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Sample records for alcohol brand appearances

  1. Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R.; Sargent, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music. Design Qualitative content analysis. Setting We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-2007. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders independently analyzed the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilised Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Measurements Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing 6 categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status, and objects. Findings Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ=0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) explicitly referred to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% vs. 17.1%, P<.001). Alcohol brand appearances were commonly associated with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%), and vehicles (39.0%). Conclusions One-in-five songs sampled from U.S. popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are commonly associated with a luxury lifestyle characterised by wealth, sex, partying, and other drugs. PMID:22011113

  2. Youth Exposure to Alcohol Use and Brand Appearances in Popular Contemporary Movies

    PubMed Central

    DAL CIN, Sonya; WORTH, Keilah A.; DALTON, Madeline A.; SARGENT, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To describe alcohol use and alcohol brand appearances in popular movies and estimate adolescents’ exposure to this alcohol-related content. Design and setting Nationally representative, random-digit dialed survey in the United States and content analysis of alcohol depictions in the top 100 U.S. box office hits each year from 1998 to 2002 and 34 top movies from early 2003. Participants 6522 U.S. adolescents aged 10-14. Measurements Frequency of alcohol use and brand appearances in movies by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating. Estimated exposure to minutes of movie alcohol use and brand appearances among U.S. adolescents in this age group. Findings Most movies (83%, including 57% of G/PG-rated movies) depicted alcohol use and 52% (including 19% of G/PG movies) contained at least one alcohol brand appearance, which consisted of branded use by an actor 30% of the time. These movies exposed the average U.S. adolescent 10-14 years of age to 5.6 (95% CI 5.4,5.7) hours of movie alcohol use and 244 (95% CI 238,250) alcohol brand appearances (5 billion in total), mostly from youth-rated movies. Exposure to movie alcohol content was significantly higher among African American youth than youth of other races. Conclusions Alcohol use and brand appearances are frequently portrayed in popular U.S. movies (which are distributed worldwide). Children and adolescents in the U.S. are exposed to hours of alcohol use depictions and numerous brand appearances in movies and most of this exposure is from movies rated for this segment of the population. PMID:18705684

  3. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  4. Brands matter: Major findings from the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) project

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Ross, Craig S.; Naimi, Timothy; Albers, Alison; Skeer, Margie; Rosenbloom, David L.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. Results Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. Conclusion The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming. PMID:27034628

  5. Selection of Branded Alcoholic Beverages by Underage Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Ostroff, Josh; Naimi, Timothy S.; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify reasons why youth choose to drink specific brands of alcohol and to determine if these reasons are associated with problem drinking patterns and outcomes. Methods We conducted an Internet survey of 1,031 youth ages 13 to 20 who reported drinking within the past 30 days. Of these, 541 youth who reported having a choice of multiple brands of alcohol the last time they drank stated (yes/no) whether each of 16 different reasons had influenced their choice of a specific brand. We reduced these 16 reasons to three principle components and used Latent Class Modeling to identify five groups of youth with similar reasons for selecting a brand, which we then profiled. Results We grouped respondents into the following brand selection groups: “Brand Ambassadors” who were distinguished from other clusters by selecting a brand because they identified with it (32.5% of respondents), “Tasters” who selected a brand because they expected it to taste good (27.2%), “Bargain Hunters” who selected a brand because it was inexpensive (18.5%), “Copycats” who selected a brand because they’d seen adults drinking it or seen it consumed in movies or other media (10.4%), and “Others” (11.5%). Brand Ambassadors and Copycats reported the largest amount of alcohol consumed and had the greatest prevalence of both heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related health consequences. Conclusions Underage drinkers who cite marketing influences and adult or media modeling of brand choices as their reasons for selecting alcohol brands are likely to drink more and incur adverse consequences from drinking. PMID:25907655

  6. Differences in Alcohol Brand Consumption between Underage Youth and Adults – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Chen, Kelsey; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The alcohol brand preferences of U.S. underage drinkers have recently been identified, but it is not known whether youth are simply mimicking adult brand choices or whether other factors are impacting their preferences. This study is the first to compare the alcohol brand preferences of underage drinkers and adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of youth and adult alcohol brand preferences. A 2012 internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,032 underage drinkers, ages 13–20, was used to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcohol brands, and each brand’s youth market share, based on the total number of standard drinks consumed. Data on the brand-specific prevalence of past 30-day or past 7-day consumption among older youth (ages 18–20), adults (ages 21+), and young adults (ages 21–34) was obtained from Gfk MRI’s Survey of the Adult Consumer for the years 2010–12. Overall market shares for each brand, also measured by the total number of standard drinks consumed, were estimated from national data compiled by Impact Databank for the year 2010. Results Although most alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers were also popular among adult drinkers, there were several brands that appeared to be disproportionately consumed by youth. Conclusions This paper provides preliminary evidence that youth do not merely mimic the alcohol brand choices of adults. Further research using data derived from fully comparable data sources is necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:24483601

  7. Youth Alcohol Brand Consumption and Exposure to Brand Advertising in Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. Method: We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Results: Underage males ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18–20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. Conclusions: These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth. PMID:24988260

  8. The Relationship between Brand-Specific Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption among Underage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Being able to investigate the relationship between underage drinkers' preferences for particular brands and their exposure to advertising for those brands would represent a significant advance in alcohol marketing research. However, no previous national study has examined the relationship between underage youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and consumption of those brands. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, internet-based survey of a national sample of 1,031 youths, ages 13-20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all alcohol brands consumed by respondents in the past 30 days. The main outcome measure was brand-specific consumption during the past 30 days, measured as a dichotomous variable. The main predictor variable was exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising on television. The respondents reported which of 20 television shows popular with youth they had watched during the past 30 days. For each respondent, we calculated a standard measure of potential exposure to the brand-specific alcohol advertising that aired on those shows during the preceding 12 months, based on Nielsen (New York, NY) estimates of the youth audience for each show's telecasts. Results Compared to no brand-specific advertising exposure, any exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of brand-specific consumption (adjusted odds ratio 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 2.61-3.49) after controlling for several individual- and brand-level variables. When measured as a continuous variable, the relationship between advertising exposure and brand consumption was nonlinear, with a large association at lower levels of exposure and diminishing incremental effects as the level of exposure increased. Conclusions There is a robust relationship between youth's brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on television and their consumption of those same alcohol brands during the past 30 days. This study provides

  9. The relationship between alcohol price and brand choice among underage drinkers: Are the most popular alcoholic brands consumed by youth the cheapest?

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; DeJong, William; Naimi, Tim; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the influence of price on alcohol brand choice among underage youth. Using a national sample of 1,032 youth ages 13–20, recruited from a national internet panel in 2011–2012, we compared differences in mean prices between popular and unpopular brands; examined the association of price and brand popularity using logistic regression; and rank ordered the average price of top brands. Lower brand-specific prices were significantly associated with higher levels of past 30-day consumption prevalence. However, youth did not preferentially consume the cheapest brands. These findings indicate that youth have preferences for certain brands, even if those brands cost more than competing brands. Our study highlights the need for research on the impact of brand-specific alcohol marketing on underage drinking. PMID:25183436

  10. Alcohol brand references in U.S. popular music, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Johnson, Renee M; Tyagi, Keshav; Power, Kathryn; Lohsen, Mark C; Ayers, Amanda J; Jernigan, David H

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and context of alcohol brand references in popular music. Billboard Magazine year-end charts from 2009 to 2011 were used to identify the most popular songs in four genres: Urban, Pop, Country, and Rock. Of the 720 songs, 23% included an alcohol mention, and 6.4% included an alcohol brand mention. Songs classified as Urban had the highest percentage of alcohol mentions and alcohol brand mentions. The context associated with alcohol brand mentions was almost uniformly positive or neutral. Public health efforts may be necessary to reduce youth exposure to these positive messages about alcohol use.

  11. Alcohol Brand References in U.S. Popular Music, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Johnson, Renee M.; Tyagi, Keshav; Power, Kathryn; Lohsen, Mark C.; Ayers, Amanda J.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and context of alcohol brand references in popular music. Billboard Magazine year-end charts from 2009–2011 were used to identify the most popular songs in four genres: Urban, Pop, Country, and Rock. Of the 720 songs, 23% included an alcohol mention, and 6.4% included an alcohol brand mention. Songs classified as Urban had the highest percentage of alcohol mentions and alcohol brand mentions. The context associated with alcohol brand mentions was almost uniformly positive or neutral. Public health efforts may be necessary to reduce youth exposure to these positive messages about alcohol use. PMID:23971875

  12. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  13. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%.

  14. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  15. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers’ reported alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. Objectives We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. Methods We recruited a sample of 1,031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13–20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Results Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p<.001). The two major predictors of the difference between the two measures were being a heavy episodic drinker (p<.001, 95% CI = 4.1 to 12.0) and the total number of brands consumed (p<.001, 95% CI = 2.0 to 2.8). Conclusion This study contributes to the field of alcohol and adolescent research first by investigating a potentially more accurate alcohol surveillance method, and secondly by promoting the assessment of alcohol use among adolescents vulnerable to risky alcohol use. Finally, our survey addresses the potential impact of alcohol marketing on youth and their subsequent alcohol brand preferences and consumption. PMID:25062357

  16. Beverage- and Brand-Specific Binge Alcohol Consumption among Underage Youth in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; O’Doherty, Catherine; Jernigan, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption among youth; beverage and brand-specific consumption during binge drinking is poorly understood. The objective was to characterize beverage- and brand-specific consumption associated with binge drinking among underage youth in the U.S. Methods An internet panel was used to obtain a sample of 1,032 underage youth aged 13–20, who drank alcohol in the past 30 days. For each brand consumed, youth reported drinking quantity and frequency, and whether they engaged in binge drinking with that brand (≥5 drinks for males, ≥4 for females). Each youth reporting binge drinking with a brand constituted a binge drinking report. Results Overall, 50.9% of youth binge drank with ≥1 brand, and 36.5% of youth who consumed any particular brand reported binge drinking with it. Spirits accounted for 43.8% of binge drinking reports. Twenty-five brands accounted for 46.2% of binge drinking reports. Many of these brands were disproportionately associated with binge drinking relative to their youth market share. Conclusions Binge drinking among youth is most commonly involves spirits, and binge drinking is concentrated within a relatively small number of brands. Understanding factors underlying beverage and brand preference among binge drinking youth could assist prevention efforts. PMID:26425112

  17. Patterns of media use and alcohol brand consumption among underage drinking youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether underage drinkers with varied media use patterns differentially consume popular brands of alcohol. A survey was conducted with a national online panel of 1,032 underage youth 13-20 years of age who had consumed at least 1 drink in the past 30 days. A latent class analysis identified four distinct media use patterns. Further analyses explored whether these media use groups differentially consumed the most frequently used alcohol brands. The results showed that past 30-day consumption of specific alcohol brands differed significantly across the four media use clusters, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, U.S. geographic region, frequency of parent's alcohol overconsumption, cigarette smoking, and seatbelt use. This study shows that youth use media in different ways, and this differential use is significantly associated with the consumption of specific alcohol brands. The media clusters revealed in this analysis may inform future research about the association between specific alcohol media exposures and individual brand consumption.

  18. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  19. The Relationship between Exposure to Brand-Specific Alcohol Advertising and Brand-Specific Consumption among Underage Drinkers—United States, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S.; Albers, Alison B.; DeJong, William; King, Charles; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marketing is increasingly recognized as a potentially important contributor to youth drinking, yet few studies have examined the relationship between advertising exposure and alcohol consumption among underage youth at the brand level. Objectives To examine the relationship between brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising among underage youth and the consumption prevalence of each brand in a national sample of underage drinkers. Methods We analyzed the relationship between population-level exposure of underage youth ages 12-20 to brand-specific alcohol advertising in national magazines and television programs and the 30-day consumption prevalence—by brand—among a national sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20. Underage youth exposure to alcohol advertising by brand for each month in 2011, measured in gross rating points (GRPs), was obtained from GfK MRI and Nielsen for all measured national issues of magazines and all national television programs, respectively. The 30-day consumption prevalence for each brand was obtained from a national survey of 1,031 underage drinkers conducted between December 2011 and May 2012. Results Underage youth were more than five times more likely to consume brands that advertise on national television and 36% more likely to consume brands that advertise in national magazines. The consumption prevalence of a brand increased by 36% for each 1.5 standard deviation (50 GRPs) increase in television adstock among underage youth and by 23% for each 1.5 standard deviation (10 GRPs) increase in magazine adstock. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol advertising influences an important aspect of drinking behavior— brand choice—among youth who consume alcohol. PMID:26479468

  20. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  1. Alcohol-Branded Merchandise and Its Association With Drinking Attitudes and Outcomes in US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Worth, Keilah A.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) and its association with attitudinal susceptibility, initiation of alcohol use, and binge drinking. Design Three-wave longitudinal study. Setting Confidential telephone survey. Participants Representative US sample of 6522 adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline survey (4309 of whom were never-drinkers at 8 months); subjects were resurveyed at 16 and/or 24 months. Main Exposures Ownership of ABM (first assessed at the 8-month survey) and attitudinal susceptibility to alcohol use. Outcome Measures Initiation of alcohol use that parents did not know about and binge drinking (≥5 drinks in a row). Results Prevalence of ABM ownership ranged from 11% of adolescents (at 8 months) to 20% (at 24 months), which extrapolates to 2.1 to 3.1 million US adolescents, respectively. Clothing and headwear comprised 88% of ABM. Beer brands accounted for 75% of items; 45% of items bore the Budweiser label. Merchandise was obtained primarily from friends and/or family (71%) but was also purchased by the adolescents themselves (24%) at stores. Among never-drinkers, ABM ownership and susceptibility were reciprocally related, each significantly predicting the other during an 8-month period. In turn, we found that ABM ownership and susceptibility predicted both initiation of alcohol use and binge drinking, while controlling for a broad range of covariates. Conclusions Alcohol-branded merchandise is widely distributed among US adolescents, who obtain the items one-quarter of the time through direct purchase at retail outlets. Among never-drinkers, ABM ownership is independently associated with susceptibility to as well as with initiation of drinking and binge drinking. PMID:19255387

  2. Alcohol-branded merchandise: association with Australian adolescents' drinking and parent attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly; Caputi, Peter

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence that young people own alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and that ownership influences their drinking intentions and behaviours. However, there is a paucity of research on parents' knowledge or attitudes in relation to ownership of ABM. Study 1 (n = 210) identified high levels of ownership of ABM and associations between ABM and drinking attitudes and behaviours. In Study 2, focus groups with Australian parents found that they were aware of ABM-and many had items of ABM in their home-but they had generally not engaged in consideration of the potential impact on their children. They clearly perceived ABM as advertising and, on reflection, acknowledged that this form of marketing may influence children's decisions about drinking. There is a need to raise parental awareness of the effects of ABM and to endeavour to reduce children's exposure to this influential form of alcohol marketing.

  3. The Relationship Between Population-Level Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption Among Underage Youth in the US

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. Methods: We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Results: Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. Conclusions: At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. PMID:25754127

  4. Joe Camel in a bottle: Diageo, the Smirnoff brand, and the transformation of the youth alcohol market.

    PubMed

    Mosher, James F

    2012-01-01

    I have documented the shift in youth alcoholic beverage preference from beer to distilled spirits between 2001 and 2009. I have assessed the role of distilled spirits industry marketing strategies to promote this shift using the Smirnoff brand marketing campaign as a case example. I conclude with a discussion of the similarities in corporate tactics across consumer products with adverse public health impacts, the importance of studying corporate marketing and public relations practices, and the implications of those practices for public health.

  5. Joe Camel in a Bottle: Diageo, the Smirnoff Brand, and the Transformation of the Youth Alcohol Market

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    I have documented the shift in youth alcoholic beverage preference from beer to distilled spirits between 2001 and 2009. I have assessed the role of distilled spirits industry marketing strategies to promote this shift using the Smirnoff brand marketing campaign as a case example. I conclude with a discussion of the similarities in corporate tactics across consumer products with adverse public health impacts, the importance of studying corporate marketing and public relations practices, and the implications of those practices for public health. PMID:22095339

  6. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries. PMID:16526959

  7. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... name and kind, as set out in 27 CFR part 5. (b) Alcohol content—(1) Mandatory statement. The label of... content at the time of bottling as follows: “Bottled at ___ percent-alcohol-by-volume.” (2) Optional... as provided by paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section. The appropriate TTB officer may,...

  8. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  9. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand...

  10. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  11. 27 CFR 22.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marks and brands. 22.33 Section 22.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Provisions Destruction of Marks and Brands § 22.33 Time of destruction of marks and brands. (a) Any person..., brand, and labels required by this chapter to be placed on packages of tax-free alcohol. (b) A...

  12. 27 CFR 20.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marks and brands. 20.33 Section 20.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Administrative Provisions Marks and Brands § 20.33 Time of destruction of marks and brands. (a) Any person who... alcohol or specially denatured rum shall immediately destroy or obliterate the marks, brands, and...

  13. Chronic cytoprotection: pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranolol prevent, attenuate and reverse the gastric lesions appearance in chronic alcohol drinking rats.

    PubMed

    Prkacin, I; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Separovic, J; Gjurasin, M; Lovric-Bencic, M; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Staresinic, M; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Jagic, V; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Marovic, A; Sjekavica, I; Sebecic, B; Boban-Blagaic, A; Ivasovic, Z

    2001-01-01

    Unlike severe gastric damage acutely induced by ethanol administration in rat, the ulcerogenic effect of chronic alcohol administration (3.03 g/kg b.w. or 7.28 g/kg b.w.) given in drinking water, producing liver lesions and portal hypertension, is far less investigated. Therefore, focus was on the antiulcer effect of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, known to have a beneficial effect in variety of gastrointestinal lesions models (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. i.p. or i.g.), ranitidine (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) and propranol (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) or saline (5 ml/kg b.w. i.p./i.g.; control). They were given once daily (1) throughout 10 days preceding alcohol consumption, (2) since beginning of alcohol drinking till the end of the study, (3) throughout the last month of alcohol consumption, 2 months after alcohol drinking had been initiated. Gastric lesions were assessed, at the end of 3 months drinking [(1), (2)] or with respect to therapeutic effect of medication before medication or at the end of therapy. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranolol may prevent gastric lesion development if given prophylactically, before alcohol drinking. Likewise, they attenuate the lesion appearance given once daily throughout the drinking period. Importantly, when given therapeutically, they may antagonize otherwise pertinent lesion presence in stomach mucosa of the drinking rats. Thus, these results demonstrate that pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranol may prevent, attenuate or reverse the gastric lesions appearance in chronically alcohol drinking rats, and may be used for further therapy, while the other studies showed that their effect (except to ranitidine) is parallel with their beneficial effect on liver lesion and portal hypertension.

