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Sample records for alcohol concentration limit

  1. International policies on alcohol impaired driving: are legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits in motorized countries compatible with the scientific evidence?

    PubMed

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Brussoni, Mariana; Shimizu, Shinji; Belayneh, Taye N

    2003-04-01

    Borkenstein et al. (1974) study indicated that drivers with BACs of 0.05 to 0.09 per cent were twice as likely to crash as drivers with a zero BAC. Drivers with BACs from 0.10 to 0.14 per cent were ten times as likely to have a fatal crash in 1964. There have been numerous efforts during the history of motorized countries to control the consumption of alcohol and the problems associated with it through legislative mandate, it was not until the 1970s that acceptance of legal BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) limits laws became widespread. In particular, as more and more people drive automobiles, the number of traffic accidents involving drunken drivers has soared, and many of these are known to be related to the consumption of alcohol. Thus, legislators find themselves under increasing pressure to find a reasonable and fair solution to the question of alcohol impaired driving, as the scientific evidence about alcohol consumption level and psycho motor functions impairment came to clear. A landmark event in the development of policies regarding impaired driving was the establishment of the fact that consumption of alcohol does, in fact, increase the probability of traffic crashes. Legal limit laws specify a maximum permissible BAC limit for drivers. Currently, a BAC laws range from zero tolerance and 0.02 to 0.10% constitutes prima facie evidence in most countries for 'Driving under Influence of Alcohol.' This latter standard is too permissive, as driving skills deteriorate and crash involvement risk increases beginning at 0.02%. There are consequences attached to setting a BAC limit so high that a 72 kg man can drink five bottles of beer and still be under legal limit. In this sense high legal BAC limit may influence people to make bad estimates of their relative risk of injury or death while driving. Provided there is adequate political will, millions of lives could be saved in the coming years. This review is an attempt to examine in detail the available

  2. Alcohol Limits and Public Safety.

    PubMed

    Canfield, D V; Dubowski, K M; Cowan, M; Harding, P M

    2014-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommended lowering the legal blood-alcohol limit to 0.05 g/dL for motor vehicle operators in the United States, in an effort to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths caused by a driver's alcohol impairment (NTSB/SR-13/01). This recommendation has prompted other organizations and agencies, including the National Safety Council, to evaluate and consider supporting this action. In order to determine the scientific and legal feasibility and advisability of lowering or establishing 0.05 per se laws, we examined 554 alcohol-related publications. Risk factors, instrument reliability, law enforcement, and adjudication issues were considered in this overview of the literature. The extensive scientific literature reviewed provides ample support for lowering the operation of motor vehicle alcohol limits to 0.05, and for supporting the NTSB recommendations. Research clearly demonstrates that impairment begins at very low concentrations, well below the recommended NTSB limit, and increases with concentration. Lowering the limit to 0.05 will save many lives and prevent injuries. Breath, blood, and saliva samples have proved to be accurate and reliable specimens for legal acceptability in a court of law. PMID:26226968

  3. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  4. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  5. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  6. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  7. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  9. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  10. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  11. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  12. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  13. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain. PMID:23748448

  14. Blood alcohol concentrations: factors affecting predictions.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Esposito, F M

    1985-01-01

    As a result of extensive alcohol research conducted on both humans and animals, it is possible to predict a BAC, given pertinent data. In addition, it is possible to estimate from a given BAC the quantity of alcohol consumed. Caution must be used in these predictions, for certain factors will affect the final estimation. Absorption of alcohol is influenced by gastrointestinal contents and motility, and also the composition and quantity of the alcoholic beverage. The vascularity of tissues influences the distribution of alcohol, and their water content will determine the amount of alcohol present after equilibrium. Elimination of alcohol begins immediately after absorption. The elimination rate varies for individuals but falls between .015 percent to .020 percent per hour, with an average of .018 percent per hour. In addition to these factors, a BAC will depend on the subject's weight, percentage of alcohol in the beverage, and the rate of drinking. The principal effect of alcohol in the body is on the central nervous system. Its depressant effect consists of impairment to sensory, motor and learned functions. When combined with some other drugs, a more intoxicated state occurs. Although tolerance to alcohol at low blood concentrations is possible, the tolerance most noted is a learned tolerance among chronic drinkers. contamination of antemortem blood samples collected for alcohol analysis is minimal when swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is performed with routine clinical technique; sloppy swabbing has been shown to increase the BAC determination significantly. The alcoholic content of blood used for transfusion does not contribute significantly to the BAC of the recipient, since extensive dilution occurs; nor does the alcohol present in injectable medication contribute significantly. Although many factors may alter the concentration of alcohol present in autopsy specimens, postmortem synthesis of alcohol receives the most attention. The microorganisms that

  15. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  16. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  17. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  18. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  19. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  20. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  1. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  2. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  3. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Concentration limits. 264.94 Section... From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit concentration limits in the ground water for hazardous...

  4. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Concentration limits. 264.94 Section... From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit concentration limits in the ground water for hazardous...

  5. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Concentration limits. 264.94 Section... From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit concentration limits in the ground water for hazardous...

  6. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  7. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  8. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  9. Limit of concentration for cylindrical concentrators under extended light sources.

    PubMed

    Miñano, J C; Luque, A

    1983-08-15

    Cylindrical concentrators illuminated by an extended source with an arbitrary distribution of radiance are analyzed taking into account basic properties derived from the Fermat principle and not from the specific concentrator shape. The upper limit of concentration achievable with this type of concentrator is obtained and it is found to be lower than that of general (3-D) concentrators. Cylindrical compound parabolic concentrators are analyzed in the light of this theory, and it is shown that they achieve the highest optical concentration possible for a cylindrical concentrator. PMID:18196152

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  11. Turbidimetric Estimation of Alcohol Concentration in Aqueous-Alcohol Mixtures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, William E.; Zimmerman, Bonnie L.; Powell, Kinsey; Moore, Stephen D.; Iordanov, Tzvetelin D.

    2014-01-01

    A concept of the turbidimetric method for determining the concentration of ethanol in water-ethanol mixtures is described. A closed sample cell containing the analyte was heated to achieve vapor saturation and subsequent condensation. As the condensation occurred, the decrease in percentage transmittance with time due to light scattering was…

  12. Indiana Residents' Perceptions of Driving and Lower Blood Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammed R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Congress passed .08 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the national standard for impaired driving in October 2000, 28 U.S. States including Indiana have enacted .08 BAC law. This study investigated perceived impact of the .08 law among Indiana residents and their attitudinal and perceptional changes since the enforcement of the law. The…

  13. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concentration limits. 264.94 Section 264.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units §...

  14. Measurement of low breath-alcohol concentrations: laboratory studies and field experience.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1999-10-01

    Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occur at breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L. We therefore studied performance of vapor-alcohol and breath-alcohol measurement at low alcohol concentrations in the laboratory and in the field, with current-generation evidential analyzers. We report here chiefly our field experience with evidential breath-alcohol testing of drinking drivers on paired breath samples using 62 Intoxilyzer 5000-D analyzers, for BrACs of 0-0.059 g/210 L. The data from 62 law enforcement breath-alcohol testing sites were collected and pooled, with BrACs recorded to three decimal places, and otherwise carried out under the standard Oklahoma evidential breath-alcohol testing protocol. For 2105 pooled simulator control tests at 0.06-0.13 g/210 L the mean +/- SD of the differences between target and result were -0.001 +/- 0.0035 g/210 L and 0.003 +/- 0.0023 g/210 L for signed and absolute differences, respectively (spans -0.016-0.010, 0.000-0.016). For 2078 paired duplicate breath-alcohol measurements with the Intoxilyzer 5000-D, the mean +/- SD difference (BrAC1-BrAC2) were 0.002 +/- 0.0026 (span 0-0.020 g/210 L). Variability of breath-alcohol measurements was related inversely to the alcohol concentration. Ninety-nine percent prediction limits for paired BrAC measurements correspond to a 0.020 g/210 L maximum absolute difference, meeting the NSC/CAOD recommendation that paired breath-alcohol analysis results within 0.02 g/210 L shall be deemed to be in acceptable agreement. We conclude that the field system for breath-alcohol analysis studied by us can and does perform reliably and accurately at low BrACs. PMID:10517542

  15. Effects of Alcohol and Blood Alcohol Concentration Limb on Sexual Risk-Taking Intentions*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Stoner, Susan A.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although there have been numerous investigations of alcohol's relationship to sexual risk taking, the vast majority of these studies have not examined whether the biphasic nature of alcohol intoxication differentially influences risky sexual decisions. Thus, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb on sexual risk-taking intentions. Method: Participants (N = 150; 51.3% male) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic drinks (target peak BAC = .08%) or nonalcoholic drinks and then completed a hypothetical sexual risk assessment involving an opposite-gender new partner while on either the ascending BAC limb or descending BAC limb. Results: Alcohol intoxication resulted in increased sexual risk-taking intentions indirectly through its influence on perceived intoxication and, subsequently, sexual arousal. An interaction of beverage condition and BAC limb condition indicated that alcohol's effects on perceived intoxication varied significantly by limb, with those on the ascending limb reporting greater perceived intoxication than those on the descending limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts would be better informed through a more comprehensive consideration of BAC limb effects on sexual risk behaviors. Moreover, results indicate that prevention programs should address in-the-moment states, such as perceived intoxication and sexual arousal, in interventions targeting risky sexual decision-making processes. PMID:19515289

  16. Thermal Nature of Concentration Limits of Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabdenov, K. O.; Baitasov, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    An explanation is proposed for the concentration limits of slow combustion of gas mixtures due to the diffusional-thermal instability of a flame and the leading role of the thermal effect of mixture combustion. Basic to this explanation are the following experimental facts obtained for a wide class of mixtures: the concentration limits of slow combustion of a mixture and of its detonation are closely coinciding and depend strongly on the stoichiometric composition of mixture; there is an approximate symmetry relation between the upper and lower combustion limits. It is shown that the flame temperature of gas mixtures depends on their stoichiometric composition and that as their stoichiometric relation deviates from unity, the state of mixture combustion approaches the stability threshold beyond which a stationary flame cannot exist.

  17. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R.; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K.

    1999-05-01

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  18. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  19. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  20. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  1. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  2. Determining concentrations of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and dibromopropene in ground water using quantitative methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panshin, Sandra Y.

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining levels of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 2,3-dibromopropene from ground-water samples using liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were extracted from the water using three aliquots of dichloromethane. The aliquots were combined and reduced in volume by rotary evaporation followed by evaporation using a nitrogen stream. The extracts were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. Estimated method detection limits were 30 nanograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 10 nanograms per liter for 2,3-dibromopropene. Recoveries were determined by spiking three matrices at two concentration levels (0.540 and 5.40 micrograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol; and 0.534 and 5.34micro-grams per liter for dibromopropene). For seven replicates of each matrix at the high concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.9 to 64.9 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 87.5 to 99.3 percent for dibromopropene. At the low concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.8 to 95.2 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 71.3 to 84.9 percent for dibromopropene.

  3. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  4. Predrinking, alcohol use, and breath alcohol concentration: A study of young adult bargoers.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Dumas, Tara M; Bernards, Sharon; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Labhart, Florian; Graham, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Predrinking (preloading, pregaming) has been found to be related to alcohol use and intoxication. However, most research relies on estimates of blood alcohol concentration and does not control for usual drinking pattern. We assessed whether predrinking was associated with subsequent alcohol consumption and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) among 287 young adult bargoers (173 men [60.3%], Mage = 21.86 years, SD = 2.55 years) who were recruited in groups in an entertainment district of a midsized city in Ontario, Canada. We also examined whether predrinking by other group members interacted with individual predrinking in relation to amount consumed/BrAC. Adjusting for nesting of individuals within groups in hierarchical linear models, predrinkers were found to consume more drinks in the bar district and over the entire night compared to nonpredrinkers and had higher BrACs at the end of the night controlling for drinking pattern. A group- by individual-level interaction revealed that individual predrinking predicted higher BrACs for members of groups in which at least half of the group had been predrinking but not for members of groups in which less than half had been predrinking. This study confirms a direct link of predrinking with greater alcohol consumption and higher intoxication levels. Group- by individual-level effects suggest that group dynamics may have an important impact on individual drinking. Given that predrinking is associated with heavier consumption rather than reduced consumption at the bar, initiatives to address predrinking should include more effective policies to prevent intoxicated people from entering bars and being served once admitted. PMID:25984585

  5. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents[1]. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries) or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK). In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD) age: 61.5(4.4) years, 9 male) were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p < 0.001) compared to when participants were sober (156 ± 16 ms). Biceps femoris response times were significantly delayed from BACs of 0.035% onwards and were strongly associated with increasing levels of BAC (r = 0.6; p < 0.001). These delays had important behavioural consequences. Chances of hitting the obstacle were doubled with increased BACs. Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle

  6. Phytochemical concentrations and biological activities of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Pangloli, Philipus; Jones, Lynsey; McClure, Angela; Patel, Anjali

    2016-08-10

    Sorghum is an important cereal with reported health benefits. The objectives of this study were to measure the biological activities of alcoholic extracts of ten sorghum varieties and to determine the association between the color of the extracts and their biological activities. Variation on concentrations of bioactives among sorghum varieties was observed with ethanolic extracts giving higher concentrations than methanolic extracts. The color of the extracts significantly correlated with the concentrations of bioactives and with nitric oxide scavenging activity. Freeze-dried ethanol extract is more potent than freeze-dried methanol extract and caused cytotoxicity to A27801AP and PTX-10 OVCA with ED50 values of 0.69 and 1.29 mg mL(-1), respectively. Pre-treatment of OVCA with ethanol extract led to chemosensitization to paclitaxel and the proliferation and colony formation of OVCA cells were reduced by 14.7 to 44.6% and 36.4 to 40.1%, respectively. Sorghum is a potential source of colorants with health promoting properties. This is the first report on the capability of sorghum alcoholic extracts to cause cytotoxicity and chemosensitize ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27406291

  7. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  8. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Concentration of Constituents for Ground-water Protection Constituent Maximum concentration 1 Arsenic 0.05... quality of ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the... water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface water...

  9. Comparison of Immediate and Delayed Blood Alcohol Concentration Testing.

    PubMed

    Vance, Christopher Scott; Carter, Chelsea R; Carter, Raegan J; Del Valle, Maximo M; Peña, Jorge R

    2015-09-01

    The effects of storage time and temperature on blood alcohol concentration were evaluated in this two-part study involving 34 ethanol-negative and 21 ethanol-positive volunteers. Multiple 10-mL Vacutainer(®) blood tubes containing 100 mg of sodium fluoride and 20 mg of potassium oxalate were collected from living persons and subjected to various storage conditions. The time from collection to analysis ranged from 0 to 60 days and storage temperatures ranged from 3 to 20°C. Regardless of the storage conditions, all ethanol-negative samples remained negative (<0.0025 g/100 mL) throughout the study. There was no increase in the concentration of ethanol-positive samples beyond the expected variability of the method, regardless of storage time or temperature. Many ethanol-positive samples demonstrated decreases in concentration during storage compared with the original immediate analysis. The findings from this study support previous research, which demonstrates that microbial formation of ethanol in properly collected antemortem blood is unlikely. PMID:26017380

  10. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  11. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  12. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  13. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  14. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  15. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  16. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  17. Mobility Limitations: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mobility limitations outlines types of problems with mobility and their incidence. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are examined, emphasizing that this population is generally at higher risk for alcohol and other drug-related problems. Possible solutions to…

  18. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  19. Lack of evidence for sustained blood acetaldehyde concentrations during alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Nijm, W P; Borge, G F; Origitano, T; Teas, G; Goldfarb, C; Collins, M A

    1978-04-01

    Contrary to a published report, blood acetaldehyde concentrations become undetectable in patients 1--2 days following admission for alcohol detoxification. The persistently elevated blood acetaldehydes reported by others probably were due to artifactual formation during analysis. Nevertheless, our admission blood acetaldehyde concentrations are significant enough to support the contention that acetaldehyde has a cytotoxic role in alcoholic disease. PMID:663401

  20. The upper limit of concentration under extended sources of radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minano, J. C.; Luque, A.

    A review of the theoretical analysis of the limits of concentration under extended sources of arbitrary distribution of radiance based solely on the Fermat principle and its derivation (the theorem of the conservation of the etendue) and not on the specific shape of the concentrators, is presented. It is concluded that for casting increasingly high values of energy on the collector, which in photovoltaic cases would be a bifacial solar cell, it is necessary to collect a lower portion of the total sky energy. This theory is applied to several static concentrators, indicating the extent of which their performance approaches the established limits. Some of them are far from the limit of concentration due to their linear structure. It is concluded that concentrators of linear structure have a particular upper limit of concentration lower than the general one, and that cylindrical CPCs almost reach this particular upper limit.

  1. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  2. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption...

  3. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption...

  4. Comparing the Detection of Transdermal and Breath Alcohol Concentrations during Periods of Alcohol Consumption Ranging from Moderate Drinking to Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol testing, or the detection of alcohol expiration through the skin, offers advantages over BAC and BrAC measures by allowing for continuous and noninvasive monitoring of an individual's drinking behavior in real-time. Despite these advantages, this technology has not been widely used or studied outside of forensic applications. The present research compares transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) and BrAC readings during the consumption of alcohol ranging from moderate drinking to binge drinking in 22 adult regular drinkers in order to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TAC monitors. We observed that BrAC and TAC measures were broadly consistent. Additionally, we were able to develop an equation that could predict BrAC results using TAC data, indicating TAC data would be an appropriate substitute in research and clinical contexts where BrAC readings are typically used. Finally, we were able to determine a cutoff point for peak TAC data that could reliably predict whether a participant had engaged in moderate or more than moderate drinking, suggesting TAC monitors could be used in settings where moderate or reduced drinking is the goal. PMID:22708608

  5. Circadian rhythm in plasma concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Hoes, M J; Vree, T B; Guelen, P J

    1981-08-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was orally administered to six alcoholics at 09.00 and 23.00 h. The plasma concentrations of GHB show a clear circadian pattern, the area under the curve in the daytime experiments being 61% of that in the night experiments. The significance of alcohol dehydrogenase, the catabolic enzyme of GHB, for the difference is discussed. It is concluded that, although the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in alcoholics is quantitatively disturbed, it remains subject to physiologic circadian activation. PMID:7341501

  6. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability. PMID:26427279

  7. The distribution of serum folate concentration and red blood cell indices in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Cylwik, Bogdan; Naklicki, Marcin; Gruszewska, Ewa; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to malnutrition and to the deficiency of many vitamins. One of the most important is folate deficiency. Folate deficiency disrupts the process of hematopoiesis, which can be evaluated by the changes of red cell indices. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological disturbances by the measurement of red blood cell indices in a Polish population of chronic alcoholics according to folate status. We studied 80 consecutive chronic alcoholic men and 30 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the folate concentration. The serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration and the blood count were determined. We have shown that the serum folate concentration was decreased in 40% of alcoholics, but there was no folate deficiency and the level of vitamin B12 was normal. There was no correlation between folate, vitamin B12 and hematological indices. We have observed that most hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, and Hct) in alcoholics were decreased and only two of them (MCV and MCHC) were increased in comparison with the controls. We observed no significant correlation between the RBCs indices and the weekly alcohol intake, but the correlation between RBCs, Hb, Hct and the duration of dependence have been shown. We concluded that, there is no folate deficiency in the Polish alcoholic population but the abusers with low folate levels may already have some RBCs indices affected. It means that the Polish alcoholic population consumes a sufficient amount of vitamins, which prevents the occurrence of hematological disturbances. PMID:23535533

  8. Procollagen-type III peptide serum concentrations in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Monarca, A; Petrini, C; Perolini, S; Pozzi, F; Adelasco, L; Natangelo, R; Croce, G

    1985-01-01

    The type III procollagen aminopeptide (sPIIIP) serum levels were measured in 197 patients with liver disease and were correlated with morphological and serological alterations and with alcohol drinking habits. The sPIIIP levels resulted significantly increased in 51% of 43 patients with untreated chronic active hepatitis (CAH), in 61% of 36 patients with CAH plus cirrhosis, in 69% of 26 patients with inactive cirrhosis, in 4 out of 8 patients with alcoholic steatosis and fibrillogenesis, but remained unchanged in 38 cases of alcoholic steatosis plus siderosis and in 13 cases of chronic persistent hepatitis. A correlation between sPIIIP levels and the histological pattern of fibrosis could not be demonstrated in a single type of fibrotic liver disease and no differences were found between alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients. We agree upon the opinion that high sPIIIP levels may identify liver fibrogenic activity, but this test needs further technical improvements before it could be widely used in the clinical practice. PMID:4059796

  9. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  10. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  11. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  12. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  14. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  15. Biomarkers of recent drinking, retrograde extrapolation of blood-alcohol concentration and plasma-to-blood distribution ratio in a case of driving under the influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2011-07-01

    This case report describes the police investigation of a road-traffic accident involving a collision at night (01.00 am) between a car and a truck in which a passenger in the car was killed. The driver of the truck was found responsible for the crash although a roadside breath-alcohol test was negative (<0.1 mg/L breath or 20 mg/100 mL blood). Because of injuries sustained in the crash, the female driver of the car was not breath-tested at the time but was transported to a local hospital for emergency treatment. After swabbing the skin with isopropanol an indwelling catheter was inserted at 01.40 am. A blood sample was taken at 02.10 am and the plasma portion contained 8 mmol/L ethanol according to analysis at the hospital clinical laboratory using a gas chromatographic method. Another blood sample was taken at 05.45 am for analysis of ethanol at a forensic toxicology laboratory, although the result was negative (<10 mg/100 mL). The police authorities wanted an explanation for the discrepancy between the clinical and forensic laboratory results and inquired whether the driver of the car was above the legal alcohol limit (>20 mg/100 mL) at the time of the crash. The scientific basis for converting a plasma-ethanol concentration into a blood-ethanol concentration and back extrapolation of the driver's blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) is explained. The risk of contaminating a blood sample by swabbing the skin with isopropanol is discussed along with the use of alcohol biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate) as evidence of recent drinking. PMID:21663869

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. What are the costs of limiting CO2 concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of stabilizing the concentration of CO2 is fundamentally different than the problem of stabilizing the concentration of a conventional pollutant or even other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. A fraction of any net anthropogenic emission is permanently committed to the atmosphere and in the very long term net anthropogenic emissions must cease if atmospheric CO2 concentrations are to be stabilized. Many of the technologies that could play a large future role in limiting cumulative carbon emissions are minor elements in the present energy system. A portfolio of technologies will be needed to address the variety of technology needs across the world's regions and over time.

