in the presence of increased adipose tissue. PMID:26870128

  18. Fraction of carbon-free body mass as oxygen is a constant body composition ratio in men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Deurenberg, P; Wang, W; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1998-06-01

    Although elements are the foundation of the human body, information concerning the atomic level of body composition is still limited. The aim of this study was to explore potentially constant relationships among elements found in vivo. Based on the known stoichiometries of relevant chemical components, a theoretical model was derived, suggesting the existence of a relatively constant ratio of total body oxygen to carbon-free body mass (TBO/CFM) in men. Eight elements (C, H, N, Ca, P, K, Na and Cl ) were measured in 22 healthy male subjects by using in vivo neutron activation-40K whole-body counting, and TBO was calculated as the difference between body mass and the sum of the eight measured elements. TBO (in kg) was significantly correlated with CFM (in kg): TBO = 0.829 x CFM - 1.8; r = 0.998, P < 0.001, standard error of estimate = 0.4 kg. The ratio of TBO to CFM was relatively constant, mean +/- SD at 0. 800 +/- 0.009 with a CV of 1.1%. Oxygen and carbon are the two most abundant elements in the human body. The discovery of a constant relationship between oxygen and carbon is not only helpful for understanding the atomic level of body composition, but also provides the possibility of estimating the content of specific elements in vivo.

  19. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  20. The inflammasome in alcoholic hepatitis: Its relationship with Mallory-Denk body formation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yue; French, Barbara A; Tillman, Brittany; Morgan, Timothy R; French, Samuel W

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that the inflammasome activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) is a key component of the macromolecular complex that is so called the inflammasome that triggers caspase 1-dependent maturation of the precursors of IL-1β and IL-18 cytokines. It is also known that the adaptor proteins including apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) are necessary for NLRP3-dependent inflammasome function. Steatohepatitis frequently includes Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation. In the case of alcoholic steatohepatitis, MDB formation occurs in 80% of biopsies (French 1981; French 1981). While previous studies have focused on in vitro cell lines and mouse models, we are the first group to investigate inflammasome activation in AH liver biopsy specimen and correlate it with MDB formation. Expression of NOD1, NLRP3, ASC, NAIP, MAVS, caspase 1, IL-1β, IL-18, and other inflammatory components including IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, STAT3, and p65 was measured in three to eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded AH specimens and control normal liver specimens by immunofluorescence staining and quantified by immunofluorescence intensity. The specimens were double stained with ubiquitin to demonstrate the relationship between inflammasome activation and MDB formation. MAVS, caspase1, IL-18, and TNF-α showed increases in expression in AH compared to the controls (p<0.05), and NAIP expression markedly increased in AH compared to the controls (p<0.01). There was a trend that levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase1, IL-18, IL-10, and p65 expression correlated with the number of MDBs found in the same field of measurement (correlation coefficients were between 0.62 and 0.93, p<0.05). Our results demonstrate the activation of the inflammasome in AH and suggest that MDB could be an indicator of the extent of inflammasome activation

  1. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  2. Effect of body size and body mass on δ 13 C and δ 15 N in coastal fishes and cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been widely used in the investigation of trophic relations, energy pathways, trophic levels and migrations, under the assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N occurs exclusively due to ontogenetic changes in diet and not body size increase per se. However, several studies have shown that these assumptions are uncertain. Data from food-webs containing an important number of species lack theoretical support on these assumptions because very few species have been tested for δ 13C and δ 15N variation in captivity. However, if sampling comprises a wide range of body sizes from various species, the variation of δ 13C and δ 15N with body size can be investigated. While correlation between body size and δ 13C and δ 15N can be due to ontogenetic diet shifts, stability in such values throughout the size spectrum can be considered an indication that δ 13C and δ 15N in muscle tissues of such species is independent of body size within that size range, and thus the basic assumptions can be applied in the interpretation of such food webs. The present study investigated the variation in muscle δ 13C and δ 15N with body size and body mass of coastal fishes and cephalopods. It was concluded that muscle δ 13C and δ 15N did not vary with body size or mass for all bony fishes with only one exception, the dragonet Callionymus lyra. Muscle δ 13C and δ 15N also did not vary with body size or mass in cartilaginous fishes and cephalopods, meaning that body size/mass per se have no effect on δ 13C or δ 15N, for most species analysed and within the size ranges sampled. The assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N is not affected by body size increase per se was upheld for most organisms and can be applied to the coastal food web studied taking into account that C. lyra is an exception.

  3. Gender differences in vestibular modulation of body mass in altered force environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Charles; Fuller, Patrick; Hoban-Higgins, Tana; Fuller, Charles

    Body mass regulation is affected by the gravitational environment. Gravitational and linear acceleration information is transduced by the vestibular macular receptors. In addition, there are gender differences in the regulation of body mass and composition. This study therefore investigated the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of body mass in age-matched male and female rats. Four groups of male and female rats were established. A 1G and a 2G labyrinthectomized experimental group (Labx) and a 1G and 2G control group (Con). Labyrinthectomies were accomplished by trans-tympanic injection of sodium arsanilate to remove vestibular input. Control groups experienced the same surgical procedures, but with a saline control injection. Body mass and food and water consumption data were collected twice weekly. Baseline data were collected prior to surgery. There was a decrease in body mass following chemical labyrinthectomy in both male and female rats. A recovery period followed surgery to allow for the re-establishment of stable growth curves. Body mass of female experimental rats returned to the same levels as the female controls while male labyrinthectomized rats continued to regulate body mass at a lower level. All 2G groups were exposed to 8 weeks of 2G produced via centrifugation while all control groups remained at 1G. All 2G groups decreased body mass at the onset of centrifugation, with experimental groups having a smaller response than the controls. Males continued to maintain body mass at a lower level under 2G, while, again body mass of the females returned to levels similar to controls. At the conclusion of the eight week centrifugation period, all four female groups had a similar body mass while differences were evident between male groups. Overall, 1G males had a higher body mass than did males exposed to 2G. Within G levels, 1G controls were heavier than 1G Labx and, in contrast, at 2G Labx had a larger body mass than controls. (Supported by

  4. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  5. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  6. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  7. Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments

    PubMed Central

    Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

    2014-01-01

    For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

  8. Periodic orbits in the restricted four-body problem with two equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-García, Jaime; Delgado, Joaquín

    2013-06-01

    The restricted (equilateral) four-body problem consists of three bodies of masses m 1, m 2 and m 3 (called primaries) lying in a Lagrangian configuration of the three-body problem i.e., they remain fixed at the apices of an equilateral triangle in a rotating coordinate system. A massless fourth body moves under the Newtonian gravitation law due to the three primaries; as in the restricted three-body problem (R3BP), the fourth mass does not affect the motion of the three primaries. In this paper we explore symmetric periodic orbits of the restricted four-body problem (R4BP) for the case of two equal masses where they satisfy approximately the Routh's critical value. We will classify them in nine families of periodic orbits. We offer an exhaustive study of each family and the stability of each of them.

  9. Stochastic and compensatory effects limit persistence of variation in body mass of young caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Collins, W.B.; Joly, Kyle; Valkenburg, P.; Tobey, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional restriction during growth can have short- and long-term effects on fitness; however, animals inhabiting uncertain environments may exhibit adaptations to cope with variation in food availability. We examined changes in body mass in free-ranging female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) by measuring mass at birth and at 4, 11, and 16 months of age to evaluate the relative importance of seasonal nutrition to growth, the persistence of cohort-specific variation in body mass through time, and compensatory growth of individuals. Relative mean body mass of cohorts did not persist through time. Compensatory growth of smaller individuals was not observed in summer; however, small calves exhibited more positive change in body mass than did large calves. Compensation occurred during periods of nutritional restriction (winter) rather than during periods of rapid growth (summer) thus differing from the conventional view of compensatory growth. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.

    PubMed

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-01-15

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.

  12. Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders – target body mass index percentiles for their resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Beatriz; Brito, Sara; Paulos, Lígia; Moleiro, Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Results: Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occured at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). Conclusion: One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder – two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25–50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50–75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified. PMID:25003922

  13. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small. PMID:25874664

  14. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  15. Head and trunk mass and center of mass position estimations in able-bodied and scoliotic girls.

    PubMed

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Dalleau, Georges; Stylianides, Georgios; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Anthropometric tables are not applicable to calculate the scoliotic trunk mass and center of mass (COM). The purposes of this study were: (1) to estimate the head and trunk mass and COM in able-bodied and scoliotic girls using a force plate method, (2) to estimate head and trunk COM offset compared to those of the body, and (3) the use of mean ratios to estimate the head and trunk COM calculated in this study and that calculated according to a conventional three-dimensional (3D) method compared to the measured values. Twenty-one scoliotic and twenty able-bodied girls participated. The subjects stood upright with arms beside the trunk on a force plate that collected data at 60 Hz for a period of 5s. The anteroposterior and mediolateral positions of the body COM were obtained from the mean center of pressure values. The height of the body COM was estimated by the reaction board method. Afterwards a body segment was displaced and changes in force plate readings were recorded and applied to estimate the head and trunk mass and COM. Trunk offset was defined as the difference between the COM of the body and head and trunk. The measured head and trunk COM was compared to values obtained by the mean ratios calculated from this study and given by the conventional 3D method. The relative head and trunk mass and the anteroposterior trunk offset were larger in scoliotic girls. The force plate method gave similar results to measured COM values for both groups underlying its capability to provide a more accurate estimation of COM related values. Thus, the use of mean ratios of 0.5538 and 0.6438 obtained in this study to estimate the head and trunk mass and COM position in scoliotic girls can overcome the main drawbacks of current anthropometric methods, if direct measurements cannot be taken. PMID:23777637

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  17. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L; Leonard, Michael S; Miller, Ram R; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2014-06-15

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.

  18. Computational Studies of [Bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular-dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems, and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase while the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ion liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotate more freely near the interface than in the bulk, while the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the

  19. Stepping in Elton's footprints: a general scaling model for body masses and trophic levels across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Riede, Jens O; Brose, Ulrich; Ebenman, Bo; Jacob, Ute; Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin R; Jonsson, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using body-mass estimates of 1313 predators (invertebrates, ectotherm and endotherm vertebrates) from 35 food-webs (marine, stream, lake and terrestrial). Across all ecosystem and predator types, except for streams (which appear to have a different size structure in their predator-prey interactions), we find that (1) geometric mean prey mass increases with predator mass with a power-law exponent greater than unity and (2) predator size increases with trophic level. Consistent with our theoretical derivations, we show that the quantitative nature of these relationships implies systematic decreases in predator-prey body-mass ratios with the trophic level of the predator. Thus, predators are, on an average, more similar in size to their prey at the top of food-webs than that closer to the base. These findings contradict the traditional Eltonian paradigm and have implications for our understanding of body-mass constraints on food-web topology, community dynamics and stability.

  20. On the central configurations in the spatial 5-body problem with four equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramírez, Martha; Corbera, Montserrat; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the families of central configurations of the spatial 5-body problem with four masses equal to 1 when the fifth mass m varies from 0 to +∞. In particular we continue numerically, taking m as a parameter, the central configurations (which all are symmetric) of the restricted spatial (4+1)-body problem with four equal masses and m=0 to the spatial 5-body problem with equal masses (i.e. m=1), and viceversa we continue the symmetric central configurations of the spatial 5-body problem with five equal masses to the restricted (4+1)-body problem with four equal masses. Additionally we continue numerically the symmetric central configurations of the spatial 5-body problem with four equal masses starting with m=1 and ending in m=+∞, improving the results of Alvarez-Ramírez et al. (Discrete Contin Dyn Syst Ser S 1: 505-518, 2008). We find four bifurcation values of m where the number of central configuration changes. We note that the central configurations of all continued families varying m from 0 to +∞ are symmetric.

  1. Identification and reciprocal introgression of a QTL affecting body mass in mice

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Julian K; Rance, Kellie A; Knott, Sara A; Pignatelli, Pat M; Oliver, Fiona; Bünger, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a QTL in different genetic backgrounds. A QTL affecting body mass on chromosome 6 was identified in an F2 cross between two lines of mice that have been divergently selected for this trait. The effect of the QTL on mass increased between 6 and 10 weeks of age and was not sex-specific. Body composition analysis showed effects on fat-free dry body mass and fat mass. To examine the effect of this QTL in different genetic backgrounds, the high body mass sixth chromosome was introgressed into the low body mass genetic background and vice versa by repeated marker-assisted backcrossing. After three generations of backcrossing, new F2 populations were established within each of the introgression lines by crossing individuals that were heterozygous across the sixth chromosome. The estimated additive effect of the QTL on 10-week body mass was similar in both genetic backgrounds and in the original F2 population (i.e., ~0.4 phenotypic standard deviations); no evidence of epistatic interaction with the genetic background was found. The 95% confidence interval for the location of the QTL was refined to a region of approximately 7 cM between D6Mit268 and D6Mit123. PMID:15339634

  2. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  3. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  4. Maximal horizontal flight performance of hummingbirds: effects of body mass and molt.

    PubMed

    Chai, P; Altshuler, D L; Stephens, D B; Dillon, M E

    1999-01-01

    Hovering and fast forward flapping represent two strenuous types of flight that differ in aerodynamic power requirement. Maximal capabilities of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) in hovering and forward flight were compared under varying body mass and wing area. The capability to hover in low-density gas mixtures was adversely affected by body mass, whereas the capability to fly in a wind tunnel did not show any adverse mass effect. Molting birds that lost primary flight feathers and reduced wing area also displayed mass loss and loss of aerodynamic power and flight speed. This suggests that maximal flight speed is insensitive to short-term perturbations of body mass but that molting is stressful and reduces the birds' speed and capacity for chase and escape. Hummingbirds' flight behavior in confined space was also investigated. Birds reduced their speeds flying through a narrow tube to approximately one-fifth of that in the wind tunnel and did not display differences under varying body mass and wing area. Hence, performance in the flight tube was submaximal and did not correlate with performance variation in the wind tunnel. For ruby-throated hummingbirds, both maximal mass-specific aerodynamic power derived from hovering performance in low-density air media and maximal flight velocity measured in the wind tunnel were invariant with body mass.

  5. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    PubMed

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P < 0.001) among all the circumferences tested. Hip circumference had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) among the circumferences of individual body sites. Receiver-Operator Characteristic analysis showed that women with ABC > 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  6. Individual Consistency and Phenotypic Plasticity in Rockhopper Penguins: Female but Not Male Body Mass Links Environmental Conditions to Reproductive Investment

    PubMed Central

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  7. Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment.

  8. An Investigation of the Effect of Body Mass on Resting Heart Rate in Dogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Vanessa; Reiss, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A student project that investigated the relationship between resting heart beat frequency and body mass of adult dogs is described. The results are compared to those of other mammals and birds. The procedure and results are included. (KR)

  9. Numerical simulation of tidal evolution of a viscoelastic body modelled with a mass-spring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, Julien; Quillen, Alice C.; Efroimsky, Michael; Giannella, David

    2016-05-01

    We use a damped mass-spring model within an N-body code to simulate the tidal evolution of the spin and orbit of a self-gravitating viscoelastic spherical body moving around a point-mass perturber. The damped mass-spring model represents a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid. We measure the tidal quality function (the dynamical Love number k2 divided by the tidal quality factor Q) from the numerically computed tidal drift of the semimajor axis of the binary. The shape of k2/Q, as a function of the principal tidal frequency, reproduces the kink shape predicted by Efroimsky for the tidal response of near-spherical homogeneous viscoelastic rotators. We demonstrate that we can directly simulate the tidal evolution of spinning viscoelastic objects. In future, the mass-spring N-body model can be generalized to inhomogeneous and/or non-spherical bodies.

  10. Body mass index and waist: hip ratio are not enough to characterise female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Leszek; Cabrić, Milan; Krakowiak, Helena

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of characteristic body features of Miss Poland beauty contest finalists compared with the control group, can contribute to recognising the contemporary ideal of beauty promoted by the mass media. The studies of Playboy models and fashion models conducted so far have been limited to the following determinants of attractiveness: body mass index, waist:hip ratio, and waist:chest ratio, which only partially describe the body shape. We compared 20 body features of the finalists of Miss Poland 2004 beauty contest with those of the students of Medical Academy in Bydgoszcz. Discriminant analysis showed that the thigh girth-height index, waist: chest ratio, height, and body mass index had the greatest discrimination power distinguishing the two groups. A model of Miss Poland finalists figure assessment is presented which allows one to distinguish super-attractive women from the control group. PMID:17283934

  11. [The migrating pharyngeal foreign body resulted in cervical mass: one case report].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaodan; Li, Shenling; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2015-04-01

    Pharyngeal foreign body is a common disease. The diagnosis and treatment are easy. However, in a few cases, pharyngeal foreign bodies migrated to other part of body, which often causing missed diagnosis or misdiagnose to delaythe treatment, and even lead to fatal complications. Here we present a case report of a 52-year-old female patient.who was found to have cervical mass 20 days before. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showd a foreign body and foreign body granuloma on the left side of the neck. To look back on the history, the patient swallowed a fish bone in mistake one month ago. PMID:26201203

  12. The One-Body and Two-Body Density Matrices of Finite Nuclei and Center-of-Mass Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2006-04-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the one-body (1DM) and two-body (2DM) density matrices and their Fourier transforms in momentum space, that is consistent with the requirement for translational invariance (TI), in the case of a nucleus (a finite self-bound system). We restore TI by using the so-called fixed center-of-mass (CM) approximation for constructing an intrinsic nuclear ground state wavefunction (WF) by starting from a non-translationally invariant (nTI) WF and applying a projection prescription. We discuss results for the one-body (OBMD) and two-body (TBMD) momentum distributions of the 4He nucleus calculated with the Slater determinant of the harmonic oscillator (HO) orbitals, as the initial nTI WF. Effects of such an inclusion of CM correlations are found to be quite important in the momentum distributions.