  14. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or...

  15. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  16. Grassroots branding.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Michael T

    2005-04-01

    In home care and hospice, effective branding begins at the grassroots level. Historically, high-level, widespread branding initiatives have proven relatively unsuccessful in these industries, and have not delivered a positive return on investment. This is generally because in home care and hospice, branding is most successfully implemented at individual and local levels. Since an agency's "brand" is established at this personal level, relationships are the crucial keys to sales and marketing success.

  17. Brand Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  18. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section 5.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  19. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section 5.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  20. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section 4.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33...

  1. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section 4.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33...

  2. See your brands through your customers' eyes.

    PubMed

    Lederer, C; Hill, S

    2001-06-01

    Subaru markets an L.L. Bean Outback station wagon. Dell stamps Microsoft and Intel logos on its computers. Such inter-weaving of different companies' brands is now commonplace. But one of the central tools of brand management-portfolio mapping--has not kept pace with changes in the marketplace. Most conventional brand maps include only those brands owned by a company, arranged along organizational lines with little regard for how the brands influence customer perceptions. In this article, the authors present a new mapping tool--the brand portfolio molecule--that reveals the way brands appear to customers. The brand portfolio molecule includes all the brands that factor into a consumer's decision to buy, whether or not the company owns them. The first step in creating a brand portfolio molecule is to determine which brands should or should not be included. The second step is to classify each brand by asking five key questions: 1) How important is this brand to customers' purchase decisions about the brand you're mapping? 2) Is its influence positive or negative? 3) What market position does this brand occupy relative to the other brands in the portfolio? 4) How does this brand connect to the other brands in the portfolio? 5) How much control do you have over this brand? The last step is to map the molecule using a 3-D modeling program or by hand with pen and paper. Individual brands take the form of atoms, and they're clustered in ways that reflect how customers see them. The usefulness of the tool lies in its ability to show the many forces that influence a customer's buying decision--and to provide a powerful new way to think about brand strategy.

  3. The lure of global branding.

    PubMed

    Aaker, D A; Joachimsthaler, E

    1999-01-01

    As more and more companies begin to see the world as their market, brand builders look with envy upon those businesses that appear to have created global brands--brands whose positioning, advertising strategy, personality, look, and feel are in most respects the same from one country to another. Attracted by such high-profile examples of success, these companies want to globalize their own brands. But that's a risky path to follow, according to David Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler. Why? Because creating strong global brands takes global brand leadership. It can't be done simply by edict from on high. Specifically, companies must use organizational structures, processes, and cultures to allocate brand-building resources globally, to create global synergies, and to develop a global brand strategy that coordinates and leverages country brand strategies. Aaker and Joachimsthaler offer four prescriptions for companies seeking to achieve global brand leadership. First, companies must stimulate the sharing of insights and best practices across countries--a system in which "it won't work here" attitudes can be overcome. Second, companies should support a common global brand-planning process, one that is consistent across markets and products. Third, they should assign global managerial responsibility for brands in order to create cross-country synergies and to fight local bias. And fourth, they need to execute brilliant brand-building strategies. Before stampeding blindly toward global branding, companies need to think through the systems they have in place. Otherwise, any success they achieve is likely to be random--and that's a fail-safe recipe for mediocrity.

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  8. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section 5.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  9. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section 5.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  10. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section 4.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33...

  11. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section 4.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  13. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  14. Brand Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdowski, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning is a critical step to take before launching a capital campaign, if marketing materials are to cater to all potential donors and reinforce the institution's brand--which defines what the institution is and what it does, and is shaped by what people think of it. Here, the author discusses the importance of maintaining and conveying a…

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  16. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  17. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  18. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources.

  19. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising.

  20. Managing Your Personal Brand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Everyone has a personal brand. To ensure success at work you need to manage your personal brand which is made up of your tangible and intangible attributes. This paper reviews the literature around personal branding, looks at some of the attributes and discusses ways you can reflect and begin to build your personal brand in a higher education…

  1. Evaluating the truth brand.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven

    2005-03-01

    The American Legacy Foundation developed the truth campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in truth, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between truth and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy.

  2. 27 CFR 20.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time of destruction of marks and brands. 20.33 Section 20.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  3. 27 CFR 22.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time of destruction of marks and brands. 22.33 Section 22.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL...

  4. 27 CFR 20.178 - Marks and brands on containers of specially denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks and brands on... Dealers § 20.178 Marks and brands on containers of specially denatured spirits. (a) Required marks. Each... officer, or (2) Consist of a brand name, or consist of caution notices, or consist of other...

  5. Converging prescription brand shares as evidence of physician learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Within a drug category, there is an optimal brand the physician could choose to prescribe based on the patient's particular condition and characteristics. Physicians desire to prescribe the best brand for each patient for professional, moral, and legal reasons. Ideally, detailing provides information that supports this effort. This study finds that, over time, the proportion of prescriptions written for each brand moves toward a stable distribution--a convergence in which each brand's share in the category appears to match the proportion of prescription writing opportunities where the brand is the best choice for the patient. Detailing supports this convergence.

  6. 27 CFR 31.231 - Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brands on wine containers. 31.231 Section 31.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 31.231 Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers. A dealer who empties any cask, barrel, keg, or other bulk container of wine must scrape or obliterate from the empty container all marks,...

  7. 27 CFR 31.231 - Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brands on wine containers. 31.231 Section 31.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 31.231 Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers. A dealer who empties any cask, barrel, keg, or other bulk container of wine must scrape or obliterate from the empty container all marks,...

  8. 27 CFR 31.231 - Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... brands on wine containers. 31.231 Section 31.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 31.231 Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers. A dealer who empties any cask, barrel, keg, or other bulk container of wine must scrape or obliterate from the empty container all marks,...

  9. 27 CFR 31.231 - Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... brands on wine containers. 31.231 Section 31.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 31.231 Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers. A dealer who empties any cask, barrel, keg, or other bulk container of wine must scrape or obliterate from the empty container all marks,...

  10. 27 CFR 31.231 - Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands on wine containers. 31.231 Section 31.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 31.231 Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers. A dealer who empties any cask, barrel, keg, or other bulk container of wine must scrape or obliterate from the empty container all marks,...

  11. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  12. Branding your medical practice.

    PubMed

    Maley, Catherine; Baum, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Branding is the process of differentiating your medical practice from all other practices in the industry. Branding takes into account the "look and feel" of your office, you and your staff your materials, and every other detail that gives your patients clues as to who you are and what you value. This article will review the strategies that go into building your own solid brand so your existing patients, as well as prospective ones, are attracted and loyal to you and your brand.

  13. Professor Brand Advocacy: Do Brand Relationships Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Wilcox, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The trend among students to advocate their professors online continues to generate interest within marketing academia. Brand advocacy in products and services has played a vital role in marketing. However, no known research to date has embraced the idea of brand advocacy in marketing education. This research builds on the recent human brand…

  14. 27 CFR 22.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time of destruction of marks and brands. 22.33 Section 22.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL...

  15. 27 CFR 20.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time of destruction of marks and brands. 20.33 Section 20.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  16. 27 CFR 20.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time of destruction of marks and brands. 20.33 Section 20.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  17. 27 CFR 22.33 - Time of destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time of destruction of marks and brands. 22.33 Section 22.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL...

  18. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    PubMed

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  19. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  20. Adolescents’ exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi‐Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Design Ten‐second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12‐week period in 2013/14; on‐line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high‐content videos. Setting Great Britain. Participants A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years who completed an on‐line survey. Measurements Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Findings Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33–51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13–27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0–4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2–11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0–7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0–3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E‐Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re‐watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re‐watch the videos than boys, P < 0.001. Conclusions Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. PMID:25516167

  1. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  2. How global brands compete.

    PubMed

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.

  5. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on…

  6. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding.

  7. Overexposed: Youth a Target of Alcohol Advertising in Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report analyzes $320 million in alcohol product advertising in magazines during calendar year 2001. The first section analyzes the amount of magazine advertising delivered to youth and adults by different alcoholic beverage brands. For many beer and distilled spirits brands, the youth population received more advertising than the adult…

  8. The role of brand trust in male customers' relationship to luxury brands.

    PubMed

    Hur, Won-Moo; Kim, Minsung; Kim, Hanna

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the role of brand trust in customers' luxury brand consumption behavior. Perceived value and brand satisfaction were presented within a framework as antecedents of brand trust, while brand loyalty and brand risk were presented as consequences. A face-to-face survey was administered to a sample (N = 400) of men between 25 and 54 years of age who had purchased luxury brand and non-luxury brand suits within the previous three months. The results showed the greater the hedonic value on brand satisfaction, the greater the influence of brand satisfaction on brand trust, and the greater was the effect of brand trust on brand loyalty for luxury brands as compared with non-luxury brands. Similar patterns are identified between luxury and non-luxury brands for the positive relationship between utilitarian value and brand satisfaction and the negative relationship between brand trust and brand risk.

  9. Building "Brand Me": Creating a Personal Brand Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Angela D'Auria; Stanton, Wilbur W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaging students in a principles of marketing course can prove challenging but also provides instructors with an opportunity to link course concepts using a real-world orientation. This paper describes the use of a personal brand statement assignment as a way to integrate the key marketing concepts of branding and brand positioning into a broader…

  10. Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D

    1997-11-01

    A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.

  11. Brand as Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses seven steps for colleges to create effective brands: identifying essential qualities that your audiences desire; assessing how well your audience perceives you deliver on those qualities; identifying which performance and perception gaps you want to fill; responding strategically; revising and prioritizing your vivid descriptors;…

  12. Asserting Our "Brand"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that creeping corporate influence on the university has given rise to calls for better "branding" of institutions, but "corporate university speak" is not the rhetoric needed to protect educational institutions' core values. The modern corporate university is a "non-profit" institution that embodies at least…

  13. The House Brand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison; Bierman, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    The days when marketing was thought to be posters and fliers is over. In today's world, marketing is at the core of every transaction, from checkout and customer interaction to story times and buildings themselves. A brand is a promise one makes to his or her customer, and a promise that is unified, consistent, and believable can help ensure that…

  14. Building online brand perceptual map.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M

    2008-10-01

    Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan.

  15. Branding Higher Education: Illusion or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul

    2006-01-01

    It seems difficult to have a discussion about anything in a university or college today that does not involve branding: "what does this say about our brand?", "how is our brand perceived?", "what are our brand values?", and "are we living the brand?" (according to the American Marketing Association, this means "aligning actions with your Brand…

  16. Customer-centered brand management.

    PubMed

    Rust, Roland T; Zeithaml, Valarie A; Lemon, Katherine N

    2004-09-01

    Most executives today agree that their efforts should be focused on growing the lifetime value of their customers. Yet few companies have come to terms with the implications of that idea for their marketing management. Oldsmobile, for example, enjoyed outstanding brand equity with many customers through the 1980s. But as the century wore further on, the people who loved the Olds got downright old. So why did General Motors spend so many years and so much money trying to reposition and refurbish the tired,tarnished brand? Why didn't GM managers instead move younger buyers along a path of less resistance, toward another of the brands in GM's stable--or even launch a wholly new brand geared to their tastes? Catering to new customers, even at the expense of the brand, would surely have been the path to profits. The reason, argue the authors, is that in large consumer-goods companies like General Motors, brands are the raison d'etre. They are the focus of decision making and the basis of accountability. But this overwhelming focus on growing brand equity is inconsistent with the goal of growing customer equity. Drawing on a wide range of current examples, the authors offer seven tactics that will put brands in the service of growing customer equity. These include replacing traditional brand managers with a new position--the customer segment manager; targeting brands to as narrow an audience as possible; developing the capability and the mind-set to hand off customers from one brand to another within the company; and changing the way brand equity is measured by basing calculations on individual, rather than average, customer data.

  17. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  18. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  19. Consumer-Brand Relationships under the Marketing 3.0 Paradigm: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Suárez, Mónica; Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Martínez-Caraballo, Noemí

    2017-01-01

    Consumer-brand relationships encompass several dimensions, most of which have attracted growing research attention during the last years. Building these relationships is especially important in the marketing 3.0 era, where it is suggested that customers will choose those brands that satisfy their deepest needs. With these ideas in mind, this article provides a review of two key concepts implied in such relationships: brand love and customer engagement. Although both conceptions focus on different stages of consumer-brand relationships, they actually cover different perspectives on the same process. Moreover, they come from diverse conceptual paradigms: whilst brand love comes from the psychology discipline, engagement derives from diverse areas of the marketing field (e.g., the service-dominant logic perspective). However, their further empirical developments have taken place in marketing. Besides, both terms appear to be applied to different empirical perspectives: brand love is usually linked to the Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry and customer engagement to services.

  20. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  1. Building a leadership brand.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  2. Creating the living brand.

    PubMed

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  3. Measurement of appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Helen; Pointer, Michael

    2002-06-01

    The visual appearance can be one of the most critical parameters affecting customer choise and, therefore, it needs to be quantifiable to ensure uniformity and reproducibility. A starting point in assessing the appearance of a consumer product might be the measurement of its colour. The description of its total appearance, however, cannot be achieved by the definition of color alone; other attributes of the material from which it is fabricated contribute to the overall appearance. The texture of a surface, for example, will cause changes in colour depending on the lighting direction; the freshness of food is judged by its overall appearance, but in a way that is much more subtle than by just its color; and novel effects such as pearlescence are added to products to enhance their attractiveness. For some products, such as cosmetics, it is not only their own appearance characteristics that are important, but also the visual effect after they have been applied to the skin, nails, hair, etc. It is clear, therefore, that the interest of industry in the measurement of appearance goes beyond simply surface color.

  4. Brand-Building for Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sametz, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Not too many years ago, a school's brand just was. Few people used the "b" word. A college or university went about its business, became known for particular strengths and weaknesses, accrued what we would now call brand attributes over time (party school, really hard to get in to, innovative curriculum), and, through word of mouth and…

  5. Cognitive Tools for Successful Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lorena Perez

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to fill a gap in current studies on the semantics of branding. Through the analysis of a number of well-known international brand names, we provide ample evidence supporting the claim that a finite set of cognitive operations, such as those of domain reduction and expansion, mitigation, and strengthening, among others, can…

  6. Building brands without mass media.

    PubMed

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  7. Should you take your brand to where the action is?

    PubMed

    Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    When markets turn hostile, it's no surprise that managers are tempted to extend their brands vertically--that is, to take their brands into a seemingly attractive market above or below their current positions. And for companies chasing growth, the urge to move into booming premium or value segments also can be hard to resist. The draw is indeed strong; and in some instances, a vertical move is not merely justified but actually essential to survival--even for top brands, which have the advantages of economies of scale, brand equity, and retail clout. But beware: leveraging a brand to access upscale or downscale markets is more dangerous than it first appears. Before making a move, then, managers should ascertain whether the rewards will be worth the risks. In general, David Aaker recommends that managers avoid vertical extensions whenever possible. There is an inherent contradiction in the very concept because brand equity is built in large part on image and perceived worth, and a vertical move can easily distort those qualities. Still, certain situations demand vertical extensions, and Aaker examines both the winners and the losers in the game. Managers may find themselves facing a situation that presents both an emerging opportunity and a strategic threat, and alternatives to vertical extensions may have even higher risks and costs. Furthermore, a number of brands have been extended vertically with complete success. If after assessing the risks and rewards you conclude that a vertical extension is on the horizon, proceed with caution. And keep in mind that your challenge will be to leverage and protect the original brand while taking advantage of the new opportunity.

  8. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Sun, Jessica Y; Bonnevie, Erika; Cummins, Sharon E; Gamst, Anthony; Yin, Lu; Lee, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. Methods Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May–August 2012 and December 2013–January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. Results By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs 52.1%, p<0.01), and newer brands more likely to offer the more versatile eGos and mods (75.3% vs 57.8%, p<0.01). Older brands were significantly more likely to claim that they were healthier and cheaper than cigarettes, were good substitutes where smoking was banned and were effective smoking cessation aids. Newer brands offered more flavours per brand (49 vs 32, p<0.01) and were less likely to compare themselves with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions The number of e-cigarette brands is large and has been increasing. Older brands tend to highlight their advantages over conventional cigarettes while newer brands emphasise consumer choice in multiple flavours and product versatility. These results can serve as a benchmark for future research on the impact of upcoming regulations on product design and advertising messages of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935895

  9. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring.

  10. Commander Brand shaves in front of forward middeck lockers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, wearing shorts, shaves in front of forward middeck lockers using personal hygiene mirror assembly (assy). Open modular locker single tray assy, Field Sequential (FS) crew cabin camera, communications kit assy mini headset (HDST) and HDST interface unit (HIU), personal hygiene kit, and meal tray assemblies appear in view.

  11. Appearances, Stigma, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the practical aspects of clothing are compared to effective practices in special education. Actual competence is more important than the appearance, or cloak, of competence. It is argued that speaking openly about disability will do more to reduce its stigma than will euphemisms. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Branding down to the core: branding not-for-profits.

    PubMed

    Tan, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Many not-for-profits do not view their organization as a brand. After all, the reason for being lies in the purpose. Branding is something corporate businesses do to justify their existence. But what is an organization's purpose? And what if everyone in the organization does not agree on that purpose over time or across departments? How can an organization formalize a strategy if it isn't sure what the mission is?

  13. Diffusion of two brands in competition: Cross-brand effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laciana, C. E.; Gual, G.; Kalmus, D.; Oteiza-Aguirre, N.; Rovere, S. L.

    2014-11-01

    We study the equilibrium points of a system of equations corresponding to a Bass based model that describes the diffusion of two brands in competition. To increase the understanding of the effects of the cross-brand parameters, we perform a sensitivity analysis. Finally, we show a comparison with an agent-based model inspired in the Potts model. Conclusions include that both models give the same diffusion curves only when the cross coefficients are not null.

  14. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  15. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  16. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  17. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Design: Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Results: Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Conclusions: Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories. PMID:14645952

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. Crowding changes appearance.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John A; Bex, Peter J; Dakin, Steven C

    2010-03-23

    Crowding is the breakdown in object recognition that occurs in cluttered visual environments and the fundamental limit on peripheral vision, affecting identification within many visual modalities and across large spatial regions. Though frequently characterized as a disruptive process through which object representations are suppressed or lost altogether, we demonstrate that crowding systematically changes the appearance of objects. In particular, target patches of visual noise that are surrounded ("crowded") by oriented Gabor flankers become perceptually oriented, matching the flankers. This was established with a change-detection paradigm: under crowded conditions, target changes from noise to Gabor went unnoticed when the Gabor orientation matched the flankers (and the illusory target percept), despite being easily detected when they differed. Rotation of the flankers (leaving target noise unaltered) also induced illusory target rotations. Blank targets led to similar results, demonstrating that crowding can induce apparent structure where none exists. Finally, adaptation to these stimuli induced a tilt aftereffect at the target location, consistent with signals from the flankers "spreading" across space. These results confirm predictions from change-based models of crowding, such as averaging, and establish crowding as a regularization process that simplifies the peripheral field by promoting consistent appearance among adjacent objects.