  18. How Alcohol Chain-Length and Concentration Modulate Hydrogen Bond Formation in a Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Allison N.; Faller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to measure the change in properties of a hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer when solvated with ethanol, propanol, and butanol solutions. There are eight oxygen atoms in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine that serve as hydrogen bond acceptors, and two of the oxygen atoms participate in hydrogen bonds that exist for significantly longer time spans than the hydrogen bonds at the other six oxygen atoms for the ethanol and propanol simulations. We conclude that this is caused by the lipid head group conformation, where the two favored hydrogen-bonding sites are partially protected between the head group choline and the sn-2 carbonyl oxygen. We find that the concentration of the alcohol in the ethanol and propanol simulations does not have a significant influence on the locations of the alcohol/lipid hydrogen bonds, whereas the concentration does impact the locations of the butanol/lipid hydrogen bonds. The concentration is important for all three alcohol types when the lipid chain order is examined, where, with the exception of the high-concentration butanol simulation, the alcohol molecules having the longest hydrogen-bonding relaxation times at the favored carbonyl oxygen acceptor sites also have the largest order in the upper chain region. The lipid behavior in the high-concentration butanol simulation differs significantly from that of the other alcohol concentrations in the order parameter, head group rotational relaxation time, and alcohol/lipid hydrogen-bonding location and relaxation time. This appears to be the result of the system being very near to a phase transition, and one occurrence of lipid flip-flop is seen at this concentration. PMID:17218462

  19. Stromal phosphate concentration is low during feedback limited photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Vanderveer, P.J. )

    1989-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that photosynthesis can be feedback limited when the phosphate concentration cannot be both low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the required rate and high enough for ATP synthesis at the required rate. We have measured the concentration of phosphate in the stroma and cytosol of leaves held under feedback conditions. We used nonaqueous fractionation techniques with freeze-clamped leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris plants grown on reduced phosphate nutrition. Feedback was induced by holding leaves in low O{sub 2} or high CO{sub 2} partial pressure. We found 7 millimolar phosphate in the stroma of leaves in normal oxygen but just 2.7 millimolar phosphate in leaves held in low oxygen. Because 1 to 2 millimolar phosphate in the stroma may be metabolically inactive, we estimate that in low oxygen, the metabolically active pool of phosphate is between negligible and 1.7 millimolar. We conclude that halfway between these extremes, 0.85 millimolar is a good estimate of the phosphate concentration in the stroma of feedback-limited leaves and that the true concentration could be even lower. The stromal phosphate concentration was also low when leaves were held in high CO{sub 2}, which also induces feedback-limited photosynthesis, indicating that the effect is related to feedback limitation, not to low oxygen per se. We conclude that the concentration of phosphate in the stroma is usually in excess and that it is sequestered to regulate photosynthesis, especially starch synthesis. The capacity for this regulation is limited by the coupling factor requirement for phosphate.

  20. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:26276763

  1. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  2. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  4. Effects of Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Feedback on BAC Estimates Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullers, Susan; Ennis, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of self-tested blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback, from personal hand-held breathalyzers, on the accuracy of BAC estimation. Using an e-mail prompted web-based questionnaire, 19 participants were asked to report both BAC estimates and subsequently measured BAC levels over the course of 27 days. Results from…

  5. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  6. Accounting for Sex-Related Differences in the Estimation of Breath Alcohol Concentrations using Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Roache, John D.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previously we reported methods to estimate peak breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) from transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC) under conditions where alcohol consumption was controlled to produce similar BrAC levels in both sexes. Objective This study characterized differences in the relationship between BrAC and TAC as a function of sex, and developed a model to predict peak BrAC that accounts for known sex differences in peak BrAC. Methods TAC and BrAC were monitored during the consumption of a varying number of beers on different days. Both men (n = 11) and women (n = 10) consumed 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 beers at the same rate in a two-hour period. Sex and sex-related variables were considered for inclusion in a multilevel-model to develop an equation to estimate peak BrAC levels from TAC. Results While peak BrAC levels were significantly higher in women than men, sex differences were not significant in observed TAC levels. This lack of correspondence was evidenced by significant sex differences in the relationship between peak TAC and peak BrAC. The best model to estimate peak BrAC accounted for sex-related differences by including peak TAC, time-to-peak TAC, and sex. This model was further validated using previously collected data. Conclusions The relationship between peak TAC and actual peak BrAC differs between men and women, and these differences can be accounted for in a statistical model to better estimate peak BrAC. Further studies are required to extend these estimates of peak BrAC to the outpatient environment where naturalistic drinking occurs. PMID:24923985

  7. The Role of Immigrant Concentration Within and Beyond Residential Neighborhoods in Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Aubrey L; Browning, Christopher R; Krivo, Lauren J; Kwan, Mei-Po; Washington, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhoods are salient contexts for youth that shape adolescent development partly through informal social controls on their behavior. This research examines how immigrant concentration within and beyond the residential neighborhood influences adolescent alcohol use. Residential neighborhood immigrant concentration may lead to a cohesive, enclave-like community that protects against adolescent alcohol use. But heterogeneity in the immigrant concentrations characterizing the places residents visit as they engage in routine activities outside of the neighborhood where they live may weaken the social control benefits of the social ties and shared cultural orientations present in enclave communities. This study investigates whether the protective influence of residential neighborhood immigrant concentration on adolescent alcohol consumption diminishes when youth live in communities where residents collectively are exposed to areas with more diverse immigrant concentrations. This study tests this contention by analyzing survey and geographic routine activity space data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, and the 2000 census. The sample includes 793 adolescents (48.7% female, 16.5% foreign-born Latino, 42.5% US-born Latino, 11.0% black, 30% white/other) between the ages of 12 and 17 who live in 65 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Immigrant concentration among these neighborhoods derives primarily from Latin America. The results from multilevel models show that immigrant concentration protects against adolescent alcohol use only when there is low neighborhood-level diversity of exposures to immigrant concentration among the contexts residents visit outside of their residential neighborhood. This research highlights the importance of considering the effects of aggregate exposures to non-home contexts on adolescent wellbeing. PMID:26215378

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  9. Application of 0.05 per cent legal blood alcohol limits to traffic injury control in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Plitapolkarnpim, Adisak; Tawonwanchai, Araya

    2002-04-01

    A substantial proportion (44%) of traffic injury cases seeking emergency services in public hospitals had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.1 per cent or more. To reduce alcohol related traffic injuries and deaths, a law was enacted setting a criminal per se legal blood alcohol limit at 0.05 per cent in 1994. However, not until 1997, was an active public education program undertaken on a national scale to raise awareness against drink driving and to support law enforcement. This includes dissemination of knowledge through multiple channels e.g., roadside posters; stickers on the back of vehicles; sporadic radio and TV programs or spots; public announcements; press reports. In 1999, highly visible sobriety check points were set up as a measure for law enforcement. In order to systematically assess the campaign, multiple methods were used to collect relevant data. This report focused on the outcomes of the campaign based on hospital surveillance data in the emergency rooms of 4 public hospitals from March to November, 2000 on alternate months. It was found that the campaign succeeded in raising public awareness and support for law enforcement against drink driving. However, the proportion of road victims with illegal BAC seeking emergency care did not decline after 17 months of the campaign. Limitations and weaknesses of law enforcement activities were discussed along with recommendation for future action. PMID:12118498

  10. Alcohol and single-cell protein production by Kluyveromyces in concentrated whey permeates with reduced ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, M.M.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    Five Kluyveromyces yeasts were grown in concentrated whey permeates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to produce single-cell protein and ethanol. K. fragilis NRRL Y2415 produced the highest yield of alcohol, 9.1%, and K. bulgaricus ATCC 1605 gave the highest yield of biomass, 13.5 mg/mL. High ash, apparently through Na and K effects, inhibited production of biomass and alcohol. A 0.77% ash was optimum. Lactose utilization was more rapid under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and urea supplementation were without effect on yeast growth or were slightly inhibitory. A 1% peptone inclusion gave the highest biomass yield with minimum alcohol production.

  11. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  12. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration by horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous methods like distillation followed by iodometric titrations, gas chromatograph (GC)-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer, GC-Headspace, Breath analyzer, and biosensors including alcohol dehydrogenase (enzymatic) have been used to determine blood alcohol concentration (BAC). In the present study, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy had been used to determine BAC in whole blood. The asymmetric stretching frequency of C-C-O group of ethanol in water (1,045 cm(-1)) had been used to calculate BAC using Beer's Law. A seven-point calibration curve of ethanol was drawn in the concentration range 24-790 mg dL(-1). The curve showed good linearity over the concentration range used (r(2)=0.999, standard deviation=0.0023). The method is accurate, reproducible, rapid, simple, and nondestructive in nature. PMID:20541351

  13. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties. PMID:27041394

  14. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  15. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  16. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  17. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  18. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  19. Tropospheric light alcohols, carbonyls, and acetonitrile: Concentrations in the southwestern United States and Henry's Law data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Jefferson R.; Dawson, G. A.

    1985-04-01

    Aliphatic alcohols (C1 - C4), aldehydes (C1 - C2) and ketones (C3 - C4) have been determined at Tucson, Arizona, and at two rural sites about 40 km distant. Acetonitrile was also measured at the rural sites. The method involved condensation sampling, condensate preconcentration, and gas chromatography. Henry's law coefficients were required for all components and were determined. Mean concentrations in Tucson were higher than those in the rural areas by factors typically between 2 and 8; urban formaldehyde was only slightly elevated. Mean alcohol concentrations ranged from 7.9 ppb (C1) to 0.12 ppb (C4) within the city and from 2.6 ppb (C1) to 0.06 ppb (C4) at the rural sites. Acetone was found at 12 ppb in the city and 2.8 ppb at the rural sites. Concentrations of butanone were a factor of 5 lower. Acetaldehyde, at 23 ppb (city) and 6.9 ppb (rural), far exceeded formaldehyde concentrations (1.8 ppb in the city, and 1.5 ppb at the rural sites). Acetonitrile was found at the rural sites at a mean concentration of 60 ppt. A dimensionless Henry's law coefficient (mol L-1 of liquid/mol L-1 of vapor) was suprisingly similar for the alcohols at 0°C, ranging between 2×104 and 3.4×104 (900-1500 mol L-1 atm-1) the ketones were a factor of 10 lower. For acetaldehyde the coefficient was 1.7×103 (76 mol L-1 atm-1) and for acetonitrile 3.7×103 (165 mol L-1 atm-1). Concentrations of oxygenated organics in the condensates and in precipitation were compared; it was tentatively concluded that concentration differences of the carbonyls were consistent with these species being produced within the cloud, for example, by aqueous photochemistry.

  20. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  1. [Limiting the allowable concentration of zearalenone in processed grain products].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; L'vova, L S; Kravchenko, L V; Safronova, A M; Starovoĭtov, M L

    2002-01-01

    The distribution zearalenon (ZL) in products of processing of contaminated wheat, barley and maize grains was is investigated. Results of the data analysis on the investigation of an actual nutrition of the population in Russia is presented; the share of products of processing of contaminated wheat, barley and maize grains as part of the total ration was determined Varied values of Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) of ZL based on the obtained results are offered: 1 mg/kg--for wheat, barley and maize grains; 0.2 mg/kg--for main products of grain processing, viz flour and groats. The application of these MAC-values for ZL ensures the conformity between the ones for raw materials and for products of processing of raw materials, as well as the limitation of the maximum possible ZL--intake within the bounds of Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for a man. PMID:12227016

  2. The drunk utilitarian: blood alcohol concentration predicts utilitarian responses in moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Duke, Aaron A; Bègue, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The hypothetical moral dilemma known as the trolley problem has become a methodological cornerstone in the psychological study of moral reasoning and yet, there remains considerable debate as to the meaning of utilitarian responding in these scenarios. It is unclear whether utilitarian responding results primarily from increased deliberative reasoning capacity or from decreased aversion to harming others. In order to clarify this question, we conducted two field studies to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication on utilitarian responding. Alcohol holds promise in clarifying the above debate because it impairs both social cognition (i.e., empathy) and higher-order executive functioning. Hence, the direction of the association between alcohol and utilitarian vs. non-utilitarian responding should inform the relative importance of both deliberative and social processing systems in influencing utilitarian preference. In two field studies with a combined sample of 103 men and women recruited at two bars in Grenoble, France, participants were presented with a moral dilemma assessing their willingness to sacrifice one life to save five others. Participants' blood alcohol concentrations were found to positively correlate with utilitarian preferences (r=.31, p<.001) suggesting a stronger role for impaired social cognition than intact deliberative reasoning in predicting utilitarian responses in the trolley dilemma. Implications for Greene's dual-process model of moral reasoning are discussed. PMID:25460385

  3. A novel approach for estimating sugar and alcohol concentrations in wines using refractometer and hydrometer.

    PubMed

    Son, H S; Hong, Y S; Park, W M; Yu, M A; Lee, C H

    2009-03-01

    To estimate true Brix and alcoholic strength of must and wines without distillation, a novel approach using a refractometer and a hydrometer was developed. Initial Brix (I.B.), apparent refractometer Brix (A.R.), and apparent hydrometer Brix (A.H.) of must were measured by refractometer and hydrometer, respectively. Alcohol content (A) was determined with a hydrometer after distillation and true Brix (T.B.) was measured in distilled wines using a refractometer. Strong proportional correlations among A.R., A.H., T.B., and A in sugar solutions containing varying alcohol concentrations were observed in preliminary experiments. Similar proportional relationships among the parameters were also observed in must, which is a far more complex system than the sugar solution. To estimate T.B. and A of must during alcoholic fermentation, a total of 6 planar equations were empirically derived from the relationships among the experimental parameters. The empirical equations were then tested to estimate T.B. and A in 17 wine products, and resulted in good estimations of both quality factors. This novel approach was rapid, easy, and practical for use in routine analyses or for monitoring quality of must during fermentation and final wine products in a winery and/or laboratory. PMID:19323723

  4. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. PMID:25866906

  5. Experimental Limiting Oxygen Concentrations for Nine Organic Solvents at Temperatures and Pressures Relevant to Aerobic Oxidations in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Applications of aerobic oxidation methods in pharmaceutical manufacturing are limited in part because mixtures of oxygen gas and organic solvents often create the potential for a flammable atmosphere. To address this issue, limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) values, which define the minimum partial pressure of oxygen that supports a combustible mixture, have been measured for nine commonly used organic solvents at elevated temperatures and pressures. The solvents include acetic acid, N-methylpyrrolidone, dimethyl sulfoxide, tert-amyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, methanol, acetonitrile, and toluene. The data obtained from these studies help define safe operating conditions for the use of oxygen with organic solvents. PMID:26622165

  6. Why should i comply? Sellers' accounts for (non-)compliance with legal age limits for alcohol sales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Availability is an important predictor of early and excessive alcohol consumption by adolescents. Many countries have implemented age limits to prevent underage purchases of alcohol. However, shop-floor compliance with these age limits appears to be problematic. This study addresses the issue of non-compliance with age limits. Which measures do vendors take to avoid underage alcohol sales, and what do they report as important reasons to comply or not with age limits for alcohol sales? Methods Open-ended telephone interviews were conducted with store managers selling alcohol (N = 106). Prior to the interviews, all outlets were visited by an underage mystery shopper in order to measure compliance with the legal age limits on alcohol sales. The interview results are compared against actual compliance rates. Results Several measures have been taken to prevent underage sales, but the compliance level is low. Furthermore, open coding resulted in 19 themes, representing both valid and invalid arguments, that vendors mentioned as relevant to their decisions of whether to comply with the law. Compliance with age limits is dependent on the knowledge of the rules and the ability and motivation to follow the rules. The ability aspect in particular seems to be problematic, but in many cases, the motivation to actively comply with the age limits is lacking. Conclusions To enhance compliance, it is important to raise the awareness of the importance of age limits and to connect possible violations of the regulations to negative consequences. PMID:22269016

  7. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  8. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol concentration in spinning dope on diameter, beads and HHS of produced nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Ramin; Damerchely, Rogheih

    2007-01-15

    In this study it was aimed to produce nano fibers of poly vinyl alcohol PVA polymer via electrospinning ES method and to investigate the role of PVA concentration in the spinning dope on diameter, beads and HHS of produced fibers. Spinning dopes with different concentrations of PVA at rang of 5 to 20% (wt/wt on weight of solution) prepared. The requisite voltage for ES (30 kv) was supplied by a DC high voltage power supply and for collecting the fibers a grounded aluminum foil target placed 17 cm below the tip of capillary tube (spinning nozzle). The results showed that spinning dopes with PVA concentration between 8 to 12% (wt/wt) are capable of producing PVA fibers, but those below 8% (wt/wt) concentrations because of low viscosity formed droplets known as electrospray effect. Electrospinning suppressed at spinning dope concentrations above 12% (wt/wt) due to high viscosity of dope. According to the SEM photographs of electrospun PVA fibers it revealed that in higher concentrations produced nanofibers have larger diameter with less beads and HHS in compare with lower concentrations. PMID:19070034

  9. The relation between the limiting shear modulus and degree of hydrogen bonding in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Ryusuke

    1981-09-01

    Existing data of the limiting shear modulus at high frequency on associated liquids are found to obey the modified Hirai-Eyring equation G∞ = (2HRT/V0)exp(Eh/RT) above the glass transition temperature, where Eh is the energy required to create 1 mole of holes, V0 is the molar volume of alcohol, and H is the degree of hydrogen bonding. This semiemperical equation, deduced by considering the local interaction between molecules, should serve as a useful extrapolation formula for associated liquids and mixtures.

  10. Limit of stokesian settling concentration characterizes sludge settling velocity.

    PubMed

    Mancell-Egala, William A S K; Kinnear, David J; Jones, Kimberly L; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Takács, Imre; Murthy, Sudhir N

    2016-03-01

    Flocculent settling (stokesian) is predominant within ideally operating clarifiers, and the shift to 'slower' hindered settling (non-stokesian) causes both failure and poor effluent quality. Therefore, a new metric for settling characteristics was developed and classified as Limit of Stokesian Settling (LOSS). The technique consisted of determining the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration at which mixed liquor settling characteristics transition from stokesian to non-stokesian settling. An image analytical technique was developed with the aid of MATLAB(®) to identify this transition. The MATLAB tool analyzed RGB images from video, and identified the presence of an interface by a dramatic shift in the Red indices. LOSS data for Secondary activated-sludge systems were analyzed for a period of 60 days at the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant. LOSS for secondary systems typically occurred between 600 and 700 mg TSS/L but reached 1000 mg TSS/L for a good settling secondary sludge and 500 mg TSS/L for a poor settling secondary sludge, settling quality was based on hindered settling rates. In addition, LOSS was collected for granular systems seeded with cyclone underflow from Strass Wastewater Treatment Plant, it was observed that LOSS was higher for granular systems ranging from 1600 to 5500 mg TSS/L for low and high levels of granulation, respectively. The monovalent to divalent cation ratio (M/D) was increased with the addition of sodium ions to deteriorate settling properties. Samples adjusted with higher M/D consistently had 100 mg TSS/L (15%) decrease in LOSS from the control. LOSS numbers collected experimentally were validated with the Takacs et al. (1991) settling model. When compared to flux curves with small changes in sludge matrix, LOSS was proven to be faster at characterizing hindered settling velocity and was less erratic. This is the first time a measurement method has been developed to characterize the transition from stokesian

  11. Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Kuc, Kelly A.; Murphy, James M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J.

    2010-01-01

    High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 5–7 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit ‘loss-of-control’ of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available. PMID:19076927

  12. Functionalized electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers for on-chip concentration of E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Matlock-Colangelo, Lauren; Coon, Barbara; Pitner, Christine L; Frey, Margaret W; Baeumner, Antje J

    2016-02-01

    Positively and negatively charged electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were incorporated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchannels in order to facilitate on-chip concentration of Escherichia coli K12 cells. The effects of fiber distribution and fiber mat height on analyte retention were investigated. The 3D morphology of the mats was optimized to prevent size-related retention of the E. coli cells while also providing a large enough surface area for analyte concentration. Positively charged nanofibers produced an 87% retention and over 80-fold concentration of the bacterial cells by mere electrostatic interaction, while negatively charged nanofibers reduced nonspecific analyte retention when compared to an empty microfluidic channel. In order to take advantage of this reduction in nonspecific retention, these negatively charged nanofibers were then modified with anti-E. coli antibodies. These proof-of-principle experiments showed that antibody-functionalized negatively charged nanofiber mats were capable of the specific capture of 72% of the E. coli cells while also significantly reducing nonspecific analyte retention within the channel as expected. The ease of fabrication and immense surface area of the functionalized electrospun nanofibers make them a promising alternative for on-chip concentration of analytes. The pore size and fiber mat morphology, as well as surface functionality of the fibers, can be tailored to allow for specific capture and concentration of a wide range of analytes. PMID:26493980

  13. Ultrafast optical power limiting in free-standing Pt polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite films synthesized in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Anija, M.; Venkatesan, P.; Suchand Sandeep, C. S.; Philip, Reji

    2007-12-01

    Free-standing platinum-polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite films have been prepared by a simple in situ method. By thermal annealing, Pt nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes have been obtained. Their optical nonlinearity is measured using ultrafast (100 fs) laser pulses at 404 nm, in the absorption wing region. A strong optical power limiting is found in the films. The timescale of this limiting action is ultrafast, as it happens within the incident laser pulsewidth. Experimental results and numerical simulation indicate that the sign of the nonlinearity can be controlled by varying the film composition and annealing temperature. Use of ultrashort laser pulses in the free-standing film configuration permits a direct and unambiguous determination of the electronic nonlinearity of the material, since accumulative effects occur at later times lying outside the sharp measurement window.