  13. Linking body mass and group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Bateman, Andrew W; English, Sinead; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-11-01

    Social and environmental factors influence key life-history processes and population dynamics by affecting fitness-related phenotypic traits such as body mass. The role of body mass is particularly pronounced in cooperative breeders due to variation in social status and consequent variation in access to resources. Investigating the mechanisms underlying variation in body mass and its demographic consequences can help elucidate how social and environmental factors affect the dynamics of cooperatively breeding populations. In this study, we present an analysis of the effect of individual variation in body mass on the temporal dynamics of group size and structure of a cooperatively breeding mongoose, the Kalahari meerkat, Suricata suricatta. First, we investigate how body mass interacts with social (dominance status and number of helpers) and environmental (rainfall and season) factors to influence key life-history processes (survival, growth, emigration and reproduction) in female meerkats. Next, using an individual-based population model, we show that the models explicitly including individual variation in body mass predict group dynamics better than those ignoring this morphological trait. Body mass influences group dynamics mainly through its effects on helper emigration and dominant reproduction. Rainfall has a trait-mediated, destabilizing effect on group dynamics, whereas the number of helpers has a direct and stabilizing effect. Counteracting effects of number of helpers on different demographic rates, despite generating temporal fluctuations, stabilizes group dynamics in the long term. Our study demonstrates that social and environmental factors interact to produce individual variation in body mass and accounting for this variation helps to explain group dynamics in this cooperatively breeding population.

  14. Effects of Parental Status on Male Body Mass in the Monogamous, Biparental California Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Harris, Breanna N.; de Jong, Trynke R.; Nguyen, Pauline P.; Cho, Julia T.; Hernandez, Mindy; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of biparental mammals demonstrate that males may undergo systematic changes in body mass as a consequence of changes in reproductive status; however, these studies typically have not teased apart effects of specific social and reproductive factors, such as cohabitation with a female per se, cohabitation with a breeding female specifically, and engagement in paternal care. We aimed to determine whether California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers undergo systematic changes in body mass and if so, which specific social/reproductive factor(s) might contribute to these changes. We compared mean weekly body masses over a 5-week period in 1) males housed with another male vs. males housed with a non-reproductive (tubally ligated) female; 2) males housed with a tubally ligated female vs. males housed with a female that was undergoing her first pregnancy; and 3) experienced fathers housed with vs. without pups during their mate’s subsequent pregnancy. Body mass did not differ between males housed with another male and those housed with a non-reproductive female; however, males housed with a non-reproductive female were significantly heavier than those housed with a primiparous female. Among experienced fathers, those housed with pups from their previous litter underwent significant increases in body mass across their mates’ pregnancy, whereas fathers housed without pups did not. These results suggest that male body mass is reduced by cohabitation with a breeding (pregnant) female, but not by cohabitation with a non-reproductive female, and that increases in body mass across the mate’s pregnancy are associated with concurrent care of offspring rather than cohabitation with a pregnant female. Additional work is needed to determine the mechanisms and functional significance, if any, of these changes in male body mass with reproductive condition. PMID:26005292

  15. Linking body mass and group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Bateman, Andrew W; English, Sinead; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-11-01

    Social and environmental factors influence key life-history processes and population dynamics by affecting fitness-related phenotypic traits such as body mass. The role of body mass is particularly pronounced in cooperative breeders due to variation in social status and consequent variation in access to resources. Investigating the mechanisms underlying variation in body mass and its demographic consequences can help elucidate how social and environmental factors affect the dynamics of cooperatively breeding populations. In this study, we present an analysis of the effect of individual variation in body mass on the temporal dynamics of group size and structure of a cooperatively breeding mongoose, the Kalahari meerkat, Suricata suricatta. First, we investigate how body mass interacts with social (dominance status and number of helpers) and environmental (rainfall and season) factors to influence key life-history processes (survival, growth, emigration and reproduction) in female meerkats. Next, using an individual-based population model, we show that the models explicitly including individual variation in body mass predict group dynamics better than those ignoring this morphological trait. Body mass influences group dynamics mainly through its effects on helper emigration and dominant reproduction. Rainfall has a trait-mediated, destabilizing effect on group dynamics, whereas the number of helpers has a direct and stabilizing effect. Counteracting effects of number of helpers on different demographic rates, despite generating temporal fluctuations, stabilizes group dynamics in the long term. Our study demonstrates that social and environmental factors interact to produce individual variation in body mass and accounting for this variation helps to explain group dynamics in this cooperatively breeding population. PMID:24749732

  16. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  17. Body mass, composition, and food intake in rabbits during altered acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katovich, M. J.; Smith, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mature male Polish rabbits were subjected to varying gravitational fields in an animal centrifuge in order to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deacceleration on body mass, body composition, and food intake. The acceleration field intensity was increased by 0.25-G increments to a maximum of 2.5 G at intervals which permitted physiological adaptation at each field. Control animals of the same age were maintained at earth gravity under identical conditions of constant-light environment at a room temperature of 23 + or - 5 C. It is shown that increasing the acceleration-field intensity leads to a decrease in body mass. The regulated nature of this decreased body mass is tested by the response to an additional three-day fasting of animals adapted physiologically to 2.5 G. Ad libitum food intake per kg body mass per day tends to increase in chronically accelerated animals above 1.75 G. Increase in water content in centrifuged animals after physiological adaptation to 2.5 G is the result of decreasing body fat. Body mass and food intake returned to the precentrifuged levels of control animals within six weeks after cessation of centrifugation.

  18. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  19. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  20. Effects of salinity and body mass on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fujun; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of salinity and body mass on the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris under laboratory conditions. Salinity and body mass had highly significant effects on the oxygen consumption rate ( R O) and ammonia excretion rate ( R N) ( P<0.01). The interactive effects between salinity and body mass on R O and R N were insignificant ( P>0.05) and highly significant ( P<0.01), respectively. R O and R N of B. pectinirostris decreased significantly as the individual body mass increased. The relationship between R O and body mass was represented by R O = aW b ( R 2=0.956, P<0.01). The relationship between R N and the body mass of B. pectinirostris was represented by R N = cW d ( R 2=0.966, P<0.01). The R O/ R N (O:N) ratios increased significantly as the salinity increased from 12 to 27, but decreased as salinity increased from 27 to 32. The atomic O:N ratios were significantly higher at 27 than at other salinity levels. The average O:N ratio was 25.25. Lipid and carbohydrate were the primary energy sources and protein was the secondary energy source within the salinity range 12-32. R O and R N were significantly higher at 27 than at other salinity levels. Our results suggest that the optimum salinity level for B. pectinirostris is 27.

  1. Effects of salinity and body mass on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fujun; Wang, Hui

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of salinity and body mass on the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris under laboratory conditions. Salinity and body mass had highly significant effects on the oxygen consumption rate (R O) and ammonia excretion rate (R N) (P<0.01). The interactive effects between salinity and body mass on R O and R N were insignificant (P>0.05) and highly significant (P<0.01), respectively. R O and R N of B. pectinirostris decreased significantly as the individual body mass increased. The relationship between R O and body mass was represented by R O=aW b (R 2=0.956, P<0.01). The relationship between R N and the body mass of B. pectinirostris was represented by R N=cW d (R 2=0.966, P<0.01). The R O/R N (O:N) ratios increased significantly as the salinity increased from 12 to 27, but decreased as salinity increased from 27 to 32. The atomic O:N ratios were significantly higher at 27 than at other salinity levels. The average O:N ratio was 25.25. Lipid and carbohydrate were the primary energy sources and protein was the secondary energy source within the salinity range 12-32. R O and R N were significantly higher at 27 than at other salinity levels. Our results suggest that the optimum salinity level for B. pectinirostris is 27.

  2. Effect of physical activity intervention on body composition in young children: influence of body mass index status and gender

    PubMed Central

    Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Rance, Mélanie; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Aim To fight overweight and obesity in childhood, this study proposes an additional physical activity (PA) in young children aged 6–10 years. The objective was to evaluate the effect of school-based PA on the body composition according to body mass index (BMI) categories (nonobese vs. obese) and gender. Methods This 6-month study examined the effect of this intervention on body composition in 425 children in 14 primary schools (2 weekly PA sessions of 1 h each) compared to 5 control schools. Adiposity indices were evaluated or calculated: BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds and fat-free mass. Results No difference in the prevalence of obesity and anthropometric characteristics was found between the intervention and control groups at baseline. In girls, PA intervention had significant effect on all anthropometric variables (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), except on BMI. In contrast, in boys only BMI z-score (p < 0.001) and fat-free mass (p < 0.001) were affected. Conclusions Six months of preventive PA intervention offer an effective means to improve body composition in obese children. The pattern of response related to PA was similar between girls and boys. In contrast, the pattern was different according to BMI category, with a higher response in obese than nonobese children. PMID:17718785

  3. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women.

  4. Mass Purification of Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus Inclusion Bodies in the K-Series Centrifuge

    PubMed Central

    Breillatt, J. P.; Brantley, J. N.; Mazzone, H. M.; Martignoni, M. E.; Franklin, J. E.; Anderson, N. G.

    1972-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrosis virus inclusion bodies specific for Hemerocampa pseudotsugata, Neodiprion sertifer, Porthetria dispar, and Heliothis zea have been purified by using a continuous-sample-flow-with-isopycnic-banding centrifuge in quantities up to 6 × 1013 polyhedral inclusion bodies per day. Continuous-flow methods for S-ρ type purification have been evolved to deal with mass isolation of bioparticles. PMID:5031562

  5. Pre-pregnancy BMI and body fat mass of 2 weeks old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been previously demonstrated in animal studies. Clinical studies have also shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. This study reports for the first time infant body composition at 2 weeks us...

  6. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  7. Body Mass Index in Rural First Grade Schoolchildren: Progressive Increase in Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.; Vendela, Mandolyn Jade; Bartee, R. Todd; Carr, Lucas J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Childhood overweight is a global health problem. Monitoring of childhood body mass index (BMI) may help identify critical time periods during which excess body weight is accumulated. Purpose: To examine changes in mean BMI and the prevalence of at-risk-for overweight in repeated cross-sectional samples of rural first grade schoolchildren…

  8. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  9. Examining substance use and affective processes as multivariate risk factors associated with overweight body mass among treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Robles, Zuzuky; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and obesity are two major public health problems. However, factors related to the underlying risk for being overweight are not well established. Certain demographic, smoking, and psychological factors have been linked to overweight/obese body mass. The current study examined a multivariate risk model, stratified by gender, in order to better explicate the nature of overweight body mass among daily smokers. In a sample of treatment-seeking smokers (n = 395), among males and females, (1) older age, (2) stronger expectancies about the weight/appetite control effects of smoking, (3) greater smoking-based inflexibility/avoidance due to smoking-related sensations, and (4) less problematic alcohol use, were associated with being overweight. Additionally, among males, having a tobacco-related medical problem and higher tolerance for physical discomfort aided in the discriminant function model for classifying smokers as overweight. Together, numerous cognitive-affective vulnerabilities and smoking processes may be targetable and potentially inform weight-related prevention programs among smokers. PMID:25263545

  10. Stability of libration points in the restricted four-body problem with variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Amit; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Suraj, Md. Sanam; Bisht, Virender Singh

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the stability of the Lagrangian solutions for the restricted four-body problem with variable mass. It has been assumed that the three primaries with masses m1, m2 and m3 form an equilateral triangle, wherein m2=m3. According to Jeans' law (Astronomy and Cosmogony, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1928), the infinitesimal body varies its mass m with time. The space-time transformations of Meshcherskii (Studies on the Mechanics of Bodies of Variable Mass, GITTL, Moscow, 1949) are used by taking the values of the parameters q=1/2, k=0, n=1. The equations of motion of the infinitesimal body with variable mass have been determined. The equations of motion of the current problem differ from the ones of the restricted four-body problem with constant mass. There exist eight libration points, out of which two are collinear with the primary m1 and the rest are non-collinear for a fixed value of parameters γ (m {at time} t/m {at initial time}, 0<γ≤1 ), α (the proportionality constant in Jeans' law (Astronomy and Cosmogony, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1928), 0≤α≤2.2) and μ=0.019 (the mass parameter). All the libration points are found to be unstable. The zero velocity surfaces (ZVS) are also drawn and regions of motion are discussed.

  11. Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks resistance training in combination with either a regular diet (Ex) or a low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (Lc+Ex) in overweight women on body weight and body composition. Methods 18 untrained women between 20 and 40 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg*m-2 were randomly assigned into the Ex or Lc+Ex group. Both groups performed 60-100 min of varied resistance exercise twice weekly. Dietary estimates were based on two 4-day weighed records. Body composition was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and glucose. Results 16 subjects were included in the analyses. Percentage of energy (En%) from carbohydrates, fat and protein was 6, 66, and 22 respectively in the (Lc+Ex) group and 41, 34, 17 in the Ex group. Mean weight change (pre-post) was -5.6 ± 2.6 kg in Lc+Ex; (p < 0.001) and 0.8 ± 1.5 kg in Ex; (p = 0.175). The Lc+Ex group lost 5.6 ± 2.9 kg of fat mass (p = 0.001) with no significant change in lean body mass (LBM), while the Ex group gained 1.6 ± 1.8 kg of LBM (p = 0.045) with no significant change in fat mass (p = 0.059). Fasting blood lipids and blood glucose were not significantly affected by the interventions. Conclusion Resistance exercise in combination with a ketogenic diet may reduce body fat without significantly changing LBM, while resistance exercise on a regular diet may increase LBM in without significantly affecting fat mass. Fasting blood lipids do not seem to be negatively influenced by the combination of resistance exercise and a low carbohydrate diet. PMID:20196854

  12. Saari's Conjecture for the Planar Three-Body Problem with Equal Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Christopher

    2004-03-01

    In the N-body problem, it is a simple observation that relative equilibria (planar solutions for which the mutual distances between the particles remain constant) have constant moment of inertia. In 1970, Don Saari conjectured that the converse was true: if a solution to the N-body problem has constant moment of inertia, then it must be a relative equilibrium. In this note, we confirm the conjecture for the planar three-body problem with equal masses.

  13. Heat and mass transfer with condensation in capillary porous bodies.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Salah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this present work is related to wetting process analysis caused by condensation phenomena in capillary porous material by using a numerical simulation. Special emphasis is given to the study of the mechanism involved and the evaluation of classical theoretical models used as a predictive tool. A further discussion will be given for the distribution of the liquid phase for both its pendular and its funicular state and its consequence on diffusion coefficients of the mathematical model used. Beyond the complexity of the interaction effects between vaporisation-condensation processes on the gas-liquid interfaces, the comparison between experimental and numerical simulations permits to identify the specific contribution and the relative part of mass and energy transport parameters. This analysis allows us to understand the contribution of each part of the mathematical model used and to simplify the study.

  14. New body mass estimates of British Pleistocene wolves: Palaeoenvironmental implications and competitive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, L. O. H.

    2016-10-01

    Body mass was reconstructed for early Middle Pleistocene Canis mosbachensis and late Middle to Late Pleistocene Canis lupus from key assemblages in Britain, to explore the presence of temporal size variability and whether size fluctuations were related to changes in climate and environment or to differences in Pleistocene carnivore community structure. Using the well-known body mass predictor of lower carnassial (m1) tooth length, combined with an extant canid dataset incorporating 25 species, least squares regression was used to assess allometric scaling prior to modelling the relationship between body mass and m1 length, producing a new predictive equation of Pleistocene canid body mass. The medium-sized C. mosbachensis had relatively stable body mass, with remarkable consistency in size compared to populations in the late Early Pleistocene of Europe. Periodical fluctuations in climatic conditions had a minimal effect on C. mosbachensis size over time, with the terrestrial connection between Britain and mainland Europe at this time key in promoting body mass stability by enabling movement away from less favourable conditions and to follow prey into refugia. Overall changes in carnivore guild structure were of minimal influence to C. mosbachensis in Britain, as the continued predominance of larger carnivores, in particular a larger canid, effectively constrained C. mosbachensis. In contrast, the body mass of larger-sized C. lupus was highly temporally varied, with an increasing size trend evident into the Devensian. Similar body size in the penultimate interglacial (MIS 7) and Middle Devensian (MIS 3) populations likely reflects palaeoenvironmental similarity and comparable carnivore community and prey spectrums, with larger predators effectively constraining C. lupus. However, the severely cold conditions of the Early Devensian (MIS 5a) may have caused a Bergmannian response in wolves, leading to their comparatively much larger size, with C. lupus further

  15. Differences in the perception of a mass media information campaign on drug and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The two-month mass media campaign in Belgium on drug and alcohol consumption "Alcohol and other drugs. The facts and fictions" initiated in January 2008 has been evaluated shortly after by a phone survey. This article reports some indicators on the public awareness of the campaign, and the differences in the perception according to age groups and education levels. About 1,000 respondents (n = 1,002) accepted to participate in the campaign evaluation. Response rate is 37.1%. Global perception of the campaign - measured by the capacity to identify the campaign adequately - is 18.8%. This perception varies between age groups and education levels: 30% of the youngest age group (14-35 yrs) have seen the campaign, 13% of people aged 56 and over (p<0.001). The lower the education level, the lower the probability to have seen the campaign (11% in the lowest group, 25% in the highest one, p<0.001). Among the respondents who have seen the campaign, newspapers are the most often cited media for the oldest age groups. Inversely, young people have mainly identified the campaign on street boards or on post cards. The privileged type of media is also function of the education level. People belonging to the lowest educational level report more often to have seen the campaign on TV (85% vs 51% in the highest group, p<0.01), while the reverse is true for seeing the campaign via the newspapers or the street boards. The results indicate that there are socio-economic variations in the perception of the campaign. In health promotion, reaching lower socio-economic groups still remains a real challenge. Channels for such campaigns have to be carefully chosen to reach their target groups and ask to be complemented with community based interventions.

  16. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2014-10-20

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass-loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass loss and mass transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass loss and mass transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital changes due to mass-loss and/or mass-transfer processes can effectively transfer a triple system from one dynamical regime to another. In particular, mass loss/transfer can both induce and quench high-amplitude (Lidov-Kozai) variations in the eccentricity and inclination of the inner binaries of evolving triples. They can also change the system dynamics from an orderly periodic behavior to a chaotic one, and vice versa.