  20. Systematic review of public health branding.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  1. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  2. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    PubMed

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications.

  3. Imaging Appearances in Gout

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Gandikota; Melville, David M.; Kaeley, Gurjit S.; Brandon, Catherine J.; Goyal, Janak R.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Jamadar, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Gout is an ancient disease. Last decade has brought about significant advancement in imaging technology and real scientific growth in the understanding of the pathophysiology of gout, leading to the availability of multiple effective noninvasive diagnostic imaging options for gout and treatment options fighting inflammation and controlling urate levels. Despite this, gout is still being sub-optimally treated, often by nonspecialists. Increased awareness of optimal treatment options and an increasing role of ultrasound and dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in the diagnosis and management of gout are expected to transform the management of gout and limit its morbidity. DECT gives an accurate assessment of the distribution of the deposited monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in gout and quantifies them. The presence of a combination of the ultrasound findings of an effusion, tophus, erosion and the double contour sign in conjunction with clinical presentation may be able to obviate the need for intervention and joint aspiration in a certain case population for the diagnosis of gout. The purpose of this paper is to review imaging appearances of gout and its clinical applications. PMID:23585966

  4. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  5. Yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in the sidestream smoke from 15 brands of Canadian cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Collishaw, N.

    1984-03-01

    Sidestream smoke yields for 15 brands of cigarettes were determined under conditions where mainstream yields were approximately equal to those used for determining the values which appear on packages of Canadian cigarettes. Sidestream yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were much higher than mainstream yields for all brands tested. The average sidestream-to-mainstream ratios for the 15 brands were 3.5, 6.6, and 6.8 for tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, respectively. The highest yields of sidestream were obtained from the brands with the lowest mainstream yields.

  6. Examining the protective effects of brand equity in the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, the keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes, including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus, it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  7. Competitive edge: the art and science of branding.

    PubMed

    Longeteig, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Branding is the equivalent of building a reputation and managing the brand and brand perceptions with actions. Create and craft a desirable brand by associating brand with a personality. This is important because it relies on the collective experiences a customer has with the brand and is one of the most straightforward ways to craft a brand. Building and maintaining brand strategy is an ongoing process that must be managed. Effort must be continually made to increase the brand's perceived value to referrers and patients, to differentiate the brand from competition, to make and keep brand promises, and to create customer loyalty.

  8. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  9. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  10. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  11. Building a University Brand from within: A Comparison of Coaches' Perspectives of Internal Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Kimberly M.; Gorchels, Linda; Aurand, Timothy W.

    2006-01-01

    Branding efforts have typically focused on external promotional strategies to develop brand image. Recently, the brand messages conveyed to employees of an organization have been recognized as being equally as important as the brand messages sent to external stakeholders. This study investigates the internal communication of the university brand…

  12. Consumer Brand Choice: Money Allocation as a Function of Brand Reinforcing Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous applications of the matching law to the analysis of consumer brand choice have shown that the amount of money spent purchasing a favorite brand tends to match the quantity bought of the favorite brand divided by the quantity bought of all other brands. Although these results suggest matching between spending and purchased quantity,…

  13. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  15. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  16. Essential marketing tips: build your own brand one step at a time.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Candace

    2010-11-01

    This article discusses about physicians and their practice in terms of a "brand" that is described as one's persona and unique traits. By developing and portraying the uniqueness and singularity of the physician and the practice, one becomes open and transparent to clients for greatest patient satisfaction. Along with some background stories of well-known merchandise brands, presented are tips and advice for branding and selling oneself and one's medical practice. Very practical assignments are recommended for the physician to look at his or her own practice and how it appears to others on the "outside looking in."

  17. Strong branding creates a competitive edge.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    This article encompasses the basics of branding and how it relates to radiology organizations. It also provides tools to help develop your brand. To effectively use branding as a component of your marketing strategy, it is important to follow 3 basic principles: focus on where you excel, understand the existing markets, and be consistent. You do not need to be a large hospital, imaging center, or department to create a brand identity.

  18. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception

    PubMed Central

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T.; Malone, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand’s perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  19. External Perceptions of Successful University Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Branding in universities has become an increasingly topical issue, with some institutions committing substantial financial resources to branding activities. The particular characteristics of the sector present challenges for those seeking to build brands, and it therefore seems to be timely and appropriate to investigate the common approaches of…

  20. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care... certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  1. 76 FR 51245 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 51 and 602 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient... certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  2. [Does acamprosate diminish the appetite for alcohol in weaned alcoholics?].

    PubMed

    Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M

    1996-01-01

    A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.

  3. Brand discrimination: an implicit measure of the strength of mental brand representations.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Leclercq, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While mental associations between a brand and its marketing elements are an important part of brand equity, previous research has yet to provide a sound methodology to measure the strength of these links. The following studies present the development and validation of an implicit measure to assess the strength of mental representations of brand elements in the mind of the consumer. The measure described in this paper, which we call the Brand Discrimination task, requires participants to identify whether images of brand elements (e.g. color, logo, packaging) belong to a target brand or not. Signal detection theory (SDT) is used to calculate a Brand Discrimination index which gives a measure of overall recognition accuracy for a brand's elements in the context of its competitors. A series of five studies shows that the Brand Discrimination task can discriminate between strong and weak brands, increases when mental representations of brands are experimentally strengthened, is relatively stable across time, and can predict brand choice, independently and while controlling for other explicit and implicit brand evaluation measures. Together, these studies provide unique evidence for the importance of mental brand representations in marketing and consumer behavior, along with a research methodology to measure this important consumer-based brand attribute.

  4. Tobacco and tobacco branding in films most popular in the UK from 1989 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged <15, and 92% for people aged <18. Tobacco interval appearances fell by approximately 80% over the study period, but persisted in films in all BBFC categories. Brand appearances were nearly twice as likely to occur in films originating wholly or in part from the UK (UK films). Specific brands, particularly Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film.

  5. "It's Branded in Our Brains"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article comes from a remark made by a Y10 girl in response to a question about repetition in her mathematics lessons. When asked why she thought that teachers returned to the same topic in different year groups, she replied: "So that it's, like, branded in our brains, so that we know it forever". Her comment stands in…

  6. Brand: Identity, Image, and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danker, Stephanie Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the…

  7. Sound Advice on Brand Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden Bergh, Bruce G.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine if brand names that begin with consonants called "plosives" (B, C, D, G, K, P, and T) are more readily recalled and recognized than names that begin with other consonants or vowels. Additionally, the study investigated the relationship between name length and memorability, ability to associate names…

  8. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  9. Branding out of the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Some might wonder what institutions of education could possibly learn from a mouse, a gecko, or even a polar bear. But when people link those animals to the brands they represent (Disney, GEICO, and Coca-Cola, respectively), they realize that marketing and communications departments at higher education institutions across the world would love to…

  10. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  11. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  12. Brand communities embedded in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zaglia, Melanie E

    2013-02-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes.

  13. Brand communities embedded in social networks☆

    PubMed Central

    Zaglia, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers’ interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes. PMID:23564989

  14. Brand Discrimination: An Implicit Measure of the Strength of Mental Brand Representations

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mike; Leclercq, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While mental associations between a brand and its marketing elements are an important part of brand equity, previous research has yet to provide a sound methodology to measure the strength of these links. The following studies present the development and validation of an implicit measure to assess the strength of mental representations of brand elements in the mind of the consumer. The measure described in this paper, which we call the Brand Discrimination task, requires participants to identify whether images of brand elements (e.g. color, logo, packaging) belong to a target brand or not. Signal detection theory (SDT) is used to calculate a Brand Discrimination index which gives a measure of overall recognition accuracy for a brand’s elements in the context of its competitors. A series of five studies shows that the Brand Discrimination task can discriminate between strong and weak brands, increases when mental representations of brands are experimentally strengthened, is relatively stable across time, and can predict brand choice, independently and while controlling for other explicit and implicit brand evaluation measures. Together, these studies provide unique evidence for the importance of mental brand representations in marketing and consumer behavior, along with a research methodology to measure this important consumer-based brand attribute. PMID:25803845

  15. Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding’s effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin’ it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  16. The Excessive Appearance of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, Rod

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages the appearance of disability in contemporary Western culture. Rather than taking disability for granted as a biomedical condition, I interrogate how disability is made to appear in our culture, including its appearance as a biomedical condition. Fundamentally, disability appears to us as a trouble and, as such, cultural…

  17. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  18. Alcohol Marketing Receptivity, Marketing-specific Cognitions and Underage Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927

  19. Branding in Higher Education: A Case Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garipagaoglu, Burçak Çagla

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the brand-building experience of a young and successful Turkish foundation university, this case study attempts to broaden our understanding of branding in Higher Education (HE). Focusing on the diverse brand conceptualizations, brand management principles and brand strategies that are deployed to circumvent barriers to successful…

  20. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    PubMed

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  1. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  2. The categorisation of brands: The case of P&G™ branding strategy.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio; Cavazos-Arroyo, Judith

    2015-07-27

    In 2 studies, we tested what we considered to be the core of Procter and Gamble™ (P&G™) latest branding strategy: making the association between its corporate brand and its product brands explicit. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the conditions: explicit association between P&G™ and one of its product brands and a control condition. Results from Study 1 showed a positive influence of the corporate brand on judgements of brand quality for Crest™. Similarly, results from Study 2 showed a positive influence of the corporate brand on judgements of brand quality and trust for Oral-B™. From a multidisciplinary perspective, we discussed the theoretical and applied implications of our results.

  3. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-10-09

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers' attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one's favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands.

  4. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers’ attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one’s favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands. PMID:26449882

  5. 78 FR 54485 - Interstate Brands Corporation (IBC); a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Hostess Brands, Inc.; Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Interstate Brands Corporation (IBC); a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Hostess Brands, Inc.; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Cortech, LLC; Operating at Locations... February 19, 2013, applicable to workers of Interstate Brands Corporation (IBC), a wholly owned...

  6. How Do Different Types of Community Commitment Influence Brand Commitment? The Mediation of Brand Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management. PMID:23768073

  7. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    SciTech Connect

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma.

  8. Consumer-Brand Relationships under the Marketing 3.0 Paradigm: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Suárez, Mónica; Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Martínez-Caraballo, Noemí

    2017-01-01

    Consumer-brand relationships encompass several dimensions, most of which have attracted growing research attention during the last years. Building these relationships is especially important in the marketing 3.0 era, where it is suggested that customers will choose those brands that satisfy their deepest needs. With these ideas in mind, this article provides a review of two key concepts implied in such relationships: brand love and customer engagement. Although both conceptions focus on different stages of consumer-brand relationships, they actually cover different perspectives on the same process. Moreover, they come from diverse conceptual paradigms: whilst brand love comes from the psychology discipline, engagement derives from diverse areas of the marketing field (e.g., the service-dominant logic perspective). However, their further empirical developments have taken place in marketing. Besides, both terms appear to be applied to different empirical perspectives: brand love is usually linked to the Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry and customer engagement to services. PMID:28275360

  9. Readability of branding symbols in horses and histomorphological alterations at the branding site.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J E; Wohlsein, P; Wulf, M; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Becker-Birck, M; Aurich, C

    2013-03-01

    Identification of horses has traditionally been facilitated by hot iron branding, but the extent by which branding symbols and numbers can be identified has not been investigated. The local pathological changes induced by branding are also unknown. This study analysed the readability of branding symbols and histomorphological alterations at the branding sites. A total of 248 horses in an equestrian championship were available for identification of symbols and numbers. A further 28 horses, euthanased for other reasons, provided histological examination of the branding site. All except one horse had evidence of histological changes at the brand site, including epidermal hyperplasia, increase of dermal collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of adnexal structures. In two foals, an ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis was observed and interpreted as a complication of recent branding lesions. Despite the fact that hot iron branding caused lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury, it did not allow unambiguous identification of a large proportion of older horses. While the breed-specific symbol was consistently identified by three independent investigators in 84% of the horses, the double-digit branding number was read correctly by all three investigators in less than 40%. In conclusion, hot iron branding in horses causes lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury but does not always allow identification of horses.

  10. Branding Canadian Higher Education. CBIE Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilbash, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The branding of national higher education systems is a global trend that has become increasingly common over the last decade. One of the main motives driving this trend is the view that branding a national higher education system will increase that country's market share of international students. This is evident as national higher education…

  11. Branding a State University: Doing It Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dholakia, Ruby Roy; Acciardo, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Shrinking financial support from governments and forecast declines in the college-going population have combined to exert tremendous pressure on institutions of higher learning. Branding as a strategy has become more popular as a way of differentiating an institution from its competition, but the complexity of higher education makes branding an…

  12. University Branding: What Can It Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Getting the branding right for one's university will make a difference to student recruitment, and probably to wider perception in the community. Everyone in higher education knows, and most people outside it know, that reputation is "everything" to universities. In this article, the author draws a distinction between "branding"--which is what…

  13. Official portrait of Astronaut Vance D. Brand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Official portrait of Astronaut Vance D. Brand. Brand is in the dark blue shuttle flight suit with his helmet under his arm and an American flag behind him. Above and to the right of his head is a view of the shuttle flying.

  14. Global Branding and the Celebrity University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblatt, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author is concerned about the potential for increased stratification. As he considers the recent phenomenon of "branding," whereby efforts to enhance reputation and prestige culminate in the creation of the "celebrity university," the author notes the irony that even as the branded institutions declare…

  15. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  16. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  17. Creating your own leadership brand.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  18. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  19. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  20. An Introduction To Appearance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, Richard W.

    1983-11-01

    The appearance of a manufactured product, given that it will fulfill its intended purpose, is its most important attribute. Appearance often determines the acceptability of a product to its seller, and ultimately to the consumer or end-user. The quality of the appearance of a product is psychologically related to its expected performance and useful life. It therefore determines its reception by potential purchasers. This paper describes the interaction of light with objects; reflection, absorption, transmission, or a combination of these phenomena, which result in the perception of the objects, and how measurements that correspond to the way the eye sees color may be made.

  1. Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

    2013-01-01

    Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject’s familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. Methods and Findings In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. Conclusion The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly. PMID:23874638

  2. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  3. Thinking on luxury or pragmatic brand products: Brain responses to different categories of culturally based brands.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2007-08-24

    Culturally based brands have a high impact on people's economic actions. Here we aimed to examine whether socioeconomic information conveyed by certain classes of brands (prestigious versus pragmatic classes) differentially evoke brain response. We presented icons of brands while recording subject's brain activity during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. After the experiment, we asked subjects to assess the brands according to different characteristics. Results revealed an active network of bilateral superior frontal gyri, hippocampus and posterior cingulate related to familiar brands in general. Brands of the category sports and luxury activated regions in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and precuneus. In contrast, brands rated as value products activated the left superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The results suggest an active cortical network related to cognitive control for value brands and a network known to be associated with self-relevant processing for prestigious brands. We discuss the results as differential engagement of the prefrontal cortex depending on the attributed characteristic of a brand.

  4. Acamprosate: A prototypic neuromodulator in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent substance dependence disorders in the world. Advances in research in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence have identified specific neurotransmitter targets for the development of pharmacological treatments. Acamprosate, marketed under the brand name Campral, is an orally administered drug available by prescription in the U.S. and throughout much of the world for treating alcohol dependence. Its safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials worldwide. Here we provide an overview of acamprosate in the context of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol dependence. We propose that unlike previously available pharmacotherapies, acamprosate represents a prototype of a neuromodulatory approach in the treatment of alcohol dependence. A neuromodulatory approach seeks to restore the disrupted changes in neurobiology resulting from chronic alcohol intake. It is our opinion that a neuromodulatory approach will provide a heuristic framework for developing more effective pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:20201812

  5. 78 FR 43969 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review Correction Notice document 2013-17006, appearing on page 42593, in the issue of Tuesday, July 16, 2013 was withdrawn by...

  6. Britain's alcohol market: how minimum alcohol prices could stop moderate drinkers subsidising those drinking at hazardous and harmful levels.

    PubMed

    Record, Chris; Day, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Discounting of alcoholic products is universal in U.K. supermarkets with some chains selling own brand spirits for less than the duty payable per item. Eighty per cent of alcohol purchases are made by 30% of the population and this group are the main beneficiaries. In December 2008 the government announced its intention to consult on modifications to the Licensing Act 2003 to enable the introduction of mandatory conditions for the sale of alcoholic products in order to curtail alcohol harm. In this article it is shown that families in Britain have nothing to fear from the introduction of a 50 p/unit minimum price of alcohol as the overall effect should be a reduction in average weekly supermarket bills for the majority while harmful and hazardous drinkers will pay more. By paying less for non-alcoholic products sold by supermarkets, moderate drinkers should no longer be effectively subsidising the alcohol purchased by the harmful and hazardous group.

  7. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  10. Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

  11. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  12. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed.

  13. Personal branding: building your pathway to professional success.

    PubMed

    Philbrick, Jodi L; Cleveland, Ana D

    2015-01-01

    Personal branding is an introspective process by which you define yourself professionally, and it can serve as your pathway to professional success. There are six steps to building your personal brand: (1) taking an introspective look, (2) understanding the brand that may already exist, (3) developing your personal brand mantra, (4) crafting your physical footprint, (5) creating your digital footprint, and (6) communicating your message. Your personal brand is a promise of value and performance, and it is necessary to meet the expectations of your audience. Effective brand management is a key component to maintaining a positive brand reputation.

  14. Does stimulus appearance affect learning?

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Chater, Nick; Ziori, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    We examined the learning process with 3 sets of stimuli that have identical symbolic structure but differ in appearance (meaningless letter strings, arrangements of geometric shapes, and sequences of cities). One hypothesis is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity in the same way, largely regardless of appearance. Another is that different types of stimuli bias the learning process to operate in different ways. Using the experimental paradigm of artificial grammar learning, we provided a preliminary test of these hypotheses. In Experiments 1 and 2 we measured performance in terms of grammaticality and found no difference across the 3 sets of stimuli. In Experiment 3 we analyzed performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength. Again we found no differences in performance. Our tentative conclusion is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity independent of stimulus appearance.

  15. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  16. Finding brands and losing your religion?

    PubMed

    Cutright, Keisha M; Erdem, Tülin; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Shachar, Ron

    2014-12-01

    Religion is a powerful force in many people's lives, impacting decisions about life, death, and everything in between. It may be difficult, then, to imagine that something as seemingly innocuous as the usage of brand name products might influence individuals' commitment to religion. However, we demonstrate across 6 studies that when brands are a highly salient tool for self-expression, individuals are less likely to report and demonstrate strong religious commitment. We suggest that a desire to maintain consistency among self-identities is one important driver of this relationship and find that the effect is mitigated when the perceived distance between brands and religious values is minimized.