  14. A spectroscopic and theoretical study in the near-infrared region of low concentration aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Beć, Krzysztof B; Futami, Yoshisuke; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-05-11

    The near-infrared (NIR) spectra of low-concentration (5 × 10(-3) M) solutions in CCl4 of basic aliphatic alcohols, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol were, for the first time, calculated by second-order vibrational perturbation theory computations and were compared with the corresponding experimental data. Density functional theory (DFT) using single hybrid (B3LYP) and double hybrid (B2PLYP) density functionals and their derivatives with additional empirical dispersion correction (B3LYP-D3 and B2PLYP-D, respectively) and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory were used in combination with selected basis sets including fairly new basis sets from the "spectroscopic" SNS family, double-ζ SNSD and triple-ζ SNST basis sets. Each time, anharmonic vibrational modes and intensities were calculated by using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. The effect of solvent cavity on the calculated results was included by the application of a self-consistent reaction field with a polarized continuum model. Ethanol and 1-propanol have conformational isomerism; following a conformational analysis, theoretical spectra of all isomers were calculated and their final predicted NIR spectra were obtained as Boltzmann-averaged spectra of resolved conformers. For ethanol and 1-propanol, the observed broadening of the overtone band of the OH stretching mode was well reflected by the differences in the position of the relevant band among conformational isomers of these alcohols; the effect of solvent on broadening was also discussed. Detailed band assignments in the experimental NIR spectra of the studied alcohols were proposed based on the calculation of potential energy distributions. The final accuracy of the predicted NIR spectra for each of the theoretical methods was estimated based on the errors in calculated frequencies of overtones and combination bands. PMID:27137865

  15. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Błażewicz, Anna; Kiciński, Paweł; Sak, Jarosław J; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb) in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:27304961

  16. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, p<0.05) and without (258 vs. 89 μmol/l, p<0.05) alcohol ingestion. From 2 min onwards there were no significant differences in the decreasing salivary acetaldehyde concentration, which remained above the level of carcinogenicity still at 10 min. The systemic alcohol distribution from blood to saliva had no additional effect on salivary acetaldehyde after sipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. PMID:21641957

  17. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Błażewicz, Anna; Kiciński, Paweł; Sak, Jarosław J.; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb) in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:27304961

  18. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment...

  19. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  20. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    PubMed

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol. PMID:26675839

  1. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  2. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  3. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  4. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  5. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  6. Optimal oxidative folding of the novel antimicrobial cyclotide from Hedyotis biflora requires high alcohol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Clarence T T; Taichi, Misako; Nishio, Hideki; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Tam, James P

    2011-08-23

    Hedyotide B1, a novel cyclotide isolated from the medicinal plant Hedyotis biflora, contains a cystine knot commonly found in toxins and plant defense peptides. The optimal oxidative folding of a cystine knot encased in the circular peptide backbone of a cyclotide poses a challenge. Here we report a systematic study of optimization of the oxidative folding of hedyotide B1, a 30-amino acid cyclic peptide with a net charge of +3. The linear precursor of hedyotide B1, synthesized as a thioester by solid phase synthesis, was cyclized quantitatively by a thia-zip cyclization to form the circular backbone and then subjected to oxidative folding in a thiol-disulfide redox system under 38 different conditions. Of the oxidative conditions examined, the nature of the organic cosolvent appeared to be critical, with the use of 70% 2-propanol affording the highest yield (48%). The disulfide connectivity of the folded hedyotide was identical to that of the native form as determined by partial acid hydrolysis. The use of such a high alcohol concentration suggests that a partial denaturation may be necessary for the oxidative folding of a cyclotide with the inverse orientation of hydrophobic side chains that are externalized to the solvent face to permit the formation of the interior cystine core in the circularized backbone. We also show that synthetic hedyotide B1 is an antimicrobial, exhibiting minimal inhibitory concentrations in the micromolar range against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. PMID:21776968

  7. A Simple Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz de, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The change of activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient with addition of contaminants to the original liquid gives rise to a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration for ethyl and methyl alcohol. Our detailed investigation on the alcohol-water mixtures along with discussion on possible future potential application of the simple and very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. We compared our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. We also discuss a part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage.

  8. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. PMID:27469095

  9. Implementing Evidence-Based Alcohol Interventions in a Resource-Limited Setting: Novel Delivery Strategies in Tomsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sonya S; Livchits, Viktoriya; Nelson, Adrianne K; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Yanova, Galina V; Yanov, Sergey A; Mishustin, Sergey P; Connery, Hilary S; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2012-01-01

    Effective implementation of evidence-based interventions in “real-world” settings can be challenging. Interventions based on externally valid trial findings can be even more difficult to apply in resource-limited settings, given marked differences—in provider experience, patient population, and health systems—between those settings and the typical clinical trial environment. Under the auspices of the Integrated Management of Physician-Delivered Alcohol Care for Tuberculosis Patients (IMPACT) study, a randomized, controlled effectiveness trial, and as an integrated component of tuberculosis treatment in Tomsk, Russia, we adapted two proven alcohol interventions to the delivery of care to 200 patients with alcohol use disorders. Tuberculosis providers performed screening for alcohol use disorders and also delivered naltrexone (with medical management) or a brief counseling intervention either independently or in combination as a seamless part of routine care. We report the innovations and challenges to intervention design, training, and delivery of both pharmacologic and behavioral alcohol interventions within programmatic tuberculosis treatment services. We also discuss the implications of these lessons learned within the context of meeting the challenge of providing evidence-based care in resource-limited settings. (Harv Rev Psychiatry 2012;20:58–67.) PMID:22335183

  10. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of...

  11. Can the Blood Alcohol Concentration Be a Predictor for Increased Hospital Complications in Trauma Patients Involved in Motor Vehicle Crashes?

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) <100 mg/dL, 538 (14%) 100–199 mg/dL, and 643 (17%) >200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0–20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4–27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5–49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification. PMID:20617025

  12. Brain regional and adrenal monoamine concentrations and behavioral responses to stress in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Korpi, E R; Sinclair, J D; Kaheinen, P; Viitamaa, T; Hellevuo, K; Kiianmaa, K

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of monoamines, precursors and metabolites in various brain regions and the levels of catecholamines in the adrenal glands were determined from naive rats of the AA and ANA lines, and from ones immediately after an escapable shock test. The brain determinations were made with a new step-gradient ion-pair elution method on a reversed phase column and coulometric detection. Several significant differences were observed in the amine concentrations, largely confirming and extending the findings made before the genetic revitalization of the lines: in particular, the AAs, unlike other alcohol-preferring rodents, had higher 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations. The AA rats tended to have smaller changes than the ANAs in brain aminergic systems and had significantly less change in adrenal epinephrine and dopamine levels after the shock test. The AAs were consistently found to be less active than ANAs in this shock test and in a warm-water swim test, but whether this was a cause or an effect of their brain and adrenal changes could not be determined. Our behavioral results might suggest a reduced reaction of the alcohol-preferring rats to aversive stimulation. PMID:3219191

  13. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  14. A controlled study of the time-course of breath alcohol concentration after moderate ingestion of ethanol following a social drinking session.

    PubMed

    Barquín, Jesús; Luna, Juan de Dios; Hernández, Antonio F

    2008-05-20

    This paper evaluates the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), nausea (feeling of being slightly intoxicated) and subjective driving performance after ingesting a moderate dose of alcohol in the presence of a light meal, which intends to approach a social drinking setting. 119 healthy individuals (69 males and 50 females, aged 21.7+/-3.0) ingested three glasses of wine (95mL each) and their BrAC was determined by an Alcotest 7410 at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min post-drinking. 46% of females and no male subjects exceeded a BrAC of 0.25mg/L, the legal limit for driving fixed by some Western countries. 53% of the study population felt nausea during the experimental session and 20% self-reported impairment of their driving skills. In both cases these subjective effects were more pronounced in females. The major determinants of mean BrAC were time post-drinking, gender (male) and body mass index (BMI), all these variables being inversely associated. Females and individuals with a BMI lower than 22.5kg/m(2) were at an increased risk of exceeding the legal limit of BrAC. The feeling of nausea was significantly associated with gender (females), the ingestion of up to 2 drinks on weekdays, and having exceeded a BrAC of 0.25mg/L during the experimental study. The main predictor of self-perception of impaired driving skills was the feeling of nausea, followed by a BrAC in excess of 0.25mg/L. In conclusion, both females and subjects with lower BMI are at an increased risk of exceeding the legal limit of BrAC after moderate alcohol consumption resembling a social drinking setting. PMID:18178047

  15. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life. PMID:19251115

  16. Membrane-Associated Polypeptides Induced in Chlamydomonas by Limiting CO(2) Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spalding, M H; Jeffrey, M

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other unicellular green algae have a high apparent affinity for CO(2), little O(2) inhibition of photosynthesis, and reduced photorespiration. These characteristics result from operation of a CO(2)-concentrating system. The CO(2)-concentrating system involves active inorganic carbon transport and is under environmental control. Cells grown at limiting CO(2) concentrations have inorganic carbon transport activity, but cells grown at 5% CO(2) do not. Four membrane-associated polypeptides (M(r) 19, 21, 35, and 36 kilodaltons) have been identified which either appear or increase in abundance during adaptation to limiting CO(2) concentrations. The appearance of two of the polypeptides occurs over roughly the same time course as the appearance of the CO(2)-concentrating system activity in response to CO(2) limitation. PMID:16666503

  17. Membrane-associated polypeptides induced in Chlamydomonas by limiting CO sub 2 concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, M.H.; Jeffrey, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other unicellular green algae have a high apparent affinity for CO{sub 2}, little O{sub 2} inhibition of photosynthesis, and reduced photorespiration. These characteristics result from operation of a CO{sub 2}-concentrating system. The CO{sub 2}-concentrating system involves active inorganic carbon transport and is under environmental control. Cells grown at limiting CO{sub 2} concentrations have inorganic carbon transport activity, but cells grown at 5% CO{sub 2} do not. Four membrane-associated polypeptides (M{sub r}, 19, 21, 35, and 36 kilodaltons) have been identified which either appear or increase in abundance during adaptation to limiting CO{sub 2} concentrations. The appearance of two of the polypeptides occurs over roughly the same time course as the appearance of the CO{sub 2}-concentrating system activity in response to CO{sub 2} limitation.

  18. Concentrations, Distribution and Persistence of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Sludge-Applied Soils near Decatur, Alabama, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil samples were collected for fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) analyses from six fields to which sludge had been applied and one “background” field that had not received sludge. Ten analytes in soil extracts were quantified using GC/MS. Sludge-applied fields had surface soil FTOH c...

  19. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  20. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  1. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  2. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  3. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  4. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

    PubMed

    Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

    2013-05-01

    Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases. PMID:23622478

  5. Absence of salting out effects in forensic blood alcohol determination at various concentrations of sodium fluoride using semi-automated headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miller, B A; Day, S M; Vasquez, T E; Evans, F M

    2004-01-01

    Blood alcohol measurements determined by headspace gas chromatography have been challenged on the grounds that the presence of the preservative sodium fluoride in blood samples artificially increases headspace alcohol concentrations due to a salting out effect. Blood samples containing varying amounts of ethanol and sodium fluoride were tested using semi-automated headspace gas chromatography with n-propyl alcohol as the internal standard to assess the validity of this challenge. We find, in fact, that under these test conditions the measured alcohol levels are systematically depressed as the amount of sodium fluoride in the blood sample increases. The challenge thus has no basis. PMID:15112594

  6. Limitations of lifetime alcohol use disorder assessments: A criterion-validation study.

    PubMed

    Haeny, Angela M; Littlefield, Andrew K; Sher, Kenneth J

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare etiologically and clinically relevant correlates of lifetime AUD (e.g., alcohol consumption, personality traits, psychiatric disorders) based on a single assessment compared to a cumulative, prospective assessment of lifetime AUD. Data were drawn from the Alcohol, Health and Behavior (AHB; baseline N=489) study, which consisted of a prospective cohort of college students assessed seven times over a 16-year period ([M(SD) age at baseline=18.56 (.97)] and [M(SD) age at final assessment=34.33 (.82)]). The participants were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) for DSM-III at Waves 1-7 and for DSM-IV at Waves 6-7. A single assessment and cumulative assessments of DSM-III lifetime AUD at Wave 6 (M[SD] age=28.98 [1.03]) were used to predict past-year alcohol related variables (e.g., alcohol consumption, drinking motives, drinking expectancies), personality variables, general functioning, lifetime substance use, and lifetime psychiatric disorders at Wave 7. Significantly larger correlations were found between the cumulative assessment and eight of the 25 etiologically relevant correlates of AUD compared to the single assessment. Further, significant incremental validity of cumulative assessment over single, retrospective assessment was observed for 16 of the 25 covariates. Overall, this study provides further support for the value of using prospective data with multiple assessments when determining lifetime history of disorder. PMID:27082748

  7. Impact of nutrient imbalance on wine alcoholic fermentations: nitrogen excess enhances yeast cell death in lipid-limited must.

    PubMed

    Tesnière, Catherine; Delobel, Pierre; Pradal, Martine; Blondin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the consequences of nutritional imbalances, particularly lipid/nitrogen imbalances, on wine yeast survival during alcoholic fermentation. We report that lipid limitation (ergosterol limitation in our model) led to a rapid loss of viability during the stationary phase of fermentation and that the cell death rate is strongly modulated by nitrogen availability and nature. Yeast survival was reduced in the presence of excess nitrogen in lipid-limited fermentations. The rapidly dying yeast cells in fermentations in high nitrogen and lipid-limited conditions displayed a lower storage of the carbohydrates trehalose and glycogen than observed in nitrogen-limited cells. We studied the cell stress response using HSP12 promoter-driven GFP expression as a marker, and found that lipid limitation triggered a weaker stress response than nitrogen limitation. We used a SCH9-deleted strain to assess the involvement of nitrogen signalling pathways in the triggering of cell death. Deletion of SCH9 increased yeast viability in the presence of excess nitrogen, indicating that a signalling pathway acting through Sch9p is involved in this nitrogen-triggered cell death. We also show that various nitrogen sources, but not histidine or proline, provoked cell death. Our various findings indicate that lipid limitation does not elicit a transcriptional programme that leads to a stress response protecting yeast cells and that nitrogen excess triggers cell death by modulating this stress response, but not through HSP12. These results reveal a possibly negative role of nitrogen in fermentation, with reported effects referring to ergosterol limitation conditions. These effects should be taken into account in the management of alcoholic fermentations. PMID:23658613

  8. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  9. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  10. A generalized corresponding states method for predicting the limits of superheat of mixtures: application to the normal alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Avedisian, C.T.; Sullivan, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    The limits of superheat of the normal alcohols from methanol to octanol and of ethanol/n-propanol, n-propanol/n-butanol, and n-butanol/n-pentanol mixtures were measured at atmospheric pressure. The results were correlated using a new method based on the generalized corresponding states principle in which the properties of two reference substances were used to predict the superheat limits of the liquids studied. Ethanol and n-butanol, and the two components of each mixture studied, were used as reference fluids for predicting the superheat limits of the pure alcohols and mixtures respectively. Results showed that it is possible to predict superheat limits to well within the accuracy of experimental measurements (< 1%). The method requires only accurate vapor pressure correlations and accentric factors of the reference fluids, and an accurate method for predicting the true critical temperature and pressure of the mixture. Considerable simplification using the present method over the approach based on classical homogeneous nucleation theory is derived from the fact that no mixture surface tension or bubble point pressure data are required.

  11. Driving simulator sickness: Impact on driving performance, influence of blood alcohol concentration, and effect of repeated simulator exposures.

    PubMed

    Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. PMID:27322638

  12. Driving Performance on the Descending Limb of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J.

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third asessement. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sentitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated. PMID:25723618

  13. A probabilistic approach to obtaining limiting estimates of radionuclide concentration in biota.

    PubMed

    Higley, Kathryn A; Domotor, Stephen L; Antonio, Ernest J

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for twenty-three radionuclides. Four organism types (aquatic animals, riparian animals, terrestrial animals, and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for method development. While environmental transfer data needed for deriving biota tissue concentrations are available for aquatic animals and terrestrial plants, less information is available for terrestrial and riparian organisms. Two methods were applied and examined for their ability to provide estimates of organism:soil or organism:water concentration factors in lieu of measured data. The kinetic/allometric approach combined with a parameter uncertainty analysis provides a needed method to estimate concentration factors across multiple species with limited input data. PMID:12590071

  14. Effect of Hydroxyl Concentration on Chemical Sensitivity of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Carbon-Black Composite Chemiresistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert C.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Yelton, W. Graham

    1999-05-19

    The sensitivity and selectivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) / carbon black composite films have been found to vary depending upon the hydroxylation percentage ("-OH") of the polymer. These chemiresistors made from PVA films whose polymer backbone is 88% hydroxylated (PVA88) have a high sensitivity to water, while chemiresistors made from PVA75 have a higher sensitivity to methanol. The minor differences in polymer composition result in films with different Hildebrand volubility parameters. The relative responses of several different PVA-based chemiresistors to solvents with different volubility parameters are presented. In addition, polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) films with PVA88 are used in an array to distinguish the responses to methanol-water mixtures.

  15. Exceedance of PM10 and ozone concentration limits in Germany - Spatial variability and influence of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, Majana; Bernhofer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ground-level ozone (O3) have negative impacts on human health, e.g., increased risk of respiratory disease, and the environment. European Union (EU) air policy and air quality standards led to continuously reduced air pollution problems in recent decades. Nevertheless, the limit values for PM10 (particles with diameter of 10 micrometers or less) and ozone - defined by the directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament - are still exceeded frequently. Poor air quality and the exceedance of limits result mainly from the combination of high emissions and unfavourable weather conditions. Datasets from German monitoring stations are used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of the exceedance of concentration limits for PM10 and ozone for the federal states of Germany. Time series are analysed for the period 2000-2012 for PM10 and for the period 1990-2012 for ozone. Furthermore, the influence of weather patterns on the exceedance of concentration limits on a regional scale was investigated. Here, the "objective weather types" of the German Weather Service were used. As expected, for most regions anticyclonic weather types (with a negative cyclonality index for the two levels 950 and 500 hPa) show a high frequency on exeedance days, both for PM10 and ozone. The results could contribute to estimate the future exceedance frequency of concentration limits and to develop possible countermeasures.

  16. The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of increasing honey concentrations from 10% to 30% within the Honey (H)/polyvinyl alcohol (P)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers was investigated. Changes in the electrospun nanofiber diameters, crystallinity, thermal behavior, porosity and antibacterial activity have been assessed using SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA, mercury porosimeter and viable cell count technique. The HPCS nanofibers were cross-linked and tested for their swelling abilities and degradation behavior. The mean diameter of HPCS nanofibers increased from 284±97nm to 464±185nm upon increasing the honey concentration from 10% to 30%. Irrespective the honey concentrations, the nanofibers have demonstrated enhanced porosity. Increasing the honey concentration resulted in a reduction in the swelling of the 1h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers containing 10% and 30% H from 520% to 100%; respectively. Degradation after 30days was reduced in the 3h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers compared to the non-crosslinked HPCS nanofibers. Enhanced antibacterial activity was achieved against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli upon increasing the honey concentration. Changing the honey concentration and the extent of nanofiber crosslinking can be used to adjust different parameters of the HPCS nanofibers to suit their applications in wound healing and tissue engineering. PMID:27287123

  17. 76 FR 6756 - Recommendations Regarding Modifications to the Concentration Limit on Large Financial Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ...Section 622 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Act'' or ``Dodd-Frank Act'') establishes a financial sector concentration limit that generally prohibits a financial company \\1\\ from merging or consolidating with, acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of, or otherwise acquiring control of, another company if the resulting company's consolidated......

  18. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  19. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  20. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  1. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  2. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  3. A Probabilistic Approach to Obtaining Limiting Estimates of Radionuclide Concentrations in Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Domotor, S L.; Antonio, Ernest J. )

    2003-06-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a graded approach fo assessing compliance with radiation standards for protection of biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for twenty-three radionuclides. Four organisms types (aquatic animals, rparian animals, terrestrial animals, and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for methods development. While data are available for aquatic animals and terrestrial plants, less information is available for terrestrial and riparian organisms. Two methods were examined for their ability to provide estimates of organism:soil and organism:water concentration factors in lieu of measured data. The kinetic/allometric approach combined with an uncertainty analysis apprach was able to estimate concentration factors across multiple species with limited input data.