  17. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  18. Testosterone and oestradiol in relation to tobacco smoking, body mass index, energy consumption and nutrient intake among adult men.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, R; Mucci, L A; Spanos, E; Lagiou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D

    2001-06-01

    There is substantial evidence linking steroid hormones and diet to cancer aetiology. The evidence on lifestyle determinants of steroid hormones, however, is limited. We have conducted a study to identify dietary and other lifestyle predictors of testosterone and oestradiol among adult men. Subjects were 112 healthy Greek men, recruited as controls in a case-control study on the aetiology of liver cancer. Demographic data and detailed histories of smoking habits and alcohol consumption were recorded. Diet was assessed through an interviewer-administered validated food-frequency questionnaire. Serologic measurements of oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin were also conducted. We developed linear regression models to evaluate the associations of smoking and dietary factors with serum testosterone and oestradiol. The results indicate that, among men, both testosterone and oestradiol serum levels decline with age, whereas body mass index may be inversely related with testosterone and positively with oestradiol. The evidence concerning alcohol in relation to these hormones is inconclusive. Emerging evidence concerning smoking suggests positive associations with both hormones in the blood. The principal nutritional findings are a positive association of carbohydrate intake with testosterone levels and a set of inverse associations of vitamins with oestradiol.

  19. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2015-01-01

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  20. The role of body mass in diet contiguity and food-web structure.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Daniel B; Rezende, Enrico L; Amaral, Luís A Nunes

    2011-05-01

    1. The idea that species occupy distinct niches is a fundamental concept in ecology. Classically, the niche was described as an n-dimensional hypervolume where each dimension represents a biotic or abiotic characteristic. More recently, it has been hypothesised that a single dimension may be sufficient to explain the system-level organization of trophic interactions observed between species in a community. 2. Here, we test the hypothesis that species body mass is that single dimension. Specifically, we determine how the intervality of food webs ordered by body size compares to that of randomly ordered food webs. We also extend this analysis beyond the community level to the effect of body mass in explaining the diets of individual species. 3. We conclude that body mass significantly explains the ordering of species and the contiguity of diets in empirical communities. 4. At the species-specific level, we find that the degree to which body mass is a significant explanatory variable depends strongly on the phylogenetic history, suggesting that other evolutionarily conserved traits partly account for species' roles in the food web. 5. Our investigation of the role of body mass in food webs thus helps us to better understand the important features of community food-web structure and the evolutionary forces that have led us to the communities we observe.

  1. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  2. Gene-environment interactions related to body mass: School policies and social context as environmental moderators

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Roettger, Michael E.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Harris, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of institutional resources and policies, whose origins lie in political processes, in shaping the genetic etiology of body mass among a national sample of adolescents. Using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we decompose the variance of body mass into environmental and genetic components. We then examine the extent to which the genetic influences on body mass are different across the 134 schools in the study. Taking advantage of school differences in both health-related policies and social norms regarding body size, we examine how institutional resources and policies alter the relative impact of genetic influences on body mass. For the entire sample, we estimate a heritability of .82, with the remaining .18 due to unique environmental factors. However, we also show variation about this estimate and provide evidence suggesting that social norms and institutional policies often mask genetic vulnerabilities to increased weight. Empirically, we demonstrate that more-restrictive school policies and policies designed to curb weight gain are also associated with decreases the proportion of variance in body mass that is due to additive genetic influences. PMID:23236222

  3. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns.

  4. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  5. Tall men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

    PubMed

    Özener, Bariş

    2010-12-01

    A symmetrical body may signal the ability of an individual to cope with developmental perturbations and may thus be considered a 'health certificate'. It is known that symmetrical men are considered more attractive by women and that their reproductive success is higher. This study examined the associations between measures of body structure and fluctuating asymmetry in young Turkish men. Weight, height, and bioelectrical impedance were measured in a sample of 250 men residing in Ankara (mean age=18.4, SD=0.6), and body mass index was calculated. Fluctuating asymmetry was measured using hand length, hand width, elbow width, wrist width, knee width, ankle width, foot length, foot width, ear length, and ear width. According to the obtained findings, there is a negative linear relationship between composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA) and height, and a positive quadratic relationship between CFA and fat mass. These results might indicate that the tall Turkish men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

  6. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  7. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI.

  8. Quantitative Interpretation of Tracks for Determination of Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight. PMID:24204890

  9. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    PubMed

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight. PMID:24204890

  10. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of seasonal changes in body mass, we food restricted long-day hamsters so that they exhibited body mass loss that mimicked the natural photoperiod-induced loss of body mass in short-day hamsters. We then experimentally induced sickness with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared sickness responses among long-day food-restricted and long- and short-day ad libitum fed groups, predicting that long-day food-restricted hamsters would show sickness responses comparable to those of short-day ad libitum fed hamsters and attenuated in comparison to long-day ad libitum fed hamsters. We found that long-day food-restricted hamsters showed attenuated LPS-induced anorexia, loss of body mass and hypothermia compared with long-day ad libitum fed animals; however, anorexia remained elevated in long-day food-restricted animals compared with short-day ad libitum fed animals. Additionally, LPS-induced anhedonia and decreases in nest building were not influenced by body mass. Results of hormone assays suggest that cortisol levels could play a role in the attenuation of sickness in long-day food-restricted hamsters, indicating that future research should target the roles of glucocorticoids and natural variation in energy stores in seasonal sickness variation.

  11. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of seasonal changes in body mass, we food restricted long-day hamsters so that they exhibited body mass loss that mimicked the natural photoperiod-induced loss of body mass in short-day hamsters. We then experimentally induced sickness with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared sickness responses among long-day food-restricted and long- and short-day ad libitum fed groups, predicting that long-day food-restricted hamsters would show sickness responses comparable to those of short-day ad libitum fed hamsters and attenuated in comparison to long-day ad libitum fed hamsters. We found that long-day food-restricted hamsters showed attenuated LPS-induced anorexia, loss of body mass and hypothermia compared with long-day ad libitum fed animals; however, anorexia remained elevated in long-day food-restricted animals compared with short-day ad libitum fed animals. Additionally, LPS-induced anhedonia and decreases in nest building were not influenced by body mass. Results of hormone assays suggest that cortisol levels could play a role in the attenuation of sickness in long-day food-restricted hamsters, indicating that future research should target the roles of glucocorticoids and natural variation in energy stores in seasonal sickness variation. PMID:25852068

  12. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  13. The roles of body mass and gravity in determining the energy requirements of homoiotherms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies by Kleiber and by Brody in the 1930's established the 3/4 power of body weight as the unit of metabolic size for homoiotherms. Later Kleiber conceived of the energy requirement as a composite function, with a thermoregulatory component that is proportional to heat loss, and an antigravity component that is directly proportional to body weight. Maintenance feed requirements (F) have been measured with groups of small animals chronically exposed to several acceleration fields (G). Analysis of the results leads to an arithmetic relationship between the maintenance requirement and acceleration field strength: F sub G = F sub 0 + kG. When the equations are compared for groups of different body size, F sub 0 tends to vary between the 0.4 and 0.5 power of body mass - and k tends to be the same, irrespective of body mass. These findings tend to confirm the Kleiber concept of a composite nature of homoiotherm maintenance requirements.

  14. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-22

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record--all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales.

  15. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-22

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record--all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales. PMID:23193135

  16. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  17. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  18. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  19. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  20. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism.

  1. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  2. Rapid Weight Loss and the Body Fluid Balance and Hemoglobin Mass of Elite Amateur Boxers

    PubMed Central

    Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Context Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design Case-control study. Setting Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s) The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main Outcome Measure(s) During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in

  3. Seasonality in daily body mass variation in a hoarding boreal passerine.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Juli; Koivula, Kari; Lahti, Kimmo; Orell, Markku

    2003-12-01

    We studied the body mass variation from autumn to winter, in a free-living population of willow tits ( Parus montanus), a food-hoarding passerine living year-round in boreal forests. Our aim was to find out whether this population exhibits 'winter fattening' as part of the annual body mass cycle. 'True winter fattening' is considered to be a strategic response to winter conditions. The strategy includes an increase in both the morning mass and the daily mass increase, as winter approaches. A multivariate approach was used to find which predictors (year, date, age, sex, body size, temperature and snow depth) explained the mass variation in birds measured twice per day. Morning mass variation was explained by sex, age, wing length and snow depth. Independently, date explained morning mass variation only in adult males. None of the predictors explained the variation observed in daily mass increase in any age or sex class. Therefore, we failed to detect winter fattening in our study population of willow tits. Response to increasing night length is not due to higher absolute intake, but to higher energy acquisition rate and decreased night-time energy consumption. The results suggest that willow tits at high latitudes manage increasing energy demands on a short-term basis and respond flexibly to changing conditions by adjusting foraging efficiency and especially night-time energy expenditure.

  4. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  5. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  6. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  7. Procedure to Measure Effect of Excess Body Mass on Musculoskeleture: I. Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2008-03-01

    Increasing levels of obesity are having an increasingly adverse impact on individual and societal health. While much effort is directed to the harmful consequences of excess body mass on the cardiovascular system, there is relatively little research on how obesity compromises the response of the musculoskeletal system across the complete range of body types. This shortfall is addressed here by a comprehensive physics-based approach to produce a wide spectrum of representative adults, who are carefully chosen to cover both sexes, a full spread of percentiles for stature, and multiple weight levels. The latter encompass healthy, overweight and obese conditions defined by the standard parameter, body mass index (BMI). The distribution of body mass is computed for female and male subjects at all height percentiles and values of BMI to generate a detailed description of a diverse population. This cohort can then be examined for more advanced aspects of musculoskeleture, an important precursor for which is included here by calculating the extent of excess body mass at each body part as a function of BMI.

  8. How large are the extinct giant insular rodents? New body mass estimations from teeth and bones.

    PubMed

    Moncunill-Solé, Blanca; Jordana, Xavier; Marín-Moratalla, Nekane; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Köhler, Meike

    2014-03-01

    The island rule entails a modification of the body size of insular mammals, a character related with numerous biological and ecological variables. From the Miocene to human colonization (Holocene), Mediterranean and Canary Islands were unaltered natural ecosystems, with paleofaunas formed with endemic giant rodents among other mammals. Our aim is to create methods to estimate the body masses of fossil island rodents and address the nature of ecological pressures driving the island rule. We created regression equations based on extant rodent data and used these to estimate the body masses of the extinct species. Our results show strong correlations between teeth, cranial and postcranial measurements and body mass, except for the length of the long bones, the transversal diameter of the distal tibia and the anteroposterior diameter of the proximal tibia, where the equations were less reliable. The use of equations obtained from a more homogeneous group (suborder and family) is preferable when analyzing the area of the first molar. The new regressions were applied to estimate the body masses of some Mediterranean and Canarian fossil rodents (Canariomys, C. bravoi 1.5 kg and C. tamarani 1 kg; Hypnomys, H. morpheus 230 g and H. onicensis 200 g; and Muscardinus cyclopeus 100 g). Our results indicate that under absence of predation, resource availability (island area) is the key factor that determines the size of the Canariomys sp. However, under presence of specialized predators (birds of prey), body size evolution is less pronounced (Hypnomys sp.). PMID:24673763

  9. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  10. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  11. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  12. Gender and Reinforcing Associations between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Body Mass over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Reither, Eric; Logan, Ellis; Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–1993 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore reciprocal associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass in this 1939 birth cohort of non-Hispanic white men and women. We integrate the fundamental cause theory, the gender relations theory, and the life-course perspective to analyze gender differences in (a) the ways that early socioeconomic disadvantage launches bidirectional associations of body mass and SES, and (b) the extent to which these mutually-reinforcing effects generate socioeconomic disparities in midlife body mass. Using structural equation modeling, we find that socioeconomic disadvantage at age 18 is related to higher body mass index and a greater risk of obesity at age 54, and that this relationship is significantly stronger for women than men. Moreover, women are more adversely affected by two mechanisms underlying the focal association: the obesogenic effect of socioeconomic disadvantage and the SES-impeding effect of obesity. These patterns were also replicated in propensity score matching models. Gender and SES act synergistically over the life course to shape reciprocal chains of two disadvantaged statuses: heavier body mass and lower SES. PMID:25138198

  13. Severe recent decrease of adult body mass in a declining insectivorous bird population

    PubMed Central

    Rioux Paquette, Sébastien; Pelletier, Fanie; Garant, Dany; Bélisle, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Migratory bird species that feed on air-borne insects are experiencing widespread regional declines, but these remain poorly understood. Agricultural intensification in the breeding range is often regarded as one of the main drivers of these declines. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body mass in breeding individuals should reflect habitat quality in an aerial insectivore, the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), along a gradient of agricultural intensity. Our dataset was collected over 7 years (2005–2011) and included 2918 swallow captures and 1483 broods. Analyses revealed a substantial decline of the population over the course of the study (−19% occupancy rate), mirrored by decreasing body mass. This trend was especially severe in females, representing a total loss of 8% of their mass. Reproductive success was negatively influenced by intensive agriculture, but did not decrease over time. Interestingly, variation in body mass was independent of breeding habitat quality, leading us to suggest that this decline in body mass may result from carry-over effects from non-breeding areas and affect population dynamics through reduced survival. This work contributes to the growing body of evidence suggesting that declines in migratory aerial insectivores are driven by multiple, complex factors requiring better knowledge of year-round habitat use. PMID:24850929

  14. Hematology, serum chemistry, and body mass of free-ranging and captive Canada lynx in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ron; Rasmussen, James M; Burdett, Christopher L; Pelican, Katharine M

    2010-01-01

    Baseline blood chemistry data could be particularly valuable if reference values from free-ranging populations of rare or endangered species are not available. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, even though the species is managed as a furbearer in Alaska and in most provinces of Canada. Body mass, blood chemistry, and hematologic data for free-ranging lynx were collected from 2003 to 2007 and for captive lynx from 1984 to 2007. Up to 2 yr of age, captive lynx were consistently heavier than free-ranging lynx. Body mass of adult free-ranging lynx was similar to body mass of captive adult lynx. Some differences in blood chemistry between free-ranging and captive lynx were statistically significant, but most measured values were within reference ranges for domestic cats. Free-ranging lynx had higher concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen than did captive lynx, and these were outside the reference value ranges for domestic cats. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were higher in juveniles (<12 mo when captured) as compared to adults. Free-ranging lynx maintained body mass between serial captures. Hematologic values, blood chemistry values, and body mass of free-ranging Canada lynx provide support for the hypothesis that Canada lynx in Minnesota, at the southern edge of their range, are in normal physical condition.

  15. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  16. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    PubMed

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  17. N-body experiments and missing mass in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H.; Hintzen, P.; Sofia, S.; Oegerle, W.; Scott, J.; Holman, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the distributions of surface density and radial-velocity dispersion in clusters of galaxies are sensitive tracers of the underlying distribution of any unseen mass. N-body experiments have been used to test this assumption. Calculations with equal-mass systems indicate that the effects of the underlying mass distribution cannot be detected by observations of the surface-density or radial-velocity distributions, and the existence of an extended binding mass in all well-studied clusters would be consistent with available observations.

  18. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women. PMID:24415174

  19. Inverse gas chromatography study on the effect of humidity on the mass transport of alcohols in an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer near the glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Cava, David; Lagarón, José M; Martínez-Giménez, Félix; Gavara, Rafael

    2007-12-21

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to study the effect of moisture on transport properties of three low molecular weight alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol) through high barrier copolymers of ethylene-vinyl alcohol with an ethylene content of 38%mol (EVOH38) at 40 degrees C. The value of the partition coefficient (K) was obtained by using two approaches: (a) the fit of the slope of sorption isotherms obtained through the method of Kiselev and Yashin; and (b) the solution to the model of Romdhane and Danner obtained by using the law of moments. The second method also allowed the estimation of the diffusion coefficient (D(p)) at the different humidity conditions. None of these two methods were applicable at low values of relative humidity. With the first method, the diffusion of the permeants through the copolymer was not fast enough to allow them to reach the core of the EVOH particles used as stationary phase resulting in sorption values unrealistically low. The fit of the chromatograms obtained by using the second method also suggested questionable values of the mass transport parameters. Although the theoretical curve perfectly described the chromatogram, the low extent of the interaction and the slow diffusion resulted in interdependent values of the coefficients K and D(p), with infinite pairs of values providing the same curve profile. As the relative humidity of the carrier gas increased, the diffusivity and the sorption of the alcohols also increased, making both methods applicable. In the case of the partition coefficient, the sorption of the biggest molecules (ethanol and 1-butanol) was the most affected, the increment of K for methanol being moderate. As regards the D(p) value, methanol was the most influenced compound and 1-butanol the least. Finally, a sharp increment of the D(p) of the three alcohols was observed between 35 and 47% RH and attributed to the plasticization of the copolymer.

  20. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  1. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  2. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  3. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  4. Assessment and definition of lean body mass deficiency in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Geisler, C; Pourhassan, M; Glüer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of age on body composition has been intensively discussed during the past 20 years, we do not have a uniform definition of sarcopenia. A suitable definition of low, lean body mass should be based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) estimates of muscle mass. Using recent MRI data of a population of 446 healthy free-living Caucasian volunteers (247 females, 199 males) age 18-78 years, a low skeletal muscle mass and sarcopenia were defined as a skeletal muscle mass >1 and >2 s.d. below the mean value obeserved in younger adults at age 18-39 years. The cutoffs for low muscle mass according to the skeletal muscle index (skeletal muscle mass/(height)(2)) or the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (skeletal muscle mass of the limbs/(height)(2)) were 6.75 or 4.36 kg/m(2) for females and 8.67 or 5.54 kg/m(2) for males, respectively. On the basis of these cutoffs, prevalences of sarcopenia in the group of adults at >60 years are calculated to be 29% in females and 19.0% in males. Faced with different sarcopenic phenotypes (that is, sarcopenia related to frailty and osteopenia; sarcopenic obesity related to metabolic risks; cachexia related to wasting diseases), future definitions of sarcopenia should be extended to the relations between (i) muscle mass and adipose tissue and (ii) muscle mass and bone mass. Suitable cutoffs should be based on the associations between estimates of body compositions and metabolic risks (for axample, insulin resistance), inflammation and muscle function (that is, muscle strength).