  17. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  18. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  19. Internal Branding in Universities and the Lessons Learnt from the Past: The Significance of Employee Brand Support and Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sujchaphong, Narissara; Nguyen, Bang; Melewar, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature on the concept of internal branding and its effects in the service sector in general, as well as in UK universities. In addition, the concept of employee brand support is reviewed, discussing the influence of leadership characteristics on internal branding in universities. Employee brand support is a crucial…

  20. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  1. Duke University's Quality Appearance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Grounds Services Unit at Duke University has implemented a new program that involves a process of self evaluation, which embraces the concept of perpetual and continuous improvement. The Quality Appearance Program (QAP) embellishes and expands upon the Quality Assurance Program concept, but with a twist to grounds management improvement…

  2. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  3. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  4. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    PubMed

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  5. Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

    The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.

  6. Content Themes of Alcohol Advertising in US Television — Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Schoeppe, Franziska; Campbell, Julie; Braam, Marloes W.G.; Stoolmiller, Michael; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little alcohol research that reports on the thematic contents of contemporary alcohol advertisements in US television. Studies of alcohol ads from two decades ago did not identify “partying” as a social theme. Aim of the present study was to describe and classify alcohol advertisements aired in national television in terms of contents, airing times, and channel placements and to identify different marketing strategies of alcohol brands. Methods Content analysis of all ads from the top 20 US beer and spirit brands aired between July 2009 and June 2011. These were 581 unique alcohol ads accounting for 272,828 (78%) national television airings. Ads were coded according to predefined definitions of 13 content areas. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to define content cluster themes and determine alcoholic brands that were more likely to exploit these themes. Results About half of the advertisements (46%) were aired between 3am and 8pm, and the majority were placed either in Entertainment (40%) and Sports (38%) channels. Beer ads comprised 64% of the sample, with significant variation in airing times and channels between types of products and brands. LCA revealed five content classes that exploited the “Partying”, “Quality”, “Sports”, “Manly”, and “Relax” themes. The partying class, indicative of ad messages surrounding partying, love and sex, was the dominant theme, comprising 42% of all advertisements. Ads for alcopops, flavored spirits, and liqueur were more likely to belong to the party class, but there were also some beer brands (Corona, Heineken) where more than 67% of ads exploited this theme. Conclusions This is the first analysis to identify a partying theme to contemporary alcohol advertising. Future analyses can now determine whether exposure to that or other themes predicts alcohol misuse among youth audiences. PMID:26207317

  7. Scintigraphic appearances of osteoid osteoma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.

    1980-10-01

    A series of 42 osteoid osteomas is reviewed, and the scintigraphic appearances are described. In all cases, a marked, well-localized area of increased activity was demonstrated at the tumor site in both the blood-pool and standard two-hour images. The blood-pool images were performed after the injection of technetium-99m methylene diphosphate which showed a small hyperemic lesion in all cases of osteoid osteoma, thus distinguishing this tumor from other lesions which may show uptake of radionuclide activity after two hours.

  8. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  9. Utilizing the Brand Ecosystem Framework in Designing Branding Strategies for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, Musa; Trapp, Paul; Girard, Tulay; Boyt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In today's complex and highly competitive marketplace, universities and colleges, realizing a need to develop sustainable strategies, have turned to branding as a solution. However, because of their unique service characteristics, universities' branding attempts may not always result in success. The aim of this paper is to present a brand…

  10. Functional Measurement Analysis of Brand Equity: Does Brand Name Affect Perceptions of Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Heather; Shanteau, James

    2010-01-01

    This research project used Functional Measurement to examine how the brand name of consumer products impacts intended purchasing decisions. Thirty undergraduate students tested actual products from three different product categories (crayons, tissues, and tortilla chips). Each product category consisted of three different brands; one with high…

  11. Branding Access through the Carolina Covenant: Fostering Institutional Image and Brand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Barnes, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the potential of major financial aid initiatives to serve as key elements of an institutional branding strategy. Concepts of branding and marketing serve as guiding frameworks for the analysis and interpretation of the findings. Using a case study approach, data were collected through interviews and document analysis at the…

  12. "Hottest Brand, Coolest Pedagogy": Approaches to Corporate Branding in Singapore's Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Carl Jon Way

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the corporate branding efforts of Singapore's publicly funded higher education institutions within a context of neoliberal marketization. Adopting a discourse-analytic perspective, it examines the kind of branding approaches employed by Singapore's universities and polytechnics, and how these approaches are realized…

  13. Brands and Inhibition: A Go/No-Go Task Reveals the Power of Brand Influence.

    PubMed

    Peatfield, Nicholas; Caulfield, Joanne; Parkinson, John; Intriligator, James

    2015-01-01

    Whether selecting a candy in a shop or picking a digital camera online, there are usually many options from which consumers may choose. With such abundance, consumers must use a variety of cognitive, emotional, and heuristic means to filter out and inhibit some of their responses. Here we use brand logos within a Go/No-Go task to probe inhibitory control during the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar logos. The results showed no differences in response times or in commission errors (CE) between familiar and unfamiliar logos. However, participants demonstrated a generally more cautious attitude of responding to the familiar brands: they were significantly slower and less accurate at responding to these brands in the Go trials. These findings suggest that inhibitory control can be exercised quite effectively for familiar brands, but that when such inhibition fails, the potent appetitive nature of brands is revealed.

  14. Brands and Inhibition: A Go/No-Go Task Reveals the Power of Brand Influence

    PubMed Central

    Peatfield, Nicholas; Caulfield, Joanne; Parkinson, John; Intriligator, James

    2015-01-01

    Whether selecting a candy in a shop or picking a digital camera online, there are usually many options from which consumers may choose. With such abundance, consumers must use a variety of cognitive, emotional, and heuristic means to filter out and inhibit some of their responses. Here we use brand logos within a Go/No-Go task to probe inhibitory control during the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar logos. The results showed no differences in response times or in commission errors (CE) between familiar and unfamiliar logos. However, participants demonstrated a generally more cautious attitude of responding to the familiar brands: they were significantly slower and less accurate at responding to these brands in the Go trials. These findings suggest that inhibitory control can be exercised quite effectively for familiar brands, but that when such inhibition fails, the potent appetitive nature of brands is revealed. PMID:26544606

  15. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  16. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  17. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  18. Basosquamous carcinoma: appearance and reality

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Rakesh L.; Collins, Damian; Chapman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BsC) is a controversial entity and both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. BsC has mixed histopathological characteristics of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC and SCC display characteristic histopathology and behaviour; on the other hand, BsC is a rare tumour, which has variable morphology and displays less predictable behaviour. An early diagnosis of BsC is important due to the particularly aggressive nature of the tumour, the increased likelihood of recurrence and the potential for metastasis. Here, we present a case of BsC presenting as an extensive ulcer on the back. The case highlights the aggressive nature of the tumour and variation in appearance. It is important for all clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis so that the urgency of adequate biopsy in specialist clinics is not underestimated. PMID:28058108

  19. Biopharmaceutic Risk Assessment of Brand and Generic Lamotrigine Tablets.

    PubMed

    Vaithianathan, Soundarya; Raman, Siddarth; Jiang, Wenlei; Ting, Tricia Y; Kane, Maureen A; Polli, James E

    2015-07-06

    The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand name antiepileptic drugs has been questioned by neurologists and the epilepsy community. A potential contributor to such concerns is pharmaceutical quality. The objective was to assess the biopharmaceutic risk of brand name Lamictal 100 mg tablets and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets from several manufacturers. Lamotrigine was characterized in terms of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), including aqueous solubility and Caco-2 permeability. A panel of pharmaceutical quality tests was also performed on three batches of Lamictal, three batches of Teva generic, and one batch of each of four other generics: appearance, identity, assay, impurity, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration, dissolution, friability, and loss on drying. These market surveillance results indicate that all brand name and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets passed all tests and showed acceptable pharmaceutical quality and low biopharmaceutic risk. Lamotrigine was classified as a BCS class IIb drug, exhibiting pH-dependent aqueous solubility and dissolution. At pH 1.2 and 4.5, lamotrigine exhibited high solubility, whereas lamotrigine exhibited low solubility at pH 6.8, including non-sink dissolution. Lamotrigine showed high Caco-2 permeability. The apparent permeability (Papp) of lamotrigine was (73.7 ± 8.7) × 10(-6) cm/s in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) direction and (41.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-6) cm/s in the BL-AP direction, which were higher than metoprolol's AP-BL Papp of (21.2 ± 0.9) × 10(-6) cm/s and BL-AP Papp of (34.6 ± 4.6) × 10(-6) cm/s. Overall, lamotrigine's favorable biopharmaceutics from a drug substance perspective and favorable quality characteristics from a tablet formulation perspective suggest that multisource lamotrigine tablets exhibit a low biopharmaceutic risk.

  20. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  1. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  2. Galaxies appear simpler than expected.

    PubMed

    Disney, M J; Romano, J D; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-10-23

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology.

  3. Unusual radiographic appearance of adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Michele; Montalti, Maurizio; Bosco, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare tumor with an indolent course that occurs most commonly in the tibia. It is locally aggressive, and local recurrences are described after resection. Pain is the most common symptom. Since the lesion is typically slow growing, the pain can be present for many years before the patient seeks medical attention. Microscopically, adamantinoma consists of islands of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma. Nuclear atypia is minimal, and mitotic figures are rare. The most common radiographic appearance is that of multiple sharply demarcated radiolucent lesions surrounded by areas of dense, sclerotic bone. This tumor most often affects the tibial diaphysis and produces lytic lesions that can cause fractures. A 31-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing lytic lesion of the distal tibia. On histological examination, many areas of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma were identified. Diagnosis of adamantinoma was performed. The lesion was treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with distal tibia allograft and ankle arthrodesis with retrograde nail. At 2-year follow-up, there were no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence of disease.

  4. Female facial appearance and health.

    PubMed

    Gray, Alan W; Boothroyd, Lynda G

    2012-02-01

    The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections), on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September) was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months). The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  5. From “Where” to “What”: Distributed Representations of Brand Associations in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ping; Nelson, Leif D.; Hsu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the notion that there exists a set of human-like characteristics associated with brands, referred to as brand personality. Here we combine newly available machine learning techniques with functional neuroimaging data to characterize the set of processes that give rise to these associations. We show that brand personality traits can be captured by the weighted activity across a widely distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in reasoning, imagery, and affective processing. That is, as opposed to being constructed via reflective processes, brand personality traits appear to exist a priori inside the minds of consumers, such that we were able to predict what brand a person is thinking about based solely on the relationship between brand personality associations and brain activity. These findings represent an important advance in the application of neuroscientific methods to consumer research, moving from work focused on cataloguing brain regions associated with marketing stimuli to testing and refining mental constructs central to theories of consumer behavior. PMID:27065490

  6. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    PubMed

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era.

  7. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  8. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  9. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  10. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  11. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  12. Brand and Usability in Content-Intensive Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Our connections to the digital world are invoked by brands, but the intersection of branding and interaction design is still an under-investigated area. Particularly, current websites are designed not only to support essential user tasks, but also to communicate an institution's intended brand values and traits. What we do not yet know, however,…

  13. School Choice and the Branding of Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivitt, Julie R.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    How useful are "corporate brands" in markets? In theory, brands convey reliable information, providing consumers with shortcuts to time-consuming provider searches. We examine the usefulness of a corporate brand when parental school choice is expanded through K-12 tuition scholarships. Specifically, we evaluate whether Catholic schools…

  14. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  15. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  16. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  17. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by..., 2011 and applies to any fee on branded prescription drug sales that is due on or after September...

  18. 76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... provides guidance relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care Act. FOR... PART 51--BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS, the last line of the first paragraph, the language ``this issue...

  19. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was... September 28, 2011 and applies to any fee on branded prescription drug sales that is due on or...

  20. Community off-sales provision and the presence of alcohol-related detritus in residential neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alasdair J M; Davidson, Neil

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between community off-sales premises and alcohol-related detritus (litter/remains) in residential neighbourhoods. This was accomplished by photographing all brand-identifiable alcohol product detritus (glass, packaging, etc.) where they lay and mapping these against the presence of off-sales outlets (licensed convenience stores) in the community. It was hypothesised that alcohol-related detritus would be greatest near to such alcohol outlets. However, although there was some evidence of a "broken bottles effect", accumulations of alcohol-related detritus near some off-sales premises, it is concluded that local area deprivation is a better predictor of such alcohol-related incivility than is outlet provision. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current social responsibility policy developments which are designed to make the alcohol industry liable for alcohol-related incivilities.

  1. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  2. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  5. Applying Brand Management to Higher Education through the Use of the Brand Flux Model™--The Case of Arcadia University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L., Jr.; Omar, Maktoba

    2014-01-01

    Within an increasingly more competitive landscape, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are becoming more marketized and promotionalized. Brand building is becoming a strategic administrative goal, yet clear brand management models are lacking. This paper utilizes the Brand Flux Model™ to assist in tracking the fluxing nature or historical…

  6. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  7. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  8. Adolescent drinking patterns across countries: associations with alcohol policies.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Conor; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Early consumption of full servings of alcohol and early experience of drunkenness have been linked with alcohol-related harmful effects in adolescence, as well as adult health and social problems. On the basis of secondary analysis of county-level prevalence data, the present study explored the current pattern of drinking and drunkenness among 15- and 16-year-old adolescents in 40 European and North American countries. Data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Children survey and the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs were used. The potential role of alcohol control and policy measures in explaining variance in drinking patterns across countries was also examined. Policy measures and data on adult consumption patterns were taken from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, Eurostat and the indicator of alcohol control policy strength developed by Brand DA, Saisana M, Rynn LA et al. [(2007) Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries. PLoS Med 4:e151.]. We found that a non-significant trend existed whereby higher prices and stronger alcohol controls were associated with a lower proportion of weekly drinking but a higher proportion of drunkenness. It is important that future research explores the causal relationships between alcohol policy measures and alcohol consumption patterns to determine whether strict policies do in fact have any beneficial effect on drinking patterns, or rather, lead to rebellion and an increased prevalence of binge drinking.

  9. Math Branding in a Community College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…

  10. Certification and the Branding of HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Although calls continue to establish certification, several certifications for human resource development (HRD) practitioners already exist, although none use the name HRD. This Forum explores what those certification programs are and what their availability means to the development of the HRD "brand" (the impressions of the service derived from…

  11. The Relationship between Branding and Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn

    2007-01-01

    Increased national and international competition within higher education has triggered an interest in branding within the sector. Higher education institutions are, as a consequence, currently re-examining their profile and image. This article addresses the problems higher education institutions face in this process, and points to the benefits and…

  12. Press kit kicks off new branding.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A smartly produced press kit resulted in unprecedented news coverage when Denver's Porter Adventist Hospital recently unveiled plans for an extensive 80 million dollars redevelopment. A news conference was held to announce this plan, along with the opening of the hospital's new emergency department. The overall effort is part of the new branding strategy of the 75-year-old hospital.

  13. Changing the Library Brand: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Ben; Dixon, Simon; Donohue, Neil; Rowlands, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines some of the opportunities and challenges of changing what the library "brand" means to academic and professional services staff in the rapidly changing environment of UK higher education, taking the University of Leicester as a case study. It makes a practitioner contribution to the growing body of evidence of how…

  14. Reply to J Brand-Miller

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are surprised Dr Brand-Miller questions whether we have chosen appropriate foods for diets with different glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in our recent study (1). In the same protocol as the one she questions, we have previously reported (2) that a subgroup of the same population who h...

  15. School Choice, Brand Loyalty and Civic Loyalty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Applying a philosophical perspective to the concept of loyalty, I consider how the commodification of education may affect the ties between people. Using both theories of brand loyalty and Albert Hirschman's distinction between exit and voice, I examine how human loyalties may be formed in general and also in the field of education. I conclude…

  16. The "Brand Name" Research University Goes Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces attempts by two "brand-name" research universities to transnationalise: the US-based Johns Hopkins University, and the University of New South Wales from Australia. Both endeavours were located in, and supported by, Singapore, a city-state with knowledge economy aspirations. The paper explores the globalisation of the…

  17. Does having a "brand" help you lead others?

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Every manager has the opportunity to develop a personal brand of unique characteristics that are valuable in his or her own right. Recognizing a personal brand and developing it to its fullest can enhance leadership potential. These qualities enable others to notice and follow the leader and can enhance cooperation. Credibility is key to developing a personal brand. Then come style, consistency, and change. A brand can enable the manager to connect with others. Use of technology can enhance the use of a brand because cyberspace promotes communication. Other necessities are using organization, selling vision, sharing information, and staying personal.

  18. Condensation in AN Economic Model with Brand Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, L.; Espinosa, F. J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodriguez-Achach, M.

    We present a linear agent based model on brand competition. Each agent belongs to one of the two brands and interacts with its nearest neighbors. In the process the agent can decide to change to the other brand if the move is beneficial. The numerical simulations show that the systems always condenses into a state when all agents belong to a single brand. We study the condensation times for different parameters of the model and the influence of different mechanisms to avoid condensation, like anti monopoly rules and brand fidelity.

  19. Brand strengthening decision making delved from brand-contacts in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Kazue; Hagihara, Yukiko

    2007-01-01

    Under the Japanese Government's strong enforcement of Japanese national medical cost reduction, only hospitals which emphasize patient values, and creation of brands according to them can survive. This study extracted patients' expectations as brand from Campbell's Brand-Contact lists. The authors also proposed to add Brand-strengthening strategies both for short-term strategies (large improvement is not required) and for long-term strategies (restructuring hardware and systems). This method would enable hospitals to collect customers' underlying expectations, and would create high-value brands. Trustful medical service would provide mutual and synergetic medical care effects. It is already considered out of date to conduct qualitative patient satisfaction interviews on current medical services to current customers. It is the only way to survive that hospitals themselves produce their original brands to increase patient loyalty and customer satisfaction. In the process, customer value should be reconsidered from both aspects of the quality of clinical care and of other medically related services. Then hospitals would be able to satisfy both customers' output and process expectations.