  4. How low can you go? Assessing minimum concentrations of NSC in carbon limited tree saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Guenter; Hartmann, Henrik; Schwendener, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are frequently used to determine the carbon balance of plants. Over the last years, an increasing number of studies have inferred carbon starvation in trees under environmental stress like drought from low tissue NSC concentrations. However, such inferences are limited by the fact that minimum concentrations of NSC required for survival are not known. So far, it was hypothesized that even under lethal carbon starvation, starch and low molecular sugar concentrations cannot be completely depleted and that minimum NSC concentrations at death vary across tissues and species. Here we present results of an experiment that aimed to determine minimum NSC concentrations in different tissues of saplings of two broad-leaved tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus and Quercus petratea) exposed to lethal carbon starvation via continuous darkening. In addition, we investigated recovery rates of NSC concentrations in saplings that had been darkened for different periods of time and were then re-exposed to light. Both species survived continuous darkening for about 12 weeks (confirmed by testing the ability to re-sprout after darkness). In all investigated tissues, starch concentrations declined close to zero within three to six weeks of darkness. Low molecular sugars also decreased strongly within the first weeks of darkness, but seemed to stabilize at low concentrations of 0.5 to 2 % dry matter (depending on tissue and species) almost until death. NSC concentrations recovered surprisingly fast in saplings that were re-exposed to light. After 3 weeks of continuous darkness, tissue NSC concentrations recovered within 6 weeks to levels of unshaded control saplings in all tissues and in both species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental attempt to quantify minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal carbon starvation. Most importantly, our results suggest that carbon-starved tree saplings are able to

  5. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; DiManno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP) after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow "conventional wisdom" that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  6. Fibrinogen Concentrate Improves Survival During Limited Resuscitation of Uncontrolled Hemorrhagic Shock in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    White, Nathan J.; Wang, Xu; Liles, W. Conrad; Stern, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fibrinogen concentrate, as a hemostatic agent, on limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. We use a swine model of hemorrhagic shock with free bleeding from a 4mm aortic tear to test the effect of adding a one-time dose of fibrinogen concentrate given at the onset of limited fluid resuscitation. Immature female swine were anesthetized and subjected to catheter hemorrhage and aortic tear to induce uniform hemorrhagic shock. Animals (N=7 per group) were then randomized to receive either; 1. No fluid resuscitation (Neg Control), 2. Limited resuscitation in the form of two boluses of 10ml/kg of 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution (HEX) given 30 minutes apart, or 3. The same fluid regimen with one dose of 120mg/kg fibrinogen concentrate given with the first HEX bolus (FBG). Animals were then observed for a total of 6 hours with aortic repair and aggressive resuscitation with shed blood taking place at 3 hours. Survival to 6 hours was significantly increased with FBG (7/8, 86%) vs. HEX (2/7, 29%), and Neg Control (0/7, 0%) (FBG vs. HEX, Kaplan Meier LR p=0.035). Intraperitoneal blood loss adjusted for survival time was increased in HEX (0.4ml/kg/min) when compared to FBG (0.1mg/kg/min, p=0.047) and Neg Control (0.1ml/kg/min, p=0.041). Systemic and cerebral hemodynamics also showed improvement with FBG vs. HEX. Fibrinogen concentrate may be a useful adjunct to decrease blood loss, improve hemodynamics, and prolong survival during limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. PMID:25337778

  7. Application of artificial neural networks in optimizing the fatty alcohol concentration in the formulation of an O/W emulsion.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Jayaram; Panpalia, Gopal Mohan; Priyadarshini, Surabhi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the concentration of a fatty alcohol, in addition to internal phase, for formulating a stable O/W emulsion, by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Predictions from ANNs are accurate and allow quantification of the relative importance of the inputs. Furthermore, by varying the network topology and parameters it was possible to obtain output values that were close to experimental values. The ANN model's predictive results and the actual output values were compared. R(2) values depict the percentage of response variability for the model; R(2) value of 0.84 for the model suggested adequate modeling, which is supported by the correlation coefficient value of 0.9445. PMID:21684851

  8. Predictive model for diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics of nanocolloids under high concentration.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco

    2012-01-12

    Smoluchowski's equation for the rate of aggregation of colloidal particles under diffusion-limited conditions has set the basis for the interpretation of kinetics of aggregation phenomena. Nevertheless, its use is limited to sufficiently dilute conditions. In this work we propose a correction to Smoluchowski's equation by using a result derived by Richards ( J. Phys. Chem. 1986 , 85 , 3520 ) within the framework of trapping theory. This corrected aggregation kernel, which accounts for concentration dependence effects, has been implemented in a population-balance equations scheme and used to model the aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles undergoing diffusion-limited aggregation under concentrated conditions (up to a particle volume fraction of 30%). The predictions of population balance calculations have been validated by means of Brownian dynamic simulations. It was found that the corrected kernel can very well reproduce the results from Brownian dynamic simulations for all concentration values investigated, and is also able to accurately predict the time required by a suspension to reach the gel point. On the other hand, classical Smoluchowski's theory substantially underpredicts the rate of aggregation as well as the onset of gelation, with deviations becoming progressively more severe as the particle volume fraction increases. PMID:22148884

  9. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  10. Tryptophan in Alcoholism Treatment II:  Inhibition of the Rat Liver Mitochondrial Low Km Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity, Elevation of Blood Acetaldehyde Concentration and Induction of Aversion to Alcohol by Combined Administration of Tryptophan and Benserazide

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Abdulla A.-B.; Bano, Samina; Steptoe, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The aims were to provide proofs of mechanism and principle by establishing the ability of the amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) combined with the kynureninase inhibitor benserazide (BSZ) to inhibit the liver mitochondrial low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity after administration and in vivo and to induce aversion to alcohol. Methods: Trp, BSZ or both were administered to male Wistar rats and ALDH activity was determined both in vitro in liver homogenates and in vivo (by measuring acetaldehyde accumulation in blood after ethanol administration). Alcohol consumption was studied in an aversion model in rats and in alcohol-preferring C57 mice. Results: Combined administration of Trp + BSZ, but neither compound alone, produced a strong inhibition of ALDH activity and an increase in blood acetaldehyde concentration after ethanol, and induced aversion to alcohol in rats and decreased preference in mice. Another kynureninase inhibitor, carbidopa, induced aversion to alcohol by itself, which was reversed by Trp co-administration. Conclusions: The present results establish a prior art for the use of a combination of Trp plus BSZ in the treatment of alcoholism by aversion, which merits rapid clinical development. PMID:21896551

  11. Inverse dependency of particle residence times in ponds to the concentration of phosphate, the limiting nutrient.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly A; Santschi, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    234Th, a commonly used short-lived particle-reactive tracer in marine systems, was measured in three different holding pond series at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Colorado, along with its parent nuclide 238U, to determine steady-state residence times of particle-reactive actinides such as Pu, and of particles. Series B ponds, which received industrial effluent that includes ortho-phosphate (PO4) and actinides, differed from series A and C ponds, which did not. This difference was also evident in the calculated particle residence times, which were <1 day for the ponds B4 and B5, where PO4 concentrations were higher (1.4 and 1.8 mg/l), and 3 and 3.4 days for ponds A3 and C2, respectively, where ortho-phosphate concentrations were lower (<0.1 mg/l). Particle residence times thus showed an inverse relationship with the concentration of ortho-phosphate, the limiting nutrient in fresh water systems. The same relationship to the concentration of ortho-phosphate or any of the other nutrient elements was not evident for the residence times of dissolved 234Th, which ranged between 0.1 and 2 days. This can be attributed to higher concentrations of dissolved and particulate ligands with greater binding potential for actinides such as four-valent Th and Pu in ponds with higher ortho-phosphate concentrations. Regardless of actual ortho-phosphate concentration, however, at water residence (holding) times of 1 month in these ponds, particles and associated actinides would be expected to be completely removed from the pond water to sediments. PMID:15261419

  12. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  13. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  14. Soil Redox Chemistry Limitation of Selenium Concentration in Carex Species Sedges

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; John Mionczynski; Patrick A. Hnilicka

    2007-09-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is required in the production of enzymes that protect mammalian cells from oxidative damage due to the byproducts of aerobic respiration. Its deficiency in livestock results in the nutritional muscular dystrophy called white muscle disease. This especially affects juveniles in the preweaning period. Symptoms have also been reported in wild herbivores on low-Se forage, and their appearance may be episodic, suggesting temporal variations in Se uptake by plants. Here, we report variations in selenium concentrations in Carex spp. sedges used as forage by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on summer range in the Wyoming, Wind River Mountains, and correlate those variations with soil conditions that affect the bioavailability of selenium. Variations in available Se are explained based upon the known oxidation/reduction chemistry of the element. It is concluded that water-saturated, alpine soils provide conditions suitable for the reduction of Se to the unavailable, elemental form, limiting its concentration in forage plants.

  15. Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Sands, Ronald D.; Smith, Steven J.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Edmonds, James A.

    2009-05-29

    This paper is the first to simultaneously examine the implications of extending the concept of placing a value on carbon beyond fossil fuel and industrial emissions to all sources, including those associated with land use and land use change. The paper reports a variety of results that have bearing on recent discussions in the literature regarding the role of bioenergy and the indirect emission of carbon through land-use change as well as the burgeoning literature on interactions between bioenergy and crop prices. This paper goes beyond results currently in the literature by using an integrated assessment model to assess energy use and supply, atmospheric composition, land use, and terrestrial carbon in the context of limiting the concentration of atmospheric CO2. We find that when the concept of valuing carbon emissions is extended to all carbon emissions, regardless of origin, that in contrast to a mitigation scenario where only fossil fuel and industrial carbon emissions are valued, deforestation is replaced by afforestation and expanded unmanaged ecosystems; the cost of limiting CO2 concentrations falls; crop prices rise; and human diets are transformed as people shift away from consumption of beef and other carbon-intensive protein sources. The increase in crop prices flows directly from the consideration of land-use change emissions in a comprehensive emissions mitigation program and occurs even in the absence of the use of purpose-grown bioenergy. Finally, we find that the assumed rate of improvement in food and fiber crop productivity (e.g. wheat, rice, corn) has a strong influence on land-use change emissions, making the technology for growing crops potentially as important for limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations as energy technologies such as CO2 capture and storage.

  16. Breath gas concentrations mirror exposure to sevoflurane and isopropyl alcohol in hospital environments in non-occupational conditions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Mar; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Sánchez, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Anaesthetic gases and disinfectants are a primary source of air contamination in hospitals. A highly sensitive sorbent-trap methodology has been used to analyse exhaled breath samples with detection limits in the pptv range, which allows volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected at significantly lower levels (5-6 orders of magnitude below) than the recommended exposure limits by different organizations. Two common VOCs used in hospital environments, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and sevoflurane, have been evaluated. Forced-expiratory breath samples were obtained from 100 volunteers (24 hospital staff, 45 hospital visitors and 31 external controls). Significant differences for IPA were found between samples from volunteers who had not been in contact with hospital environments (mean value of 8.032 ppbv) and people staying (20.981 ppbv, p  =  0.0002) or working (19.457 ppbv, p  =  0.000 09) in such an environment. Sevoflurane, an anaesthetic gas routinely used as an inhaled anaesthetic, was detected in all samples from volunteers in the hospital environment but not in volunteers who had not been in recent contact with a hospital environment. The levels of sevoflurane were significantly higher (p  =  0.000 24) among staff members (0.522 ppbv) than among visitors to the hospital (0.196 ppbv). We conclude that highly sensitive methods are required to detect anaesthetic gas contamination in hospital environments. PMID:26824193

  17. Aggressive Crime, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Concentrated Poverty in 24 U.S. Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Curtis, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios. PMID:17668345

  18. Aggressive crime, alcohol and drug use, and concentrated poverty in 24 U.S. urban areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Curtis, Russell L

    2007-01-01

    The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios. PMID:17668345

  19. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  20. A Method Detection Limit for Bacillus anthracis Spores in Water Using an Automated Waterborne Pathogen Concentrator.

    PubMed

    Humrighouse, Ben; Pemberton, Adin; Gallardo, Vicente; Lindquist, H D Alan; LaBudde, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The method detection limit (MDL, 99% chance of detecting a positive result in a single replicate), as per the United States Code of Federal Regulations, was determined for a protocol using an ultrafiltration based automated waterborne pathogen concentration device. Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain spores were seeded at low levels into 100 L reagent water samples. Suspect colonies were confirmed through morphological, chemical, and genetic tests. Samples of 100 L (n=14) of reagent water were seeded with five B. anthracis CFUs each. To confirm the estimated detection limit, a second set (n=19) of 100 L reagent water samples were seeded at a higher level (7 CFUs). The second estimate of the MDL could not be pooled with the first, due to significant difference in variance. A third trial (n=7) seeded with 10 CFUs produced an estimate of the MDL that could be pooled with the higher previous estimate. Another trial consisting of eight 100 L samples of tap water were seeded with approximately 7 CFUs. Recovery in these samples was not significantly different from the pooled MDL. Theoretically a concentration of 4.6 spores/100 L would be required for detection 95% of the time, based on a Poisson distribution. The calculated pooled MDL, based on experimental data was approximately 6 B. anthracis CFU/100 L (95% confidence interval 4.8 to 8.4). Detection at this level was achieved in municipal water samples. PMID:26268983

  1. Diffraction limited observations of flux concentrations and sunspot finestructure using adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.

    2003-05-01

    We present diffraction limited observations of magnetic flux concentrations and penumbral and umbral fine structure within an active region observed at disk center. We recorded g-band images, magnetograms, dopplergrams and narrow-band filtergrams using the Universal Birefringened Filter (UBF) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). The adaptive optics system at the DST was used to achieve diffraction limited long exposure imaging with high signal-to-noise. The main results can be summarized as follows: Strong and spatially narrow downflows are observed at the edge of magnetic structures such as flux tubes, pores and the sunspot umbra. Flux concentrations observed as bright points in intensity expand by about 30-40% from a height close to where the continuum is formed and the height of formation for the g-band. For the particular sunspot observed and at a low altitude in the photosphere we find strong evidence for what appears to be vigorous, small-scale convection patterns in parts of the umbra and a light bridge. We observe extremely narrow (<0.2") channels or sheets of downflowing plasma. We are able to identify individual penumbral fibrils in our data and find a small bright (hot) upflow and a more vertical field structure at the filament "head" near the umbral boundary. The field and flow turn to a nearly horizontal, dark structure within only about 0.2 arcsec. We compare our results with theoretical model predictions.

  2. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  3. Pathogenic Candida species differ in the ability to grow at limiting potassium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hušeková, B; Elicharová, H; Sychrová, H

    2016-05-01

    A high intracellular concentration of potassium (200-300 mmol/L) is essential for many yeast cell functions, such as the regulation of cell volume and pH, maintenance of membrane potential, and enzyme activation. Thus, cells use high-affinity specific transporters and expend a lot of energy to acquire the necessary amount of potassium from their environment. In Candida genomes, genes encoding 3 types of putative potassium uptake systems were identified: Trk uniporters, Hak symporters, and Acu ATPases. Tests of the tolerance and sensitivity of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis to various concentrations of potassium showed significant differences among the species, and these differences were partly dependent on external pH. The species most tolerant to potassium-limiting conditions were C. albicans and C. krusei, while C. parapsilosis tolerated the highest KCl concentrations. Also, the morphology of cells changed with the amount of potassium available, with C. krusei and C. tropicalis being the most influenced. Taken together, our results confirm potassium uptake and accumulation as important factors for Candida cell growth and suggest that the sole (and thus probably indispensable) Trk1 potassium uptake system in C. krusei and C. glabrata may serve as a target for the development of new antifungal drugs. PMID:26936589

  4. Limits on oxygen concentration in the prebiological atmosphere and the rate of abiotic fixation of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Walker, J. C. G.

    1981-02-01

    Two possible scenarios in early terrestrial atmospheric evolution are examined using a one-dimensional chemistry and flow model of the atmosphere. In each case the production of oxygen results from photolysis of H2O followed by the escape of hydrogen to space. In case 1 the rate of release of reduced volcanic gases is assumed to be greater than the oxygen production rate in leading to ground-level-oxygen concentrations on the order of 10 to the -13th PAL (present atmospheric level). In case 2, the volcanic reduced gas source is omitted, as in the case during an extended period of decreased tectonic activity. The oxygen concentration would then have been limited to about 4 x 10 to the -8th PAL by reaction with dissolved ferrous iron in the early oceans. The case 1 atmosphere is reducing, and the case 2 atmosphere oxidizing, based on the relative concentrations of reduced versus oxidized radical species present in the troposphere. The NO produced by lightning discharges is converted primarily to HNO in case 1 and to HNO3 in case 2.

  5. The effects of low concentrations of the enantiomers of mushroom alcohol (1-octen-3-ol) on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Richard; Lee, Samantha; Bennett, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    “Mushroom alcohol,” or 1-octen-3-ol, is a common fungal volatile organic compound (VOC) that has been studied for its flavor properties, its effects on fungal spore germination, mushroom development, and as a signaling agent for insects. Far less is known about its effects on plants. We exposed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, under conditions conducive to germination, to high (10 and 100 mg/1) and low concentrations (1, 2, and 3 mg/1) of racemic, S, and R forms of 1-octen-3-ol for 3 days. In addition, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week-old A. thaliana plants also were exposed to 1 mg/1 of the compounds for the same period of time. Seedling formation was retarded with all tested levels of exposure to 1-octen-3-ol for both enantiomers and the racemer, while 95% of unexposed control seeds germinated to seedling within 3 days. There was a dose-dependent response in the reduction of seedling formation between 1 mg/1 and 3 mg/1 of exposure. When exposed seeds were removed from the VOC, nearly all resumed germination. Young plants exposed to 1 mg/1 of the R and S enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol exhibited a mild inhibition of growth and chlorophyll production at 2 and 3 weeks but not at 4 weeks. PMID:24999439

  6. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  9. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  10. Incorporation of concentration data below the limit of quantification in population pharmacokinetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ron J; Jansen, Robert S; Rosing, Hilde; Thijssen, Bas; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2015-03-01

    Handling of data below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analyses is important for reducing bias and imprecision in parameter estimation. We aimed to evaluate whether using the concentration data below the LLOQ has superior performance over several established methods. The performance of this approach ("All data") was evaluated and compared to other methods: "Discard," "LLOQ/2," and "LIKE" (likelihood-based). An analytical and residual error model was constructed on the basis of in-house analytical method validations and analyses from literature, with additional included variability to account for model misspecification. Simulation analyses were performed for various levels of BLOQ, several structural PopPK models, and additional influences. Performance was evaluated by relative root mean squared error (RMSE), and run success for the various BLOQ approaches. Performance was also evaluated for a real PopPK data set. For all PopPK models and levels of censoring, RMSE values were lowest using "All data." Performance of the "LIKE" method was better than the "LLOQ/2" or "Discard" method. Differences between all methods were small at the lowest level of BLOQ censoring. "LIKE" method resulted in low successful minimization (<50%) and covariance step success (<30%), although estimates were obtained in most runs (∼90%). For the real PK data set (7.4% BLOQ), similar parameter estimates were obtained using all methods. Incorporation of BLOQ concentrations showed superior performance in terms of bias and precision over established BLOQ methods, and shown to be feasible in a real PopPK analysis. PMID:26038706

  11. Limits to anaerobic energy and cytosolic concentration in the living cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglietti, A.

    2015-11-01

    For many physical systems at any given temperature, the set of all states where the system's free energy reaches its largest value can be determined from the system's constitutive equations of internal energy and entropy, once a state of that set is known. Such an approach is fraught with complications when applied to a living cell, because the cell's cytosol contains thousands of solutes, and thus thousands of state variables, which makes determination of its state impractical. We show here that, when looking for the maximum energy that the cytosol can store and release, detailed information on cytosol composition is redundant. Compatibility with cell's life requires that a single variable that represents the overall concentration of cytosol solutes must fall between defined limits, which can be determined by dehydrating and overhydrating the cell to its maximum capacity. The same limits are shown to determine, in particular, the maximum amount of free energy that a cell can supply in fast anaerobic processes, starting from any given initial state. For a typical skeletal muscle in normal physiological conditions this energy, i.e., the maximum anaerobic capacity to do work, is calculated to be about 960 J per kg of muscular mass. Such energy decreases as the overall concentration of solutes in the cytosol is increased. Similar results apply to any kind of cell. They provide an essential tool to understand and control the macroscopic response of single cells and multicellular cellular tissues alike. The applications include sport physiology, cell aging, disease produced cell damage, drug absorption capacity, to mention the most obvious ones.

  12. Incorporation of concentration data below the limit of quantification in population pharmacokinetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Ron J; Jansen, Robert S; Rosing, Hilde; Thijssen, Bas; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2015-01-01

    Handling of data below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analyses is important for reducing bias and imprecision in parameter estimation. We aimed to evaluate whether using the concentration data below the LLOQ has superior performance over several established methods. The performance of this approach (“All data”) was evaluated and compared to other methods: “Discard,” “LLOQ/2,” and “LIKE” (likelihood-based). An analytical and residual error model was constructed on the basis of in-house analytical method validations and analyses from literature, with additional included variability to account for model misspecification. Simulation analyses were performed for various levels of BLOQ, several structural PopPK models, and additional influences. Performance was evaluated by relative root mean squared error (RMSE), and run success for the various BLOQ approaches. Performance was also evaluated for a real PopPK data set. For all PopPK models and levels of censoring, RMSE values were lowest using “All data.” Performance of the “LIKE” method was better than the “LLOQ/2” or “Discard” method. Differences between all methods were small at the lowest level of BLOQ censoring. “LIKE” method resulted in low successful minimization (<50%) and covariance step success (<30%), although estimates were obtained in most runs (∼90%). For the real PK data set (7.4% BLOQ), similar parameter estimates were obtained using all methods. Incorporation of BLOQ concentrations showed superior performance in terms of bias and precision over established BLOQ methods, and shown to be feasible in a real PopPK analysis. PMID:26038706

  13. Estimation of the upper limit of carbon concentration in boron carbide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2010-08-01

    The existence of a boron carbide phase with ˜25 at % carbon was proven experimentally. To evaluate the maximum possible concentration of C atoms in boron carbide (B12 - x C x )(BC2) crystals, we performed quantum-chemical calculations of (B12 - x C x )(BH2)6(CH3)6 model compounds ( x = 0-4; the goal of calculations was to determine the upper limiting number of C atoms in the B12 - x C x icosahedron) by the density functional theory method (B3LYP, 6-31G** basis set, full geometry optimization). A comparison of the experimental and calculated data showed that the calculations of the model compounds reproduced the experimental dependences of the structural parameters of the icosahedron (mean bond length and volume) on the number of C atoms in it. The icosahedra were found to be stable at x ≤ 3. According to the results of the quantum-chemical calculations, the maximum carbon concentration in boron carbide was 33 at %, which corresponded to the composition B10C5 and the structural formula (B9C3)(BC2).