  5. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  6. Body mass index of 16-year olds in urban Maseru, Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Seheri, Lisemelo; Raubenheimer, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and/or obesity amongst children and adolescents is a global epidemic with health consequences that track into adulthood. No data are currently available regarding overweight/obesity amongst adolescents in Lesotho. Aim and setting To assess the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity and the associated risk factors amongst 16-year olds in urban Maseru, Lesotho. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a systematic sample of 16-year olds in grade four (N = 221; 56.6% girls) from randomly-selected schools in urban Maseru. Diet histories and data on lifestyle, physical activity and knowledge, attitudes and/or perceptions and practices regarding nutrition were obtained during structured interviews and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Results Amongst these 16-year olds, 27.2% girls and 8.3% boys were overweight and/or obese based on World Health Organization cut-offs for BMI; 39.8% were insufficiently active or inactive; 6.4% used alcohol regularly; and 11.7% used tobacco. Whilst 28.1% reported no television watching/electronic gaming/computer usage (combined screen time) outside school, 23.6% reported ≥ 4 hours of combined screen time outside school. Most (91.4%) consumed < 3 servings of vegetables/day; 86.4% consumed < 2 servings of fruits/day; and 95.5% consumed < 2 servings of dairy/day. The majority consumed maize porridge (56.1%), bread (63.8%) and margarine/oil/fat (82.3%) daily and added sugar to their food (74.2%). Fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, pulses and traditional foods were only consumed weekly or less often. Most bought from tuck shops (18.6% daily; 54.3% weekly). Various gaps in knowledge, perceptions and practices were identified that may benefit from educational intervention. Conclusions The current study identifies westernised dietary and lifestyle changes, along with overweight and/or obesity, amongst 16-year old adolescents in Lesotho. PMID:26245430

  7. Disentangling basal and accumulated body mass for cross-population comparisons.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Hadley, Craig; Brewis, Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    Measures of human body mass confound 1) well-established population differences in body form and 2) exposure to obesogenic environments, posing challenges for using body mass index (BMI) in cross-population studies of body form, energy reserves, and obesity-linked disease risk. We propose a method for decomposing population BMI by estimating basal BMI (bBMI) among young adults living in extremely poor, rural households where excess body mass accumulation is uncommon. We test this method with nationally representative, cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) collected from 69,916 rural women (20-24 years) in 47 low-income countries. Predicting BMI by household wealth, we estimate country-level bBMI as the average BMI of young women (20-24 years) living in rural households with total assets <400 USD per capita. Above 400 USD per capita, BMI increases with both wealth and age. Below this point, BMI hits a baseline floor showing little effect of either age or wealth. Between-country variation in bBMI (range of 4.3 kg m(-2) ) is reliable across decades and age groups (R(2)  = 0.83-0.88). Country-level estimates of bBMI show no relation to diabetes prevalence or country-level GDP (R(2)  < 0.05), supporting its independence from excess body mass. Residual BMI (average BMI minus bBMI) shows better fit with both country-level GDP (R(2)  = 0.55 vs. 0.40) and diabetes prevalence (R(2)  = 0.23 vs. 0.17) than does conventional BMI. This method produces reliable estimates of bBMI across a wide range of nationally representative samples, providing a new approach to investigating population variation in body mass.

  8. Body mass estimation in xenarthra: a predictive equation suitable for all quadrupedal terrestrial placentals?

    PubMed

    De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Mendoza, Manuel; De Renzi, Miquel

    2008-10-01

    The Magnorder Xenarthra includes strange extinct groups, like glyptodonts, similar to large armadillos, and ground sloths, terrestrial relatives of the extant tree sloths. They have created considerable paleobiological interest in the last decades; however, the ecology of most of these species is still controversial or unknown. The body mass estimation of extinct species has great importance for paleobiological reconstructions. The commonest way to estimate body mass from fossils is through linear regression. However, if the studied species does not have similar extant relatives, the allometric pattern described by the regression could differ from those shown by the extinct group. That is the case for glyptodonts and ground sloths. Thus, stepwise multiple regression were developed including extant xenarthrans (their taxonomic relatives) and ungulates (their size and ecological relatives). Cases were weighted to maximize the taxonomic evenness. Twenty-eight equations were obtained. The distribution of the percent of prediction error (%PE) was analyzed between taxonomic groups (Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Xenarthra) and size groups (0-20 kg, 20-300 kg, and more than 300 kg). To assess the predictive power of the functions, equations were applied to species not included in the regression development [test set cross validation, (TSCV)]. Only five equations had a homogeneous %PE between the aforementioned groups. These were applied to five extinct species. A mean body mass of 80 kg was estimated for Propalaehoplophorus australis (Cingulata: Glyptodontidae), 594 kg for Scelidotherium leptocephalum (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae), and 3,550.7 kg for Lestodon armatus (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae). The high scatter of the body mass estimations obtained for Catonyx tarijensis (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae) and Thalassocnus natans (Phyllophaga: Megatheriidae), probably due to different specializations, prevented us from predicting its body mass. Surprisingly, although obtained

  9. Serum Adiponectin and Indices of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Women with Excessive Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Sypniewska, G.; Rajewski, P.; Gruszka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin reduces oxidative stress, the release of C-reactive protein and influences on the process of atherogenesis reducing lipid accumulation in the blood vessels. The findings on the association of adiponectin with cardiovascular risk are contradictory. This study aimed to assess the relationship between adiponectin and indices of cardiovascular risk in women with excessive body mass. Adiponectin, hsCRP and lipids were measured in blood samples obtained from normoglycemic women with excessive body mass (n=52;BMI≥25 kg/m2) aged 25-40 yrs and age-matched healthy controls (n=36; BMI<25kg/m2). All subjects underwent blood pressure examination and anthropometric measurements. Median concentration of adiponectin in the serum in women with excessive body mass was significantly lower than in women with normal weight (10,8 vs 15,5 µg/ml; p<0,01). Similarly, median serum concentration of triglycerides, hsCRP and blood pressure values were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol significantly lower in women with BMI≥25 kg/m2 in comparison to these with normal BMI, however only HDL-C and hsCRP were found to be beyond widely accepted cut-offs. Hypoadiponectinemia in women with excessive body mass (adiponectin concentration below the 5th percentile in the control group) was associated predominantly with abnormally increased median values of hsCRP and blood pressure. Concentrations of total cholesterol, non-HDL-C and LDL-C were also significantly higher in women with excessive body mass and hypoadiponectinemia, however still within the reference range. Our results suggest that adiponectin may be used as a prognostic marker of cardiovascular risk in women with excessive body mass.

  10. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  11. Body mass estimation in xenarthra: a predictive equation suitable for all quadrupedal terrestrial placentals?

    PubMed

    De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Mendoza, Manuel; De Renzi, Miquel

    2008-10-01

    The Magnorder Xenarthra includes strange extinct groups, like glyptodonts, similar to large armadillos, and ground sloths, terrestrial relatives of the extant tree sloths. They have created considerable paleobiological interest in the last decades; however, the ecology of most of these species is still controversial or unknown. The body mass estimation of extinct species has great importance for paleobiological reconstructions. The commonest way to estimate body mass from fossils is through linear regression. However, if the studied species does not have similar extant relatives, the allometric pattern described by the regression could differ from those shown by the extinct group. That is the case for glyptodonts and ground sloths. Thus, stepwise multiple regression were developed including extant xenarthrans (their taxonomic relatives) and ungulates (their size and ecological relatives). Cases were weighted to maximize the taxonomic evenness. Twenty-eight equations were obtained. The distribution of the percent of prediction error (%PE) was analyzed between taxonomic groups (Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Xenarthra) and size groups (0-20 kg, 20-300 kg, and more than 300 kg). To assess the predictive power of the functions, equations were applied to species not included in the regression development [test set cross validation, (TSCV)]. Only five equations had a homogeneous %PE between the aforementioned groups. These were applied to five extinct species. A mean body mass of 80 kg was estimated for Propalaehoplophorus australis (Cingulata: Glyptodontidae), 594 kg for Scelidotherium leptocephalum (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae), and 3,550.7 kg for Lestodon armatus (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae). The high scatter of the body mass estimations obtained for Catonyx tarijensis (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae) and Thalassocnus natans (Phyllophaga: Megatheriidae), probably due to different specializations, prevented us from predicting its body mass. Surprisingly, although obtained

  12. [Hyperinsulinemia as a factor preceding body mass increase in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear accident].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, A N; Zueva, N A; Gerasimenko, T I; Efimov, A S

    2001-01-01

    Basal hyperinsulinemia has been recordable over several years in liquidators of the effects of Chernobyl Accident (ChAEL). There was no dependence of hyperinsulinemia on age, body mass or lenght of service of those persons having worked within the 30-km zone. The findings secured suggest to us that increase in the body mass index (BMI) in ChAEL is preceded by a rise in the blood level of insulin; there is no relatedness of the basal level of insulin in the blood to BMI.

  13. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-05-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

  14. Body-mass-dependent cost of web-building behavior in an orb weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata.

    PubMed

    Venner, Samuel; Bel-Venner, Marie-Claude; Pasquet, Alain; Leborgne, Raymond

    2003-06-01

    In numerous spider species, reproductive success of adult females has been shown to be positively correlated with their body mass. We suggest, however, that spiders may incur greater foraging costs as their body mass increases due to the numerous and complex locomotor bouts needed to build an orb-web. Such a body-mass-dependent cost should, in turn, affect the web-building decisions of spiders. In the laboratory, we tested the influence of body mass on energetic expenditure (measured as mass loss) during web-building behavior in Zygiella x-notata. Our results showed (1) that energetic costs associated with web-building were closely related to body mass and to web-building activity, and (2) that as their body mass increased, spiders reduced the amount of silk used per web, while their foraging effort simultaneously increased. This work gives new insights into web-building behavior and energy allocation strategies of weaving spiders.

  15. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002-2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations. ?? 2007 NRC.

  16. Exploring predictions of abundance from body mass using hierarchical comparative approaches.

    PubMed

    McGill, Brian J

    2008-07-01

    Understanding and predicting how and why abundance varies is one of the central questions in ecology. One of the few consistent predictors of variation in abundance between species has been body mass, but the nature of this relationship has been contentious. Here I explore the relationship between body mass and abundance in birds of North America, using hierarchical partitioning of variance and regressions at taxonomic levels above the species. These analyses show that much variation in abundance is found across space, while a moderate amount of variation is found at the species/genus and also at the family/order level. However, body size and trophic level primarily vary at the family/order level, suggesting that mechanisms based on body size and energy should primarily explain only this moderate-sized, taxonomically conserved component of variation in abundance. Body size does explain more than 50% of the variation at this level (and almost 75% when trophic level is also included). This tighter relationship makes clear that energetic equivalence (slope = -3/4) sets an upper limit but does not describe the relationship between body mass and average abundance for birds of North America. Finally, I suggest that this hierarchical, multivariate approach should be used more often in macroecology.

  17. Effect of body mass on hibernation strategies of woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed

    Zervanos, Stam M; Maher, Christine R; Florant, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    The benefits of mammalian hibernation have been well documented. However, the physiological and ecological costs of torpor have been emphasized only recently as part of a hibernation-optimization hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that hibernators with greater availability of energy minimize costs of torpor by less frequent utilization of torpor and by maintaining higher body temperatures (T(b)) during torpor. In order to further examine the relationship between body mass and other parameters of hibernation, we present data, collected over a 12-year period, on the hibernation patterns of free-living woodchucks (Marmota monax) in southeastern Pennsylvania. Body mass was positively correlated with T(b) and negatively correlated with percentage of the heterothermic period spent in torpor. Thus, woodchucks with greater mass exhibited less time in torpor as a proportion of their heterothermic period and at higher T(b) than those with lesser mass. This strategy potentially enhances the physiological and physical ability of woodchucks to defend territories, avoid predation, find mates, and complete the reproductive cycle upon emergence from hibernation. Our results further support the hibernation-optimization hypothesis by demonstrating the relationship between body mass and characteristics of torpor and contributing toward a fuller understanding of this concept.

  18. Proton conductance and fatty acyl composition of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Martin D; Turner, Nigel; Ocloo, Augustine; Else, Paul L; Hulbert, A J

    2003-01-01

    The proton conductance of isolated liver mitochondria correlates significantly with body mass in mammals, but not in ectotherms. To establish whether the correlation in mammals is general for endotherms or mammal-specific, we measured proton conductance in mitochondria from birds, the other main group of endotherms, using birds varying in mass over a wide range (nearly 3000-fold), from 13 g zebra finches to 35 kg emus. Respiratory control ratios were higher in mitochondria from larger birds. Mitochondrial proton conductance in liver mitochondria from birds correlated strongly with body mass [respiration rate per mg of protein driving proton leak at 170 mV being 44.7 times (body mass in g)(-0.19)], thus suggesting a general relationship between body mass and proton conductance in endotherms. Mitochondria from larger birds had the same or perhaps greater surface area per mg of protein than mitochondria from smaller birds. Hence, the lower proton conductance was caused not by surface area changes but by some change in the properties of the inner membrane. Liver mitochondria from larger birds had phospholipid fatty acyl chains that were less polyunsaturated and more monounsaturated when compared with those from smaller birds. Phospholipid fatty acyl polyunsaturation correlated positively and monounsaturation correlated negatively with proton conductance. These correlations echo those seen in mammalian liver mitochondria, suggesting that they too are general for endotherms. PMID:12943530

  19. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  20. Effects of temperature acclimation on body mass and energy budget in the Chinese bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    WU, Yu-Nan; Lin, Lin; XIAO, Yu-Chao; Zhou, Li-Meng; WU, Meng-Si; Zhang, Hui-Ying; LIU, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) are small passerine birds that inhabit areas of central, southern and eastern China. Previous observations suggest that free-living individuals of this species may change their food intake in response to seasonal changes in ambient temperature. In the present study, we randomly assigned Chinese bulbuls to either a 30 ℃ or 10 ℃ group, and measured their body mass (BM), body temperature, gross energy intake (GEI), digestible energy intake (DEI), and the length and mass of their digestive tracts over 28 days of acclimation at these temperatures. As predicted, birds in the 30 ℃ group had lower body mass, GEI and DEI relative to those in the 10 ℃ group. The length and mass of the digestive tract was also lower in the 30 ℃ group and trends in these parameters were positively correlated with BM, GEI and DEI. These results suggest that Chinese bulbuls reduced their absolute energy demands at relatively high temperatures by decreasing their body mass, GEI and DEI, and digestive tract size. PMID:24470452

  1. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    PubMed

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake. PMID:24797627

  2. Multiple novel gene-by-environment interactions modify the effect of FTO variants on body mass index.

    PubMed

    Young, Alexander I; Wauthier, Fabian; Donnelly, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies have shown that obesity risk is heritable and that, of the many common variants now associated with body mass index, those in an intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have the largest effect. The size of the UK Biobank, and its joint measurement of genetic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, offers an unprecedented opportunity to assess gene-by-environment interactions in a way that accounts for the dependence between different factors. We jointly examine the evidence for interactions between FTO (rs1421085) and various lifestyle and environmental factors. We report interactions between the FTO variant and each of: frequency of alcohol consumption (P=3.0 × 10(-4)); deviations from mean sleep duration (P=8.0 × 10(-4)); overall diet (P=5.0 × 10(-6)), including added salt (P=1.2 × 10(-3)); and physical activity (P=3.1 × 10(-4)). PMID:27596730

  3. Multiple novel gene-by-environment interactions modify the effect of FTO variants on body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Young, Alexander I.; Wauthier, Fabian; Donnelly, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies have shown that obesity risk is heritable and that, of the many common variants now associated with body mass index, those in an intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have the largest effect. The size of the UK Biobank, and its joint measurement of genetic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, offers an unprecedented opportunity to assess gene-by-environment interactions in a way that accounts for the dependence between different factors. We jointly examine the evidence for interactions between FTO (rs1421085) and various lifestyle and environmental factors. We report interactions between the FTO variant and each of: frequency of alcohol consumption (P=3.0 × 10−4); deviations from mean sleep duration (P=8.0 × 10−4); overall diet (P=5.0 × 10−6), including added salt (P=1.2 × 10−3); and physical activity (P=3.1 × 10−4). PMID:27596730

  4. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  5. Dynamical mass and multiplicity constraints on co-orbital bodies around stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Marsh, Thomas R.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2016-09-01

    Objects transiting near or within the disruption radius of both main-sequence (e.g. KOI 1843) and white dwarf (WD 1145+017) stars are now known. Upon fragmentation or disintegration, these planets or asteroids may produce co-orbital configurations of nearly equal mass objects. However, as evidenced by the co-orbital objects detected by transit photometry in the WD 1145+017 system, these bodies are largely unconstrained in size, mass, and total number (multiplicity). Motivated by potential future similar discoveries, we perform N-body simulations to demonstrate if and how debris masses and multiplicity may be bounded due to second-to-minute deviations and the resulting accumulated phase shifts in the osculating orbital period amongst multiple co-orbital equal point masses. We establish robust lower and upper mass bounds as a function of orbital period deviation, but find the constraints on multiplicity to be weak. We also quantify the fuzzy instability boundary, and show that mutual collisions occur in less than 5, 10, and 20 per cent of our simulations for masses of 1021, 1022, and 1023 kg. Our results may provide useful initial rough constraints on other stellar systems with multiple co-orbital bodies.

  6. On the determination of underivatised fatty alcohol ethoxylates by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Zafón, Virginia; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2006-06-23

    The oligomers of fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAEs) exhibit large sensitivity differences in mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (ESI-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Standards of the oligomers from m=1 to 7 ethylene oxide units (EOs) and linear alkyl chains from n=10 to 18 carbon atoms were infused to examine the relative sensitivities or response factors in several media. The response factors of the [M+H]+ and [M+Na]+ peaks in 9:1 acetonitrile/water and methanol/water media containing acid buffers increased following irregular patterns when n and m increased. In methanol/water the response factors depended on the parity of m, being larger than the average trend for the oligomers with an even value of m with respect to those having an odd value. This was attributed to the presence of an uncompensated C-O-C or C-O-H dipole in the former oligomers. The advantages of using ESI over APCI and of measuring the [M+H]+ peaks in an acid methanol/water medium containing 0.1 M HCl are discussed. The advantages and limitations of using models of the response factors to evaluate oligomer concentrations with a reduced set of selected standards are examined. The determination of underivatised FAEs using acid media was made compatible with previous HPLC separation by implementing either a triconcentric nebulizer fed with an acid liquid sheath, or a capillary T-union inserted between the column outlet and the biconcentric nebulizer, and fed with an acid stream provided by a syringe pump.