  20. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  1. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  2. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  3. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  4. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  5. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  6. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  7. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  8. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  9. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  10. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  11. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  12. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  13. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  14. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  15. Microbiological profile and potential hazards associated with imported and local brands of tomato paste in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efiuvwevwere, B J; Atirike, O I

    1998-03-01

    Cans of three tomato paste brands (two of which are imported and one produced locally) showing defective or normal appearance were purchased from various retail outlets and analysed for microbial composition and pH values. Substantially higher total viable counts were observed in samples from defective cans but the lowest population was found in the local brand. Ratio of mesophilic to thermophilic micro-organisms increased in samples obtained from cans showing visible defects. Anaerobic spore counts were higher than the aerobic population in both normal and defective cans, but the counts varied with the brands. Four dominant bacterial genera (Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc) were isolated from the samples with the greater proportion being spore-formers. Percentage occurrence of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum was appreciably higher in samples from defective cans while a preponderance of Lactobacillus occurred in samples from normal cans. Of the moulds isolated, Absidia and Aspergillus fumigatus showed a higher percentage in defective cans. pH values higher than the critical safe level of 4.6 were found in cans with visible defects and greater microbial diversity with higher microbial load was more often associated with these samples. Imported brands showed more undesirable microbial quality and pH values, making them potentially hazardous.

  16. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  17. Favorite brands as cultural objects modulate reward circuit.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2007-01-22

    On the basis of the hypothesis that brands may function as reward stimuli, we investigated brain responses to favorite brands. Participants viewed brand logos while we measured cortical activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results revealed activity in the striatum for favorite brands that positively correlated with sports and luxury characteristics, but negatively with attributions to a brand of rational choice. Reduced activation of a single region in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was demonstrated when viewing the most beloved brand, possibly suggesting reduced strategic reasoning on the basis of affect. The results propose that brands that have been associated with appetitive stimuli owing to marketing efforts engage brain networks similar to those engaged by artificially associated reward stimuli. Moreover, social stimuli may function as secondary inducers of reward mechanisms.

  18. Experimental alcohol blastopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandor, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated

  19. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  1. Frontal Deficits in Alcoholism: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Mary Reeni M.; Potts, Geoffrey; Kothman, Delia; Martin, Laura; Mukundan, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Alcoholism is a major health problem afflicting people all over the world. Understanding the neural substrates of this addictive disorder may provide the basis for effective interventions. So-called ''executive processes'' play a role in cognitive functions like attention and working memory, and appear to be disrupted in alcoholism (Noel et al.,…

  2. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  4. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  5. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  6. Changes in the prevalence of alcohol in rap music lyrics 1979-2009.

    PubMed

    Herd, Denise

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence and context of alcohol references in rap music lyrics from 1979 through 2009. Four hundred nine top-ranked rap music songs released were sampled from Billboard magazine rating charts. Songs were analyzed using systematic content analysis and were coded for alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, attitudes towards alcohol, and consequences of drinking. Trends were analyzed using regression analyses. The results of the study reveal significant increases in the presence of alcohol in rap songs; a decline in negative attitudes towards alcohol; decreases in consequences attributed to alcohol; increases in the association of alcohol with glamour and wealth, drugs, and nightclubs; and increases in references to liquor and champagne.

  7. Logo Effects on Brand Extension Evaluations from the Electrophysiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo). S2 was a picture of an extension product that belonged to a dissimilar product category than S1. The behavior data showed that BL was more acceptable than BN in the dissimilar brand extension. The neurophysiology process was reflected by a less negative N2 component and a larger P300 component in the BL than in the BN. We suggested that N2 reflected a whole conflict between the brand-product combination and the long-term memory and that P300 could be regarded as the reflection of the categorization process in the working memory.

  8. Logo Effects on Brand Extension Evaluations from the Electrophysiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo). S2 was a picture of an extension product that belonged to a dissimilar product category than S1. The behavior data showed that BL was more acceptable than BN in the dissimilar brand extension. The neurophysiology process was reflected by a less negative N2 component and a larger P300 component in the BL than in the BN. We suggested that N2 reflected a whole conflict between the brand-product combination and the long-term memory and that P300 could be regarded as the reflection of the categorization process in the working memory. PMID:28337121

  9. Three questions you need to ask about your brand.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kevin Lane; Sternthal, Brian; Tybout, Alice

    2002-09-01

    Traditionally, the people responsible for positioning brands have concentrated on the differences that set each brand apart from the competition. But emphasizing differences isn't enough to sustain a brand against competitors. Managers should also consider the frame of reference within which the brand works and the features the brand shares with other products. Asking three questions about your brand can help: HAVE WE ESTABLISHED A FRAME?: A frame of reference--for Coke, it might be as narrow as other colas or as broad as all thirst-quenching drinks--signals to consumers the goal they can expect to achieve by using a brand. Brand managers need to pay close attention to this issue, in some cases expanding their focus in order to preempt the competition. ARE WE LEVERAGING OUR POINTS OF PARITY?: Certain points of parity must be met if consumers are to perceive your product as a legitimate player within its frame of reference. For instance, consumers might not consider a bank truly a bank unless it offers checking and savings plans. ARE THE POINTS OF DIFFERENCE COMPELLING?: A distinguishing characteristic that consumers find both relevant and believable can become a strong, favorable, unique brand association, capable of distinguishing the brand from others in the same frame of reference. Frames of reference, points of parity, and points of difference are moving targets. Maytag isn't the only dependable brand of appliance, Tide isn't the only detergent with whitening power, and BMWs aren't the only cars on the road with superior handling. The key questions you need to ask about your brand may not change, but their context certainly will. The saviest brand positioners are also the most vigilant.

  10. Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jonathan C. W.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Leonards, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. Design Cross‐sectional observational study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with eye‐tracking. Non‐smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event‐related design. Setting Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, UK. Participants Non‐smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers (n = 72) were tested. After exclusions, data from 19 non‐smokers, 19 weekly smokers and 20 daily smokers were analysed. Measurements Brain activity was assessed in whole brain analyses and in pre‐specified masked analyses in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. On‐line eye‐tracking during scanning recorded visual attention to health warnings. Findings There was no evidence for a main effect of pack type or smoking status in either the nucleus accumbens or amygdala, and this was unchanged when taking account of visual attention to health warnings. However, there was evidence for an interaction, such that we observed increased activation in the right amygdala when viewing branded as compared with plain packs among weekly smokers (P = 0.003). When taking into account visual attention to health warnings, we observed higher levels of activation in the visual cortex in response to plain packaging compared with branded packaging of cigarettes (P = 0.020). Conclusions Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye‐tracking data, health warnings appear to be more salient on ‘plain’ cigarette packs than branded packs. PMID:27886656

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Medical practice branding using cable television.

    PubMed

    Miaoulis, George; Kissinger, Mark; Sirko-Fiorilli, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Genesis Medical Associates is an independent primary care practice in the suburbs of Pittsburgh. Given competitive pressures, a member of the physician leadership began thinking about the need for the practice to develop an "identity and awareness" program to set the practice apart from the competition. The idea for branding the campaign began when Dr. Rob Potter, Jr., was attending a Pittsburgh Pirates baseball game and a fan said to him, "You're that doctor I see on television" in the nursing home commercial. Triggered by this experience, Potter saw the opportunity to develop an awareness and identity campaign for Genesis. In this article we share the reasons for, the steps taken, and initial results in developing a medical practice branding strategy.

  16. Propensity for and Correlates of Alcohol Sales to Underage Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Heather; Toomey, Traci I.; Dunsmuir, William; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the propensity for alcohol sales to youth in the late 1990s, following increased efforts to reduce youth access to alcohol. Male and female pseudo-underage buyers (i.e., age [greater than or equal to] 21 but judged to appear less than 21) attempted to purchase alcohol without age identification at 741 alcohol…

  17. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  18. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  19. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  20. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  1. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  3. a Model for Brand Competition Within a Social Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Canto-Lugo, E.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    An agent-based model was built representing an economic environment in which m brands are competing for a product market. These agents represent companies that interact within a social network in which a certain agent persuades others to update or shift their brands; the brands of the products they are using. Decision rules were established that caused each agent to react according to the economic benefits it would receive; they updated/shifted only if it was beneficial. Each agent can have only one of the m possible brands, and she can interact with its two nearest neighbors and another set of agents which are chosen according to a particular set of rules in the network topology. An absorbing state was always reached in which a single brand monopolized the network (known as condensation). The condensation time varied as a function of model parameters is studied including an analysis of brand competition using different networks.

  4. Neuroeconomics: in search of the neural representation of brands.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In modern economy the customer is confronted with a huge amount of consumer goods. In this situation, culturally based brands seem to play an important role in establishing strong emotional bonds between customers and goods and to guide people's economic behavior by biasing selections and preference decisions based on affect. Recently, neuroscientific approaches have demonstrated that cultural objects like brands or brand-related behavior may successfully be investigated with neuroimaging tools like fMRI. First studies suggested that structures associated with the reward circuit (striatum) and the dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex may be involved when perceiving a favorite brand. Hence, brands that have been associated with appetitive stimuli due to marketing efforts or cultural factors seem to engage similar brain networks than artificially associated reward stimuli. However, brands have different and complex meanings in our life far beyond representing objects of desire. For example, the possession of goods from certain kinds of brands often is used to mark the social state of the owner and to distinguish him or her from other groups. In particular, luxury goods often seem to have this function. Recent neuroimaging results support this observation by showing that viewing logos of luxury brands is associated with brain activity in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, a region known to be associated with self-centered cognitions. Thus, it seems that brands of luxury goods improve self-relevant thoughts, pointing to the role of luxury brands to mark the superior position of the owner in society. These results demonstrate that cultural symbols like brands can successfully be examined with neuroimaging approaches. Thus, along with advanced cultural theories, neuroeconomics may provide important contributions to the understanding of brand-related or economic behavior.

  5. Does having a "brand" help you lead others?

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth

    Managing expertly requires many qualities one of which is managing a personal brand. The manager must manage the brand with clarity, consistency, the right technologies, skillful human resources, and clear vision in order for the message to be heard and for effectiveness to soar. Where as technology is valuable it is just as important to talk to people face to face to clearly as effectively sell a personal brand and a personal vision (Noonan, 1991).

  6. Remediating politics: brand(ed) new sexualities and real bodies online.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Aristea

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests that, in a world emerging in and through mediation, branded sex bloggers and portals become (re)mediators of queer and feminist politics. It examines the websites of two porn production companies, Nofauxxx and Furry Girl, and analyses how they respond to older media forms, re-articulate long-standing debates about pornography in new mediated environments, and re-signify the pornographic object. Key in this process is the circulation of "authenticity," "real bodies," and "diversity" discourses. Through this circulation, sex blogger/brand portals mediate models of queer and feminist political engagement entrenched with notions of digital networks and free markets more generally.

  7. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  8. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  9. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    PubMed

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  10. Your employment brand: is it working for or against you?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    The ability to attract and retain hard-to-find professionals is vitally connected to the perceptions of your organization both internally and externally. Many organizations confuse their employment brand with branding and all too often put considerable effort and often scarce resources against ineffective initiatives. Most health care organizations do not consistently allocate the necessary resources needed to build and sustain a strong employer brand. The relationship between employers and employees to and among each other and the values you strive for collectively are the cornerstones of your employment brand. It is imperative for nurse leaders to create and sustain an environment where employees are inherently positive and connected to their organization.

  11. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Neural correlates of culturally familiar brands of car manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Berens, Harald; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Brands have a high impact on people's economic decisions. People may prefer products of brands even among almost identical products. Brands can be defined as cultural-based symbols, which promise certain advantages of a product. Recent studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be crucial for the processing of brand knowledge. The aim of this study was to examine the neural correlates of culturally based brands. We confronted subjects with logos of car manufactures during an fMRI session and instructed them to imagine and use a car of these companies. As a control condition, we used graphically comparable logos of car manufacturers that were unfamiliar to the culture of the subjects participating in this study. If they did not know the logo of the brand, they were told to imagine and use a generic car. Results showed activation of a single region in the medial prefrontal cortex related to the logos of the culturally familiar brands. We discuss the results as self-relevant processing induced by the imagined use of cars of familiar brands and suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role for processing culturally based brands.

  13. 8 CFR 292.4 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prescribed by DHS by the attorney or accredited representative appearing in each case. The form must be... order for the appearance to be recognized by DHS. The appearance will be recognized by the specific immigration component of DHS in which it was filed until the conclusion of the matter for which it was...

  14. 8 CFR 292.4 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prescribed by DHS by the attorney or accredited representative appearing in each case. The form must be... order for the appearance to be recognized by DHS. The appearance will be recognized by the specific immigration component of DHS in which it was filed until the conclusion of the matter for which it was...

  15. 77 FR 3636 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications; Correction AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... Management and Budget memoranda on brand-name specifications, FAR Case 2005-037, Brand-Name...

  16. Effects of Alcohol-Induced Working Memory Decline on Alcohol Consumption and Adverse Consequences of Use

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, William V.; Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. Objectives The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trails Making Test-B). Method Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3% male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30 day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Results Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. Conclusions It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one’s ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day, and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use. PMID:26407604

  17. Self- and Social Motivation to Interact with a Brand on Facebook: The Moderating Roles of Self-Expression and Brand Engagement in a Student Sample.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taemin; Kim, Okhyun

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the roles of self- and social motivation in interacting with a brand on Facebook. An online survey was conducted using 11 familiar global brands randomly selected from Interbrand's 100 Best Global Brands. The result demonstrated that congruence between actual/ideal self and personality of a brand (i.e., self-motivation) positively influenced users' interaction with a brand on Facebook. In this relationship, self-expressive motivation and brand engagement emerged as moderators. Additionally, social identity as a social motivation positively affected users' interaction with a brand. Although not all components of social motivation influenced users' interaction with a brand, this study showed that two exclusive motivations, self and social, positively influenced users' interaction with a brand on Facebook. Managerial and practical implications were also proposed for marketing a brand on Facebook.

  18. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  19. Branding MBA Programs: The Use of Target Market Desired Outcomes for Effective Brand Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Louise A.; Nadeau, John

    2010-01-01

    Branding is about delivering on desired outcomes. The importance of positioning program offerings on the basis of outcomes sought in the education market is illustrated in this study of choice of an MBA program by prospective students. MBA fair attendees were surveyed and multiple methods were employed to determine the importance of desired…

  20. Maintaining Warm, Trusting Relationships with Brands: Increased Temperature Perceptions after Thinking of Communal Brands

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Hans; Janssen, Janneke A.; Coan, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of “grounded social cognition”. It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552) toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively) perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant) relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective. PMID:25915686

  1. Brand emotional credibility: effects of mixed emotions about branded products with varying credibility.

    PubMed

    Mileti, Antonio; Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of mixed emotions on the positioning and on the intention to purchase different categories of branded products (i.e., Attractiveness-products, Expertise-products, and Trustworthiness-products), in relation to their main component of credibility (Ohanian, 1990). On the basis of a focus group (n = 12) aimed to identify the three branded products used as stimuli and a pre-test (n = 240) directed to discover emotions elicited by them, two studies (n = 630; n = 240) were carried out. Positioning and multiple regression analyses showed that positive and negative emotions are positively related with the positioning and the purchase intention of Attractiveness-products, and, respectively, positively and negatively related with those of Trustworthiness-products; whereas negative emotions are negatively associated with those of Expertise-products. Brand Emotional Credibility--i.e., the emotional believability of the brand positioning signals--may help to identify unconscious elements and the simultaneous importance of mixed emotions associated with different products to match consumers' desires and expectations.

  2. Maintaining warm, trusting relationships with brands: increased temperature perceptions after thinking of communal brands.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Hans; Janssen, Janneke A; Coan, James A

    2015-01-01

    Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of "grounded social cognition". It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552) toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively) perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant) relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective.

  3. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  4. The Value of Branded Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Peura, David A.; Berardi, Rosemary R.; Gonzalez, Javier; Brunetti, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) continues to rise, placing an increasing burden on our health care system. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective and widely used therapy for GERD. Many PPIs are now available in generic and over-the-counter forms, and managed care formularies often choose these as their preferred drug for GERD treatment. However, newer-generation branded PPIs, as a result of differences in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, may offer clinical advantages over generic PPIs. This article discusses these differences and the advantages they offer and suggests possible ways to incorporate the newer PPIs into formularies. PMID:21931475

  5. Generic versus branded medicines: An observational study among patients with chronic diseases attending a public hospital outpatient department

    PubMed Central

    Das, Manisha; Choudhury, Supriyo; Maity, Somnath; Hazra, Avijit; Pradhan, Tirthankar; Pal, Aishee; Roy, Ranendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of generic prescription is widely accepted in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, it has failed to gain popularity in India due to factors such as nonavailability and distrust on the product quality. However, since 2012, the Government of West Bengal, India, has initiated exclusive generic drug outlets called “fair price medicine shop” (FPMS) inside the government hospital premises in a “public-private-partnership” model. This study was undertaken to evaluate the experience and attitude of patients who were consuming generic drugs purchased from these FPMS. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study where we have interviewed 100 patients each consuming generic and branded drugs, respectively. The perceived effectiveness, reported safety, medication adherence, cost of therapy, and availability of drugs was compared between two mentioned groups. Medication adherence was estimated through Drug Attitude Inventory-10. Results: 93% of generic and 87% branded drug users believed that their drugs were effective (P = 0.238) in controlling their ailments. No significant difference (9% generic, 10% branded drug users, P = 1.000) was observed in reported adverse effects between generic and branded drug users. 82% and 77% of patients were adherent generic and branded drugs, respectively (P = 0.289). As expected, a significantly lower cost of generic drugs was observed compared to its branded counterpart. Conclusion: The policy of FPMS implemented by the Government of West Bengal, India appeared to be promising in terms of perceived effectiveness, safety, and adherence of generic drugs from FPMS compared to drugs purchased from open market retailers. Therefore, this study might act as an impetus for the policy-makers to initiate similar models across the country. PMID:28250671

  6. High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Xuan, Ziming; Aryal, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). Methods. In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. Results. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Conclusions. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed. PMID:26180984

  7. Relative Harmony: Achieving Balance in Your Brand Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Educational institutions understand the importance of having a positive image among their target audiences, but the process of creating, enhancing, and managing that image remains challenging to many. Confusion over what branding is only adds to the challenge. Consultants define "brand" as promising an experience and delivering on that…

  8. Changes in Adolescent Cigarette-Brand Preference, 1989 to 1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Nancy J.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Mowery, Paul; Gerlach, Karen K.; Emont, Seth; Orleans, C. Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand changes in cigarette-brand choice by adolescents in the context of demographic differences and advertising. Methods: Data from 3 nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of adolescents were analyzed. Results: Marlboro, Camel, and Newport brand cigarettes accounted for over 80% of the cigarettes usually bought by…

  9. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... needs. The salient physical, functional, or performance characteristics that “equal” products must meet..., including “equal” products of the brand name manufacturer, must— (1) Meet the salient physical, functional...) Brand name, if any; and (ii) Make or model number; (3) Include descriptive literature such...

  10. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... needs. The salient physical, functional, or performance characteristics that “equal” products must meet..., including “equal” products of the brand name manufacturer, must— (1) Meet the salient physical, functional...) Brand name, if any; and (ii) Make or model number; (3) Include descriptive literature such...