  14. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization. PMID:26192921

  15. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization. PMID:26192921

  16. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles. PMID:18453445

  17. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  18. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  19. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  20. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  1. Hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling in alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Barson, Jessica R; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2016-02-01

    The hypothalamus is now known to regulate alcohol intake in addition to its established role in food intake, in part through neuromodulatory neurochemicals termed neuropeptides. Certain orexigenic neuropeptides act in the hypothalamus to promote alcohol drinking, although they affect different aspects of the drinking response. These neuropeptides, which include galanin, the endogenous opioid enkephalin, and orexin/hypocretin, appear to stimulate alcohol intake not only through mechanisms that promote food intake but also by enhancing reward and reinforcement from alcohol. Moreover, these neuropeptides participate in a positive feedback relationship with alcohol, whereby they are upregulated by alcohol intake to promote even further consumption. They contrast with other orexigenic neuropeptides, such as melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide Y, which promote alcohol intake under limited circumstances, are not consistently stimulated by alcohol, and do not enhance reward. They also contrast with neuropeptides that can be anorexigenic, including the endogenous opioid dynorphin, corticotropin-releasing factor, and melanocortins, which act in the hypothalamus to inhibit alcohol drinking as well as reward and therefore counter the ingestive drive promoted by orexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, while multiple hypothalamic neuropeptides may work together to regulate different aspects of the alcohol drinking response, excessive signaling from orexigenic neuropeptides or inadequate signaling from anorexigenic neuropeptides can therefore allow alcohol drinking to become dysregulated. PMID:25689818

  2. Translating evidence into policy: lessons learned from the case of lowering the legal blood alcohol limit for drivers.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Shawna L; Sleet, David A; Elder, Randy W; Cole, Krista Hopkins; Shults, Ruth A; Nichols, James L

    2010-06-01

    This case study examines the translation of evidence on the effectiveness of laws to reduce the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drivers into policy. It was reconstructed through discussions among individuals involved in the processes as well as a review of documentation and feedback on oral presentations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated extensively with federal and non-federal partners and stakeholders in conducting a rigorous systematic review, using the processes of the Guide to Community Preventive Services to evaluate the body of empirical evidence on 0.08% BAC laws. The timely dissemination of the findings and related policy recommendations-made by the independent Task Force on Community Preventive Services-to Congress very likely contributed to the inclusion of strong incentives to States to adopt 0.08 BAC laws by October 2003. Subsequent dissemination to partners and stakeholders informed decision-making about support for state legislative and policy action. This case study suggests the value of: clearly outlining the relationships between health problems, interventions and outcomes; systematically assessing and synthesizing the evidence; using a credible group and rigorous process to assess the evidence; having an impartial body make specific policy recommendations on the basis of the evidence; being ready to capitalize in briefly opening policy windows; engaging key partners and stakeholders throughout the production and dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; undertaking personalized, targeted and compelling dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; involving multiple stakeholders in encouraging uptake and adherence of policy recommendations; and addressing sustainability. These lessons learned may help others working to translate evidence into policy. PMID:20470967

  3. Intercalibration of AMSR2 sea ice concentration estimates using limited AMSR-E information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Ivanoff, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) was launched in May 2012 on the JAXA GCOM-W platform as a follow-on to the NASA/JAXA AMSR-E sensor on the NASA Aqua sensor. Unfortunately, AMSR-E data collection ended in October 2011 due to a problem with the rotation of the antenna. After investigation, it was deemed safe to turn the sensor back on, but at a rotation rate of only 2 rpm. This yielded only limited data compared to the nominal operational rate of 40 rpm. However, though degraded, the AMSR-E sensor was able to provide valuable (albeit limited) overlap data with which to intercalibrate AMSR2. For sea ice, AMSR2 brightness temperatures were regressed with AMSR-E at overlap locations for January to December 2013. The full year of overlap allows investigation of any potential seasonal effects, which may be particularly relevant in high latitude regions. Based on the regressions, the AMSR2 brightness temperatures were adjusted to be consistent with the NASA Team 2 algorithm parameters for AMSR-E. This will allow a consistent climate record of enhanced sea ice concentration information from 2002 through the present and into the future. While not as long as other passive microwave sea ice time series from the SMMR-SSM/I-SSMIS record, the higher spatial resolution and other improvements in the AMSR sensors, along with an enhanced algorithm provide considerably improved sea ice fields that yield greater accuracy and improved details within the ice cover.

  4. Likelihood of meeting the EU limit values for NO 2 and PM 10 concentrations in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Diederen, Hub S. M. A.

    In 2007, the European limit values for annual average nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentration and for daily average particulate matter (PM 10) concentration were exceeded along motorways and city streets in the Netherlands. While the road length along which the exceedance occurred is uncertain, model calculations show that the NO 2 concentration was likely to have been exceeded (chance >66%) along about 300 km and PM 10 concentration along about 75 km. In addition, the limit values were exceeded 'about as likely as not' (chance 33-66%) along a total of 1000 km for NO 2 and 1600 km for PM 10. PM 10 and NO 2 concentrations must be below the limit values everywhere in Europe, ultimately by 2011 and 2015, respectively. Since estimates of future local concentrations have an uncertainty of about 15-20%, no absolute statements can be made whether concentrations will be below the limit values within the specified time. Model calculations accounting for the effects of current and proposed national and European legislation, and using average meteorology for large-scale and local traffic contributions show strong decreases in likely limit value exceedances in the Netherlands. However, limit value exceedances are still possible (chance >33%) along about 350 km for PM 10 by 2011, and about 150 km for NO 2, by 2015. These possible exceedances depend not only on the uncertainties and on national and European policies and their effectiveness, but also on contributions by specific additional local measures. The Netherlands Government has proposed a plan, which includes local measures to meet the limit values everywhere, in time. Although not assessed here due to their specific character, such local measures could reduce exceedances. As the effects of local measures and estimates of concentrations are uncertain, continuous monitoring - possibly together with additional measures - will be needed to adhere to the limit values.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag... measured using the test methods specified in § 63.1450(a). (b) Smelting furnaces. For each smelting...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag... measured using the test methods specified in § 63.1450(a). (b) Smelting furnaces. For each smelting...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag... measured using the test methods specified in § 63.1450(a). (b) Smelting furnaces. For each smelting...

  8. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 47270 (August 5, 2010). Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Review Section... International Trade Administration Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the...

  9. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  10. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  11. Interaction of occupational manganese exposure and alcohol drinking aggravates the increase of liver enzyme concentrations from a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over exposure to manganese (Mn) can damage the human central nervous system and potentially cause liver toxicity. Alcohol drinking is also one of the well-known harmful factors to hepatic organism. The interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption to liver function was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 1112 on-the-spot workers were included in the cross-sectional survey from a large scale of manganese exposed workers healthy cohort (MEWHC) in a ferro-manganese refinery company. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic information, occupational history, and alcohol drinking habits. Occupational health examination was carried out for each worker. The five key serum indices, including total bilirubin (TBILI), direct bilirubin (DBILI), indirect bilirubin (IBILI), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST), were determined to evaluate the liver function of each subject. Results Workers exposed to high levels of Mn had significantly elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes (DBILI: 3.84±1.20 μmol/L, ALT: 27.04±19.12 IU/L, and AST: 29.96±16.68 IU/L), when compared to those in the low-exposure group (DBIL: 3.54±0.85 μmol/L, ALT: 20.38±10.97 IU/L, and AST: 26.39±8.07 IU/L), all P<0.01. These serum indices had a significantly increasing trend with the elevation of Mn exposure level (Ptrend <0.01). In addition, the workers with alcohol drinking also showed higher concentrations of liver enzymes than those non-drinkers, especially, and there was significant interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption in terms of these three indices (P<0.001). Conclusions Occupational exposure to Mn can lead to a dose-dependent increase of liver enzyme concentrations, and interact with alcohol drinking to potentially aggravate the liver damage. It will be important for Mn exposed workers to control drinking and also assess liver function in the occupational health examination. PMID:23587294

  12. An Innovative Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Studies on Change of Activation Energies of the Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz Dikko, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient changes with addition of contaminants to the original liquid. This forms the basis of a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer designed and constructed for this purpose. We find that the viscosity coefficient μ of alcohol increased almost linearly with water concentration at a rate that depends on the type of alcohol and water concentration. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration. This increase also depends on type of alcohol. Our detailed investigation on alcohol-water mixtures for both ethyl and methyl alcohol along with discussion on possible future potential application of such a simple, yet very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. A comparison is made of our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. A part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage in order to explain some of the observed properties is presented.

  13. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  14. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  15. Anomalous kinetics in diffusion limited reactions linked to non-Gaussian concentration probability distribution function.

    PubMed

    de Anna, Pietro; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Bolster, Diogo; Davy, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    We investigate anomalous reaction kinetics related to segregation in the one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system A + B → C. It is well known that spatial fluctuations in the species concentrations cause a breakdown of the mean-field behavior at low concentration values. The scaling of the average concentration with time changes from the mean-field t(-1) to the anomalous t(-1/4) behavior. Using a stochastic modeling approach, the reaction-diffusion system can be fully characterized by the multi-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the species concentrations. Its evolution is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation with moving boundaries, which are determined by the positivity of the species concentrations. The concentration PDF is in general non-Gaussian. As long as the concentration fluctuations are small compared to the mean, the PDF can be approximated by a Gaussian distribution. This behavior breaks down in the fluctuation dominated regime, for which anomalous reaction kinetics are observed. We show that the transition from mean field to anomalous reaction kinetics is intimately linked to the evolution of the concentration PDF from a Gaussian to non-Gaussian shape. This establishes a direct relationship between anomalous reaction kinetics, incomplete mixing and the non-Gaussian nature of the concentration PDF. PMID:22070289

  16. Limited theraputic effect of n-acetylcysteine on hepatic insulin resistance in an experimental model of alcohol-induced steatohepatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol-related steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidative stress, DNA damage, lipotoxicity, and insulin resistance in liver. Hypothesis: Since inflammation and oxidative stress can promote insulin resistance, effective treatment with anti-oxidants, e.g. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), may rest...

  17. Spatial and temporal changes in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the River Thames basin, UK: are phosphorus concentrations beginning to limit phytoplankton biomass?

    PubMed

    Bowes, M J; Gozzard, E; Johnson, A C; Scarlett, P M; Roberts, C; Read, D S; Armstrong, L K; Harman, S A; Wickham, H D

    2012-06-01

    Chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations were monitored at weekly intervals across 21 river sites throughout the River Thames basin, southern England, between 2009 and 2011. Despite a 90% decrease in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration of the lower River Thames since the 1990s, very large phytoplankton blooms still occur. Chlorophyll concentrations were highest in the mid and lower River Thames and the larger tributaries. Lowest chlorophyll concentrations were observed in the smaller tributaries, despite some having very high phosphorus concentrations of over 300 μg l(-1). There was a strong positive correlation between river length and mean chlorophyll concentration (R(2)=0.82), and rivers connected to canals had ca. six times greater chlorophyll concentration than 'natural' rivers with similar phosphorus concentrations, indicating the importance that residence time has on determining phytoplankton biomass. Phosphorus concentration did have some influence, with phosphorus-enriched rivers having much larger phytoplankton blooms than nutrient-poor rivers of a similar length. Water quality improvements may now be capping chlorophyll peaks in the Rivers Thames and Kennet, due to SRP depletion during the spring/early summer phytoplankton bloom period. Dissolved reactive silicon was also depleted to potentially-limiting concentrations for diatom growth in the River Thames during these phytoplankton blooms, but nitrate remained in excess for all rivers throughout the study period. Other potential mitigation measures, such as increasing riparian shading and reducing residence times by removing impoundments may be needed, alongside phosphorus mitigation, to reduce the magnitude of phytoplankton blooms in the future. PMID:22503676

  18. The relative risk of involvement in fatal crashes as a function of race/ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.; de la Rosa, Mario; Lacey, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature presents a puzzling picture of Latinos being overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes, but not in noncrash drinking and driving. This report examines if, like other demographic variables in which some groups are at a higher crash risk than others (e.g., young drivers), different racial/ethnic groups face different crash risks Method This study compares blood-alcohol information from the 2006–2007 U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control data from the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Logistic regression, including a dual interaction between BAC and race/ethnicity, was used to estimate crash risk at different BAC levels. Results It was found that, although Hispanic and African-American drivers were less likely to be involved in single-vehicle crashes than their White counterparts, all drivers face similar BAC relative crash risk regardless of their group membership. The overrepresentation of Latino drivers in alcohol-related crashes could be explained by differences in patterns of consumption, driving exposure, lack of awareness of driving rules, and/or socioeconomics. PMID:24529097

  19. Melanin-concentrating hormone expression in the rat hypothalamus is not affected in an experiment of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Chometton, Sandrine; Franchi-Bernard, Gabrielle; Houdayer, Christophe; Mariot, Amandine; Poncet, Fabrice; Fellmann, Dominique; Risold, Pierre-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a "fetal alcoholic syndrome" (FAS) in the progeny. This syndrome is characterized by important brain defects often associated to a decreased expression of the morphogenic protein sonic hedgehog (Shh). The goal of this study was to verify if a FAS could modify the differentiation of hypothalamic neurons producing MCH. Indeed, the expression of this peptide and neurons producing it are dependent of a Shh controlled genetic cascade in the embryo. To address this question, female rats received a 15% ethanol solution to drink during pregnancy and lactation. Higher abortion rate and smaller pups at birth confirmed that descendants were affected by this experimental condition. MCH expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in embryos taken at E11 and E13, or in pups and young adults born from control and alcoholic mothers. MCH expression level, number of MCH neurons or ratio of MCH sub-populations were not modified by our experimental conditions. However, Shh expression was significantly lover at E11 and we also observed that hindbrain serotonergic neurons were affected as reported in the literature. These findings as well as other data from the literature suggest that protective mechanisms are involved to maintain peptide expressions and differentiation of some specific neuron populations in the ventral diencephalon in surviving embryos exposed to ethanol during pregnancy. PMID:25093909

  20. Increased serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) concentration after longterm alcohol consumption: further evidence for regular subclinical pancreatic damage after heavy drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Nordback, I; Jaakkola, M; Iovanna, J L; Dagorn, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown recently that longterm but not short term heavy drinking of alcohol frequently results in increased serum activities of pancreatic enzymes suggesting subclinical pancreatic injury. Serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a novel protein, whose synthesis in the acinar cells and release into serum is specifically induced by acute pancreatic damage. This study was performed to further characterise the alcohol induced subclinical pancreatic injury by using serum PAP measurements. Three groups were studied: (1) control group (n = 25), (2) short term drinking group (n = 20), who consumed 2.0 g of ethanol per kg body weight during four hours, and (3) longterm drinking group (n = 32), who were admitted to withdrawal clinic after a median 30 months heavy drinking period. Serum PAP concentration was low in the control group (8 (5 to 12) micrograms/l, geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)). In the short term drinking group serum PAP was in the range of the control group values during 56 hours after drinking. Longterm drinking induced at least a 10-fold increase in serum PAP, the highest concentrations being seen on day 2 after drinking had ended (106 (61 to 184) micrograms/l). The patients did not develop abdominal symptoms, increased blood white cell count, or increased serum C reactive protein concentration. These results further support the suggestion that heavy longterm drinking often induces subclinical pancreatic damage, but not clinical pancreatitis. PMID:7890213

  1. Investigation of ethyl carbamate levels in some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M J; Howarth, N; Key, P E; Pointer, M; Massey, R C

    1989-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included whisky, fruit brandy, liqueur, wine, sherry and port. PMID:2721787

  2. CVD synthesis of mono- and few-layer graphene using alcohols at low hydrogen concentration and atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Botello-Méndez, Andrés R.; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Hackens, Benoit; Pardoen, Thomas; Kaiser, Ute; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    An original and easy route to produce mono-, bi- and tri-layer graphene is proposed using the chemical vapor deposition technique. The synthesis is carried out at atmospheric pressure using liquid precursors, copper as catalyst, and a single gas injection line consisting of a very diluted mixture of H2 in Argon (H2: 5%). Two different alcohols are investigated as possible sources of carbon: 2-phenylethanol and ethanol. The characterization of the samples with SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of graphene on top of copper, and yields a detailed picture of the structure of the produced graphene layers.

  3. Could a first-trimester blood phosphatidylethanol concentration ⩾4 nM be useful to identify women with moderate-to-heavy prenatal alcohol exposure who are at high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes?

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Young; Kwak, Ho-Seok; Han, Jung-Yeol; Choi, June-Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Oh, Young-Jun; Velázquez-Armenta, E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2015-12-01

    It is accepted that blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth) concentrations are reliable biomarkers of ethanol (alcohol) exposure. We therefore conducted a preliminary study to test the hypothesis that elevated blood PEth concentrations can help to identifying women with prenatal alcohol exposure who are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study included 35 first-trimester pregnant women who self-reported alcohol ingestion and had PEth blood concentration ⩾4 nM at recruitment. As a control group, 233 first-trimester pregnant women who self-reported as being either abstainers or light alcohol drinkers and had blood PEth concentrations <4 nM, were also included. All participants were followed up until completion of their pregnancies. Women with prenatal alcohol exposure and PEth concentrations ⩾4 nM had a risk ratio of spontaneous abortions of 3.21 (95%CI 0.93-11.06; P=0.074). Because of the potential implications in the prenatal care of women reporting risky alcohol exposure, the preliminary results from the present study indicate the need for testing the hypothesis in a more definitive approach. PMID:26365248

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  5. A doping concentration-dependent upper limit of the breakdown voltage cutoff frequency product in Si bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieh, Jae-Sung; Jagannathan, Basanth; Greenberg, David; Freeman, Greg; Subbanna, Seshadri

    2004-02-01

    Recent high-speed Si-based bipolar transistors apparently exceed the Johnson Limit in terms of breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency product, and this paper addresses the relevant issues. First, BV CES rather than BV CEO is shown to be the representative breakdown voltage in describing the breakdown-speed trade-off in collector design, since BV CEO is modulated by the current gain which is irrelevant of the collector design and also practical bipolar circuits are rarely operated with open-base condition for which BV CEO is defined. In the same context, it is suggested BV CES be employed in representing the upper limit of breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency product. Second, a collector doping concentration-dependent upper limit of BV CES· fT product is proposed incorporating the doping concentration-dependent critical electric field and accurate values for related device parameters. With this new approach, it is shown that the limit is far larger than the Johnson Limit and the limit is still yet to be reached.

  6. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  7. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data(1)

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, I.G.; Luczak, Susan E.; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented. PMID:24707065

  8. Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR.

    PubMed

    Stokdyk, Joel P; Firnstahl, Aaron D; Spencer, Susan K; Burch, Tucker R; Borchardt, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay alone rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop an approach to determine the 95% LOD (lowest concentration at which 95% of positive samples are detected) for the entire process of waterborne pathogen detection. We began by spiking the lowest concentration that was consistently positive at the qPCR step (based on its standard curve) into each procedural step working backwards (i.e., extraction, secondary concentration, primary concentration), which established a concentration that was detectable following losses of the pathogen from processing. Using the fraction of positive replicates (n = 10) at this concentration, we selected and analyzed a second, and then third, concentration. If the fraction of positive replicates equaled 1 or 0 for two concentrations, we selected another. We calculated the LOD using probit analysis. To demonstrate our approach we determined the 95% LOD for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, adenovirus 41, and vaccine-derived poliovirus Sabin 3, which were 11, 12, and 6 genomic copies (gc) per reaction (rxn), respectively (equivalent to 1.3, 1.5, and 4.0 gc L(-1) assuming the 1500 L tap-water sample volume prescribed in EPA Method 1615). This approach limited the number of analyses required and was amenable to testing multiple genetic targets simultaneously (i.e., spiking a single sample with multiple microorganisms). An LOD determined this way can facilitate study design, guide the number of required technical replicates, aid method evaluation, and inform data interpretation. PMID:27023926

  9. Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stokdyk, Joel P.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Spencer, Susan K.; Burch, Tucker R; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay alone rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop an approach to determine the 95% LOD (lowest concentration at which 95% of positive samples are detected) for the entire process of waterborne pathogen detection. We began by spiking the lowest concentration that was consistently positive at the qPCR step (based on its standard curve) into each procedural step working backwards (i.e., extraction, secondary concentration, primary concentration), which established a concentration that was detectable following losses of the pathogen from processing. Using the fraction of positive replicates (n = 10) at this concentration, we selected and analyzed a second, and then third, concentration. If the fraction of positive replicates equaled 1 or 0 for two concentrations, we selected another. We calculated the LOD using probit analysis. To demonstrate our approach we determined the 95% LOD for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, adenovirus 41, and vaccine-derived poliovirus Sabin 3, which were 11, 12, and 6 genomic copies (gc) per reaction (rxn), respectively (equivalent to 1.3, 1.5, and 4.0 gc L−1 assuming the 1500 L tap-water sample volume prescribed in EPA Method 1615). This approach limited the number of analyses required and was amenable to testing multiple genetic targets simultaneously (i.e., spiking a single sample with multiple microorganisms). An LOD determined this way can facilitate study design, guide the number of required technical replicates, aid method evaluation, and inform data interpretation.

  10. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  11. Factors limiting success of inoculation to enhance biodegradation of low concentrations of organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, B.R.; Murakami, Y.; Alexander, M.

    1988-12-01

    Corynebacterium sp. added to lake water rapidly mineralized 100 ..mu..g and 1.0 mg of p-nitrophenol (PNP)/L but acted very slowly on the substrate present at 26 ..mu..g/L. The rate and extent of mineralization of the lowest PNP concentration in Beebe Lake water varied according to the time the sample was taken and were directly related to rainfall, and presumably runoff, in the watershed. The addition of high concentrations of inorganic P or N to water samples collected after a drought period, during which mineralization by the bacterium was slow, enhanced PNP decomposition. Mineralization in Cayuga Lake water was increased slightly by 10 mg of K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4//L, but the enhancement was marked by 100 mg/L. The stimulation was a response to P and K. Glucose stimulated PNP mineralization in samples from Beebe and Cayuga Lakes, and K/sub 2/HOP/sub 4/ further increased the rate and extent of the transformation. The addition of either of two eucaryotic inhibitors increased the rate of Corynebacterium sp. growth in lake water amended with 26 ..mu..g of PNP/L but decreased the rate of mineralization.