  7. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  9. Body Size Reductions in Nonmammalian Eutheriodont Therapsids (Synapsida) during the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Huttenlocker, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the ‘Lilliput effect,’ a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns. PMID:24498335

  10. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocker, Adam K

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns. PMID:24498335

  11. Relationship of body mass status with running and jumping performances in young basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Asadi, Abbas; Santos, Eduardo J.A.M.; Calleja-González, Julio; Padulo, Johnny; Chtourou, Hamdi; Zemkova, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of body mass (BM) status with running and jumping performances in young male basketball players. Methods basketball players (n=72, age 12.9±2.8 yrs), who were grouped into U-12 (9–12 yrs), U-15 (12–15 yrs) and U-18 (15–18 yrs), performed a battery of anthropometric, running and jumping tests. We examined differences among age groups, and between normal weight and overweight players. Results the results indicated significant and large differences among age groups in BM, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, speed, endurance, standing long jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), mean power in 30 s jumping test (Pmean) (p<0.001, η2≥0.23) with older players presenting higher values. Within each age group, overweight players had higher BM, BMI, body fat percentage and FM (p<0.05) than their normal weight counterparts. Overweight players had worst performance in running (sprint and endurance) and jumping (CMJ and Pmean) in U-12, and worst endurance in U-18 (p<0.05, |d|≥0.82) than normal-weight players, whereas there was no difference in U-15. Conclusions it was concluded that the relationship of BMI with running and jumping performances varied according to age. Based on these findings, trainers and coaches should focus on special intervention exercise and nutrition programs targeting optimal body mass especially in young basketball players, where the excess of body mass seemed to have the most detrimental effect on running and jumping performances. PMID:26605193

  12. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  13. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  14. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  15. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  16. The Skinny on Success: Body Mass, Gender and Occupational Standing across the Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Christy M.; Haas, Steven A.; Reither, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the impact of obesity on occupational standing. This study extends previous research by estimating the influence of body mass on occupational attainment over three decades of the career using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. In a series of covariance structure analyses, we considered three mechanisms that…

  17. Elementary School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices regarding Body Mass Index Measurement in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Candace; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Mosca, Nancy W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines elementary school nurses' perceived efficacy expectations, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits to measuring body mass index (BMI) in students in schools with mandated BMI policies versus schools without mandated policies. Of the 2,629 school nurses participating in the study, 67% believe nurses should measure BMI in…

  18. Bioelectrical impedance vectorial analysis and nutritional status of older women according to body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longitudinal studies, both epidemiological and clinical, have shown that elderly with high body mass index (BMI) are able to better face stressing factors, and have better survival rate as consequence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if higher BMI values were associated with improved nu...

  19. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  20. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  1. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  2. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  3. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  4. Body Mass Index and the Use of the Internet for Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Smit, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who experience or anticipate negative interactions from medical providers related to conditions such as obesity may preferentially use the Internet for health information. Our objectives in this study were to (1) examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and Internet health information-seeking and (2) examine…

  5. The Relationship between Motor Skill Proficiency and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Modlesky, Christopher; Getchell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Thirty-eight children ages 4-6 years had their BMI calculated and were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2; Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). These data were analyzed in two ways.…

  6. Glucose kinetics and pregnancy outcome in Indian women with low and normal body mass indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal energy demands are met from the oxidation of maternally supplied glucose and amino acids. During the fasted state, the glucose supply is thought to be met by gluconeogenesis. Underweight women with low body mass index (BMI) might be unable to adequately supply amino acids to satisfy the demand...

  7. The Association between Short Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among South Korean Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) in two South Korean samples: children and adolescents. Nationally representative secondary data (i.e., the Korean Survey on the Obesity of Youth and Children) collected in 2009 were analyzed ("N" = 2,499 for children and "N" = 7,431 for…

  8. Predicting 1-Year Change in Body Mass Index among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy; Rini, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite beliefs about weight gain in college, few researchers have evaluated this phenomenon. Participants: Participants were 18- to 31-year-old students at a midwestern university. The dependent variable was body mass index (BMI) change. Methods: The authors extracted predictor variables from a Health Risk Appraisal. These included…

  9. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  10. Diet quality and body mass index are associated with healthcare resource use in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health care resource consumption is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between diet quality and body mass index with health care resource use (HRU) in a cohort of advanced age. Participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (n=5,993) were mailed demographic and...

  11. Beneficial Effect of Cyproheptadine on Body Mass Index in Undernourished Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Fallahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH) is a first-generation antihistamine which is used as an appetite stimulant. This study was designed to identify the role of CH therapy on weight gain, linear growth and body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition. Methods: Eighty-nine patients were enrolled. The present randomized, double-blinded controlled trial included 77 evaluable patients, aged 24–64 months with undernutrition. The patients were randomized to receive cyproheptadine with multivitamin, or multivitamin over a period of four weeks. The weight, height and body mass index were measured at the baseline, four weeks after intervention and four weeks after discontinuation. Findings: A significant higher body mass index was observed among CH-treated patients after 8 weeks intervention with cyproheptadine compared with the control group (P<0.041). Mean weight gain after eight weeks was 0.11 kg in the control group and 0.60 kg in the CH group. There were no significant differences in changes of weight and height velocity across the study between CH-treated and control group at the end of study. Conclusion: In our study, cyproheptadine promotes increase in body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition after four weeks treatment. PMID:26019782

  12. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  13. Ethnic Differences in Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Students: The Confounding Role of Body Mass Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Cecilia A.; Mann, Traci

    2001-01-01

    Explored the role of body mass index (BMI) in eating disorders among Hispanic, Asian American, and non-Hispanic white female college students. Data from student surveys indicated that after controlling for BMI, ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms of concern about weight and shape disappeared, but differences in restrained eating…

  14. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  15. Parent Reactions to a School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Lamp, Camilla; He, Jianghua; Deeb, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed parent reactions to school-based body mass index (BMI) screening. Methods: After a K-8 BMI screening program, parents were sent a letter detailing their child's BMI results. Approximately 50 parents were randomly selected for interview from each of 4 child weight-classification groups (overweight, at risk of…

  16. The effect of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Yümin, Eylem Tütün; Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Sertel, Meral; Ankaralı, Handan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and three healthy female volunteers over the age of 20 were included in the study. The statistical analyses were performed by considering the age and body mass index values of the individuals. The individuals were divided according to their ages and body mass index values. Foot pain was measured with a visual analogue scale and plantar cutaneous sensation using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. [Results] Fifty-six (27.5%) of the participants had normal weights, 67 (33%) were overweight, and 80 (39%) were obese. Statistical analysis revealed that as age and body mass index values increased, plantar sensitivity decreased and the frequency and severity of pain increased. [Conclusion] It is possible that healthy women may experience a decrease in foot plantar sensation with increasing weight and age. If women do not have any health problems, proprioception and sensory training must be focused on in order to prevent balance and falling problems. PMID:27799700

  17. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  18. Regional Differences as Barriers to Body Mass Index Screening Described by Ohio School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in…

  19. Moose body mass variation revisited: disentangling effects of environmental conditions and genetics.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Solberg, Erling J; Røed, Knut H; Høgda, Kjell Arild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits within species is often correlated to local environmental conditions and population density. Such phenotypic variation has recently been shown to also be influenced by genetic structuring of populations. In ungulates, large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits, such as body mass, has been related to environmental conditions and population density, but little is known about the genetic influences. Research on the genetic structure of moose suggests two distinct genetic lineages in Norway, structured along a north-south gradient. This corresponds with many environmental gradients, thus genetic structuring provides an additional factor affecting geographical phenotypic variation in Norwegian moose. We investigated if genetic structure explained geographical variation in body mass in Norwegian moose while accounting for environmental conditions, age and sex, and if it captured some of the variance in body mass that previously was attributed to environmental factors. Genetic structuring of moose was the most important variable in explaining the geographic variation in body mass within age and sex classes. Several environmental variables also had strong explanatory power, related to habitat diversity, environmental seasonality and winter harshness. The results suggest that environmental conditions, landscape characteristics, and genetic structure should be evaluated together when explaining large-scale patterns in phenotypic characters or life history traits. However, to better understand the role of genetic and environmental effects on phenotypic traits in moose, an extended individual-based study of variation in fitness-related characters is needed, preferably in an area of convergence between different genetic lineages.

  20. Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

  1. Food Serving Size Knowledge in African American Women and the Relationship with Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Elston, Elizabeth; Hubbard, Stacy; Carson, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine serving size knowledge in African Americans and how it is related to body mass index (BMI). Design: Serving size knowledge of food commonly consumed by African Americans was assessed by asking the subjects to select the amount of food considered to be a single serving size by the United States Department of Agriculture and…

  2. Sleep and the Body Mass Index and Overweight Status of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Adam, Emma K.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between sleep and the body mass index (BMI) and overweight status of children and adolescents were estimated using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of 2,281 children aged 3-12 years at baseline. Controlling for baseline BMI, children who slept less, went to bed later, or got up earlier at the time of the first…

  3. Hair toxic element content in adult men and women in relation to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the hair toxic metal content in adults in relation to body mass index. A total of 1,229 persons including 719 women and 510 men were examined. All subjects were divided into two age groups: 1 and 2 periods of adulthood. All men and women were also subdivided into groups in relation to their values of body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Hair aluminium (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) content was evaluated using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. It has been shown that increase in body weight is accompanied by elevated hair cadmium content in women. At the same time, no significant alteration of hair cadmium concentration was observed in males. Higher values of scalp hair mercury and lead content were observed in men and women with increased body mass index independently of their age. BMI-related elevation of hair tin content was registered only in men of the first period of adulthood. A significant correlation between hair metal content and the values of BMI was observed for mercury independently of the gender of the subjects, whereas BMI values correlated significantly with hair cadmium levels in women and lead and tin levels in men. It has been also estimated that hair cadmium, mercury and lead levels in men exceed the respective values in women.

  4. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  5. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  6. Body mass, fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in a lean population of south China.

    PubMed

    Folsom, A R; Li, Y; Rao, X; Cen, R; Zhang, K; Liu, X; He, L; Irving, S; Dennis, B H

    1994-02-01

    The associations of body mass index and abdominal adiposity, represented by an elevated waist/hip circumference ratio, with cardiovascular risk factors were examined in men and women, aged 28-69 years, from urban and rural areas of Guangzhou, China. Mean body mass index ranged from 20.1 to 21.9 kg/m2 across the four sex- and area-groups. Mean waist/hip ratio was 0.84 in men and 0.80 in women. After accounting for age and body mass index, waist/hip ratio was associated negatively (p < 0.05) with fasting serum HDL cholesterol (both sexes), and positively with serum triglycerides (both sexes), total and LDL cholesterol (men only), uric acid (both sexes), glucose (women only), and mean systolic blood pressure (women only). Body mass index was associated in a similar direction with most of these risk factors. These data confirm that abdominal adiposity is independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, even in a lean Asian population.

  7. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  8. Increasing Walking in College Students Using a Pedometer Intervention: Differences According to Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Erica M.; Howton, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The researchers assessed the effectiveness of a pedometer intervention and differences in walking behaviors according to body mass index (BMI). Participants: Two hundred ninety college students completed the intervention from January to February 2005. Methods: Participants wore pedometers 5 days per week for 12 weeks and completed…

  9. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  10. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  11. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Methods: Analyzing data…

  12. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latty, Christopher; Carolan, Marsha T.; Jocks, Jodi E.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The substantial increase in youth obesity during the last two decades may have serious biological as well as behavioral/mental health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess how ecological factors and hence overall well-being were related to body mass index (BMI) in youths. Methods: Three BMI categories (normal;…

  13. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  14. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  15. The Peer Appearance Culture during Adolescence: Gender and Body Mass Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine gender and body mass, as factors linked to perceived experiences within the peer appearance culture. The sample included 215 girls and 200 boys who were either in 7th grade or 10th grade. Students provided self-reports on experiences in three domains: appearance culture among friends (appearance…

  16. Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index in College Students: The Role of Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Perla A.; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. Methods: A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep…

  17. Parent/Student Risk and Protective Factors in Understanding Early Adolescent's Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…

  18. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Willer, Cristen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Monda, Keri L; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jackson, Anne U; Lango Allen, Hana; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heid, Iris M; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Ferreira, Teresa; Weyant, Robert J; Segrè, Ayellet V; Estrada, Karol; Liang, Liming; Nemesh, James; Park, Ju-Hyun; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Yang, Jian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Kutalik, Zoltán; Mangino, Massimo; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Scherag, Andre; Smith, Albert Vernon; Welch, Ryan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aben, Katja K; Absher, Devin M; Amin, Najaf; Dixon, Anna L; Fisher, Eva; Glazer, Nicole L; Goddard, Michael E; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hoesel, Volker; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Lamina, Claudia; Li, Shengxu; Moffatt, Miriam F; Myers, Richard H; Narisu, Narisu; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Preuss, Michael; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Wingerden, Sophie; Watanabe, Richard M; White, Charles C; Wiklund, Fredrik; Barlassina, Christina; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Prokopenko, Inga; Shi, Jianxin; Thiering, Elisabeth; Alavere, Helene; Alibrandi, Maria T S; Almgren, Peter; Arnold, Alice M; Aspelund, Thor; Atwood, Larry D; Balkau, Beverley; Balmforth, Anthony J; Bennett, Amanda J; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biebermann, Heike; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Boes, Tanja; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Brown, Morris J; Buchanan, Thomas A; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan; Connell, John; Day, Ian N M; den Heijer, Martin; Duan, Jubao; Ebrahim, Shah; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Facheris, Maurizio F; Felix, Stephan B; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Folsom, Aaron R; Friedrich, Nele; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Gejman, Pablo V; Geus, Eco J C; Gieger, Christian; Gjesing, Anette P; Goel, Anuj; Goyette, Philippe; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Groves, Christopher J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarick, Ivonne; Jewell, Elizabeth; John, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kajantie, Eero; Kaplan, Lee M; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kettunen, Johannes; Kinnunen, Leena; Knowles, Joshua W; Kolcic, Ivana; König, Inke R; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kraft, Peter; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lanzani, Chiara; Launer, Lenore J; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Liu, Jianjun; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; Marre, Michel; Martin, Nicholas G; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meyre, David; Midthjell, Kristian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morken, Mario A; Morris, Andrew P; Mulic, Rosanda; Ngwa, Julius S; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ong, Ken K; Oostra, Ben; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Perola, Markus; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Rafelt, Suzanne; Raitakari, Olli; Rayner, Nigel W; Ridderstråle, Martin; Rief, Winfried; Ruokonen, Aimo; Robertson, Neil R; Rzehak, Peter; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Savolainen, Markku J; Scherag, Susann; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Silander, Kaisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Siscovick, David S; Smit, Jan H; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Stephens, Jonathan; Surakka, Ida; Swift, Amy J; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teder-Laving, Maris; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thompson, John R; Thomson, Brian; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Viikari, Jorma; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Vogel, Carla I G; Voight, Benjamin F; Waite, Lindsay L; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wiegand, Susanna; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zgaga, Lina; Ziegler, Andreas; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huikuri, Heikki V; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Levinson, Douglas F; Macciardi, Fabio; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Collins, Francis S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Erdmann, Jeanette; Froguel, Philippe; Grönberg, Henrik; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayes, Richard B; Heinrich, Joachim; Hu, Frank B; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krude, Heiko; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Metspalu, Andres; Munroe, Patricia B; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Quertermous, Thomas; Reinehr, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Samani, Nilesh J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André; Valle, Timo T; Wabitsch, Martin; Waeber, Gérard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; McCarroll, Steven A; Purcell, Shaun; Schadt, Eric E; Visscher, Peter M; Assimes, Themistocles L; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wichmann, H-Erich; Frayling, Timothy M; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Stefansson, Kari; North, Kari E; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Ingelsson, Erik; Loos, Ruth J F

    2010-11-01

    Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ∼ 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.