  11. Engagement as a Brand Position in the Higher Education Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine public engagement as a branding and public relations strategy at colleges and universities. Specifically, this paper posits the idea that engagement efforts require a focused and, if possible, centralized approach on the part of colleges and universities. Successful branding and marketing of engagement…

  12. Managing the College or University Brand: The Board's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A new responsibility--"brand management"--has developed for some boards of trustees as competition for high-achieving students and various types of resources has intensified. As this competition has grown more intense, and as alumni and donor response to publicized rankings has grown more strident, trustees have begun to focus on brand strength…

  13. A Brand New Way of Looking at Library Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, one of the hottest topics in library marketing is branding. Over the years, businesses have utilized this technique to achieve commercial success. Is it possible for libraries to utilize this same strategy to promote their resources and services? One of the key components of a good branding campaign is passion, dedication, and a quality…

  14. Leadership and Branding in Business Schools: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Rajani; Gosling, Jonathan; Bolden, Richard; O'Brien, Anne; Hawkins, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the growth of corporate branding in higher education (HE) and its use by academic and professional managers as a mechanism for not only enhancing institutional reputation but also for facilitating internal culture change. It uses Bourdieu's framework of field, capital and habitus to analyse case studies of branding in two…

  15. Branding Your Post-School Outcomes Data Collection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Post-School Outcomes Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of "Branding your Post-School Outcomes Data Collection Process" is to help state education agencies create brand recognition with youths, families, and school personnel for the post-school outcomes survey. Recognition--paired with information about the survey purpose, who is conducting the interview, and how the information…

  16. Marketing Strategies: Lessons for Libraries from Commercial Brand Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpert, Ann J.

    This paper first argues that the World Wide Web at its best, has been able only to imitate the resources and services of an exemplary research library. It then goes on to examine how academic research libraries can take advantage of their brand identity as market leaders in the information business. The basic concept of brands and branding…

  17. Contextual Influences: Building Brand Community in Large and Small Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlexander, J. Harry; Koenig, Harold F.

    2010-01-01

    This research extends recent efforts that have introduced and empirically tested a conceptual model of brand community in the context of higher education. This emerging literature has indicated that brand community provides a framework that can inform and guide marketing investments in ways that lead to affinity and stronger loyalty to the brand…

  18. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition.

  19. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era. PMID:27217887

  20. Branding of Flemish Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Balance Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mampaey, Jelle; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Branding of higher education institutions (HEIs) is an expanding area of research. The existing literature mainly draws on the strategic management perspective that argues that HEIs are pressured to develop brands which differentiate them from their competitors. Past studies, however, do insufficiently take into account that most HEIs are…

  1. [How a brand strategy strengthen the public service mission].

    PubMed

    Ouazan, J-M; Blaise-Pagès, L; Le Failler, F

    2013-05-01

    Commercial companies or public service mission, today all organizations must manage their brand. For a public service organization, also, the brand is an asset that enhances its visibility to the various partners. A brand is a collection of signs that distinguishes it, it or the products and services it offers. In recent years, we are witnessing the valorization of public service mission brand in an objective of visibility but also for internal cohesion. Developing a brand brings benefits in its identification and knowledge by users but also within the institutional environment. This value can also be an economic booster. With a strong brand, the organization may reduce communication expenses. In recent years, we attend an important development of the territory marks. Concerning the Établissement français du sang (EFS) when it was created in 2000, it is the act of donation of blood, which was enhanced by the "Don du sang" logotype and not the institution. As a consequence, the logotype "EFS" was very discreet. But more than 10 years after, this situation has to evolve. The EFS is not just a blood transfusion organization. Beyond blood donations, the EFS has developed other activities (cell and tissue therapy, IHR, clinics, research, etc.). With the "new generation" blood centers, it is an opportunity to think over the brand EFS. This is why EFS has decided to develop a brand strategy, the ground of all communication policies.

  2. Do Professors Have Customer-Based Brand Equity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Jillapalli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    This research endeavors to understand whether certain professors have customer-based brand equity (CBBE) in the minds of students. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to conceptualize, develop, and empirically test a model of customer-based professor brand equity. Survey data gathered from 465 undergraduate business students were used to…

  3. 77 FR 38039 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade... membership on the Board of Directors of the Corporation for Travel Promotion. SUMMARY: The Department of... membership on the Board of Directors of The Corporation for Travel Promotion (Board) (dba Brand USA)....

  4. 78 FR 53728 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade... leaders to apply for membership on the Board of Directors of the Corporation for Travel Promotion. SUMMARY... Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation for Travel Promotion...

  5. 78 FR 44531 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade... leaders to apply for membership on the Board of Directors of the Corporation for Travel Promotion. SUMMARY... Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation for Travel Promotion...

  6. 77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY... proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care...

  7. Institutional Brand Personality and Advertisements during Televised Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Little empirical research exists in terms of how colleges and universities create their institutional image and brand. In this chapter, the author explores the notion of branding within the context of higher education--and how intercollegiate athletics contributes to it--analyzing the messages universities conveyed during nationally televised bowl…

  8. The Make Up of Institutional Branding: Who, What, How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Syed, Saadi; Mount, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on who creates branding within institutions of higher learning, and what impact branding has on core institutional activities such as student recruitment and fundraising, as well as on socio-psychological factors such as community respect and national prestige. Eighty-nine tertiary education experts covering…

  9. Internet filters and entry pages do not protect children from online alcohol marketing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Thom, Jeffrey A; Davoren, Sondra; Barrie, Lance

    2014-02-01

    We review programs and policies to prevent children from accessing alcohol marketing online. To update the literature, we present our recent studies that assess (i) in-built barriers to underage access to alcohol brand websites and (ii) commercial internet filters. Alcohol websites typically had poor filter systems for preventing entry of underage persons; only half of the sites required the user to provide a date of birth, and none had any means of preventing users from trying again. Even the most effective commercial internet filters allowed access to one-third of the sites we examined.

  10. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  13. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  14. Alcohol Use Accelerates HIV Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rafie, Carlin; Lai, Shenghan; Sales, Sabrina; Page, John Bryan; Campa, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The effects of alcohol abuse on HIV disease progression have not been definitively established. A prospective, 30-month, longitudinal study of 231 HIV+ adults included history of alcohol and illicit drug use, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), CD4+ cell count, and HIV viral load every 6 months. Frequent alcohol users (two or more drinks daily) were 2.91 times (95% CI: 1.23–6.85, p = 0.015) more likely to present a decline of CD4 to ≤200 cells/μl, independent of baseline CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load, antiretroviral use over time, time since HIV diagnosis, age, and gender. Frequent alcohol users who were not on ART also increased their risk for CD4 cell decline to ≤200 cells/mm3 (HR = 7.76: 95% CI: 1.2–49.2, p = 0.03). Combined frequent alcohol use with crack-cocaine showed a significant risk of CD4+ cell decline (HR = 3.57: 95% CI: 1.24–10.31, p = 0.018). Frequent alcohol intake was associated with higher viral load over time (β = 0.259, p = 0.038). This significance was maintained in those receiving ART (β = 0.384, p = 0.0457), but not in those without ART. Frequent alcohol intake and the combination of frequent alcohol and crack-cocaine accelerate HIV disease progression. The effect of alcohol on CD4+ cell decline appears to be independent of ART, through a direct action on CD4 cells, although alcohol and substance abuse may lead to unmeasured behaviors that promote HIV disease progression. The effect of alcohol abuse on viral load, however, appears to be through reduced adherence to ART. PMID:20455765

  15. Influence of branding on preference-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Philiastides, Marios G; Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-07-01

    Branding has become one of the most important determinants of consumer choices. Intriguingly, the psychological mechanisms of how branding influences decision making remain elusive. In the research reported here, we used a preference-based decision-making task and computational modeling to identify which internal components of processing are affected by branding. We found that a process of noisy temporal integration of subjective value information can model preference-based choices reliably and that branding biases are explained by changes in the rate of the integration process itself. This result suggests that branding information and subjective preference are integrated into a single source of evidence in the decision-making process, thereby altering choice behavior.

  16. [Alcohol dependence, temper and personality].

    PubMed

    Lejoyeux, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This review focuses on classical and recent research work in the field of alcohol dependence. Data from psychopathological studies trying to determine a "pre-addictive" personality are exposed. More recent studies assess personality disorders and dimensions of temperament associated to alcohol dependence. Sensation seeking, antisocial personality and novelty seeking appear as the main psychological parameters involved in dependence. Sensation seeking is a dimension of personality often associated to behavioral dependence. Sensation seeking is assessed with a five-component scale including general factor, thrill and adventure seeking, experience-seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. Patients presenting alcohol dependence have a higher level of sensation seeking. Neurophysiological and genetic studies try to correlate these personality features to biological parameters. Preliminary results of these works are presented and discussed.

  17. Strategic options for brand-name prescription drugs when patents expire.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S C; Mehta, S S

    1997-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies face a very hostile competitive environment from generic drugs once the patents on their brand name drugs expire. Depending on the country, such patents usually last 10-15 years but no sooner do the patents expire then copies of off-patent brand name drugs, called generics, are introduced, generally by smaller-size and lesser known companies, at significantly lower prices. As health care costs escalate all over the world, efforts to control medication costs have created a major market for generic prescription drugs, particularly in government funded hospitals and in dispensing general practitioner markets of the Asia Pacific and the third world. The world market for generics is estimated at US$20 billion, doubling in only five years and capturing over 30% of the market share. Because of adverse effects on sales and profitability due to the launching of generics, most research based companies that produce original brand-name patented drugs are forced to take counter measures to overcome this problem, particularly when R&D costs for new patents are skyrocketing. This paper develops a brief perspective on this problem and then examines the experiences of many multinational companies in the Singapore market in dealing with the problem. While several different approaches are identified, only one company experience appeared to work successfully and this is discussed in relative detail.

  18. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  19. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  20. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  1. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  2. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  3. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  4. 39 CFR 963.5 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 963.5 Section 963.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.5 Appearances. (a) Petitioner. A petitioner...

  5. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 3001.6 Section 3001.6 Postal Service... Commission online as a Principal Account Holder, or signs a paper filed with the Commission, his/her personal appearance, online submission, or signature, shall constitute a representation to the Commission that...

  6. The Cost of Keeping Up Appearances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This issue focuses on the costs of keeping up appearances by landscaping the environment. Although insects can be a threat to plant health, much of the injury they cause will only threaten plant appearance. The study comes from a survey of two groups, landscape specialists and homeowners, who were asked to identify which plants in a photograph…

  7. Positioning University as a Brand: Distinctions between the Brand Promise of Russell Group, 1994 Group, University Alliance, and Million+ Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furey, Sheila; Springer, Paul; Parsons, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Branding is now widely used by higher education (HE) institutions, yet questions still surround the transference of private sector concepts to a university context. This article reports on findings from studies that investigated the brand promises of four UK universities--one from each of the HE "mission groups." The evidence indicated…

  8. Higher Education Institution Branding as a Component of Country Branding in Ghana: Renaming Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert, Jr.; Osei, Collins; Omar, Maktoba

    2012-01-01

    As Higher Education Institutions (HEI) become more marketised and increasingly promotionalised, brand building gains in intensity and names become increasingly important. This conceptual paper plans to explore the application of the Renaming Process Model which depicts the key components that impact the organization brand renaming process,…

  9. CT and radiographic appearance of extracranial Onyx(®) embolization.

    PubMed

    Jia, J B; Green, C S; Cohen, A J; Helmy, M

    2015-03-01

    Onyx(®) (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) is a liquid embolic agent composed of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide used for the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Onyx is a preferred embolizing agent due to its unique properties, non-adhesive nature, and durability. In addition to its approved intracranial application, Onyx is also being used successfully in extracranial embolization in areas including extracranial aneurisms and vascular malformations, trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and neoplasms. Because of its increasing utilization, it is important for reporting radiologists to be able to recognize its extracranial appearance across different imaging techniques and to be familiar with its uses. The goal of this review is to describe the extracranial uses of Onyx and its appearance in various extracranial locations at radiography and CT, while providing didactic examples. Onyx appears radiodense at CT and plain radiography and has a curvilinear pattern following the expected path of the vessel embolized. At CT, Onyx creates streak artefact that may obstruct the view of surrounding tissues consistent with descriptions of other tantalum devices.

  10. Glycoconjugates in the detection of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Kępka, Alina; Szulc, Agata; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Up to 30% of all hospital admissions and health-care costs may be attributable to alcohol abuse. Ethanol, its oxidative metabolites, acetaldehyde and ROS (reactive oxygen species), non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol [e.g. FAEEs (fatty acid ethyl esters)] and the ethanol-water competition mechanism are all involved in the deregulation of glycoconjugate (glycoprotein, glycolipid and proteoglycan) metabolic processes including biosynthesis, modification, transport, secretion, elimination and catabolism. An increasing number of new alcohol biomarkers that are the result of alcohol-induced glycoconjugate metabolic errors have appeared in the literature. Glycoconjugate-related alcohol markers are involved in, or are a product of, altered glycoconjugate metabolism, e.g. CDT (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin), SA (sialic acid), plasma SIJ (SA index of apolipoprotein J), CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), β-HEX (β-hexosaminidase), dolichol, EtG (ethyl glucuronide) etc. Laboratory tests based on changes in glycoconjugate metabolism are useful in settings where the co-operativeness of the patient is impaired (e.g. driving while intoxicated) or when a history of alcohol use is not available (e.g. after trauma). In clinical practice, glycoconjugate markers of alcohol use/abuse let us distinguish alcoholic from non-alcoholic tissue damage, having important implications for the treatment and management of diseases.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  12. MRI appearance of normal articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Douglas W

    2011-05-01

    At each joint, the extracellular matrix of cartilage is arranged in a complex and characteristic organization that is specific for that joint. This structure exerts a strong influence on the appearance of magnetic resonance (MR) images through orientation-related alterations in T2 decay. As a result, the MR appearance of cartilage at each joint is predictable and specific for that joint. The diagnostic utility of MR imaging for evaluating cartilage is enhanced when the acquisition and review of the images is informed by an understanding of this relationship between normal structure and the MR appearance of cartilage.

  13. Sixth Grade Students Who Use Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2008-01-01

    Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic, behavioral, intrapersonal, and socioenvironmental factors were identified based on behavioral theories and potential mediators of the Project Northland Chicago intervention. Single and multiple regression models were created for users and nonusers to determine associations between these factors and alcohol use behavior and intentions. The multiple regression models explained 35% and 56% of the variance in alcohol use behavior and intentions between students for nonusers and users, respectively. Results suggest that primary prevention programs for alcohol use should occur prior to sixth grade, particularly for the substantial group at high risk for early use. PMID:18303109

  14. Determination of cobalt, manganese, and alcohol content in beers.

    PubMed

    Cameán, A; López-Artíguez, M; Roca, I; Herce-Pagliai, C; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of exposure to cobalt and manganese through the consumption of different brands of commercial beers widely consumed in Spain, considered as two groups according to their alcohol content. The Mn and Co concentrations in beer samples ranged from 25.29 to 228.60 micrograms/liter and 0.16 to 0.56 micrograms/liter, respectively. These contents do not differ from those found in other countries, and all comply with the maximum levels permitted by law. Significant differences occurred only in Mn content between beers with and without alcohol. The consumption of alcoholic beers contributes to an increased body burden of Mn among heavy consumers. According to the low levels of Co found in both types of beers, we can suggest that there is no risk of suffering cardiomyopathies and there is no significant contribution to the total intake of the element in heavy beer drinkers.

  15. Competition between brand-name and generics--analysis on pricing of brand-name pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide two-stage game models explaining the 'Generic Competition Paradox' that demonstrates an increase of brand-name drug price in response to generic entry. Under the assumption that there are two groups of consumers who are segmented by their insurance status, high insurance coverage and low insurance coverage consumers, the models indicate that the decisive factor is the market share of the high insurance coverage consumer and the size of cross-substitute factor relative to certain characteristics of market demand. The paper analyses both the case of only true generic entry and the case of pseudo-generic and true generic entry. The models prove that a brand-name price will increase when both the market share of high insurance coverage consumer and the factor of cross-substitute are small. Also, the 'Generic Competition Paradox' more likely occurs in the market where less pseudo-generic products are produced.

  16. CT appearance of thickened nerves in neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Daneman, A.; Mancer, K.; Sonley, M.

    1983-11-01

    In neutrofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease), peripheral nerves may develop enlarged diameters or focal fusiform enlargement due to neurofibromatous involvement. Their appearance on computed tomography (CT) forms the basis of this report.

  17. Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162715.html Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial Drug manufacturer says ... Dec. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly effective against the deadly virus in ...

  18. Covert brand recognition engages emotion-specific brain networks.

    PubMed

    Casarotto, Silvia; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Romani, Simona; Dalli, Daniele; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    Consumer goods' brands have become a major driver of consumers' choice: they have got symbolic, relational and even social properties that add substantial cultural and affective value to goods and services. Therefore, measuring the role of brands in consumers' cognitive and affective processes would be very helpful to better understand economic decision making. This work aimed at finding the neural correlates of automatic, spontaneous emotional response to brands, showing how deeply integrated are consumption symbols within the cognitive and affective processes of individuals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was measured during a visual oddball paradigm consisting in the presentation of scrambled pictures as frequent stimuli, colored squares as targets, and brands and emotional pictures (selected from the International Affective Picture System [IAPS]) as emotionally-salient distractors. Affective rating of brands was assessed individually after scanning by a validated questionnaire. Results showed that, similarly to IAPS pictures, brands activated a well-defined emotional network, including amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, highly specific of affective valence. In conclusion, this work identified the neural correlates of brands within cognitive and affective processes of consumers.

  19. The Effect of Branding on the Success or Failure of Nonviolent Mass Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    mainly through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. Branding aims to establish a significant and differentiated presence in the market that...management is built on a marketing foundation, but focuses directly on the brand and how that brand can remain favorable to customers. Proper brand...

  20. Identifying Determinants of Young Children's Brand Awareness: Television, Parents, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we asked children to mention the brand name (brand…

  1. 48 CFR 2811.104-70 - Brand-name or equal description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand-name or equal... 2811.104-70 Brand-name or equal description. When a brand-name or equal description is used, the clause set forth in 2852.211-70, Brand-name or Equal, shall be inserted into the solicitation....

  2. 48 CFR 1910.004-70 - Brand name products or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name products or... GOVERNORS ACQUISITION PLANNING SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS 1910.004-70 Brand... below. (b) Citing brand name products. Brand name or equal purchase descriptions shall cite all...

  3. 48 CFR 1910.004-72 - Solicitations, brand name or equal descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitations, brand name... 1910.004-72 Solicitations, brand name or equal descriptions. (a) An entry substantially as follows... which a brand name or equal purchase description applies. Bidding on: Manufacturer's Name: Brand:...