  12. Dynamic simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions with screened long-range hydrodynamic interactions: Algorithm and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions exert a critical effect on the dynamics of macromolecules. As the concentration of macromolecules increases, by analogy to the behavior of semidilute polymer solutions or the flow in porous media, one might expect hydrodynamic screening to occur. Hydrodynamic screening would have implications both for the understanding of macromolecular dynamics as well as practical implications for the simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions, e.g., in cells. Stokesian dynamics (SD) is one of the most accurate methods for simulating the motions of N particles suspended in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number, in that it considers both far-field and near-field hydrodynamic interactions. This algorithm traditionally involves an O(N3) operation to compute Brownian forces at each time step, although asymptotically faster but more complex SD methods are now available. Motivated by the idea of hydrodynamic screening, the far-field part of the hydrodynamic matrix in SD may be approximated by a diagonal matrix, which is equivalent to assuming that long range hydrodynamic interactions are completely screened. This approximation allows sparse matrix methods to be used, which can reduce the apparent computational scaling to O(N). Previously there were several simulation studies using this approximation for monodisperse suspensions. Here, we employ newly designed preconditioned iterative methods for both the computation of Brownian forces and the solution of linear systems, and consider the validity of this approximation in polydisperse suspensions. We evaluate the accuracy of the diagonal approximation method using an intracellular-like suspension. The diffusivities of particles obtained with this approximation are close to those with the original method. However, this approximation underestimates intermolecular correlated motions, which is a trade-off between accuracy and computing efficiency. The new method makes it possible to perform large-scale and

  13. Reducing sperm concentration is critical to limiting the oxidative stress challenge in liquid bull semen.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C; Fahey, A G; Shafat, A; Fair, S

    2013-07-01

    Because of the short breeding season, the use of liquid bull semen is a viable option in seasonal grass-based dairy systems such as Ireland. Currently in Ireland, liquid bull semen contains approximately 5 million sperm per insemination dose and is used within 2.5d of collection. The hypothesis of this study was that reducing the sperm number per insemination dose would enable bull sperm to be stored for longer. Semen was collected at a commercial AI center and diluted to 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 3 (T3), 4 (T4), and 5 (T5) million sperm per 0.25-mL dose in caprogen diluent. On d 0.25 (6 h postcollection), 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 postcollection, viability, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial activity were assessed using flow cytometry and the fluorescent probes propidium iodide, CM-H2DCFDA, and rhodamine 123, respectively. On the same days, glucose consumption, total antioxidant capacity, and progressive linear motility were assessed. We observed an effect of day and treatment on sperm cell viability, with the highest percentage live found in T 0005 and the lowest in T 0025 on all days. Oxidative stress in live sperm increased with duration of storage and was affected by treatment, being highest in T 0025 and lowest in T 0005 on all days (d 5: 56.4±2.76% and 28.8±1.22%, respectively; mean ± SEM). Both the total antioxidant capacity and percentage of live sperm positive for rhodamine 123 were unaffected by treatment. The concentration of glucose in caprogen declined with time and was lowest in T 0025 and highest in T 0005 on d 5. In conclusion, higher concentrations of sperm have detrimental effects on sperm cell viability and increase oxidative stress but have no effect on the mitochondrial activity of sperm. PMID:23660140

  14. Dynamic simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions with screened long-range hydrodynamic interactions: Algorithm and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions exert a critical effect on the dynamics of macromolecules. As the concentration of macromolecules increases, by analogy to the behavior of semidilute polymer solutions or the flow in porous media, one might expect hydrodynamic screening to occur. Hydrodynamic screening would have implications both for the understanding of macromolecular dynamics as well as practical implications for the simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions, e.g., in cells. Stokesian dynamics (SD) is one of the most accurate methods for simulating the motions of N particles suspended in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number, in that it considers both far-field and near-field hydrodynamic interactions. This algorithm traditionally involves an O(N3) operation to compute Brownian forces at each time step, although asymptotically faster but more complex SD methods are now available. Motivated by the idea of hydrodynamic screening, the far-field part of the hydrodynamic matrix in SD may be approximated by a diagonal matrix, which is equivalent to assuming that long range hydrodynamic interactions are completely screened. This approximation allows sparse matrix methods to be used, which can reduce the apparent computational scaling to O(N). Previously there were several simulation studies using this approximation for monodisperse suspensions. Here, we employ newly designed preconditioned iterative methods for both the computation of Brownian forces and the solution of linear systems, and consider the validity of this approximation in polydisperse suspensions. We evaluate the accuracy of the diagonal approximation method using an intracellular-like suspension. The diffusivities of particles obtained with this approximation are close to those with the original method. However, this approximation underestimates intermolecular correlated motions, which is a trade-off between accuracy and computing efficiency. The new method makes it possible to perform large-scale and

  15. Limitations of the whole cell patch clamp technique in the control of intracellular concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, R T; Cohen, I S; Oliva, C

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental studies (Pusch and Neher, 1988) and theoretical studies (Oliva et al., 1988) have found that the pipette tip is a significant barrier to diffusion in the whole cell patch clamp configuration. In this paper, we extend the theoretical analysis of fluxes between the pipette and cell to include transmembrane fluxes. The general conclusions are: (a) within the pipette, ion fluxes are driven primarily by diffusion rather than voltage gradients. (b) At steady state there is a concentration difference between the bulk pipette and intracellular solution that is described by delta c = jRp/Dp, where delta c = 1 mM for a flux, j = 1 fmol/s, through a pipette of resistance, Rp = 1 M omega, filled with a solution of resistivity, p = 100 omega --cm, given a solute diffusion coefficient, D = 10(-5) cm2/s. (c) The time to steady state is always accelerated by membrane transport, regardless of the direction of transport. We apply our analysis to the measurement of transport by the Na/K pump and Na/Ca exchanger in cells from the ventricles of mammalian heart. We find that the binding curve for intracellular Na+ to the Na/K pump will appear significantly less steep and more linear if one does not correct for the concentration difference between intracellular and pipette Na+. Similar shifts in the binding curve for extracellular Na+ to the Na/Ca exchanger can occur due to depletion of intracellular Ca(+)+ when the exchanger is stimulated. Lastly, in Appendix we analyze the effects of mobile and fixed intracellular buffers on the movement of Ca(+)+ between the pipette and cell. Fixed buffers greatly slow the time for equilibration of pipette and intracellular Ca(+)+. Mobile buffers act like a shuttle system, as they carry Ca(+)+ from pipette to cell then diffuse back when they are empty. Vigorous transport by the Na/Ca exchanger depletes mobile buffered calcium, thus stimulating diffusion from the pipette to match the rate of Ca(+)+ transport. Moreover, we find that

  16. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  17. Reconstruction of solar spectral resource using limited spectral sampling for concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsiankou, Viktar; Hinzer, Karin; Mohammed, Jafaru; Muron, Aaron; Wilkins, Matthew; Haysom, Joan; Schriemer, Henry; Myrskog, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    One of the challenges associated with forecasting and evaluating concentrating photovoltaic system (CPV) performance in diverse locations is the lack of high-quality spectral solar resource data. Various local atmospheric conditions such as air mass, aerosols, and atmospheric gases affect daily CPV module operation. A multi-channel filter radiometer (MFCR) can be used to quantify these effects at relatively low cost. The proposed method of selectively sampling the solar spectrum at specific wavelength channels to spectrally reconstruct incident irradiance is described and extensively analyzed. Field spectroradiometer (FSR) measurements at the University of Ottawa's CPV testing facility (45.42°N, 75.68°W) are fed into our model to mimic the outputs from the MCFR. The analysis is performed over a two year period (2011-2012), using 46,564 spectra. A recommendation is made to use four aerosols channels at 420, 500, 780, and 1050 nm, one ozone channel at 610 nm and one water vapour channel at 940 nm, all of which can be measured with ubiquitous Si photodiodes. A simulation of this MFCR channel configuration produces an RMS error under 1.5% over 96% of the 350-1830 nm range, when compared with the FSR, for the 2012 data set in Ottawa.

  18. Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis limits aluminum concentrations of the aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jugdaohsingh, R.; Thompson, R.P.H.; Powell, J.J.; Campbell, M.M.; Mccrohan, C.R.; White, K.N.

    1998-09-01

    Extracellular mucopolysaccharide (EPS) is a significant component in many waters. Its role in the cycling and mobilization of metals is unclear. In vitro studies were conducted to examine the influence of EPS, secreted by the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, on soluble water Al concentrations at near-neutral pH. Snails maintained in aerated water of known ion content and added aluminum reduced Al in solution as compared to controls. Although snails accumulated Al into soft tissue, this only accounted for a small percentage of the total reduction. The remaining Al was recovered following acidification of the water. This observation was attributed to pedal EPS secreted by L. stagnalis which is chiefly insoluble and substrate bound. The Al that remained in solution was more labile, possibly due to the influence of soluble EPS. Further experiments with isolated EPS, confirmed that this poorly soluble film binds and reduces Al in solution. The influence of EPS on the solution chemistry and bioavailability of Al and possibly other metals may be important in natural waters.

  19. Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; Moeller, M R; van Ruitenbeek, P; Theunissen, E L; Schneider, E; Kauert, G

    2006-11-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for driving under the influence of cannabis. Twenty recreational users of cannabis participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Subjects were administered single doses of 0, 250 and 500 microg/kg THC by smoking. Performance tests measuring skills related to driving were conducted at regular intervals between 15 min and 6h post smoking and included measures of perceptual-motor control (Critical tracking task), motor impulsivity (Stop signal task) and cognitive function (Tower of London). Blood and oral fluid were collected throughout testing. Results showed a strong and linear relation between THC in serum and oral fluid. Linear relations between magnitude of performance impairment and THC in oral fluid and serum, however, were low. A more promising way to define threshold levels of impairment was found by comparing the proportion of observations showing impairment or no impairment as a function of THC concentration. The proportion of observations showing impairment progressively increased as a function of serum THC in every task. Binomial tests showed an initial and significant shift toward impairment in the Critical tracking task for serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml. At concentrations between 5 and 10 ng/ml approximately 75-90% of the observations were indicative of significant impairment in every performance test. At THC concentrations >30 ng/ml the proportion of observations indicative of significant impairment increased to a full 100% in every performance tests. It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the

  20. Temperature and food concentration have limited influence on the mixture toxicity of copper and Microcystis aeruginosa to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-03-01

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are conducted under constant and favorable experimental conditions. In natural communities, however, the toxicity of chemicals may be influenced by abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Firstly, the authors examined the influence of temperature and total food concentration on the nature of the combined effects of copper (Cu) and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to Daphnia magna (i.e., whether the combined effects deviated from noninteraction). Secondly, the authors investigated the relative influence of the percentage of M. aeruginosa in the diet, temperature, and total food concentration on chronic Cu toxicity to D. magna. The nature of the combined effects between Cu and M. aeruginosa (i.e., synergism according to the independent action reference model and noninteraction according to concentration addition reference model) was not affected by temperature and total food concentration. In line with other studies, the concentration addition reference model gave rise to more protective predictions of mixture toxicity than the independent action reference model, thus confirming the former model's suitability as a conservative scenario for evaluating mixture toxicity of Cu and M. aeruginosa under the temperature and food concentrations tested. Further, the 21-d median effective concentration for Cu based on reproduction varied between 20 μg/L and 100 μg/L, and the results indicate that the percentage of M. aeruginosa explained 76% of the variance in the Cu median effective concentration for reproduction, whereas the effects of temperature and total food were limited (together explaining 11% of the variance). The present study suggests that environmental risk assessment of Cu should consider specific situations where harmful M. aeruginosa blooms can co-occur with elevated Cu exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:742-749. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26354710

  1. Estimating the concentration of aluminum-substituted hematite and goethite using diffuse reflectance spectrometry and rock magnetism: Feasibility and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengxiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Torrent, José; Barrón, Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Hematite and goethite in soils are often aluminum (Al) substituted, which can dramatically change their reflectance and magnetic properties and bias abundance estimates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and magnetic techniques. In this study, synthetic Al-substituted hematites and goethites and two Chinese loess/paleosol sequences were investigated to test the feasibility and limitations of estimating Al-hematite and Al-goethite concentration. When Al substitution is limited (Al/(Al + Fe) molar ratio < ~8%), the reflectance spectrum provides a reliable estimate of the goethite/hematite concentration ratio. New empirical relationships between the DRS band intensity ratio and the true concentration goethite/hematite ratio are estimated as goethite/hematite = 1.56 × (I425 nm/I535 nm) or goethite/hematite = 6.32 × (I480 nm/I535 nm), where I425 nm, I480 nm, and I535 nm are the amplitudes of DRS second-derivative curves for characteristic bands at ~425 nm, ~480 nm, and ~535 nm, respectively. High Al substitution (> ~8%) reduces DRS band intensity, which leads to biased estimates of mineral concentration. Al substitution and grain size exert a control on coercivity distributions of hematite and goethite and, thus, affect the hard isothermal remanent magnetization. By integrating DRS and magnetic methods, we suggest a way to constrain hematite and goethite Al substitution in natural loess. Results indicate that hematite and goethite in Chinese loess have Al contents lower than ~8% and, thus, that DRS can be used to trace hematite and goethite concentration variations.

  2. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  3. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  4. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  5. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. The improvement effect of limited mental practice in individuals with poststroke hemiparesis: the influence of mental imagery and mental concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Katsuhito; Nagano, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether limited mental practice improves the motor performance of poststroke individuals with hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty-three participants with poststroke hemiparesis (40–82 years of age) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were divided into four groups with respect to a dart-throwing task: the no-practice, physical practice only, mental practice only, and mental and physical practice groups. The groups were compared in terms of gains in motor performance, mental imagery vividness, and level of concentration during mental practice. [Results] No statistically significant difference was found for gains in motor performance among groups, and there was no correlation between imagery vividness and motor performance gains. However, a correlation was found between gains in motor performance and mental concentration during mental practice. [Conclusion] The results suggested that limited mental practice for individuals with poststroke hemiparesis may not improve motor performance. However, a higher degree of concentration during mental practice may improve motor performance. PMID:26357451

  8. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  9. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  10. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  11. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  12. Estimation of abbreviated mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve during early posttransplant period by limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, A-H; Nazemian, F; Abtahi, B; Naghibi, M; Gholami, K; Rezaee, S; Nazari, M-R A; Rajabi, O

    2008-12-01

    Area under the concentration curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) could help to optimize therapeutic drug monitoring during the early post-renal transplant period. The aim of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate an abbreviated MPA AUC within the first month after renal transplantation. In this study we selected 19 patients in the early posttransplant period with normal renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate > 70 mL/min). Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MPA AUC(0-12h) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the minimal and convenient time points of MPA levels that could be used to derive model equations best fitted to MPA AUC(0-12h). The regression equation for AUC estimation that gave the best performance was AUC = 14.46 C(10) + 15.547 (r(2) = .882). The validation of the method was performed using the jackknife method. Mean prediction error of this model was not different from zero (P > .05) and had a high root mean square prediction error (8.06). In conclusion, this limited sampling strategy provided an effective approach for therapeutic drug monitoring during the early posttransplant period. PMID:19100462

  13. Low simvastatin concentrations reduce oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells: An in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; LINCZ, LISA F.; THORNE, RICK F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory condition caused by hepatic lipid accumulation that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although statins should be used with caution in liver diseases, they are increasingly investigated as a possible treatment for NAFLD. The present study recreated an in vitro model of NAFLD using HepG2 cells exposed to oleic acid (OA), which was used to quantify OA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, the effect of simvastatin on HepG2 cell morphology and microparticle generation as a marker of cell apoptosis was assessed. OA-induced lipid accumulation was quantified by Oil Red O staining and extraction for optical density determination. Stained lipid droplets were visualized using phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, HepG2 cell-derived microparticles were counted by flow cytometry subsequent to staining for Annexin V. HepG2 cells treated with 0–1 mM OA showed dose-dependent lipid accumulation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with increasing concentrations of simvastatin followed by treatment with 1 mM OA showed that low simvastatin concentrations (4–10 µM) were able to reduce lipid accumulation by ~40%, whereas high simvastatin concentrations (20 and 30 µM) induced apoptotic changes in cell morphology and increased the production of Annexin V+ microparticles. This suggests that low simvastatin doses may have a role in preventing NAFLD. However, further investigations are required to confirm this action in vivo and to determine the underlying mechanism by which simvastatin reduces hepatic steatosis. PMID:27073470

  14. Targeting glutamate uptake to treat alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a serious public health concern that is characterized by the development of tolerance to alcohol's effects, increased consumption, loss of control over drinking and the development of physical dependence. This cycle is often times punctuated by periods of abstinence, craving and relapse. The development of tolerance and the expression of withdrawal effects, which manifest as dependence, have been to a great extent attributed to neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic and extended amygdala systems. Alcohol affects various neurotransmitter systems in the brain including the adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic systems. Due to the myriad of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems affected by alcohol, the efficacies of current pharmacotherapies targeting alcohol dependence are limited. Importantly, research findings of changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission induced by alcohol self- or experimenter-administration have resulted in a focus on therapies targeting glutamatergic receptors and normalization of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Glutamatergic receptors implicated in the effects of ethanol include the ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, Kainate, and NMDA) and some metabotropic glutamate receptors. Regarding glutamatergic homeostasis, ceftriaxone, MS-153, and GPI-1046, which upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) expression in mesocorticolimbic brain regions, reduce alcohol intake in genetic animal models of alcoholism. Given the hyperglutamatergic/hyperexcitable state of the central nervous system induced by chronic alcohol abuse and withdrawal, the evidence thus far indicates that a restoration of glutamatergic concentrations and activity within the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala as well as multiple memory systems holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25954150

  15. Charge carrier concentration dependence of encounter-limited bimolecular recombination in phase-separated organic semiconductor blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiber, Michael C.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Deibel, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the complex intermolecular configurations and nanostructure present in organic semiconductor donor-acceptor blends impacts charge carrier motion, interactions, and recombination behavior is a critical fundamental issue with a particularly major impact on organic photovoltaic applications. In this study, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are used to numerically quantify the complex bimolecular charge carrier recombination behavior in idealized phase-separated blends. Recent KMC simulations have identified how the encounter-limited bimolecular recombination rate in these blends deviates from the often used Langevin model and have been used to construct the new power mean mobility model. Here, we make a challenging but crucial expansion to this work by determining the charge carrier concentration dependence of the encounter-limited bimolecular recombination coefficient. In doing so, we find that an accurate treatment of the long-range electrostatic interactions between charge carriers is critical, and we further argue that many previous KMC simulation studies have used a Coulomb cutoff radius that is too small, which causes a significant overestimation of the recombination rate. To shed more light on this issue, we determine the minimum cutoff radius required to reach an accuracy of less than ±10 % as a function of the domain size and the charge carrier concentration and then use this knowledge to accurately quantify the charge carrier concentration dependence of the recombination rate. Using these rigorous methods, we finally show that the parameters of the power mean mobility model are determined by a newly identified dimensionless ratio of the domain size to the average charge carrier separation distance.

  16. A Stringent Limit on a Drifting Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio from Alcohol in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdonaite, Julija; Jansen, Paul; Henkel, Christian; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Menten, Karl M.; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of physics is built on the fundamental constants of nature, but it does not provide an explanation for their values, nor require their constancy over space and time. Here we set a limit on a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ by comparing transitions in methanol observed in the early universe with those measured in the laboratory. From radio-astronomical observations of PKS1830-211, we deduced a constraint of ∆μ/μ = (0.0 ± 1.0) × 10-7 at redshift z = 0.89, corresponding to a look-back time of 7 billion years. This is consistent with a null result.

  17. A stringent limit on a drifting proton-to-electron mass ratio from alcohol in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, Julija; Jansen, Paul; Henkel, Christian; Bethlem, Hendrick L; Menten, Karl M; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of physics is built on the fundamental constants of nature, but it does not provide an explanation for their values, nor require their constancy over space and time. Here we set a limit on a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ by comparing transitions in methanol observed in the early universe with those measured in the laboratory. From radio-astronomical observations of PKS1830-211, we deduced a constraint of Δμ/μ = (0.0 ± 1.0) × 10(-7) at redshift z = 0.89, corresponding to a look-back time of 7 billion years. This is consistent with a null result. PMID:23239626

  18. Do Foliar, Litter, and Root Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations Reflect Nutrient Limitation in a Lowland Tropical Wet Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Mack, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP) is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation —as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization— based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root) [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba) had 9 % higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza) had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community. PMID:25901750

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration... following table as required by § 63.3490(d). If you use the control efficiency/outlet concentration...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration... following table as required by § 63.3490(d). If you use the control efficiency/outlet concentration...

  1. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1. PMID:26002627

  2. Ethylglucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Assays in Clinical Trials, Interpretation and Limitations: Results of a Dose Ranging Alcohol Challenge Study and Two Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jatlow, Peter I.; Agro, Ann; Wu, Ran; Nadim, Haleh; Toll, Benjamin A.; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Nogueira, Christine; Shi, Julia; Dziura, James D.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are biomarkers of recent alcohol consumption that provide objective measures of abstinence. Our goals are to better understand the impact of cutoff concentration on test interpretation, the need for measuring both metabolites, and how best to integrate test results with self-reports in clinical trials. Methods Subjects (n=18) were administered, one week apart, 3 alcohol doses calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL respectively. Urinary EtG/EtS were measured at timed intervals during a 24 hour hospitalization and twice daily thereafter. In addition, participants from 2 clinical trials provided samples for EtG/EtS and drinking histories. Cutoffs for EtG/EtS of 100/50, 200/100 and 500/250 ng/mL were evaluated. Results Twelve hours following each challenge, EtG was always positive at the 100 and 200 cutoffs, but at 24 hours sensitivity was poor at all cutoffs following the low dose, and poor after 48 hours regardless of dose or cutoff. Similarly, in the clinical trials EtG sensitivity was good for detecting any drinking during the last 24 hours at the two lowest cutoffs, but under 40% during the last 24-48 hours. Sensitivity was reduced at the 500 ng/mL cutoff. Discrepancies between EtG and EtS were few. Comparison of self- reports of abstinence and EtG confirmed abstinence indicated under-reporting of drinking. Conclusions Any drinking the night before should be detectable the following morning with EtG cutoffs of 100 or 200 ng/mL. Twenty-four hours after drinking, sensitivity is poor for light drinking, but good for heavier consumption. At 48 hours, sensitivity is low following 6 drinks or less. Increasing the cutoff to 500 ng/mL leads to substantially reduced sensitivity. Monitoring both EtG and EtS should usually be unnecessary. We recommend EtG confirmed self-reports of abstinence for evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials. PMID:24773137

  3. Pharmacological blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH1R) reduces voluntary consumption of high alcohol concentrations in non-dependent Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Damadzic, Ruslan; Singley, Erick; Thorsell, Annika; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Eskay, Robert L.; Heilig, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background A dysregulation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system has been implicated in the development of excessive alcohol consumption and dependence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the CRH system is also recruited when non-dependent Wistar rats escalate to high alcohol intake in the intermittent (alternate days) model of drinking. Methods We compared intermittent and continuous access to 20% (v/v) alcohol in a two-bottle free choice drinking paradigm. Following a total of twenty 24-hour exposures for every experimental group, we assessed signs of alcohol withdrawal, including anxiety-like behavior and sensitivity to stress. The selective CRH1 receptor (CRH1R) antagonist antalarmin (0, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested on alcohol consumption. Results Intermittent access to 20% alcohol led non-selected Wistar rats to escalate their voluntary intake to a high and stable level, whereas continuously exposed animals maintained a lower consumption. These groups did not differ in physical withdrawal signs. In addition, no differences were found when anxiogenic-like behavior was studied, neither under basal conditions or following restraint stress. Nevertheless, sensitivity to the treatment with the CRH1R antalarmin was observed since a reduction of 20% alcohol intake was found in both groups of animals regardless of the regimen of alcohol exposure. In addition, antalarmin was effective when injected to animals exposed to intermittent 10% (v/v) alcohol whereas it failed to suppress 10% continuous alcohol intake. Conclusions Pharmacological blockade of CRH1R reduced alcohol drinking when sustained high levels of intake were achieved suggesting that the CRH system plays a key role when high doses of ethanol are consumed by non-dependent subjects. This supports the notion that CRH system not only maintains the dependent state but also engages the transition to dependence. PMID:22036774

  4. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  5. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  7. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  8. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  9. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  10. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  11. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  12. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  13. Bayesian probabilistic approach for inverse source determination from limited and noisy chemical or biological sensor concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Eugene

    2007-04-01

    Although a great deal of research effort has been focused on the forward prediction of the dispersion of contaminants (e.g., chemical and biological warfare agents) released into the turbulent atmosphere, much less work has been directed toward the inverse prediction of agent source location and strength from the measured concentration, even though the importance of this problem for a number of practical applications is obvious. In general, the inverse problem of source reconstruction is ill-posed and unsolvable without additional information. It is demonstrated that a Bayesian probabilistic inferential framework provides a natural and logically consistent method for source reconstruction from a limited number of noisy concentration data. In particular, the Bayesian approach permits one to incorporate prior knowledge about the source as well as additional information regarding both model and data errors. The latter enables a rigorous determination of the uncertainty in the inference of the source parameters (e.g., spatial location, emission rate, release time, etc.), hence extending the potential of the methodology as a tool for quantitative source reconstruction. A model (or, source-receptor relationship) that relates the source distribution to the concentration data measured by a number of sensors is formulated, and Bayesian probability theory is used to derive the posterior probability density function of the source parameters. A computationally efficient methodology for determination of the likelihood function for the problem, based on an adjoint representation of the source-receptor relationship, is described. Furthermore, we describe the application of efficient stochastic algorithms based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for sampling from the posterior distribution of the source parameters, the latter of which is required to undertake the Bayesian computation. The Bayesian inferential methodology for source reconstruction is validated against real

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 3 Table 3... concentration option to comply with the emission limitations for any coating operation(s) . . . Then you...