  19. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Willer, Cristen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Monda, Keri L; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jackson, Anne U; Lango Allen, Hana; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heid, Iris M; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Ferreira, Teresa; Weyant, Robert J; Segrè, Ayellet V; Estrada, Karol; Liang, Liming; Nemesh, James; Park, Ju-Hyun; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Yang, Jian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Kutalik, Zoltán; Mangino, Massimo; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Scherag, Andre; Smith, Albert Vernon; Welch, Ryan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aben, Katja K; Absher, Devin M; Amin, Najaf; Dixon, Anna L; Fisher, Eva; Glazer, Nicole L; Goddard, Michael E; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hoesel, Volker; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Lamina, Claudia; Li, Shengxu; Moffatt, Miriam F; Myers, Richard H; Narisu, Narisu; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Preuss, Michael; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Wingerden, Sophie; Watanabe, Richard M; White, Charles C; Wiklund, Fredrik; Barlassina, Christina; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Prokopenko, Inga; Shi, Jianxin; Thiering, Elisabeth; Alavere, Helene; Alibrandi, Maria T S; Almgren, Peter; Arnold, Alice M; Aspelund, Thor; Atwood, Larry D; Balkau, Beverley; Balmforth, Anthony J; Bennett, Amanda J; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biebermann, Heike; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Boes, Tanja; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Brown, Morris J; Buchanan, Thomas A; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan; Connell, John; Day, Ian N M; den Heijer, Martin; Duan, Jubao; Ebrahim, Shah; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Facheris, Maurizio F; Felix, Stephan B; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Folsom, Aaron R; Friedrich, Nele; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Gejman, Pablo V; Geus, Eco J C; Gieger, Christian; Gjesing, Anette P; Goel, Anuj; Goyette, Philippe; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Groves, Christopher J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarick, Ivonne; Jewell, Elizabeth; John, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kajantie, Eero; Kaplan, Lee M; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kettunen, Johannes; Kinnunen, Leena; Knowles, Joshua W; Kolcic, Ivana; König, Inke R; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kraft, Peter; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lanzani, Chiara; Launer, Lenore J; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Liu, Jianjun; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; Marre, Michel; Martin, Nicholas G; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meyre, David; Midthjell, Kristian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morken, Mario A; Morris, Andrew P; Mulic, Rosanda; Ngwa, Julius S; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ong, Ken K; Oostra, Ben; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Perola, Markus; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Rafelt, Suzanne; Raitakari, Olli; Rayner, Nigel W; Ridderstråle, Martin; Rief, Winfried; Ruokonen, Aimo; Robertson, Neil R; Rzehak, Peter; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Savolainen, Markku J; Scherag, Susann; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Silander, Kaisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Siscovick, David S; Smit, Jan H; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Stephens, Jonathan; Surakka, Ida; Swift, Amy J; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teder-Laving, Maris; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thompson, John R; Thomson, Brian; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Viikari, Jorma; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Vogel, Carla I G; Voight, Benjamin F; Waite, Lindsay L; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wiegand, Susanna; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zgaga, Lina; Ziegler, Andreas; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huikuri, Heikki V; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Levinson, Douglas F; Macciardi, Fabio; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Collins, Francis S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Erdmann, Jeanette; Froguel, Philippe; Grönberg, Henrik; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayes, Richard B; Heinrich, Joachim; Hu, Frank B; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krude, Heiko; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Metspalu, Andres; Munroe, Patricia B; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Quertermous, Thomas; Reinehr, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Samani, Nilesh J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André; Valle, Timo T; Wabitsch, Martin; Waeber, Gérard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; McCarroll, Steven A; Purcell, Shaun; Schadt, Eric E; Visscher, Peter M; Assimes, Themistocles L; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wichmann, H-Erich; Frayling, Timothy M; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Stefansson, Kari; North, Kari E; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Ingelsson, Erik; Loos, Ruth J F

    2010-11-01

    Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ∼ 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation. PMID:20935630

  20. Acute Effects of Self-Selected Regimen of Rapid Body Mass Loss in Combat Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Timpmann, Saima; Ööpik, Vahur; Pääsuke, Mati; Medijainen, Luule; Ereline, Jaan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML) on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD) reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1) and immediately after (Test 2) RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot) performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea). Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013) and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008). The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003) as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034), respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003). The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082). The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes. Key pointsPrevious studies have revealed a negative effect of rapid body mass loss on performance. However, there are some performance characteristics

  1. Alterations of Body Mass Gain of Neonates (P7&P14) During Certrifugation AT 2G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Corbin, B. J.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Previous research has shown animal body mass to be significantly affected by centrifugation. At the onset of centrifugation, animals have a selective loss of fat, causing an initial body mass loss. Body mass gain will resume at the same rate as uncentrifuged animals, but this subsequent gain will be lower. For this study, two different ages of Sprague Hawley neonate families were observed during centrifugation. Eight litters (dam with eight neonates) of postnatal day (PN) seven and four litters (dam with ten neonates) of PN 14 were separated into two separate groups each, centrifuge (+2G(sub z)) and environmental controls (EC) and placed into either the centrifuge or an animal holding unit in the centrifuge rotunda for a total of 16 days. P7: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 138.90 g/end = 311.0 g EC litter = 150.85 g/end = 516.9 g. P14: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 287.70 g/end = 762.5g; EC litter = 245 g/end = 942.9 g. An initial body mass loss was observed in both groups of +2G(sub z) animals for two days after the onset of centrifugation, but then an increase began to occur. Literature suggests adult animals at +2G(sub z), will have an initial loss, but will resume similar growth rates over time as compared to control animals. The P7 +2G(sub z) animals began to gain body mass, but showed a significantly slower growth rate than their EC animals for the duration of the test (pace). The P14 +2G(sub z) animals began to show similar growth rates to their EC after day nine. At day 16, both groups of +2Gz animals were significantly smaller than the EC animals (pace). At +2Gz, animals experience an initial body mass loss. Older animals are able to resume similar growth rates as their controls, but younger animals showed growth rates to be significantly reduced.

  2. Body mass management of lightweight rowers: nutritional strategies and performance implications.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gary; Rice, Anthony; Jenkins, David; Hahn, Allan

    2014-11-01

    The majority of lightweight rowers undertake acute weight loss prior to competition. Given the competitive advantage afforded to larger, more muscular rowers over their smaller counterparts, the use of moderate, acute weight loss may be justified, at least among larger, leaner athletes who struggle to achieve the specified body mass requirement and have limited potential for further body mass loss via reductions in body fat. The performance implications of moderate acute weight loss appear to be small on the ergometer and may be even less on water, at least when aggressive recovery strategies are adopted between weigh-in and racing. Furthermore, any performance implications of acute weight loss are not exacerbated when such weight loss is undertaken repeatedly throughout the course of a regatta, and may even be eliminated when aggressive recovery strategies are introduced before and after racing. The combination of adequate sodium, fluid and carbohydrate in line with current guidelines results in the best performances. While the performance implications of modest acute weight loss may still need to be considered in regard to competition outcome, chronic body mass strategies may not be without performance implications. This is especially the case for athletes who have very low levels of body fat and/or athletes who decrease their body mass too quickly. Further studies are needed to address the degree of weight loss that can be tolerated with minimal health and/or performance implications, and the optimal time frame over which this should occur. Possible adaptation to the physiological state that accompanies acute weight loss also warrants investigation.

  3. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  4. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A; Bateman, Brian T; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500) were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2) was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3) for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3) for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6) among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3) among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. PMID:27010734

  5. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A; Bateman, Brian T; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500) were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2) was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3) for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3) for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6) among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3) among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  6. The top-down mechanism for body-mass-abundance scaling.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, A G; Ishii, R; Amemiya, T; Itoh, K

    2008-02-01

    Scaling relationships between mean body masses and abundances of species in multitrophic communities continue to be a subject of intense research and debate. The top-down mechanism explored in this paper explains the frequently observed inverse linear relationship between body mass and abundance (i.e., constant biomass) in terms of a balancing of resource biomasses by behaviorally and evolutionarily adapting foragers, and the evolutionary response of resources to this foraging pressure. The mechanism is tested using an allometric, multitrophic community model with a complex food web structure. It is a statistical model describing the evolutionary and population dynamics of tens to hundreds of species in a uniform way. Particularities of the model are the detailed representation of the evolution and interaction of trophic traits to reproduce topological food web patterns, prey switching behavior modeled after experimental observations, and the evolutionary adaptation of attack rates. Model structure and design are discussed. For model states comparable to natural communities, we find that (1) the body-mass abundance scaling does not depend on the allometric scaling exponent of physiological rates in the form expected from the energetic equivalence rule or other bottom-up theories; (2) the scaling exponent of abundance as a function of body mass is approximately -1, independent of the allometric exponent for physiological rates assumed; (3) removal of top-down control destroys this pattern, and energetic equivalence is recovered. We conclude that the top-down mechanism is active in the model, and that it is a viable alternative to bottom-up mechanisms for controlling body-mass-abundance relations in natural communities.

  7. Interaction Between Emotion and Memory: Importance of Mammillary Bodies Damage in a Mouse Model of the Alcoholic Korsakoff Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Béracochéa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) can lead to the Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a memory deficiency attributed to diencephalie damage and/or to medial temporal or cortical related dysfunction. The etiology of KS remains unclear. Most animal models of KS involve thiaminedeficient diets associated with pyrithiamine treatment. Here we present a mouse model of CAC-induced KS. We demonstrate that CAC-generated retrieval memory deficits in working/ episodic memory tasks, together with a reduction of fear reactivity, result from damage to the mammillary bodies (MB). Experimental lesions of MB in non-alcoholic mice produced the same memory and emotional impairments. Drugs having anxiogenic-like properties counteract such impairments produced by CAC or by MB lesions. We suggest (a) that MB are the essential components of a brain network underlying emotional processes, which would be critically important in the retrieval processes involved in working/ episodic memory tasks, and (b) that failure to maintain emotional arousal due to MB damage can be a main factor of CAC-induced memory deficits. Overall, our animal model fits well with general neuropsychological and anatomic impairments observed in KS. PMID:16444899

  8. Interaction between emotion and memory: importance of mammillary bodies damage in a mouse model of the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Béracochéa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) can lead to the Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a memory deficiency attributed to diencephalic damage and/or to medial temporal or cortical related dysfunction. The etiology of KS remains unclear. Most animal models of KS involve thiamine-deficient diets associated with pyrithiamine treatment. Here we present a mouse model of CAC-induced KS. We demonstrate that CAC-generated retrieval memory deficits in working/ episodic memory tasks, together with a reduction of fear reactivity, result from damage to the mammillary bodies (MB). Experimental lesions of MB in non-alcoholic mice produced the same memory and emotional impairments. Drugs having anxiogenic-like properties counteract such impairments produced by CAC or by MB lesions. We suggest (a) that MB are the essential components of a brain network underlying emotional processes, which would be critically important in the retrieval processes involved in working/ episodic memory tasks, and (b) that failure to maintain emotional arousal due to MB damage can be a main factor of CAC-induced memory deficits. Overall, our animal model fits well with general neuropsychological and anatomic impairments observed in KS.

  9. Age-related body mass and reproductive measurements of gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Based on 65 free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) of known age and 25 of estimated age examined during summers of 1970-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, body mass of both males and females peaked at 5 or 6 years of age, with mean masses of 40.8 kg and 31.2 kg, respectively. Testis size varied as a function of age and month through at least 8 years of age, with length plus width ranging from 1.9 to 7.8 cm. Most females aged 4-9 years bred based on assessment of nipple sizes; those that had not bred had average lower body mass than those that had. This is the 1st report of such data from known-aged wolves.

  10. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jochimsen, Thies H; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-21

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography--magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of (18)F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41 ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35 ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29 ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  11. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochimsen, Thies H.; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  12. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks. PMID:25471292

  13. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks.

  14. [High-sensitivity analysis of purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we established a high-sensitivity analytical method for purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed with perchloric acid (60%) and subjected to strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (Bond Elut SCX). The four purine bases (hypoxanthine, adenine, xanthine, guanine) in the extracted solution were separated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with TSKgel Amide-80 as a separation column, 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) as mobile phase A, and acetonitrile/100 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) (90/10) as mobile phase B. The detection of purine bases was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with ESI. The linearity of this analytical method was not less than 0.996, and the repeatability was not more than 8.4% for each purine base. The recovery was in the range of 60-105%, and the detection limit was not more than 0.005 mg/100 mL. This established method is expected to be useful for quality control and surveillance of purines in alcoholic beverages.

  15. The accumulation of whole body skeletal mass in third- and fourth-grade children: effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D A; Simpson, P M; Johnson, C C; Barondess, D A; Kleerekoper, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to describe bone mass and body composition, and the annual changes in these measurements, among third grade students recruited from a suburban school district. Whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC), bone mineral density (WBBMD), fat, and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mass in the lumbar spine (LBMC) region of the whole body scan was also utilized. 773 students (38% white, 57% black, 5% other) had baseline visits; 561 had a second measurement a year later. At baseline, black children have significantly higher WBBMC, WBBMD, height, and lean mass than whites. Black males, but not black females, have a greater LBMC. There are no significant gender differences in body size, WBBMC, or WBBMD, although girls have a greater LBMC and fat mass, and boys have a higher lean mass. Most of these differences persist in visit 2. The annual change in bone and lean mass is greater in blacks. Stepwise linear regression analyses of bone mass on body size, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions indicate that log-transformed weight explains most of the variance in both WBBMC and WBBMD (multiple r2 = 0.90 and 0.64, respectively). There are significant black/white differences in intercepts and slopes. Other variables explain only another 1%-2% of the variance. The strongest Pearson correlations are between changes in bone mass and changes in lean mass and log-transformed weight (r ranging from 0.62 to 0.84, p = 0.0001). We conclude that there is a significant black/white, but not male/female difference in whole body bone mass and bone density before puberty. Ethnic and gender differences in bone and body composition suggest that the lean component may contribute to a greater peak bone mass in blacks vs. whites, and perhaps in males vs. females.

  16. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well documented that obesity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated by assessment of body fat and fat-free mass. The objective of this study was to investigate the best indicator to predict the presence of MetS among fat mass index, BMI and percentage of body fat (BF %) and determine its optimal cut-off value in the screening of MetS in practice. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1698 subjects (aged 20–79 years) who participated in the annual health check-ups was employed. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Sex-specific FMI quartiles were defined as follows: Q1: <4.39, Q2:4.39- < 5.65, Q3:5.65- < 7.03, Q4:≥7.03,in men; and Q1:<5.25, Q2:5.25- < 6.33, Q3:6.33- < 7.93,Q4:≥7.93, in women. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The association between FMI quartiles and MetS was assessed using Binary logistic regression. Receiver operating curve(ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff points for BMI,BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve(AUC),sensitivity and specificity in men and women. Results The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for the presence of MetS in the highest FMI quartile versus lowest quartile were 79.143(21.243-294.852) for men( P < 0.01) and 52.039(4.144-653.436) for women( P < 0.01) after adjusting age, BMI, BF%, TC, LDL, CRP, smoking status and exercise status, and the odds ratios were 9.166(2.157-38.952) for men( P < 0.01) and 25.574(1.945-336.228) for women( P < 0.05) when WC was also added into the adjustment. It was determined that BMI values of 27.45 and 23.85 kg/m2, BF% of 23.95% and 31.35% and FMI of 7

  17. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity.

  18. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices.

  19. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  20. Improving the precision of our ecosystem calipers: a modified morphometric technique for estimating marine mammal mass and body composition.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Pearson, Linnea E; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal's measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only -2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient.

  1. Improving the Precision of Our Ecosystem Calipers: A Modified Morphometric Technique for Estimating Marine Mammal Mass and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shero, Michelle R.; Pearson, Linnea E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal’s measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only −2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient. PMID:24614685

  2. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  3. Bone mass of Spanish school children: impact of anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors.

    PubMed

    Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Canal-Macias, Maria Luz; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Trinidad; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present reference curves for this population. Healthy children (n = 245), aged 4-16 years, were included (124 girls and 121 boys). Phalangeal and calcaneal QUS measurements were performed using DBM Sonic Bone Profiler and McCue CUBA Clinical ultrasound devices, respectively. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated by anthropometric methods. Fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass (FFM) and total body water (TBWater) were evaluated by bioelectrical impedance measurements using a Holtain body composition analyzer. Food intake was evaluated by a 7-day food record. A gender analysis revealed that Ad-SoS and BUA parameters increased significantly with age and that both positively correlated with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM and TBWater. For both genders, Ad-SoS showed significant and positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM, BUA and TBWater.

  4. The extinct, giant giraffid Sivatherium giganteum: skeletal reconstruction and body mass estimation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sivatherium giganteum is an extinct giraffid from the Plio–Pleistocene boundary of the Himalayan foothills. To date, there has been no rigorous skeletal reconstruction of this unusual mammal. Historical and contemporary accounts anecdotally state that Sivatherium rivalled the African elephant in terms of its body mass, but this statement has never been tested. Here, we present a three-dimensional composite skeletal reconstruction and calculate a representative body mass estimate for this species using a volumetric method. We find that the estimated adult body mass of 1246 kg (857—1812 kg range) does not approach that of an African elephant, but confirms that Sivatherium was certainly a large giraffid, and may have been the largest ruminant mammal that has ever existed. We contrast this volumetric estimate with a bivariate scaling estimate derived from Sivatherium's humeral circumference and find that there is a discrepancy between the two. The difference implies that the humeral circumference of Sivatherium is greater than expected for an animal of this size, and we speculate this may be linked to a cranial shift in centre of mass. PMID:26763212

  5. Lead and arsenic levels in women with different body mass composition.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Gutierrez, Yareni; Gras, Nuri; Muñoz, Luis; Salazar, Gabriela; Llanos, Miguel N

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) levels in biological fluids were associated to the body composition in a group of reproductive-age women. Voluntary childbearing-age women (n = 107) were divided into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI: weight/height(2) (kg/m(2)): low weight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal (BMI > 19 < 24·9 kg/m²), and overweight (BMI>25 kg/m(2)). Body composition and fat mass percentage were determined by the isotopic dilution method utilizing deuterated water. Blood lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and urinary arsenic (AsU) concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The type and frequency of food consumption and lifestyle-related factors were also registered. Most women had PbB levels > 2 < 10μ g/dl, and only 2.6% had AsU concentrations above 50 microg/L. The levels of these toxic elements were not found to be associated with the fat mass percentage.

  6. Estimating lean mass over a wide range of body composition: a calibration of deuterium dilution in the arctic ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Trixie N; Fridinger, Robert W; Barnes, Brian M; Loren Buck, C; O'Brien, Diane M

    2011-12-15

    Calculating body water through isotope dilution has become a useful way to nondestructively estimate body composition in many species. The most accurate estimates using this method require calibration against proximate chemical analysis of body composition for individual species, but no studies to our knowledge have calibrated this method on a hibernating mammal that seasonally undergoes dramatic changes in body composition. We use deuterium oxide to estimate total body water in captive arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, and compare two approaches of calculating lean mass from total body water, both calibrated against lean mass based on proximate analysis. The first method uses a single tissue hydration constant to calculate lean mass from total body water; the second method uses a predictive equation to calculate lean mass from total body water and body mass. We found that the predictive equation performs better over the large range of body composition common to this species. Distillation of blood samples did not affect lean mass estimates from either calculation method. These findings indicate that isotope dilution using a predictive equation should work well as an alternative to destructive methods in other small mammals that undergo radical changes in body composition across their annual cycle.

  7. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass.