  4. Brand effect versus competitiveness in hypernetworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A few of evolving models in hypernetworks have been proposed based on uniform growth. In order to better depict the growth mechanism and competitive aspect of real hypernetworks, we propose a model in term of the non-uniform growth. Besides hyperdegrees, the other two important factors are introduced to underlie preferential attachment. One dimension is the brand effect and the other is the competitiveness. Our model can accurately describe the evolution of real hypernetworks. The paper analyzes the model and calculates the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork by using Poisson process theory and a continuous technique. We also address the limit in which this model has a condensation. The theoretical analyses agree with numerical simulations. Our model is universal, in that the standard preferential attachment, the fitness model in complex networks and scale-free model in hypernetworks can all be seen as degenerate cases of the model.

  5. Brand effect versus competitiveness in hypernetworks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A few of evolving models in hypernetworks have been proposed based on uniform growth. In order to better depict the growth mechanism and competitive aspect of real hypernetworks, we propose a model in term of the non-uniform growth. Besides hyperdegrees, the other two important factors are introduced to underlie preferential attachment. One dimension is the brand effect and the other is the competitiveness. Our model can accurately describe the evolution of real hypernetworks. The paper analyzes the model and calculates the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork by using Poisson process theory and a continuous technique. We also address the limit in which this model has a condensation. The theoretical analyses agree with numerical simulations. Our model is universal, in that the standard preferential attachment, the fitness model in complex networks and scale-free model in hypernetworks can all be seen as degenerate cases of the model.

  6. Prebiotics and probiotics - the importance of branding.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term.

  7. Interrelations between Pain and Alcohol: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zale, Emily L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Pain and alcohol use are both highly prevalent in the general population, and pain-alcohol interrelations are of increasing empirical interest. Previous research has identified associations between pain and alcohol dependence, and the current review provides novel contributions to this emerging domain by incorporating studies that have tested relations between pain and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and by identifying potential psychosocial mechanisms of action. Specifically, we sought to integrate evidence of pain-alcohol relations derived from two directions of empirical inquiry (i.e., effects of alcohol on pain and effects of pain on alcohol use) across psychological, social, and biological literatures. We observed converging evidence that associations between alcohol consumption and pain may be curvilinear in nature. Whereas moderate alcohol use was observed to be associated with positive pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater quality of life), excessive drinking and alcohol use disorder appear to be associated with deleterious pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater pain severity). We also observed evidence that alcohol administration confers acute pain-inhibitory effects, and that situational pain may motivate alcohol consumption (e.g., drinking for pain-coping). Future research can inform theoretical and clinical applications through examination of temporal relations between pain and alcohol consumption, tests of hypothesized mechanisms, and the development of novel interventions. PMID:25766100

  8. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence.

  9. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  11. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  12. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  13. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  14. Astronaut Vance Brand practices operating Docking Module hatch for ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) prime crew, practices operating a Docking Module hatch during ASTP pre-flight training at JSC. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft during their docking in Earth orbit mission. Gary L. Doerre of JSC's Crew Training and Procedures Division is working with Brand. Doerre is wearing a face mask to help prevent possible exposure to Brand of disease prior to the ASTP launch.

  15. Employer Branding - Source of Competitiveness of the Industrial Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babčanová, Dagmar; Babčan, Miroslav; Odlerová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of employer branding, which is very important to follow, as an employer brand represents the core values of an organization. Organizations considered good employers have a strong identity and a positive image in the marketplace. To be successful, organizations need to attract the employee market. Marketing tools associated with Brand Management have been applied by the HR (Human Resources) in order to attract, engage and retain employees in the same way as marketing applies such tools to attract and retain customers.

  16. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    PubMed

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  17. Alcoholics anonymous involvement and positive alcohol-related outcomes: cause, consequence, or just a correlate? A prospective 2-year study of 2,319 alcohol-dependent men.

    PubMed

    McKellar, John; Stewart, Eric; Humphreys, Keith

    2003-04-01

    A positive corelation between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and better alcohol-related outcomes has been identified in research studies, but whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship remains a subject of meaningful debate. The present study evaluated the question of whether AA affiliation appears causally related to positive alcohol-related outcomes in a sample of 2,319 male alcohol-dependent patients. An initial structural equation model indicated that 1-year posttreatment levels of AA affiliation predicted lower alcohol-related problems at 2-year follow-up, whereas level of alcohol-related problems at 1-year did not predict AA affiliation at 2-year follow-up. Additional models found that these effects were not attributable to motivation or psychopathology. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AA participation has a positive effect on alcohol-related outcomes.

  18. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  19. Ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc ligament.

    PubMed

    Kaicker, Jatin; Zajac, Mercedes; Shergill, Ravi; Choudur, Hema N

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to prospectively evaluate the ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc's ligament in 50 patients (100 ft) with no prior or current ligament injury. Fifty normal asymptomatic patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years were assessed. Three key features were recorded: ultrasound appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament. Patients excluded from this study included pediatric patients and those with history of injury or symptoms related to the foot. The mean right- and left-sided ligament (RT) thickness were 0.096 (0.021) and 0.104 (0.023), respectively. The mean right- and left-sided ligament RT length was 0.54 (0.11) and 0.57 (0.11), respectively. The appearance of the ligament was similar in all patients with a central thin band of hypoechogenicity lined by hyperechoic lines on either side. Understanding the normal appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament in a large sample is imperative to diagnose abnormal appearances of this ligament including sprains and tears by ultrasound. Ultrasound, with its easy accessibility, can be used in the emergency department to rapidly exclude injury of the ligament. Increased understanding and awareness of the Lisfranc's ligament on ultrasound can allow for more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Translational Research on Habit and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    McKim, Theresa H.; Shnitko, Tatiana A.; Robinson, Donita L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action’s outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use. Thus, alcoholism meets the definition of an initially goal-directed behavior that converts to a habit-based process. Habit and alcohol have been well investigated in rodent models, with comparatively less research in non-human primates and people. This review focuses on translational research on habit and alcohol with an emphasis on cross-species methodology and neural circuitry. PMID:26925365

  1. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  2. Material appearance acquisition from a single image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Cui, Shulin; Cui, Hanwen; Yang, Lin; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to present a method of material appearance acquisition(MAA) from a single image. In this paper, material appearance is represented by spatially varying bidirectional reflectance distribution function(SVBRDF). Therefore, MAA can be reduced to the problem of recovery of each pixel's BRDF parameters from an original input image, which include diffuse coefficient, specular coefficient, normal and glossiness based on the Blinn-Phone model. In our method, the workflow of MAA includes five main phases: highlight removal, estimation of intrinsic images, shape from shading(SFS), initialization of glossiness and refining SVBRDF parameters based on IPOPT. The results indicate that the proposed technique can effectively extract the material appearance from a single image.

  3. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-21

    This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

  4. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  5. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    PubMed Central

    McCann, John J.; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  6. Preference for brand-name buprenorphine is related to severity of addiction among outpatients in opioid maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Binder, Philippe; Messaadi, Nassir; Perault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Gagey, Stéphanie; Brabant, Yann; Ingrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As a form of opioid maintenance treatment, high-dose buprenorphine is increasingly being used in the United States. On the French market since 1996, it is the most commonly prescribed and frequently employed opioid maintenance treatment. For unknown reasons, the brand-name form is used far more often than the generic form (76-24%). The objective was to show that the patients' levels of addiction were differentiated according to the form of buprenorphine currently being used and to their previous experience of a different form. An observational study in 9 sites throughout France used self-assessment questionnaires filled out in retail pharmacies by all patients to whom their prescribed buprenorphine treatment was being delivered. The 151 canvassed pharmacies solicited 879 patients, of whom 724 completed the questionnaires. Participants were statistically similar to non-participants. The patients using the brand-name form subsequent to experience with the generic form exhibited a more elevated addiction severity index and a higher dosage than brand-name form users with no experience of a different form. Compared to generic users, their doses were higher, their was addiction more severe, and their alcohol consumption was more excessive; they were also more likely to make daily use of psychotropic substances. However, the level of misuse or illicit consumption was similar between these groups. Preferring the brand-name buprenorphine form to the generic form is associated with a higher level of severe addiction, a more frequent need for daily psychotropics, and excessive drinking; but the study was unable to show a causal link.

  7. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories.

  8. Performance analysis of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Comparison of the performance of hearing instrument batteries from various manufacturers can enable otologists, audiologists, or final consumers to select the best products, maximizing the use of these materials. Aim: To analyze the performance of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids available in the Brazilian marketplace. Methods: Hearing aid batteries in four sizes were acquired from ten manufacturers and subjected to the same test conditions in an acoustic laboratory. Results: The results obtained in the laboratory contrasted with the values reported by manufacturers highlighted significant discrepancies, besides the fact that certain brands in certain sizes perform better on some tests, but does not indicate which brand is the best in all sizes. Conclusions: It was possible to investigate the performance of ten brands of hearing aid batteries and describe the procedures to be followed for leakage, accidental intake, and disposal. PMID:25992026

  9. Astronauts Stafford and Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two American ASTP crewmen, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground) and Vance D. Brand are seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  10. Astronaut Vance Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew, is seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  11. The Effect of Brand on the Evaluation of Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angeli, Antonella; Hartmann, Jan; Sutcliffe, Alistair

    The effect of brand on consumer attitudes towards real and virtual goods is largely documented in consumer psychology and marketing. There is an obvious link between the design of a website and its brand. Yet, this effect has attracted little attention from the HCI community. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that brand attitude influences the evaluation of websites. The effect was reliable across different measures: people holding better attitudes were more positive in the evaluation of aesthetics, pleasure and usability. A sample of students (N=145) with a background in HCI was tested, suggesting that brand may influence the output of expert evaluators. The study provides support to the proposition of UX as a contextual-dependent response to the interaction with computing systems and has important implications for the design and evaluation of websites which are discussed in the conclusion.

  12. The neuropathology of alcohol-specific brain damage, or does alcohol damage the brain?

    PubMed

    Harper, C

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this review is to identify neuropathological changes that are directly related to the long-term use of excessive amounts of alcohol (ethanol). There is still debate as to whether alcohol per se causes brain damage. The main problem has been to identify those lesions caused by alcohol itself and those caused by other common alcohol-related factors, principally thiamin deficiency. Careful selection and classification of alcoholic cases into those with and without these complications, together with detailed quantitative neuropathological analyses, has provided us with useful data. There is brain shrinkage in uncomplicated alcoholics which can largely be accounted for by loss of white matter. Some of this damage appears to be reversible. However, alcohol-related neuronal loss has been documented in specific regions of the cerebral cortex (superior frontal association cortex), hypothalamus (supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei), and cerebellum. The data is conflicting for several regions: the hippocampus, amygdala and locus ceruleus. No change is found in the basal ganglia, nucleus basalis, or serotonergic raphe nuclei. Many of the regions that are normal in uncomplicated alcoholics are damaged in those with the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Dendritic and synaptic changes have been documented in uncomplicated alcoholics and these, together with receptor and transmitter changes, may explain functional changes and cognitive deficits that precede the more severe structural neuronal changes. The pattern of damage appears to be somewhat different and species-specific in animal models of alcohol toxicity. Pathological changes that have been found to correlate with alcohol intake include white matter loss and neuronal loss in the hypothalamus and cerebellum.

  13. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2016-01-29

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p < 0.001) and to contain better tasting cigarettes (β = 3.53, p < 0.001), but were not perceived as less harmful than plain packs. Participants rated people who smoke the branded packs as having relatively more positive smoker-image traits overall (β = 2.10, p < 0.001), with particularly strong differences found among non-smokers for the traits 'glamorous', 'stylish', 'popular' and 'sophisticated' (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found for the proportion of youth that accepted when offered branded compared with plain packs. These results suggest that plain packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries.

  14. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a) In any proceeding before an Immigration Judge in which the alien is represented, the attorney...

  15. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a) In any proceeding before an Immigration Judge in which the alien is represented, the attorney...

  16. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a) In any proceeding before an Immigration Judge in which the alien is represented, the attorney...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a) In any proceeding before an Immigration Judge in which the alien is represented, the attorney...

  18. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a) In any proceeding before an Immigration Judge in which the alien is represented, the attorney...

  19. 8 CFR 244.8 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance. 244.8 Section 244.8 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS... immigration officer. The applicant may be required to present documentary evidence to establish his or...

  20. 8 CFR 1244.8 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance. 1244.8 Section 1244.8 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS... documentary evidence to establish his or her eligibility. The applicant may have a representative as...

  1. Physical Appearance and Student/Teacher Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and cultural research suggests that attractiveness does affect the ways that people perceive and respond to each other. In this paper, the author talks about the impact of one's appearance in academe as well as in the relationship between students and professors. From the research literature, popular writings, and many comments from his…

  2. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    McNeill, G; Ward, E; Halpenny, D; Snow, A; Torreggiani, W

    2009-01-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  3. 29 CFR 417.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 417.8 Section 417.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of...

  4. 16 CFR 4.1 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... employee terminated employment, if the employee had learned nonpublic information relating to the...) Submitting a statement required to be made under penalty of perjury; or (E) Appearing on behalf of the United... the former employee be screened; (D) The client(s) have been informed; and (E) The matter was...

  5. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  6. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  7. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  8. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  9. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  10. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  11. 45 CFR 672.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appearances. 672.6 Section 672.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING... and ethics required of practitioners before the courts of the United States. (b) Intervention....

  12. 45 CFR 672.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances. 672.6 Section 672.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING... and ethics required of practitioners before the courts of the United States. (b) Intervention....

  13. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  14. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  15. Statistical appearance models based on probabilistic correspondences.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Julia; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Model-based image analysis is indispensable in medical image processing. One key aspect of building statistical shape and appearance models is the determination of one-to-one correspondences in the training data set. At the same time, the identification of these correspondences is the most challenging part of such methods. In our earlier work, we developed an alternative method using correspondence probabilities instead of exact one-to-one correspondences for a statistical shape model (Hufnagel et al., 2008). In this work, a new approach for statistical appearance models without one-to-one correspondences is proposed. A sparse image representation is used to build a model that combines point position and appearance information at the same time. Probabilistic correspondences between the derived multi-dimensional feature vectors are used to omit the need for extensive preprocessing of finding landmarks and correspondences as well as to reduce the dependence of the generated model on the landmark positions. Model generation and model fitting can now be expressed by optimizing a single global criterion derived from a maximum a-posteriori (MAP) approach with respect to model parameters that directly affect both shape and appearance of the considered objects inside the images. The proposed approach describes statistical appearance modeling in a concise and flexible mathematical framework. Besides eliminating the demand for costly correspondence determination, the method allows for additional constraints as topological regularity in the modeling process. In the evaluation the model was applied for segmentation and landmark identification in hand X-ray images. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model to detect hand contours as well as the positions of the joints between finger bones for unseen test images. Further, we evaluated the model on brain data of stroke patients to show the ability of the proposed model to handle partially corrupted data and to

  16. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images.

  17. Implicit personality theory in evaluation of brand extensions.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, K E; Pappas, J M

    2000-06-01

    Transference, the extent to which consumers transfer their opinions of a parent brand to a new extension, is critical to the success of any brand-extension strategy. Past research has shown that transference is a complex process that varies among persons depending upon an implicit personality theory, entity versus incremental. In a laboratory experiment analysis of ratings for 100 21-yr.-old undergraduates of attitude, perceived fit and risk, prior product involvement, and implicit personality theory (entity versus incremental) the influence of consumers' implicit personality theory on transference was considered within the brand-extension context. As expected, the amount of transference differed between those espousing entity and incremental theories. "Entity theorists" were much more likely to transfer feelings associated with the parent brand to the new extension than were "incremental theorists" who did not rely on prior brand information when forming evaluations of a new extension. This effect did not occur when perceived fit between the parent brand and the extension was high.

  18. Adverse clinical sequelae after skin branding: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Branding refers to a process whereby third degree burns are inflicted on the skin with a hot iron rod or metallic object. Branding employs the phenomenon of "counter irritation," and is widely used by faith healers in developing countries for therapeutic purposes. Some methods, which are very crude and inhuman, carry a large risk of complications. The purpose of this study is to present a series of complications and to familiarize clinicians with this dangerous method of treatment. Case presentation Four Pakistani patients, three male and one female, ranging from 25 to 60 years of age "branded" with a red hot iron rod for various medical reasons presented with severe medical complications to our tertiary care hospital. The mean duration between the procedure and presentation to the hospital was 6 days. At the time of admission, two patients had septic shock, one patient had cavernous sinus thrombosis and one patient had multiple splenic abscesses. All patients received standard care for wound management and systemic infections. Two patients eventually died during the course of treatment. Conclusion Severe complications from branding are troublesome and the potential risks of this treatment outweigh its benefits. Globally, there is a great need for heightened awareness about the dangers of branding among patients and physicians, as this will have an important effect on patients who seek branding for various medical conditions. PMID:19166615

  19. Giving the wrong impression: food and beverage brand impressions delivered to youth through popular movies

    PubMed Central

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marketing on television showcases less-healthful options, with emerging research suggesting movies promote similar products. Given the obesity epidemic, understanding advertising to youth should be a public health imperative. The objective of this study was to estimate youth impressions to food and beverages delivered through movies. Methods Impressions were calculated by dividing US receipts annually into average movie ticket prices, then multiplying this by the number of brand appearances. Examination by ratings, product types and ages were conducted by Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests. Results Youth in the USA saw over 3 billion food, beverage or food–retail establishment (FRE) impressions on average, annually from 1996 to 2005. Those aged 12–18 viewed over half of all impressions, with PG-13-rated movies containing 61.5% of impressions. There were no significant trends in brand appearances by food, beverage or FRE impressions over the decade, although there was a decreasing trend in R-rated impressions for both foods (P< 0.01) and beverages (P< 0.01), but not FREs (P= 0.08). Conclusions Movies promote billions of food and beverage impressions annually to youth. Given the public health crisis of obesity, future research should further investigate these trends, as well as the potential association of these unhealthy exposures in youth. PMID:22076600

  20. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear membrane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin. PMID:25368648

  1. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  2. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  4. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  5. Tau appearance in atmospheric neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-10-24

    If the correct interpretation of the Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data is {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation, the contained data sample should already have more than 10 {tau} appearance events. We study the challenging task of detecting the {tau}, focusing on the decay chain {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} {rho}{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} in events with quasi-elastic {tau} production. The background level, which is currently quite uncertain because of a lack of relevant neutral current data, can be measured by the near detector in the K2K experiment. Our estimates of the background suggest that it may be possible to detect {tau} appearance in Super-Kamiokande with 5-10 years of running.

  6. The appearance of the Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    The dimensions of the Gum nebula complex appear to be overestimated. The distance of 460 parsecs to the central pulsar is rather on the large side, and likely contributions from gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis were underestimated. The multiorigin character of the Gum nebula is reaffirmed. The parts produced by traditional ultraviolet thermal radiation and by processes directly related to the supernova outburst must be defined.