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 3 Table 3... concentration option to comply with the emission limitations for any coating operation(s) . . . Then you...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 3 Table 3... concentration option to comply with the emission limitations for any coating operation(s) . . . Then you...

  17. Seasonal Patterns of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Limitation in Four German Lakes and the Predictability of Limitation Status from Ambient Nutrient Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Kolzau, Sebastian; Wiedner, Claudia; Rücker, Jacqueline; Köhler, Jan; Köhler, Antje; Dolman, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    To identify the seasonal pattern of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) limitation of phytoplankton in four different lakes, biweekly experiments were conducted from the end of March to September 2011. Lake water samples were enriched with N, P or both nutrients and incubated under two different light intensities. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chla) was measured and a model selection procedure was used to assign bioassay outcomes to different limitation categories. N and P were both limiting at some point. For the shallow lakes there was a trend from P limitation in spring to N or light limitation later in the year, while the deep lake remained predominantly P limited. To determine the ability of in-lake N:P ratios to predict the relative strength of N vs. P limitation, three separate regression models were fit with the log-transformed ratio of Chla of the P and N treatments (Response ratio = RR) as the response variable and those of ambient total phosphorus:total nitrogen (TN:TP), dissolved inorganic nitrogen:soluble reactive phosphorus (DIN:SRP), TN:SRP and DIN:TP mass ratios as predictors. All four N:P ratios had significant positive relationships with RR, such that high N:P ratios were associated with P limitation and low N:P ratios with N limitation. The TN:TP and DIN:TP ratios performed better than the DIN:SRP and TN:SRP in terms of misclassification rate and the DIN:TP ratio had the highest R2 value. Nitrogen limitation was predictable, frequent and persistent, suggesting that nitrogen reduction could play a role in water quality management. However, there is still uncertainty about the efficacy of N restriction to control populations of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. PMID:24755935

  18. A limited sampling schedule to estimate mycophenolic Acid area under the concentration-time curve in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E; Bemer, Meagan J; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Nash, Richard; McCune, Jeannine S

    2012-11-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a key component of postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The plasma area under the curve (AUC) of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), is associated with MMF efficacy and toxicity. This study developed a population pharmacokinetic model of MPA in HCT recipients and created limited sampling schedules (LSSs) to enable individualized pharmacotherapy. A retrospective evaluation of MPA concentration-time data following a 2-hour MMF intravenous (IV) infusion was conducted in 77 HCT recipients. The final model consisted of 1 and 2 compartments for MMF and MPA pharmacokinetics, respectively. The mean estimated values (coefficient of variation, %) for total systemic clearance, distributional clearance, and central and peripheral compartment volumes of MPA were 36.9 L/h (34.5%), 15.3 L/h (80.4%), 11.9 L (71.7%), and 182 L (127%), respectively. No covariates significantly explained variability among individuals. Optimal LSSs were derived using a simulation approach based on the scaled mean squared error. A 5-sample schedule of 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 6 hours from the start of the infusion precisely estimated MPA AUC(0-12 h) for Q12-hour IV MMF. A comparable schedule (2, 2.5, 3, 4, and 6 hours) similarly estimated MPA AUC(0-8) (h) for Q8-hour dosing. PMID:22174435

  19. A Limited Sampling Schedule to Estimate Mycophenolic Acid Area Under the Concentration-Time Curve in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Nash, Richard; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a key component of post-grafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The plasma area under the curve (AUC) of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), is associated with MMF efficacy and toxicity. This study developed a population pharmacokinetic model of MPA in HCT recipients and created limited sampling schedules (LSS) to enable individualized pharmacotherapy. A retrospective evaluation of MPA concentration-time data following a 2 hr MMF intravenous (IV) infusion was conducted in 77 HCT recipients. The final model consisted of one and two compartments for MMF and MPA pharmacokinetics, respectively. The mean estimated values (coefficient of variation, %) for total systemic clearance, distributional clearance, and central and peripheral compartment volumes of MPA were 36.9 L/h (34.5%), 15.3 L/h (80.4%), 11.9 L (71.7%), and 182 L (127%), respectively. No covariates significantly explained variability among individuals. Optimal LSS were derived using a simulation approach based on the scaled mean squared error. A five-sample schedule of 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 6 hr from the start of the infusion precisely estimated MPA AUC0–12 hr for Q12 hr IV MMF. A comparable schedule (2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 6 hr) similarly estimated MPA AUC0–8hr for Q8 hr dosing. PMID:22174435

  20. Limiting factors in photosynthesis. V. Photochemical energy supply colimits photosynthesis at low values of intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Terry, N.

    1984-05-01

    Although there is now some agreement with the view that the supply of photochemical energy may influence photosynthetic rate (P) at high CO/sub 2/ pressures, it is less clear whether this limitation extends to P at low CO/sub 2/. This was investigated by measuring P per area as a function of the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (C/sub i/) at different levels of photochemical energy supply. Changes in the latter were obtained experimentally by varying the level of irradiance to normal (Fe-sufficient) leaves of Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1, and by varying photosynthetic electron transport capacity using leaves from Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. P and C/sub i/ were determined for attached sugar beet leaves using open flow gas exchange. The results suggest the P/area was colimited by the supply of photochemical energy at very low as well as high values of C/sub i/. Using the procedure developed by Perchorowicz et al., we investigated the effect or irradiance on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activation. The ratio of initial extractable activity to total inducible RuBPCase activity increased from 0.25 to 0.90 as leaf irradiance increased from 100 to 1500 microeinsteins photosynthetically active radiation per square meter per second. These data suggest that colimitation by photochemical energy supply at low C/sub i/ may be mediated via effects on RuBPCase activation.

  1. Validity of Suspected Alcohol and Drug Violations in Aviation Employees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, transportation employees who are suspected of using alcohol and drugs are subject to reasonable-cause testing. This study aims to assess the validity of suspected alcohol and drug violations in aviation employees. Methods Using reasonable-cause testing and random testing data from the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2005, we calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of suspected alcohol and drug violations. The true status of violations was based on testing results, with an alcohol violation being defined as a blood alcohol concentration of ≥40 mg/dL and a drug violation as a test positive for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or opiates. Results During the 11-year study period, a total of 2,284 alcohol tests and 2,015 drug tests were performed under the reasonable-cause testing program. The PPV was 37.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.7–39.7%] for suspected alcohol violations and 12.6% (95% CI, 11.2–14.1%) for suspected drug violations. Random testing revealed an overall prevalence of 0.09% (601/649,796) for alcohol violations and 0.6% (7,211/1,130,922) for drug violations. The LR+ was 653.6 (95% CI, 581.7–734.3) for suspected alcohol violations and 22.5 (95% CI, 19.6–25.7) for suspected drug violations. Discussion The discriminative power of reasonable-cause testing suggests that, despite its limited positive predictive value, physical and behavioral observation represents an efficient screening method for detecting alcohol and drug violations. The limited positive predictive value of reasonable-cause testing in aviation employees is due in part to the very low prevalence of alcohol and drug violations. PMID:20712820

  2. Estimation from PET data of transient changes in dopamine concentration induced by alcohol: support for a non-parametric signal estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, C. C.; Yoder, K. K.; Kareken, D. A.; Bouman, C. A.; O'Connor, S. J.; Normandin, M. D.; Morris, E. D.

    2008-03-01

    We previously developed a model-independent technique (non-parametric ntPET) for extracting the transient changes in neurotransmitter concentration from paired (rest & activation) PET studies with a receptor ligand. To provide support for our method, we introduced three hypotheses of validation based on work by Endres and Carson (1998 J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 18 1196-210) and Yoder et al (2004 J. Nucl. Med. 45 903-11), and tested them on experimental data. All three hypotheses describe relationships between the estimated free (synaptic) dopamine curves (FDA(t)) and the change in binding potential (ΔBP). The veracity of the FDA(t) curves recovered by nonparametric ntPET is supported when the data adhere to the following hypothesized behaviors: (1) ΔBP should decline with increasing DA peak time, (2) ΔBP should increase as the strength of the temporal correlation between FDA(t) and the free raclopride (FRAC(t)) curve increases, (3) ΔBP should decline linearly with the effective weighted availability of the receptor sites. We analyzed regional brain data from 8 healthy subjects who received two [11C]raclopride scans: one at rest, and one during which unanticipated IV alcohol was administered to stimulate dopamine release. For several striatal regions, nonparametric ntPET was applied to recover FDA(t), and binding potential values were determined. Kendall rank-correlation analysis confirmed that the FDA(t) data followed the expected trends for all three validation hypotheses. Our findings lend credence to our model-independent estimates of FDA(t). Application of nonparametric ntPET may yield important insights into how alterations in timing of dopaminergic neurotransmission are involved in the pathologies of addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  3. 40 CFR Table I-10 to Subpart I of... - Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack Systems I Table I-10 to Subpart I of Part... Subpart I of Part 98—Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG...

  4. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  6. ALCOHOL INTAKE AND RISK OF INJURY

    PubMed Central

    CREMONTE, MARIANA; CHERPITEL, CHERYL J.

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context. PMID:25188654

  7. How Do Underage College Students Get Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and related problems are common among underage college students, yet qualitative, in-depth information on how/where these students obtain alcohol is limited. We conducted focus groups pertaining to access to alcohol and related issues with 19 underage college students. They reported that alcohol is easy to obtain from a variety…

  8. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  9. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  10. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term. PMID:26123977

  11. Biphasic Effects of Alcohol as a Function of Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Van Reen, Eliza; Rupp, Tracy L.; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess how alcohol affects multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and subjective measures of stimulation/sedation when alcohol is given at different circadian phases. Participants: Twenty-seven healthy young adults (age 21-26 yr) were studied. Design: Double-blind placebo and alcohol (vodka tonic targeting 0.05 g% concentration) beverages were each administered three times during the 20-h forced desynchrony protocol. Sleep latency tests and Biphasic Effects of Alcohol Scale (BAES) were administered on each forced desynchrony day. The outcome variables for this study include sleep onset latency (SOL) and stimulation and sedation value (from the BAES). Each outcome variable was associated with the ascending or descending limb of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve and assigned a circadian phase within a 90° bin. Measurements and Results: BrAC confirmed targeted maximal levels. Only outcome variables associated with the ascending and descending limb of the alcohol curve were analyzed for this article. Alcohol administered at a circadian time associated with greatest sleepiness showed longer SOL compared with placebo when measured on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve. We also found longer SOL with alcohol on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve in a circadian bin that favors greatest alertness. We observed shorter SOLs on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, but with no circadian phase interaction. The subjective data were partially consistent with the objective data. Conclusions: The physiologic findings in this study support the biphasic stimulating and sedating properties of alcohol, but limit the effect to specific circadian times. Citation: Van Reen E; Rupp TL; Acebo C; Seifer R; Carskadon MA. Biphasic effects of alcohol as a function of circadian phase. SLEEP 2013;36(1):137-145. PMID:23288980

  12. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... test methods specified in § 63.1450(a). (b) Smelting furnaces. For each smelting furnace, you...

  13. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26178068

  14. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  15. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  16. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  17. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  18. Facts on the Effects of Alcohol. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is one of the few alcohols that humans can drink. This alcohol is a byproduct of yeast's reaction with the sugars in fruit or vegetable juice and the process stops naturally with about an 11 to 14 percent alcoholic concentration, although distillation can greatly increase the alcoholic content. Once ingested, most alcohol…

  19. The role of an open-space CCTV system in limiting alcohol-related assault injuries in a late-night entertainment precinct in a tropical Queensland city, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pointing, Shane; Hayes-Jonkers, Charmaine; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems which incorporate real-time communication links between camera room operators and on-the-ground security may limit injuries resulting from alcohol-related assault. This pilot study examined CCTV footage and operator records of security responses for two periods totalling 22 days in 2010-2011 when 30 alcohol-related assaults were recorded. Semistructured discussions were conducted with camera room operators during 18 h of observation. Camera operators were proactive, efficiently directing street security to assault incidents. The system intervened in 40% (n=12) of alcohol-related assaults, limiting possible injury. This included three incidents judged as potentially preventable. A further five (17%) assault incidents were also judged as potentially preventable, while 43% (n=13) happened too quickly for intervention. Case studies describe security intervention in each category. Further research is recommended, particularly to evaluate the effects on preventing injuries through targeted awareness training to improve responsiveness and enhance the preventative capacity of similar CCTV systems. PMID:21893611

  20. Selectivity and Mass Transfer Limitations in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis at High Concentrations and Increased Operating Pressures.

    PubMed

    Straub, Anthony P; Osuji, Chinedum O; Cath, Tzahi Y; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-10-20

    Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising source of renewable energy when hypersaline brines and other high concentration solutions are used. However, membrane performance under conditions suitable for these solutions is poorly understood. In this work, we use a new method to characterize membranes under a variety of pressures and concentrations, including hydraulic pressures up to 48.3 bar and concentrations of up to 3 M NaCl. We find membrane selectivity decreases as the draw solution concentration is increased, with the salt permeability coefficient increasing by a factor of 2 when the draw concentration is changed from 0.6 to 3 M NaCl, even when the applied hydraulic pressure is maintained constant. Additionally, we find that significant pumping energy is required to overcome frictional pressure losses in the spacer-filled feed channel and achieve suitable mass transfer on the feed side of the membrane, especially at high operating pressures. For a meter-long module operating at 41 bar, we estimate feedwater will have to be pumped in at a pressure of at least 3 bar. Both the reduced selectivity and increased pumping energy requirements we observe in PRO will significantly diminish the obtainable net energy, highlighting important new challenges for development of systems utilizing hypersaline draw solutions. PMID:26393282

  1. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  2. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Rounseville, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes. PMID:23180975

  3. Risk Estimates for Starting Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use in The United States: Male-Female Differences and the Possibility that ‘Limiting Time With Friends’ is Protective*

    PubMed Central

    Seedall, Ryan B.; Anthony, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A specific facet of parental monitoring is known as ‘limiting time with friends’ (LTF). Here, we aim to learn whether LTF-associated differences in adolescent risk of starting to use tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs now might be as large as observed male-female risk differences. Methods Data are from the US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, with annual large scale nationally representative samples of community-dwelling civilian age 12 years and older, conducted 2002–2009. Focus is on 12–17 year old participants, assessed via computerized self-interviews. Risk differences are estimated for all 12–17 year olds, males and females separately, and in relation to the LTF facet of parenting. Results Contingency table analyses disclose a female excess risk of initiating use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and EMIRD, with male-female risk differences ranging from 0.1% (cocaine) to 1.6% (alcohol). LTF-associated risk differences were of similar magnitude for young people whose parents ‘always’ limit time with friends versus those with parents who are more relaxed about the LTF facet of parenting [e.g., RD = 0.4% (cocaine); 1.5% (alcohol)]. Conclusions Not just for tobacco, but also for other drugs, there now is female excess risk of extra-medical drug use. Drug-by-drug, observed LTF-associated risk differences are about the same size as the female excess risk. This evidence provides a rationale to sustain focus on the LTF facet of parenting if the goal is to enhance prevention of precocious drug involvement and to delay its onset until later in the adolescent or adult years. PMID:24018318

  4. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... atmosphere from the dryer vent any gases that contain total particulate matter in excess of 50 milligrams per...) For each new copper concentrate dryer, you must not cause to be discharged to the atmosphere from the... section. (1) For each smelting furnace, you must not cause to be discharged to the atmosphere any...

  5. A risk-based probabilistic framework to estimate the endpoint of remediation: Concentration rebound by rate-limited mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, F. P. J.; Fernã Ndez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2013-04-01

    Aquifer remediation is a challenging problem with environmental, social, and economic implications. As a general rule, pumping proceeds until the concentration of the target substance within the pumped water lies below a prespecified value. In this paper we estimate the a priori potential failure of the endpoint of remediation due to a rebound of concentrations driven by back diffusion. In many cases, it has been observed that once pumping ceases, a rebound in the concentration at the well takes place. For this reason, administrative approaches are rather conservative, and pumping is forced to last much longer than initially expected. While a number of physical and chemical processes might account for the presence of rebounding, we focus here on diffusion from low water mobility into high mobility zones. In this work we look specifically at the concentration rebound when pumping is discontinued while accounting for multiple mass transfer processes occurring at different time scales and parametric uncertainty. We aim to develop a risk-based optimal operation methodology that is capable of estimating the endpoint of remediation based on aquifer parameters characterizing the heterogeneous medium as well as pumping rate and initial size of the polluted area.

  6. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  7. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of safe operation; or (2) The alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath is 0.10 grams... breath. Provided however, that if State law that applies to operating a motor vehicle while under the... breath, those limits supersede the limits specified in this paragraph. (b) The provisions of paragraph...

  8. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of safe operation; or (2) The alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath is 0.10 grams... breath. Provided however, that if State law that applies to operating a motor vehicle while under the... breath, those limits supersede the limits specified in this paragraph. (b) The provisions of paragraph...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of safe operation; or (2) The alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath is 0.10 grams... breath. Provided however, that if State law that applies to operating a motor vehicle while under the... breath, those limits supersede the limits specified in this paragraph. (b) The provisions of paragraph...

  10. Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop a method to determine the 95% LOD (lowest co...

  11. [Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis Lucio; Cabanillas Campos, María Carmen; Navarro-Valls, Juan José; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro, Eva; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests. PMID:23748942

  12. Establishment of the Tree Shrew as an Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Model for the Study of Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals’ suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  13. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  14. A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21–25 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1–3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024–.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

  15. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E.; Wall, Tamara L.; Kirchhoff, Aaron M.; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y.; Stewart, Robert B.; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L.; Chester, Julia A.; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21–26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  16. Modeling the effects of a speed limit reduction on traffic-related elemental carbon (EC) concentrations and population exposure to EC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, W.; Fierens, F.; Trimpeneers, E.; Janssen, S.; Van de Vel, K.; Deutsch, F.; Viaene, P.; Vankerkom, J.; Dumont, G.; Vanpoucke, C.; Mensink, C.; Peelaerts, W.; Vliegen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scarce effect of speed limit reduction measures on total mass PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations, it is shown that the effect on the probably more hazardous component elemental carbon (EC) is more important which means that, from the viewpoint of health benefit, speed reductions during smog episodes may well be justified. Especially in the very dense highway network in Flanders with a 60% share of diesel cars (the highest in Europe) a speed limit reduction from 120 to 90 km/h during winter smog episodes on selected sections of Flemish highways leads to a significant decrease of the EC concentrations near those highways. Key findings are that the decrease in EC depends on the distance from the highways. In the direct vicinity of the highways, a decrease compared to the base-line scenario where no speed limit changes were implemented of up to 30% of the EC concentrations is modeled. Within a distance of 1500 m of the concerned highway sections there is an average decrease in EC of 0.18 μg m -3 affecting about 1 million people living in these areas. When the speed limit reduction measure is in force, the EC exposure of about 300,000 people decreases by at least 5% and 7500 people experience a decrease of 15% or more.

  17. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  18. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  19. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  20. N limited herbivore consumer growth and low nutrient regeneration N:P ratios in nutrient poor Swedish lakes along a gradient in DOC concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, A. K.; Karlsson, D.; Karlsson, J.; Vrede, T.

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient limitation of primary producers and their consumers can have a large influence on ecosystem productivity. The nature and strength of nutrient limitation is driven both by external factors (nutrient loading) and internal processes (consumer-driven nutrient regeneration). Here we present results from a field study in 16 unproductive headwater lakes in northern subarctic and boreal Sweden where N deposition is low. We assessed the C:N:P stoichiometry of lake water, seston and zooplankton and estimated the consumer driven nutrient regeneration N:P ratio. The elemental imbalances between seston and zooplankton indicated that zooplankton were mainly N limited and regenerated nutrients with low N:P ratios (median 9.7, atomic ratio). The N:P regeneration ratios declined with increasing DOC concentrations, suggesting that catchment release of DOC accentuates the N limitation by providing more P to the lakes. The N:P regeneration ratios were related to responses in phytoplankton bioassays in mid-summer with low N:P regeneration with N limited phytoplankton, and high N:P regeneration with P limited phytoplankton. During other seasons, increased nutrient loading from the surrounding catchments during periods of greater water throughput had stronger effects on phytoplankton nutrient limitation. Our results suggest that herbivore zooplankton are N limited and recycle nutrients with low N:P ratio in low productive lakes with low N deposition. This will, at least during seasons when in-lake processes play an important role in nutrient turn over, contribute to continued N limitation of phytoplankton in these systems. We anticipate that increased N deposition and changes in climate and hydrology may affect this feedback and result in qualitative changes in these ecosystems, changing both autotroph producers and herbivore consumers from N- to P-limitation, eventually affecting important ecosystem characteristics such as productivity and turnover of energy and nutrients.