    PubMed

    Francaux, M; Poortmans, J R

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of creatine supplement on the size of the extra- and intracellular compartments and on the increase of isokinetic force during a strength training-program. Twenty-five healthy male subjects (age 22.0+/-2.9 years) participated in this experiment. Seven subjects formed the control-group. They did not complete any training and did not have any dietary supplement. The eighteen other subjects were randomly divided into a creatine- (n = 8) and a placebo-group (n = 10). They were submitted to a controlled strength-training program for 42 days followed by a detraining period of 21 days. Creatine and placebo were given over a period of 9 weeks. The size of the body water compartments was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy and the isokinetic force was determined during a single squat by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. These measurements were completed beforehand, at the end of the training period, and after the determining period. Both placebo- and creatine-group increased the isokinetic force by about 6% after the training period, showing that creatine ingestion does not induce a higher increase of the force measured during a single movement. No change in body mass was observed in the control- and placebo-groups during the entire experiment period while the body mass of the creatine-group was increased by 2 kg (P < 0.001). This change can be attributed partially to an increase (P = 0.039) in the body water content (+1.11), and more specifically, to an increase (P < 0.001) in the volume of the inter-cellular compartment (+0.61). Nevertheless, the relative volumes of the body water compartments remained constant and therefore the gain in body mass cannot be attributed to water retention, but probably to dry matter growth accompanied with a normal water volume. PMID:10408330

  8. Diet and body mass of wintering ducks in adjacent brackish and freshwater habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Burns, E.G.; Wickland, B.E.; Eadie, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Field-collected and hunter-donated ducks obtained during September-January of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were used to determine if food habits and body mass of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) wintering in Suisun Marsh (Suisun), California, a managed estuarine brackish marsh, differed from values in the adjacent Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), a freshwater region of grain fields flooded after harvest. Ducks in Suisun fed primarily on seeds of Sea Purslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), followed by Alkali Bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and Wild Millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), together forming 73-90% (aggregate % dry mass) of the diets. Ducks in the Delta fed primarily on seeds of Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), followed by corn (Zea mays) and tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum), together forming 62-88% of the diets. Pintails and Mallards collected in Suisun each had similar (5 of 11 seasonal comparisons) or greater (6 of the 11 comparisons) body mass compared to their conspecifics collected from the Delta (90% confidence interval analyses), despite a composite diet in the Delta having about 39% greater metabolizable energy content (ME) and 24% greater protein content than in Suisun. Therefore, diet quality alone was not a predictor of body mass in these two areas. Other factors must have been involved, such as greater food abundance and density, lower waterfowl abundance and density, or lower daily energy costs in Suisun. Direct measurement of these factors should explain the apparent inconsistencies in body mass relative to food quality in these brackish and freshwater habitats.

  9. Interactions between mecamylamine and alcohol in Long-Evans rats: flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, behavior, and blood alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Bauer, Alison M

    2013-06-01

    Mecamylamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, has many potential clinical applications, including treating alcohol dependency. However, little is known about the combined effects of mecamylamine and alcohol on visual system electrophysiology. We examined the separate and combined effects of mecamylamine (4.0mg/kg, ip) and alcohol (2.0 g/kg, ip) on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC) and superior colliculus (SC) of chronically implanted adult male Long-Evans rats. On separate days, either saline or mecamylamine was given 10 min prior to either saline or ethanol. FEPs were recorded 15 and 30 min after the second injection. In the VC, alcohol significantly decreased the amplitudes of components P23, N29, N39, P89, N143, and P237, but increased P46. N63 amplitude was not significantly altered. In contrast, mecamylamine increased the amplitude of P23, P46, and N63, but reduced the amplitude of N29 and P237. The combination of mecamylamine and alcohol resulted in amplitudes very similar to alcohol alone for components P23, N29, N63, P89, N143, and P237. However, mecamylamine pretreatment reduced the effects of alcohol on components N39 and P46. In the SC, FEP component amplitudes were generally decreased by alcohol but not significantly altered by mecamylamine. Mecamylamine pretreatment did not significantly alter the effects of alcohol on SC amplitudes. Latencies of nearly all components in both structures were significantly increased by all drug treatments, with the greatest increase produced by the combination treatment. Hypothermia was also produced by all drug treatments, with the greatest hypothermia (2.25 °C) produced by the combination treatment, most likely accounting for much of the drug-induced increase in latencies. All drug treatments reduced movement during FEP testing, but later in an open field alcohol increased ambulation while mecamylamine reduced movement. Separate groups of

  10. Preparing oxidized fractions of polyvinyl alcohol of a given molecular mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of two oxidizers (an oxygen-ozone mixture and hydrogen peroxide) on the kinetics of the oxidative degradation of polyvinyl alcohol in aqueous solutions is studied. Degradation of the polymer is proved not only by a reduction in the weight of oxidized fractions, but in the intrinsic viscosity of their aqueous solutions as well (and thus the average molecular weight of the resulting fractions). It is shown that the degree of the destructive reactions of polyvinyl alcohol grows along with the duration of the process, increasing the initial concentrations of H2O2 and raising the temperature. These results can be used in obtaining oxidized fractions of polyvinyl alcohol that have predetermined molecular weights.

  11. Extreme negative temperatures and body mass loss in the Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii, amphibia, hynobiidae).

    PubMed

    Berman, D I; Meshcheryakova, E N; Bulakhova, N A

    2016-05-01

    Frozen Siberian salamander safely tolerates long (45 days) stay at-35°C. Short-term (3 days) cooling down to-50°C was tolerable for 40% of adult individuals; down to-55°C, for 80% of the underyearlings. Generally, the salamanders lose about 28% of the body mass during the pre-hibernating period (before winter, at temperatures as low as 0°C) and during the process of freezing (as low as-5°C). The body weight remained constant upon further cooling (to-35°C). The frozen salamanders have no physiological mechanisms protecting from sublimation. PMID:27411827

  12. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  13. Structure, corrosion behavior and mechanical property of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol) composite in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Suo, Jinping; Zou, Peng; Jia, Lintao; Wang, Shifang

    2010-01-01

    The data for long-term drug-delivery systems are scarce compared to the short-term systems because the required research efforts are more time-consuming. In this study, we report a novel cross-linked composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing cupric ions for long-term delivery, which is helpful for contraception and trace element balance in the human body. The composition, corrosion products, crystal structure, chemical structure and mechanical stability of the composite, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for one year, were studied by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and mechanical testing. The results show that no other new elements, such as P, Cl and Ca, appear on the surface of the composite and no Cu(2)O was formed after immersion in SBF for one year. The effectiveness of copper can be greatly improved and the side-effects caused by these compounds might also be eliminated. Furthermore, this novel composite exhibits long-term mechanical stability in SBF. The present in vitro long-term data suggest that this novel copper-containing composite may serve as a substitute for conventional materials of copper-containing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) and as a carrier for controlled-release material in a variety of other applications.

  14. A simulated insect diet as a water source for quail: effects on body mass and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, W M; Lutz, R S; Patiño, R

    1995-06-01

    Compared with control birds receiving ad libitum free-water, the total water intake of male and female northern bobwhite declined when only mealworms were available as a source of water. Male northern bobwhite sustained tissue mass and reproductive function with mealworms as their only source of water. Female northern bobwhite could not sustain body, ovary, and oviduct mass, and rate of egg production with mealworms as their only source of water. We suggest that, without free-water, breeding females require a diet with a water:dry matter ratio of greater than 1:1.29 (> 44% water).

  15. HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH RELATIVELY LOWER LEAN BODY MASS IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    KALYANI, RITA R.; TRA, Y.; EGAN, J.M.; FERRUCCI, L.; BRANCATI, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults with known diabetes are vulnerable to accelerated loss of lean body mass. However, the relationship of hyperglycemia per se with lean body mass is not fully understood. We sought to examine the independent relationship of hyperglycemia with relative lean body mass in older persons without a reported history of diabetes. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting United States. Participants We studied U.S. adults >50 years without known diabetes (n=5434) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Measurements In linear regression models, we studied the relationship of measured HbA1c (<5.0%, 5.0–5.4%, 5.5–5.9%, 6.0–6.4%, ≥6.5%) with percent lean body mass, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, after accounting for potential confounders. Results Among older U.S. men and women, progressively higher HbA1c was associated with relatively lower total, appendicular, and trunk percent lean mass, independent of demographics and height (all p<0.05). Accounting for physical activity, C-reactive protein, and diabetes-related comorbidities (heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, arthritis, neuropathy, hip fracture, amputation, cancer, pulmonary disease), undiagnosed diabetes (i.e. HbA1c ≥6.5%) versus reference (<5.0%) in both men and women was associated with lower total (−3.5±0.8% and −2.9±0.8%), appendicular (−1.8±0.5% and −1.2±0.4%), and trunk percent lean mass (−1.2±0.4% and −1.3±0.5%), respectively (all p<0.05). Persons at increased risk for diabetes (i.e. HbA1c 6.0–6.4%) also had significant decrements at these sites versus reference. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is associated with relatively lower lean mass in a nationally representative population of older adults without history of diabetes. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of hyperglycemia with the accelerated decline of skeletal muscle mass in older persons

  16. Flight speed and body mass of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaginae) during foraging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Y

    1999-07-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that minimum power (Vmp) and maximum range (Vmr) flight speeds increase when the body mass of an individual animal increases. To evaluate whether foraging bats regulate their flight speed within a fixed speed category relative to Vmp or Vmr, I investigated how the natural daily changes in body mass caused by feeding affected the flight speed of neotropical nectar-feeding bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) within a strictly defined, stereotyped behavioural context. Individual bats were maintained in a flight tunnel (lengths of five different types 14-50 m) with a fully automated feeding, weighing (using an electronic balance at the roost) and flight speed measuring system. Flight speeds were measured during normal nocturnal foraging activity by an undisturbed bat while it flew between the two ends of the flight tunnel to obtain food from two computer-controlled nectar-feeders. For a comparison of flight enclosure measurements with field data, flight speeds were also obtained from unrestrained bats foraging in their natural environment (Costa Rica). Foraging flight speeds spanned a range of at least a factor 3 within a single species, which demonstrates the wide range of speeds possible to these animals. Significant, positive correlations between flight speed and the natural individual variability in body mass were found in nearly all cases, with body mass exponents ranging between 0.44 and 2.1. Bats flying at normal speeds were therefore not near their upper limit of muscle power. The most reliable measurements of speed increase with mass (with individual mass changes of up to 30%) were close to the increase theoretically predicted for Vmp and Vmr for an individual bat (with constant wing span and area), which should vary as M0.42, where M is mass. This provides evidence that the glossophagine bats attemped to maintain their flight speed within a fixed speed category relative to Vmp or Vmr during foraging. Among differently sized

  17. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals at 2.0 g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is postulated that augmentation of gravitational loading should produce a shift in the classic Kleiber mammalian allometric relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass by an increase in both these parameters. Oxygen consumption rate and body mass measurements of 10 male rabbits 8 months of age were obtained initially for 1.0 g, and then over a 9-week period of chronic centrifugation at 2.0 g. Analysis of covariance showed that the positioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17 percent from that at 1.0 g at the P less than 0.001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8 percent at the P = 0.008 level. It is concluded that abatement of gravitational loading in spaceflight will result in a lowering of both allometric parameters.

  18. Generalized flyby trajectories around elongated minor celestial bodies as a rotating mass dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Fang, Baodong; Li, Junfeng; Yu, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand the common characteristics of the generalized flyby trajectory around natural elongated bodies. Such flyby trajectories provide a short-term mechanism to clear away vicinal objects or temporally capture ejecta into circling orbits. The gravitational potential of elongated bodies is described by a unified approximate model, i.e., the rotating mass dipole which is two point masses connected with a constant massless rod. The energy power is used to illustrate the flyby effect in terms of the instantaneous orbital energy. The essential of the single flyby trajectory is studied analytically, and the relationship between the flyby trajectory and its Jacobi integral is also illustrated. Sample trajectories are given to show the variational trend of the energy increment with respect to different orbital periapsides. The distribution of natural ejecting orbits is presented by varying the parameters of the approximate model.

  19. Correlates of video game screen time among males: body mass, physical activity, and other media use.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Mary; Gray, Melissa; Reilly, Jenny; Noggle, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the correlations between media use, body mass variables, and physical activity among 116 male undergraduates (white n=106; African American n=5, Latin American n=1, Asian American n=2, and 2 others). Length of video game play during one sitting was positively related to body mass index (BMI; r=.27, p<.01) and negatively correlated with frequency of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05) and days of walking (r=-.22, p<.05). Frequency of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercising (r=-.21, p<.05). Years of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05). These results were stronger among those who play online games. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video game use predicted BMI, accounting for 6.9% of the variance. The implications of the results are discussed. PMID:19665099

  20. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  1. Reference values of body mass at. birth among native northern population of Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershubsky, Galina; Kozlov, Andrew

    2002-08-01

    Infants with body mass at birth deviating from the mean values exhibit higher level of mortality. The absence of the expressed phenotype deviations refers to the preservation and heredity of the most adopted genotypes (reference values). The newborns out of the adaptive norm are morbidity-prone. The reference value for body mass at birth was studied in the indegenous populations of the Kola Peninsula, Siberia, Far East and the Urals. By our data the Arctic Saami and the Far East Nanais show the reference values more distinct from other. Lasting (many-centuries-long) adaptation to specific environmental conditions leads to development of a special phenotype complex. The Saami and Nanais are the most representative populations of the arctic and the monsoon climate zones. Accordingly, the parameters of reference values of their newborns are significantly different from the characteristics of the infants of the moderate climate zone.

  2. Interspecies comparisons of plasma half-life of trimethoprim in relation to body mass.

    PubMed

    Pashov, D A; Lashev, L D; Matev, I B; Kanelov, I N

    1997-02-01

    The relationship between body mass and plasma half-life of trimethoprim was studied in 10 different species of animals and man using published data. Log half-life was positively and significantly correlated to log body mass based on individual measurements in herbivorous animals (n = 23, P < 0.01), in herbivorous animals+pigs (n = 29, P < 0.01), in ungulates (n = 27, P < 0.01), in ruminants (n = 16, P < 0.01) and in non-herbivorous mammals, except pigs (n = 6, P < 0.05). The correlation was described by the allometric equations: t 1/2 beta = 27 W0.26 in herbivorous animals and t 1/2 beta = 125 W0.32 in non-herbivorous animals except pigs. PMID:9049949

  3. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  4. Body fat and fat-free mass inter-relationships: Forbes's theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical equation was developed by Forbes that quantifies the fat-free proportion of a weight change as a function of the initial body fat. However, Forbes's equation was strictly valid only for infinitesimal weight changes. Here, I extended Forbes's equation to account for the magnitude and direction of macroscopic body weight changes. The new equation was also re-expressed in terms of an alternative representation of body composition change defined by an energy partitioning parameter called the P-ratio. The predictions of the resulting equations compared favourably with data from human underfeeding and overfeeding experiments and accounted for previously unexplained trends in the data. The magnitude of the body weight change had a relatively weak effect on the predicted body composition changes and the results were very similar to Forbes's original equation for modest weight changes. However, for large weight changes, such as the massive weight losses found in patients following bariatric surgery, Forbes's original equation consistently underestimated the fat-free mass loss, as expected. The new equation that accounts for the magnitude of the weight loss provides better predictions of body composition changes in such patients.

  5. Method Development for the Determination of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) have been widely studied as precursors to perfluorocarboxylates, e.g. 8:2 FTOH degrades to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation describes an analytical method for the extraction and analysis of 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOHs. Gas chromatograph...

  6. The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-09-01

    1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results

  7. The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-09-01

    1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results

  8. Multivariate heredity of melanin-based coloration, body mass and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Fargallo, J A; Vergara, P; Martínez-Padilla, J

    2013-08-01

    The genetic covariation among different traits may cause the appearance of correlated response to selection on multivariate phenotypes. Genes responsible for the expression of melanin-based color traits are also involved in other important physiological functions such as immunity and metabolism by pleiotropy, suggesting the possibility of multivariate evolution. However, little is known about the relationship between melanin coloration and these functions at the additive genetic level in wild vertebrates. From a multivariate perspective, we simultaneously explored inheritance and selection of melanin coloration, body mass and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-mediated immune response by using long-term data over an 18-year period collected in a wild population of the common kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Pedigree-based quantitative genetic analyses showed negative genetic covariance between melanin-based coloration and body mass in male adults and positive genetic covariance between body mass and PHA-mediated immune response in fledglings as predicted by pleiotropic effects of melanocortin receptor activity. Multiple selection analyses showed an increased fitness in male adults with intermediate phenotypic values for melanin color and body mass. In male fledglings, there was evidence for a disruptive selection on rump gray color, but a stabilizing selection on PHA-mediated immune response. Our results provide an insight into the evolution of multivariate traits genetically related with melanin-based coloration. The differences in multivariate inheritance and selection between male and female kestrels might have resulted in sexual dimorphism in size and color. When pleiotropic effects are present, coloration can evolve through a complex pathway involving correlated response to selection on multivariate traits.

  9. Estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Khor, G L; Merlin, A; Bahaman, A S; Norimah, K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents. PMID:16708734

  10. Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…

  11. Magnetically induced vagal nerve stimulation and food intake and body mass in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Ziomber, Agata; Zaraska, Wiesław; Bugajski, Andrzej; Thor, Piotr J

    2005-01-01

    Electrostimulation of vagal nerve (VNS) by microchip (MC) with magnetic field energy supply may "mimic" the physiological output associated with gastric mechanoreceptors activation by food and lead to decrease in food intake and subsequently decrease in weight gain. Vago-vagal reflexes in growing animals seems to be mainly responsible for meal size regulation and other compensatory (hormonal or neural) mechanisms prevent from decrease in body mass.