  7. Nutrition and enhancing youthful-appearing skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-01-01

    The use of nutrition, including vitamins and antioxidants, to enhance youthful-appearing skin is presented. The most current references in the area are included, but much of the material discussed has not been well studied. The use of nutricosmetics is supported by testimonial, assumption, inference, and vague language. This contribution provides an overview of the current nutricosmetic marketplace and also substantiates the lack of available scientific data.

  8. Guilty by stereotypic association: Country animosity and brand prejudice and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale W

    2010-12-01

    This research tests the proposition that brands suffer prejudice and discrimination due to animosity toward a country with which they have a strong stereotypic association. In the first study, attitudinal data collected across a range of brands that vary in terms of the strength of the brand-country association indicate that brands with strong stereotypic association with a country suffer direct prejudice, in the form of more negative attitudes, related to animosity. When the brand-country association is less strong, the relationship between animosity and brand attitudes is moderated by the strength of the stereotypic association. In the second study, the level of brand-country association is manipulated experimentally to provide additional evidence of its moderating role on the relationship between country animosity and both prejudice toward (more negative brand attitudes) and discrimination against (less choice) a new brand.

  9. Your most valuable asset. Increasing the value of your hospital through its brand.

    PubMed

    Petromilli, M; Michalczyk, D

    1999-01-01

    The authors argue that hospitals could achieve the same brand name recognition as such popular consumer product names as Coke, Nike, and GE. In fact, they say, a brand identity strategy could bring hospitals the advantage they need in a growing marketplace. Increasingly, brand recognition is becoming important in the health care world, as hospitals battle for customers. The majority of patients now choose their health plan and hospital, and they're seeking brands that provide them with the same convenience, access, and value they demand from other consumer products companies. Hospitals can create a viable brand identity strategy by defining their brand's image, maximizing their bran's positioning and patients' brand experience, communicating their brand and measuring the brand's performance.

  10. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  11. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    PubMed

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  12. The contribution of alcohol, thiamine deficiency and cirrhosis of the liver to cerebral cortical damage in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kril, J J

    1995-03-01

    The relative roles of alcohol toxicity, thiamine deficiency and cirrhosis of the liver in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage are unclear. Brain shrinkage and neuronal loss from four regions of the cortex was determined in 22 alcoholics with the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), cirrhosis of the liver or neither of these complications and compared to 22 age-matched non-alcoholic controls. Brain shrinkage was most marked in those alcoholics with WKS. Neuronal loss occurred only from the superior cortex and was of equal magnitude in all alcoholic subgroups. In an animal model of alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, neuronal loss from the cerebral cortex occurred in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, those cells which contained the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin appeared to be preferentially damaged in this model.

  13. Alcoholism: the role of different motivational systems.

    PubMed Central

    Pihl, R O; Peterson, J B

    1995-01-01

    Individuals use and misuse alcohol (and other drugs) because of the pharmacologically mediated effects these substances have on the operation of 4 psychobiological systems, mediating response to motivationally relevant unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. These 4 systems have unique neuroanatomical structure, biochemical modes of operation, association with affect, behavior and cognition, and responsiveness to drugs of abuse. Individual variation in the operation of these systems determines individual susceptibility to initiation and maintenance of drug use and abuse. Sources of such variation differ, in a vitally important fashion, in various specific populations of individuals at heightened risk for drug abuse. Nonalcoholic sons of male alcoholics, with multigenerational family histories of male alcoholism, appear to be at heightened risk for the development of alcohol abuse because alcohol eliminates their heightened response to threat, and because they are hypersensitive to ethanol's psychomotor stimulant effects. Anxiety-sensitive individuals also appear attracted to alcohol for its anxiolytic properties. Many other important sources of idiosyncratic variability exist. Detailed analysis of such sources may lead to the development of more effective prevention and treatment programs. Images Figure 7 PMID:8527424

  14. Spirituality and alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Tonigan, J Scott

    2007-04-01

    What can be confidently said about AA in general and about the role of spirituality in AA in particular? First, there is convincing evidence that alcoholism severity predicts later AA attendance. Second, atheists are less likely to attend AA, relative to individuals who already hold spiritual and/or religious beliefs. However, belief in God before AA attendance does not offer any advantage in AA-related benefits, and atheists, once involved, are at no apparent disadvantage in deriving AA-related benefits. Third, the spiritually-based principles of AA appear to be endorsed in AA meetings regardless of the perceived social dynamics or climate of a particular meeting, eg, highly cohesive or aggressive. Fourth, significant increases in spiritual and religious beliefs and practices seem to occur among AA-exposed individuals. Fifth, in spite of much discussion to the contrary there is little evidence that spirituality directly accounts for later abstinence. We are finding, however, that spirituality has an important indirect effect in predicting later drinking reductions. Specifically, in the past 20 years a number of effective methods have been developed to facilitate initial AA attendance (AA dropout is high, with some estimates ranging as high as 80%). Interventions that lead to initial increases in spirituality appear to lead to sustained AA affiliation, which, in turn, produces sustained recovery over time.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  16. Family Supports for Children Who Have Alcohol-Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Since the first publication on fetal alcohol syndrome appeared in the scientific literature over 30 years ago, there has been a great deal of research interest in the topic. This paper reviews findings within the past 10 years related to causes, frequency, and diagnosis of alcohol-related disabilities, before turning to the impact these…

  17. Cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women: Appearance esteem, weight esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Jamie L; Schulz, Jessica L; Markey, Charlotte N

    2016-04-25

    Previous research has examined factors thought to influence individuals' interest in cosmetic surgery, yet few studies have examined these issues among midlife women. This study examines predictors of cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women (N = 114; age = 45-65 years; Mage = 53.7) and considers a previously unexplored variable: fear of negative appearance evaluation. Results indicated that lower weight and appearance esteem were associated with more positive cosmetic surgery attitudes and greater fear of negative appearance evaluation. Furthermore, fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship between appearance and weight esteem and cosmetic surgery attitudes. We conclude that fear of negative appearance evaluation is an important factor to consider in examining cosmetic surgery attitudes.

  18. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  20. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  2. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  3. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  4. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  5. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  6. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  7. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  8. Comparative study on dermatoglyphics in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Devcić, Sanja; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Silić, Ante

    2009-12-01

    According to the world's prevalence rate, alcoholism is in the third place after heart and blood vessel diseases and malignant tumors. With the development of neuroscience, the causes of alcoholism's biological etiologic sources are still being studied. Considering that dermatoglyphics are highly determined by heritage, we contemplated the possibilities of their discrimination in alcoholic patients in relation to phenotypically healthy subjects. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphics properties of 100 alcoholic patients without psychiatric comorbidity, who have been cured in the Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan two or more times, and those of 100 phenotypically healthy men. Through the t-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the examined groups. Results showed a statistically significant difference on five examined variables. In the calculation of fluctuating asymmetry measure, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlation of values of the right and the left hand on the tested variables, beside one. Chi-square tests showed that there is no relation between the dermatoglyphic qualitative properties of alcoholic patients and those of the examinees from the comparison group. Despite the indisputable genetic role in the genesis of alcoholism, the analysis of the dermatoglyphics carried out in our study did not show any etiological connection between the results of the test on dermatoglyphics and the appearance of alcoholism.

  9. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  10. The role of neuroimmune signaling in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Lawrimore, Colleen J; Walter, T Jordan; Coleman, Leon G

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol consumption and stress increase brain levels of known innate immune signaling molecules. Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, and neurons respond to alcohol, signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), miRNAs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and their associated receptors involved in signaling between microglia, other glia and neurons. Repeated cycles of alcohol and stress cause a progressive, persistent induction of HMGB1, miRNA and TLR receptors in brain that appear to underlie the progressive and persistent loss of behavioral control, increased impulsivity and anxiety, as well as craving, coupled with increasing ventral striatal responses that promote reward seeking behavior and increase risk of developing alcohol use disorders. Studies employing anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and innate immune antagonists further link innate immune gene expression to addiction-like behaviors. Innate immune molecules are novel targets for addiction and affective disorders therapies.

  11. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names

    PubMed Central

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K.

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a–3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4–13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5). PMID:26029136

  12. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4-13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5).

  13. Effects of forced alcohol drinking on alcohol-water choice in three pairs of rat lines selectively bred for differences in alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, William; Leffel, Joseph K; Chester, Julia A; Froehlich, Janice C

    2009-03-01

    Three pairs of Indiana University rat lines (inbred alcohol-preferring and nonpreferring rat lines [P/NPs], high- and low-alcohol-drinking rat lines [HAD/LAD1s and HAD/LAD2s]) were bred in the School of Medicine colony to drink high versus low daily amounts of a 10% vol/vol alcohol test solution (>5.0 g/kg body weight vs. <1.5 g/kg body weight), and a high versus low proportion of alcohol to water (>2:1 vs. <0.5:1) by the end of a 3-week alcohol-water choice condition. This choice phase was always preceded by four days of a forcing procedure with alcohol as the only fluid. The present study examined the contribution of the forcing procedure to the alcohol intake of animals in each pair of lines by comparing daily alcohol intake of rats housed in experimental chambers in a forced group (4 days with only alcohol solution to drink followed by 22 choice days) versus a choice group (both alcohol and water available all 26 days). As expected, under the initial alcohol exposure, high-drinking line rats drank more alcohol than low-drinking line rats, and all forced groups drank more alcohol than choice groups. At the start of the choice phase, all low-drinking line forced groups immediately dropped their alcohol intake to the level of their choice groups. In contrast, all high-drinking line forced groups maintained a high level of alcohol intake under choice, whereas all high-drinking line choice groups slowly increased average alcohol intake across the 22-day choice phase, ending near the average intake of their forced groups. However, a small subset of each high-drinking line choice animals failed to increase alcohol intake until subsequently forced with alcohol for 4 days and tested again in choice. These results indicate that the alcohol-forcing procedure used in deriving these lines resulted in the selection of more than one pathway to a high-drinking phenotype. In addition, high-drinking line animals appeared more sensitive to the differences between laboratory- and

  14. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  15. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  16. New Zealand patients' understanding of brand substitution and opinions on copayment options for choice of medicine brand.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Charon; Ashton, Toni; Davis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to better understand the views and experiences of New Zealand patients on switching between brands of prescription medicines and on alternative funding options for the provision of medicines, including an increase in copayments. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was offered to selected patients through participating community pharmacies. Pharmacies were stratified according to level of deprivation of the community served before random selection and invitation for involvement in the study. Patient understanding of and rationale for brand substitution was assessed. Preference for different copayment options was elicited, together with demographic and other explanatory information. Results In all, 194 patient-completed questionnaires were returned. Some gaps in patient knowledge and understanding of brand changes were evident. Most respondents indicated a preference for the existing subsidy arrangements with little desire expressed for alternatives. Around half were willing to contribute towards paying for a choice of brand other than the subsidised brand; however, the maximum contribution nominated was disproportionately lower than real cost differences between originator brand and generics. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that although most patients have experienced brand changes without any problems occurring, a lack of knowledge about substitution does persist. There may be some additional gain in ensuring New Zealanders are aware of the full cost of their medicines at the point of dispensing to reinforce the benefits of the Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC) purchasing model. What is known about the topic? Generic reference pricing is used as a mechanism to make savings to pharmaceutical budgets; however, reticence to the use of generic medicines persists. What does this paper add? Most New Zealand patients experience brand changes without any problems occurring; however, a lack of

  17. Porcelain gallbladder: ultrasound and CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.A.; Jacobs, R.; Katz, J.; Costello, P.

    1984-07-01

    Nine patients with calcification of the gallbladder wall (porcelain gallbladder) were analyzed by ultrasound and the appearance correlated with the CT, radiographic, clinical, and surgical findings. Three distinct patterns were identified: (a) a hyperechoic similunar structure with acoustic shadowing posteriorly, simulating a stone-filled gallbladder devoid of bile, which was seen in 5 patients; (b) a biconvex, curvilinear echogenic structure with variable acoustic shadowing, seen in all 3 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder; and (c) an irregular clump of echoes with posterior acoustic shadowing, seen in 1 patient. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of gallbladder calcification are presented, and the association between calcification and cancer is emphasized.

  18. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  19. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  20. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  1. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  2. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  3. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  4. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  5. Enhanced tau neutrino appearance through invisible decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, Giulia; Di Marco, Natalia; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The decay of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to a change of the conversion and survival probability of neutrino flavor eigenstates. Exploiting the recent results released by the long-baseline OPERA experiment we perform the statistical investigation of the neutrino invisible decay hypothesis in the νμ→ντ appearance channel. We find that the neutrino decay provides an enhancement of the expected tau appearance signal with respect to the standard oscillation scenario for the long-baseline OPERA experiment. The increase of the νμ→ντ conversion probability by the decay of one of the mass eigenstates is due to a reduction of the "destructive interference" among the different massive neutrino components. Despite data showing a very mild preference for invisible decays with respect to the oscillations only hypothesis, we provide an upper limit for the neutrino decay lifetime in this channel of τ3/m3≳1.3 ×10-13 s /eV at the 90% confidence level.

  6. Anisotropic materials appearance analysis using ellipsoidal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír.

    2015-03-01

    Many real-world materials exhibit significant changes in appearance when rotated along a surface normal. The presence of this behavior is often referred to as visual anisotropy. Anisotropic appearance of spatially homogeneous materials is commonly characterized by a four-dimensional BRDF. Unfortunately, due to simplicity most past research has been devoted to three dimensional isotropic BRDFs. In this paper, we introduce an innovative, fast, and inexpensive image-based approach to detect the extent of anisotropy, its main axes and width of corresponding anisotropic highlights. The method does not rely on any moving parts and uses only an off-the-shelf ellipsoidal reflector with a compact camera. We analyze our findings with a material microgeometry scan, and present how results correspond to the microstructure of individual threads in a particular fabric. We show that knowledge of a material's anisotropic behavior can be effectively used in order to design a material-dependent sampling pattern so as the material's BRDF could be measured much more precisely in the same amount of time using a common gonioreflectometer.

  7. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2014-01-01

    A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF) capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited. PMID:25340451

  8. 48 CFR 6101.5 - Appearances; notice of appearance [Rule 5].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances; notice of appearance . 6101.5 Section 6101.5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS... by leave of the Board and as otherwise prescribed by paragraph (e) of this section. The Board...

  9. Alcohol-related content of animated cartoons: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages.

  10. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  11. Brain shrinkage in alcoholics is not caused by changes in hydration: a pathological study.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Daly, J M

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the water content of the cerebral white matter in 26 control and 24 alcoholic cases supports in vivo MRI studies and previous necropsy studies which appeared to show an increase in the water content in the alcoholic group. This negates the hypothesis that reversible brain shrinkage in alcoholics is caused by changes in the state of hydration.

  12. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-05

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified.

  13. Developmental alcohol-specific parenting profiles in adolescence and their relationships with adolescents' alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ina M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies on general parenting have demonstrated the relevance of strict parenting within a supportive social context for a variety of adolescent behaviors, such as alcohol use. Yet, alcohol-specific parenting practices are generally examined as separate predictors of adolescents' drinking behavior. The present study examined different developmental profiles of alcohol-specific parenting (rule-setting, quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use) and how these patterns relate to the initiation and growth of adolescents' drinking. A longitudinal sample of 883 adolescents (47 % female) including four measurements (between ages 12 and 16) was used. Latent class growth analysis revealed that five classes of parenting could be distinguished. Communication about alcohol appeared to be fairly stable over time in all parenting classes, whereas the level of rule-setting declined in all subgroups of parents as adolescents grow older. Strict rule-setting in combination with a high quality and frequency of communication was associated with the lowest amount of drinking; parents scoring low on all these behaviors show to be related to the highest amount of drinking. This study showed that alcohol-specific rule-setting is most effective when it coincides with a good quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use. This indicates that alcohol-specific parenting behaviors should be taken into account as an alcohol-specific parenting context, rather than single parenting practices. Therefore, parent-based alcohol interventions should not only encourage strict rule setting, the way parents communicate with their child about alcohol is also of major importance.

  14. Extending or creating a new brand: evidence from a study on event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia; Wang, Cuicui; Yu, Liping; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-07-08

    Brand strategy is a critical problem in new product promotion. In relation to this, producers typically have two main options, namely, brand extension and new brand creation. The current study investigated the neural basis of evaluating these brand strategies at the brain level by using event-related potentials. The experiment used a word-pair paradigm, in which the first word was either a famous beverage brand name or a newly created brand, and the second word was a product name from one of the two product categories (beverage or household appliance). Therefore, four conditions existed as follows: a famous beverage brand paired with a beverage product (BB) or with a household appliance (BH) and a newly created brand paired with a beverage product (NB) or with a household appliance (NH). Behavioral results showed that brand extension obtained a higher acceptance rate than new brand creation under the beverage product category; however, a lower acceptance rate was observed under the household appliance category. Moreover, at the brain level, BB elicited lower N400 mean amplitude than the new brand product NB, whereas BH led to higher N400 amplitude than the new brand product NH. These results showed that the likelihood of accepting a product depended on the association between the brand name and product name, and that the N400 could serve as an index of brand strategy evaluation. In addition, this study also confirmed that brand extension is not always the best brand strategy; an inappropriate extension sometimes performed worse than the creation of a new brand.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  16. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance.

  17. Tobacco point of sale advertising increases positive brand user imagery

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, R; Jancey, J; Jones, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the potential impact of point of sale advertising on adolescents so as to inform changes to the Tobacco Control Act. Design: Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control condition, students were exposed to a photograph of a packet of cigarettes; in the intervention condition, students were exposed to an ad for cigarettes, typical of point of sale advertising posters. All students then rated the brand user on a set of 12 bipolar adjectives. Two brands were used in the study: Benson & Hedges, and Marlboro. Subjects: One hundred year (grade) 6 and 7 students (age range 10–12 years), from four Western Australian metropolitan primary schools, participated in the study. Results: In a majority of the brand user descriptions, the cigarette advertisements increased brand user imagery in a positive way, especially for Benson & Hedges. For example, participants viewing the Benson & Hedges advertisement, as distinct from those viewing the Benson & Hedges pack only, were more likely to describe the Benson & Hedges user as relaxed, interesting, cool, rich, adventurous, and classy. Relative to the Marlboro pack only, the Marlboro ad increased positive perceptions of the Marlboro user on adventurous, interesting, and relaxed. Conclusions: The results presented here support restrictions being placed on advertising at point of sale, since such ads have the potential to increase positive brand user imagery directly in the situation where a product purchase can take place, and hence the potential to increase the likelihood of impulse purchasing. PMID:12198267

  18. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  19. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    PubMed

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone.

  20. Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.