  12. Differences in Dietary Patterns among College Students According to Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong; Zhong, Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors surveyed 557 undergraduate students aged 18-56 years to assess weight status, health behaviors, and dietary variety. Methods: They used body mass index (BMI) to divide students into 4 weight categories: underweight (BMI less than 19 kg/m2), healthy weight (19 kg/m2 to 24.99 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 to…

  13. Alcohol-induced autophagy contributes to loss in skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Samjhana; Runkana, Ashok; McMullen, Megan R; Nagy, Laura E; McDonald, Christine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2014-04-01

    Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis have severe muscle loss. Since ethanol impairs skeletal muscle protein synthesis but does not increase ubiquitin proteasome-mediated proteolysis, we investigated whether alcohol-induced autophagy contributes to muscle loss. Autophagy induction was studied in: A) Human skeletal muscle biopsies from alcoholic cirrhotics and controls, B) Gastrocnemius muscle from ethanol and pair-fed mice, and C) Ethanol-exposed murine C2C12 myotubes, by examining the expression of autophagy markers assessed by immunoblotting and real-time PCR. Expression of autophagy genes and markers were increased in skeletal muscle from humans and ethanol-fed mice, and in myotubes following ethanol exposure. Importantly, pulse-chase experiments showed suppression of myotube proteolysis upon ethanol-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA) and not by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Correspondingly, ethanol-treated C2C12 myotubes stably expressing GFP-LC3B showed increased autophagy flux as measured by accumulation of GFP-LC3B vesicles with confocal microscopy. The ethanol-induced increase in LC3B lipidation was reversed upon knockdown of Atg7, a critical autophagy gene and was associated with reversal of the ethanol-induced decrease in myotube diameter. Consistently, CT image analysis of muscle area in alcoholic cirrhotics was significantly reduced compared with control subjects. In order to determine whether ethanol per se or its metabolic product, acetaldehyde, stimulates autophagy, C2C12 myotubes were treated with ethanol in the presence of the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor (4-methylpyrazole) or the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor (cyanamide). LC3B lipidation increased with acetaldehyde treatment and increased further with the addition of cyanamide. We conclude that muscle autophagy is increased by ethanol exposure and contributes to sarcopenia.

  14. Apparent height and body mass index influence perceived leadership ability in three-dimensional faces.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Dzhelyova, Milena; Holzleitner, Iris J; Tigue, Cara C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance has a well-documented effect on perceived leadership ability. Face judgments of leadership ability predict political election outcomes across the world, and similar judgments of business CEOs predict company profits. Body height is also associated with leadership ability, with taller people attaining positions of leadership more than their shorter counterparts in both politics and in the corporate world. Previous studies have found some face characteristics that are associated with leadership judgments, however there have been no studies with three-dimensional faces. We assessed which facial characteristics drive leadership judgments in three-dimensional faces. We found a perceptual relationship between height and leadership ability. We also found that facial maturity correlated with leadership judgments, and that faces of people with an unhealthily high body mass index received lower leadership ratings. We conclude that face attributes associated with body size and maturity alter leadership perception, and may influence real-world democratic leadership selection.

  15. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  16. Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sallan, Lauren; Galimberti, Andrew K

    2015-11-13

    Following the end-Devonian mass extinction (359 million years ago), vertebrates experienced persistent reductions in body size for at least 36 million years. Global shrinkage was not related to oxygen or temperature, which suggests that ecological drivers played a key role in determining the length and direction of size trends. Small, fast-breeding ray-finned fishes, sharks, and tetrapods, most under 1 meter in length from snout to tail, radiated to dominate postextinction ecosystems and vertebrae biodiversity. The few large-bodied, slow-breeding survivors failed to diversify, facing extinction despite earlier evolutionary success. Thus, the recovery interval resembled modern ecological successions in terms of active selection on size and related life histories. Disruption of global vertebrate, and particularly fish, biotas may commonly lead to widespread, long-term reduction in body size, structuring future biodiversity. PMID:26564854

  17. A 3-year longitudinal analysis of changes in Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Aires, L; Mendonça, D; Silva, G; Gaya, A R; Santos, M P; Ribeiro, J C; Mota, J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether Physical Activity Index (PAI), Physical Fitness, Screen Time (watching TV and computer use), Socio-economic Status and Commuting to School made a significant contribution to longitudinal changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) in youth. This longitudinal study was carried out over a period of 3 years with 345 students (147 boys) who were between 11 and 16 years old at the beginning of the study. Students were invited to perform tests from FITNESSGRAM Battery for Curl-Ups, Push-Ups, Back-Saver Sit and Reach, and 20 m Shuttle-Run (CRF). Fitness tests were categorized in "Healthy Zone" (HZ) and "Under Healthy Zone" (UHZ), PAI in "less active" and "active"; Socio-economic Status, in low, middle and high education level, and Commuting in active and passive. BMI was corrected for age and gender meaning that we subtracted the age-and-sex-specific cut points for overweight. Corrected body mass index was used as dependent variable in a Linear Mixed Model. The main result was the strong positive and independent association of individuals with CRF performances UHZ with corrected body mass index. In conclusion, the results of this longitudinal study showed markedly an important relationship of lower fitness levels with the risk of being overweight/obese, in particular CRF and abdominal strength.

  18. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.

  19. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Harding, Ann M A; Welcker, Jorg; Steen, Harald; Hamer, Keith C; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Fort, Jérôme; Talbot, Sandra L; Cornick, Leslie A; Karnovsky, Nina J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Grémillet, David

    2011-09-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species.

  20. Competition, virulence, host body mass and the diversification of macro-parasites.

    PubMed

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive speciation has been much debated in recent years, with a strong emphasis on how competition can lead to the diversification of ecological and sexual traits. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to this evolutionary process to explain intrahost diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to look at the effect of key features of the parasite lifestyle, namely fragmentation, aggregation and virulence, on the conditions and rate of sympatric speciation under the standard 'pleiotropic scenario'. The conditions for competitive speciation were found similar to those for non-parasite species, but not the rate of diversification. Adaptive evolution proceeds faster in highly fragmented parasite populations and for weakly aggregated and virulent parasites. Combining these theoretical results with standard empirical allometric relationships, we showed that parasite diversification can be faster in host species of intermediate body mass. The increase in parasite load with body mass, indeed, fuels evolution by increasing mutants production, but because of the deleterious effect of virulence, it simultaneously weakens selection for resource specialization. Those two antagonistic effects lead to optimal parasite burden and host body mass for diversification. Data on the diversity of fishes' gills parasites were found consistent with the existence of such optimum.

  1. Evolutionary food web model based on body masses gives realistic networks with permanent species turnover.

    PubMed

    Allhoff, K T; Ritterskamp, D; Rall, B C; Drossel, B; Guill, C

    2015-06-04

    The networks of predator-prey interactions in ecological systems are remarkably complex, but nevertheless surprisingly stable in terms of long term persistence of the system as a whole. In order to understand the mechanism driving the complexity and stability of such food webs, we developed an eco-evolutionary model in which new species emerge as modifications of existing ones and dynamic ecological interactions determine which species are viable. The food-web structure thereby emerges from the dynamical interplay between speciation and trophic interactions. The proposed model is less abstract than earlier evolutionary food web models in the sense that all three evolving traits have a clear biological meaning, namely the average body mass of the individuals, the preferred prey body mass, and the width of their potential prey body mass spectrum. We observed networks with a wide range of sizes and structures and high similarity to natural food webs. The model networks exhibit a continuous species turnover, but massive extinction waves that affect more than 50% of the network are not observed.

  2. Covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and body mass only under specific conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-03-01

    Identifying the factors that mediate covariation between an ornament and other phenotypic attributes is important to determine the signaling function of ornaments. Sign and magnitude of a covariation may vary across environments if the expression of the ornament or of its linked genes regulating correlated phenotypes is condition-dependent. I investigated in the barn owl Tyto alba whether sign and magnitude of covariation between body mass and two heritable melanin-based plumage ornaments change with food supply, along the reproductive cycle and from the morning to the evening. Using a dataset of 1,848 measurements of body mass in 336 breeding females, I found that females displaying large black spots were heavier than conspecifics with smaller spots in the afternoon (i.e., a long time after the last feeding) but not in the morning (i.e., a short time after the last feeding). This is consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis that eumelanin-based ornaments are associated with the ability to maintain energy balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Thus, covariation between melanin-based coloration and body mass can be detected only under specific conditions potentially explaining why it has been reported in only ten out of 28 vertebrate species. The proposition that ornamented individuals achieve a higher fitness than drab conspecifics only in specific environments should be tested for other ornaments.

  3. Evolutionary food web model based on body masses gives realistic networks with permanent species turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allhoff, K. T.; Ritterskamp, D.; Rall, B. C.; Drossel, B.; Guill, C.

    2015-06-01

    The networks of predator-prey interactions in ecological systems are remarkably complex, but nevertheless surprisingly stable in terms of long term persistence of the system as a whole. In order to understand the mechanism driving the complexity and stability of such food webs, we developed an eco-evolutionary model in which new species emerge as modifications of existing ones and dynamic ecological interactions determine which species are viable. The food-web structure thereby emerges from the dynamical interplay between speciation and trophic interactions. The proposed model is less abstract than earlier evolutionary food web models in the sense that all three evolving traits have a clear biological meaning, namely the average body mass of the individuals, the preferred prey body mass, and the width of their potential prey body mass spectrum. We observed networks with a wide range of sizes and structures and high similarity to natural food webs. The model networks exhibit a continuous species turnover, but massive extinction waves that affect more than 50% of the network are not observed.

  4. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Correlation and prediction of dynamic human isolated joint strength from lean body mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Abhilash K.; Hasson, Scott M.; Aldridge, Ann M.; Maida, James C.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    A relationship between a person's lean body mass and the amount of maximum torque that can be produced with each isolated joint of the upper extremity was investigated. The maximum dynamic isolated joint torque (upper extremity) on 14 subjects was collected using a dynamometer multi-joint testing unit. These data were reduced to a table of coefficients of second degree polynomials, computed using a least squares regression method. All the coefficients were then organized into look-up tables, a compact and convenient storage/retrieval mechanism for the data set. Data from each joint, direction and velocity, were normalized with respect to that joint's average and merged into files (one for each curve for a particular joint). Regression was performed on each one of these files to derive a table of normalized population curve coefficients for each joint axis, direction, and velocity. In addition, a regression table which included all upper extremity joints was built which related average torque to lean body mass for an individual. These two tables are the basis of the regression model which allows the prediction of dynamic isolated joint torques from an individual's lean body mass.

  6. Competition, virulence, host body mass and the diversification of macro-parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive speciation has been much debated in recent years, with a strong emphasis on how competition can lead to the diversification of ecological and sexual traits. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to this evolutionary process to explain intrahost diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to look at the effect of key features of the parasite lifestyle, namely fragmentation, aggregation and virulence, on the conditions and rate of sympatric speciation under the standard ‘pleiotropic scenario’. The conditions for competitive speciation were found similar to those for non-parasite species, but not the rate of diversification. Adaptive evolution proceeds faster in highly fragmented parasite populations and for weakly aggregated and virulent parasites. Combining these theoretical results with standard empirical allometric relationships, we showed that parasite diversification can be faster in host species of intermediate body mass. The increase in parasite load with body mass, indeed, fuels evolution by increasing mutants production, but because of the deleterious effect of virulence, it simultaneously weakens selection for resource specialization. Those two antagonistic effects lead to optimal parasite burden and host body mass for diversification. Data on the diversity of fishes' gills parasites were found consistent with the existence of such optimum. PMID:24522783

  7. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Scott Gayzik, F

    2016-10-01

    Biofidelity response corridors developed from post-mortem human subjects are commonly used in the design and validation of anthropomorphic test devices and computational human body models (HBMs). Typically, corridors are derived from a diverse pool of biomechanical data and later normalized to a target body habitus. The objective of this study was to use morphed computational HBMs to compare the ability of various scaling techniques to scale response data from a reference to a target anthropometry. HBMs are ideally suited for this type of study since they uphold the assumptions of equal density and modulus that are implicit in scaling method development. In total, six scaling procedures were evaluated, four from the literature (equal-stress equal-velocity, ESEV, and three variations of impulse momentum) and two which are introduced in the paper (ESEV using a ratio of effective masses, ESEV-EffMass, and a kinetic energy approach). In total, 24 simulations were performed, representing both pendulum and full body impacts for three representative HBMs. These simulations were quantitatively compared using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO-TS18571 standard. Based on these results, ESEV-EffMass achieved the highest overall similarity score (indicating that it is most proficient at scaling a reference response to a target). Additionally, ESEV was found to perform poorly for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) systems. However, the results also indicated that no single technique was clearly the most appropriate for all scenarios.

  8. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Scott Gayzik, F

    2016-10-01

    Biofidelity response corridors developed from post-mortem human subjects are commonly used in the design and validation of anthropomorphic test devices and computational human body models (HBMs). Typically, corridors are derived from a diverse pool of biomechanical data and later normalized to a target body habitus. The objective of this study was to use morphed computational HBMs to compare the ability of various scaling techniques to scale response data from a reference to a target anthropometry. HBMs are ideally suited for this type of study since they uphold the assumptions of equal density and modulus that are implicit in scaling method development. In total, six scaling procedures were evaluated, four from the literature (equal-stress equal-velocity, ESEV, and three variations of impulse momentum) and two which are introduced in the paper (ESEV using a ratio of effective masses, ESEV-EffMass, and a kinetic energy approach). In total, 24 simulations were performed, representing both pendulum and full body impacts for three representative HBMs. These simulations were quantitatively compared using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO-TS18571 standard. Based on these results, ESEV-EffMass achieved the highest overall similarity score (indicating that it is most proficient at scaling a reference response to a target). Additionally, ESEV was found to perform poorly for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) systems. However, the results also indicated that no single technique was clearly the most appropriate for all scenarios. PMID:27457051

  9. Influence of training, sex, age and body mass on the energy cost of running.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, M; Pastene, J; Germain, M; Lacour, J R

    1993-01-01

    To highlight the influences of age, sex, body mass (mb) and running training on the energy cost of running (Cr) young basketball players [38 boys (BB) and 14 girls (BG), aged 14.2 (SD 0.3) and 12.2 (SD 1.9) years, respectively] were selected to be compared to middle-distance runners [27 men (MR) and 14 women (FR) aged 23.7 (SD 3.4) and 23.9 (SD 4.1) years, respectively]. The Cr was measured during a maximal treadmill test. In each group Cr and body mass (mb) and body height were negatively and significantly correlated. A stepwise regression showed that among both the body dimensions measured, mb was the most important factor in determining the variations of Cr. For the whole group (n = 93) the correlation coefficient was 0.72 (P < 0.0001). For a given mb, there was no significant difference between the Cr of BG, BB and MR: this result would support the hypothesis that the differences in Cr currently attributed to age, running training or sex differences are mainly related to mb. On the other hand, for a given mb, FR showed a significantly lower Cr than the basketball players (P < 0.01 for BG and BB) and than MR (P < 0.05), thus suggesting that women decrease their Cr as a response to running training more efficiently than do men.

  10. Effect of body mass and midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during basketball landing manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Nin, Darren Z; Lam, Wing K; Kong, Pui W

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of body mass and shoe midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during the performance of three basketball movements: (1) the first and landing steps of layup, (2) shot-blocking landing and (3) drop landing. Thirty male basketball players, assigned into "heavy" (n = 15, mass 82.7 ± 4.3 kg) or "light" (n = 15, mass 63.1 ± 2.8 kg) groups, performed five trials of each movement in three identical shoes of varying midsole hardness (soft, medium, hard). Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during landing was sampled using multiple wooden-top force plates. Perceptual responses on five variables (forefoot cushioning, rearfoot cushioning, forefoot stability, rearfoot stability and overall comfort) were rated after each movement condition using a 150-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Body Mass × Shoe) was applied to all kinetic and perceptual variables. During the first step of the layup, the loading rate associated with rearfoot contact was 40.7% higher in the "heavy" than "light" groups (P = .014) and 12.4% higher in hard compared with soft shoes (P = .011). Forefoot peak VGRF in a soft shoe was higher (P = .011) than in a hard shoe during shot-block landing. Both "heavy" and "light" groups preferred softer to harder shoes. Overall, body mass had little effect on kinetic or perceptual variables. PMID:26211423

  11. Effect of body mass and midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during basketball landing manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Nin, Darren Z; Lam, Wing K; Kong, Pui W

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of body mass and shoe midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during the performance of three basketball movements: (1) the first and landing steps of layup, (2) shot-blocking landing and (3) drop landing. Thirty male basketball players, assigned into "heavy" (n = 15, mass 82.7 ± 4.3 kg) or "light" (n = 15, mass 63.1 ± 2.8 kg) groups, performed five trials of each movement in three identical shoes of varying midsole hardness (soft, medium, hard). Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during landing was sampled using multiple wooden-top force plates. Perceptual responses on five variables (forefoot cushioning, rearfoot cushioning, forefoot stability, rearfoot stability and overall comfort) were rated after each movement condition using a 150-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Body Mass × Shoe) was applied to all kinetic and perceptual variables. During the first step of the layup, the loading rate associated with rearfoot contact was 40.7% higher in the "heavy" than "light" groups (P = .014) and 12.4% higher in hard compared with soft shoes (P = .011). Forefoot peak VGRF in a soft shoe was higher (P = .011) than in a hard shoe during shot-block landing. Both "heavy" and "light" groups preferred softer to harder shoes. Overall, body mass had little effect on kinetic or perceptual variables.

  12. The validity of mass body temperature screening with ear thermometers in a warm thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Koji; Wada, Yuko; Kagitani, Hideaki; Arioka, Tetsuya; Maeda, Koji; Kida, Kenichi

    2010-10-01

    Identification of people who have a fever in public places during the occurrence of emerging infectious diseases is essential for controlling disease spread. The measurement of body temperature could identify infected persons. The environment affects body temperature, but little is known about the validity of measurements under different thermal environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity of measuring body temperature in cold and warm environments. We recruited 50 participants aged 18-69 years (26 males, 24 females) to measure body temperature using an axillary thermometer and an ear thermometer and by infrared thermal imaging (thermography). The body temperature obtained with an axillary thermometer was used as a reference; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to determine the validity of temperatures obtained by measurement with an ear thermometer and thermography at 36.7°C (median of the axillary body temperature). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicates the validity of measurements. The AUC for ear thermometers in a warm environment (mean temperature: 20.0°C) showed a fair accuracy (AUC: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.64-0.83]), while that (AUC: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.72]) in a cold environment (mean temperature: 12.6°C) and measurements with thermography used in both environments (AUC: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.45-0.68] in a warm environment and AUC: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.54-0.76] in a cold environment) showed a low accuracy. In conclusion, in a warm environment, measurement of body temperature with an ear thermometer is a valid procedure and effective for mass body temperature screening.

  13. The Relationship between Motor Skill Proficiency and Body Mass Index in Children with and without Dyslexia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, S. Wood; Getchell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the authors wanted to examine the associations of motor proficiency and body composition in children with and without dyslexia. They hypothesized there would be a negative relationship between body composition (measured by body mass index [BMI]) and motor proficiency (measured by MABC [Movement…

  14. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  15. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88