  1. 27 CFR 18.54 - Transfer of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer of concentrate. 18.54 Section 18.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.54 Transfer of concentrate. (a) Concentrate...

  2. Feasibility of Trace Alcohol Congener Detection and Identification Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Shangmin; Zhao, Lixian; Liu, Liying; Wang, Dezhen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a feasible scheme is reported for the detection and identification of trace alcohol congeners that have identical elemental composition using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the scheme, an intensive pulsed laser is used to break down trace alcohol samples and the optical emission spectra of the induced plasma are collected for the detection and identification of alcohol molecules. In order to prepare trace alcohol samples, pure ethanol or methanol is bubbled by argon carrier gas and then mixed into matrix gases. The key issue for the scheme is to constitute indices from the LIBS data of the alcohol samples. Two indices are found to be suitable for alcohol detection and identification. One is the emission intensity ratio (denoted as H/C) of the hydrogen line (653.3 nm) to the carbon line (247.9 nm) for identification and the other is the ratio of the carbon line (as C/Ar) or the hydrogen line (as H/Ar) to the argon lines (866.7 nm) for quantitative detection. The calibration experiment result shows that the index H/C is specific for alcohol congeners while almost being independent of alcohol concentration. In detail, the H/C keeps a specific constant of 34 and 23 respectively for ethanol and methanol. In the meanwhile, the C/Ar and H/Ar indices respond almost linearly to the alcohol concentration below 1300 ppm, and are therefore competent for concentration measurement. With the indices, trace alcohol concentration measurement achieves a limit of 140 ppm using a laser pulse energy of 300 mJ.

  3. Tolerance of ARPE 19 cells to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos is limited to concentration and time of exposure.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, Narayanan; Sumantran, Venil N; Shabna, A; Sulochana, K N

    2015-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration is a blinding disease common in elder adults. The prevalence of age related macular degeneration has been found to be 1.8% in the Indian population. Organophosphates are widely used insecticides with well documented neurological effects, and the persistent nature of these compounds in the body results in long term health effects. Farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides in USA had an earlier onset of age related macular degeneration when compared to unexposed controls. A recent study found significant levels of an organophosphate, termed chlorpyrifos, in the blood samples of Indian farmers. Therefore, in understanding the link between age related macular degeneration and chlorpyrifos, the need for investigation is important. Our data show that ARPE-19 (retinal pigment epithelial cells) exhibit a cytoprotective response to chlorpyrifos as measured by viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide dismutase activity, and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione, after 24 h exposure to chlorpyrifos. However, this cytoprotective response was absent in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the same range of concentrations of chlorpyrifos for 48 h. These results have physiological significance, since HPLC analysis showed that effects of chlorpyrifos were mediated through its entry into ARPE-19 cells. HPLC analysis also showed that chlorpyrifos remained stable, as we recovered up to 80% of the chlorpyrifos added to 6 different ocular tissues. PMID:25619908

  4. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal. PMID:25711824

  5. Alcohol consumption and computer blackjack.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2007-07-01

    The authors considered compliance with a decision aid that E. Thorp (1966) designed to minimize loss in a gambling paradigm under different levels of risk or impairment. Twenty adult men (aged 18-46) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; H.R. Lesieur & S. B. Blume, 1987) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. P. Allen, D. E Reinert, & R. J. Volk, 2001) and then played a computer blackjack program before and after ingesting alcohol. The decision aid (online Basic advice) increased players' compliance with optimal play and also increased players willingness to wager more at high stakes. Participants attained a mean peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.048%. Alcohol increased the rate of play. After consuming alcohol, participants appeared to spend less time on their decisions and were more reliant on support. The authors explained these results in terms of an alcohol-induced myopia that enhances responses to salient cues. PMID:17824402

  6. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  7. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  8. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism. PMID:25307599

  9. Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06 g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer's card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems. PMID:24731116

  10. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... before having more alcohol. Make a Plan for Drinking The best way to control calories from drinking is to limit how much you drink. Before ... off on your wine glass. You can skip drinking altogether and volunteer to be the designated driver. ...

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  13. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  14. Using an aqueous two-phase polymer-salt system to rapidly concentrate viruses for improving the detection limit of the lateral-flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Jue, Erik; Yamanishi, Cameron D; Chiu, Ricky Y T; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-12-01

    The development of point-of-need (PON) diagnostics for viruses has the potential to prevent pandemics and protects against biological warfare threats. Here we discuss the approach of using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to concentrate biomolecules prior to the lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for improved viral detection. In this paper, we developed a rapid PON detection assay as an extension to our previous proof-of-concept studies which used a micellar ATPS. We present our investigation of a more rapid polymer-salt ATPS that can drastically improve the assay time, and show that the phase containing the concentrated biomolecule can be extracted prior to macroscopic phase separation equilibrium without affecting the measured biomolecule concentration in that phase. We could therefore significantly decrease the time of the diagnostic assay with an early extraction time of just 30 min. Using this rapid ATPS, the model virus bacteriophage M13 was concentrated between approximately 2 and 10-fold by altering the volume ratio between the two phases. As the extracted virus-rich phase contained a high salt concentration which destabilized the colloidal gold indicator used in LFA, we decorated the gold nanoprobes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to provide steric stabilization, and used these nanoprobes to demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in the LFA detection limit. Lastly, a MATLAB script was used to quantify the LFA results with and without the pre-concentration step. This approach of combining a rapid ATPS with LFA has great potential for PON applications, especially as greater concentration-fold improvements can be achieved by further varying the volume ratio. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2499-2507. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24942535

  15. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  16. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations <1.4 h post-dose. Subjective effects persisted through 3.3-4.3 h, with alcohol potentiating the duration of the cannabis effects. Effect-versus-THC concentration and effect-versus-alcohol concentration hystereses were counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. OF/blood and OF/plasma THC significantly correlated (all Spearman r≥0.71), but variability was high. Vaporized cannabis subjective effects were similar to those previously reported after smoking, with duration extended by concurrent alcohol. Cannabis intake was identified by OF testing, but OF concentration variability limited interpretation. Blood THC concentrations were more consistent across subjects and more accurate at predicting cannabis' subjective

  17. Drinking and driving: choosing the legal limits.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, J A; Penttila, A; Pikkarainen, J

    1987-01-01

    The legal limit for drinking and driving in Britain is 80 mg/dl (17.4 mmol/l) of alcohol in the blood. This was chosen 20 years ago on the basis of studies that have recently been reanalysed. Changes in public opinion, the results of recent research, and the evaluation of other countermeasures, such as random breath testing, show that there are good grounds for revising the legal limit downwards. It is suggested that the legal limit should be reduced from 80 mg/dl to 50 mg/dl (10.9 mmol/l) and random breath testing introduced as in most Nordic countries. A zero limit is proposed for learner and first year drivers, who are likely to have accidents even with low concentrations of alcohol in their blood. PMID:3121062

  18. Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Americas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol problems in the Americas. This is followed by an analysis of 32 prevention strategies and interventions in terms of the evidence for their effectiveness, amount of research support, cost to implement, and other feasibility issues. Overall, the strategies and interventions with the greatest amount of empirical support are low blood alcohol concentration levels for driving while intoxicated, controls on alcohol availability, age limits on alcohol purchases, and relatively high alcohol prices. The implications of the evidence are next discussed in relation to alcohol policy initiatives in the Americas, based on an analysis of the extent to which strategies and interventions currently used in 25 countries of the Americas are likely to have a public health impact on alcohol-related problems. The countries that have adopted the policies with the highest expected impact overall are Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that almost all the countries of the Americas could improve the likelihood of preventing alcohol-related problems. Policy efforts in the developing countries of Latin America should focus on improving countermeasures against driving while intoxicated, measures that alter the drinking context, and limits on physical availability. For the developed, high-income countries of North America the goal should be to prevent deterioration of current drinking patterns and to reduce the overall volume of drinking. Given the low to moderate cost of many of the policies reviewed in this article, it now seems possible for communities and nations to substantially reduce the

  19. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, J; Arends, M A; Harris, R A; Blednov, Y A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  20. Chemometric evaluation of nine alcohol biomarkers in a large population of clinically-classified subjects: pre-eminence of ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair for confirmatory classification.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Valentina; Valente, Valeria; Oliveri, Paolo; De Bernardis, Angela; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2011-10-01

    An important goal of forensic and clinical toxicology is to identify biological markers of ethanol consumption that allow an objective diagnosis of chronic alcohol misuse. Blood and head hair samples were collected from 175 subjects-objectively classified as non-drinkers (N=65), social drinkers (N=51) and active heavy drinkers (N=59)-and analyzed to determine eight traditional indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and cholesterol and triglycerides in blood] and one direct biomarker [ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in head hair]. The experimental values obtained from these determinations were submitted to statistical evaluations. In particular, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and ROC curve analyses, together with principal component analysis (PCA), allowed the diagnostic performances of the various biomarkers to be evaluated and compared consistently. From these evaluations, it was possible to deduce that EtG measured in head hair is the only biomarker that can conclusively discriminate active heavy drinkers from social and non-drinkers, using a cut-off value of 30 pg/mg. In contrast, a few indirect biomarkers such as ALP, cholesterol, and triglycerides showed extremely low diagnostic abilities and may convey misleading information. AST and ALT proved to be highly correlated and exhibited quite low sensitivity and specificity. Consequently, either of these parameters can be discarded without compromising the classification efficiency. Among the indirect biomarkers, γ-GT provided the highest diagnostic accuracy, while CDT and MCV yielded high specificity but low sensitivity. It was therefore concluded that EtG in head hair is the only biomarker capable of supporting a confirmatory diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse in both forensic and clinical practice, while it was found

  1. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  2. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  3. Concentrations of Contaminants with Regulatory Limits in Samples of Clam (Chamelea gallina) Collected along the Abruzzi Region Coast in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Scortichini, Giampiero; Suzzi, Giovanna; Diletti, Gianfranco; Schirone, Maria; Martino, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of pollutants with regulatory limits were determined in specimens of Chamelea gallina, a species of clam collected along the Abruzzi coastal region of the central Adriatic Sea. Nine sampling sites were selected to evaluate the distribution of contaminants in the environment and the health risk for consumers. The concentrations of all the examined compounds were lower than the maximums set by European legislation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total mercury were below the detection limit (0.18 μg/kg for benzo[a]anthracene, 0.30 μg/kg for chrysene, 0.12 μg/kg for benzo[b]fluoranthene, 0.08 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene, and 0.0050 mg/kg for total mercury) in all the analyzed samples. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 0.104 and 0.110 mg/kg, respectively. Of the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-138 were the most abundant at all sampling sites (1a to 9a) at 0.25 mi (ca. 0.4 km) and at some sampling sites (1b, 2b, 3b, 5b and 7b) at 0.35 mi (ca. 0.56 km). Principal component analysis revealed that the concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were similar at the majority of sampling sites, and O8CDD and 2,3,7,8-T4CDF were the predominant dioxin congeners. PMID:26319726

  4. Biochemical properties of alcohol dehydrogenase from Drosophila lebanonensis.

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, J O; Hovik, R; McKinley-McKee, J S; Juan, E; Gonzalez-Duarte, R

    1986-01-01

    Purified Drosophila lebanonensis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) revealed one enzymically active zone in starch gel electrophoresis at pH 8.5. This zone was located on the cathode side of the origin. Incubation of D. lebanonensis Adh with NAD+ and acetone altered the electrophoretic pattern to more anodal migrating zones. D. lebanonensis Adh has an Mr of 56,000, a subunit of Mr of 28 000 and is a dimer with two active sites per enzyme molecule. This agrees with a polypeptide chain of 247 residues. Metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy indicated that this insect alcohol dehydrogenase is not a metalloenzyme. In studies of the substrate specificity and stereospecificity, D. lebanonensis Adh was more active with secondary than with primary alcohols. Both alkyl groups in the secondary alcohols interacted hydrophobically with the alcohol binding region of the active site. The catalytic centre activity for propan-2-ol was 7.4 s-1 and the maximum velocity of most secondary alcohols was approximately the same and indicative of rate-limiting enzyme-coenzyme dissociation. For primary alcohols the maximum velocity varied and was much lower than for secondary alcohols. The catalytic centre activity for ethanol was 2.4 s-1. With [2H6]ethanol a primary kinetic 2H isotope effect of 2.8 indicated that the interconversion of the ternary complexes was rate-limiting. Pyrazole was an ethanol-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The difference spectra of the enzyme-NAD+-pyrazole complex gave an absorption peak at 305 nm with epsilon 305 14.5 X 10(3) M-1 X cm-1. Concentrations and amounts of active enzyme can thus be determined. A kinetic rate assay to determine the concentration of enzyme active sites is also presented. This has been developed from active site concentrations established by titration at 305 nm of the enzyme and pyrazole with NAD+. In contrast with the amino acid composition, which indicated that D. lebanonensis Adh and the D. melanogaster alleloenzymes were not

  5. Limiting Concentrate during Growing Period Affect Performance and Gene Expression of Hepatic Gluconeogenic Enzymes and Visfatin in Korean Native Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Singh, N. K.; Kwon, E. G.; Nejad, J. G.; Sung, K. I.; Hong, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, plasma profile, and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and visfatin in the liver of Hanwoo beef calves. The purpose of this study was to test that reducing the amount of concentrate would partially be compensated by increasing the intake of forage and by altering the metabolic status. The study utilized 20 Korean native beef calves (Hanwoo; 60 to 70 d of age) divided into two groups of 10 calves each for 158 d. Control group calves received the amount of concentrate as per the established Korean feeding standards for Hanwoo, whereas calves in the restricted group only received half the amount of concentrate as per standard requirements. Good quality forage (Timothy hay) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. Since calves were with their dam until 4 months of age in breeding pens before weaning, the intake of milk before weaning was not recorded, however, the concentrate and forage intakes were recorded daily. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on 10 d interval. Blood samples were collected at start and at 50 d interval. On the final day of the experiment, liver biopsies were collected from all animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times, but tended to be higher (p = 0.061) only at final BW in control than restricted group. Total BW gain in the control group was 116.2 kg as opposed to 84.1 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 736 g/d and 532 g/d in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p<0.01). As planned, the calves in the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The plasma variables like total protein and urea were higher (p<0.05) in control than restricted group. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes such as cytosolic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (EC 4.1.1.32) and pyruvate carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.1), and visfatin measured

  6. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  7. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  8. Two doses of parenterally administered split influenza virus vaccine elicited high serum IgG concentrations which effectively limited viral shedding upon challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Hovden, A-O; Cox, R J; Madhun, A; Haaheim, L R

    2005-10-01

    We have previously found that whole influenza virus vaccine induced a more rapid and stronger humoral response, particularly after the first dose of vaccine, than split virus vaccine in mice. In this study, we have evaluated the protective efficacy of whole and split influenza virus vaccines in mice using a nonlethal upper respiratory tract challenge model. We have also investigated the immunological correlates associated with no or very little viral shedding after viral challenge. Vaccination resulted in reduced viral shedding and shortened the duration of infection by at least 2 days. After one dose of vaccine, whole virus vaccine generally resulted in less viral shedding than split virus vaccine. In contrast, two doses of split virus vaccine, particularly the highest vaccine strengths of 15 and 30 microg HA, most effectively limited viral replication and these mice had high concentrations of prechallenge influenza-specific serum IgG. The vaccine formulation influenced the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, and this IgG subclass profile was maintained upon challenge to some extent, although it did not influence the level of viral shedding. The concentration of postvaccination serum IgG showed an inverse relationship with the level of viral shedding after viral challenge. Therefore, serum IgG is an important factor in limiting viral replication in the upper respiratory tract upon challenge of an antigenically similar virus. PMID:16253121

  9. Alcohol and inflammatory responses: summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Morris, Niya L; Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; Friedman, Scott L; Hines, Ian N; Haddad, Georges E; Chang, Sulie L; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-02-01

    Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois hosted the 18th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting on November 22, 2013. This year's meeting emphasized alcohol's effect on inflammatory responses in diverse disease states and injury conditions. The meeting consisted of three plenary sessions demonstrating the adverse effects of alcohol, specifically, liver inflammation, adverse systemic effects, and alcohol's role in infection and immunology. Researchers also presented insight on modulation of microRNAs and stress proteins following alcohol consumption. Additionally, researchers revealed sex- and concentration-dependent differences in alcohol-mediated pathologies. PMID:25468277

  10. Blood alcohol measurements in the emergency department: who needs them?

    PubMed Central

    Simel, D L; Feussner, J R

    1988-01-01

    We surveyed North Carolina emergency physicians to determine current medical practices regarding the use of blood alcohol concentrations using a hypothetical scenario. Most physicians (88 per cent) would not have obtained blood alcohol concentrations in a patient who had alcohol on his breath but was coherent and cooperative. For marginally impaired patients, more liberal use of blood alcohol concentrations and explicit instructions to avoid driving while impaired might improve patient care and promote highway safety. PMID:3177726

  11. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    those who did not develop cirrhosis mainly died from causes related to alcohol abuse. In conclusion, the present thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used prognostic models may be helpful adjuvants in the routine management of patients with AH, provided that clinicians are aware of the models' limitations. The causes of death in AH are primarily due to liver-related complications, suggesting that patients with AH could benefit from continued follow-up by a hepatologist after the acute episode. PMID:25283626

  12. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  13. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26515884

  14. [Epidemiology of alcohol consumption in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2003-01-01

    Wine production in Argentina left its mark in alcoholic drinks, placing it much closer to the socio cultural habits of the Mediterranean Europeans of the middle of the 20th century than to the Saxon peoples where the priority was consuming distilled drinks. During the last twenty years a very important economic investment accompanied the changes in the patterns of alcohol use, basically because of the incorporation of adolescent and preadolescent population into the alcoholic drinks market. If the traditional permissive standard, which accepted the enjoyment of alcohol, was modified in the elements of culture that tended to set limits to its excess, evolution has leaned towards a culture that extends tolerance to excess, frequently referred to as an uncontrolled state. It is a change, which weighs even heavier upon those who are more vulnerable. Up to now although this has been evident in educational and economic areas, it can also be supported by other new factors. Historically, the focus of social concern has concentrated on those cases with alcohol dependence, as exemplified by the abstinence syndrome. The cultural trivialization of 'non addictive' levels of consumption, is sustained only by social tolerance. Preventive strategies must establish a system of alarm signals that target early detection, and as a result prompt attention. The variety of methods within the field of rehabilitation, in contrast to the scarce development in the secondary level, offers a sign of considerable bias in health policies. This is true both in the design of preventive programmes as well as in the training and organisation of support resources. PMID:14647544

  15. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  16. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  17. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  18. Alcohol and porphyrin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Doss, M O; Kühnel, A; Gross, U

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a porphyrinogenic agent which may cause disturbances in porphyrin metabolism in healthy persons as well as biochemical and clinical manifestations of acute and chronic hepatic porphyrias. After excessive consumption of alcohol, a temporary, clinically asymptomatic secondary hepatic coproporphyrinuria is observable, which can become persistent in cases of alcohol-induced liver damage. Nowadays, the alcohol-liver-porphyrinuria syndrome is the first to be mentioned in secondary hepatic disturbances of porphyrin metabolism. Acute hepatic porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria) are considered to be molecular regulatory diseases, in contrast to non-acute, chronic hepatic porphyria, clinically appearing as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Porphyrins do not accumulate in the liver in acute porphyrias, whereas in chronic hepatic porphyrias they do. Thus, chronic hepatic porphyria is a porphyrin-accumulation disease, whereas acute hepatic porphyrias are haem-pathway-dysregulation diseases, characterized in general by induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase in the liver and excessive stimulation of the pathway without storage of porphyrins in the liver. The clinical expression of acute hepatic porphyrias can be triggered by alcohol, because alcohol augments the inducibility of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. In chronic hepatic porphyrias, however, which are already associated with liver damage, alcohol potentiates the disturbance of the decarboxylation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrinogen, which is followed by a hepatic accumulation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrin and their sometimes extreme urinary excretion. Especially in persons with a genetic deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, but also in patients with the so-called sporadic variety of PCT, alcohol is able to transform an asymptomatic coproporphyrinuria into PCT. Alcohol has many biochemical and clinical effects on porphyrin and haem

  19. [Late-onset alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Batel, P; Larivière, P

    2000-10-01

    The alcoholic withdrawal syndrome (AWS) arises variably within hours following the hospitalization of an alcohol dependent patient. Delay usually observed between admission and the first symptoms depends above all on alcohol serum level concentration at arrival and on the degree of severity of physical dependence. The case reported here describes the very late onset severe alcoholic withdrawal syndrome observed in a 57-year-old alcohol dependent patient hospitalized for leg trauma and operated within hours followed admission. The first symptoms of AWS appeared only the 4-th day after hospitalization and the patient quickly developed a clinical state of delirium tremens. Delay in the onset of this AWS is discussed. PMID:11104941

  20. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  1. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  3. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem. PMID:21253160

  4. Enhancement of upconverted luminescence in Er3+:TeO2 glass on increasing the temperature and concentration of Yb3+ beyond the critical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anant Kumar; Tripathi, Garima; Rai, S. B.; Rai, Anita

    2007-05-01

    Enhancement of upconverted luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+:TeO2 has been observed with increase in the concentration of Yb3+ on excitation with 780nm laser radiation. It is further noted that the upconversion is increased even above the quenching limit on increasing the temperature of the glass. The incident radiation excites Yb3+ indirectly via Er3+ resulting in a strong blue emission from Yb3+ and green and red emissions from Er3+. The UV emission from Er3+ at 380nm involves three near infrared photons when there is no Yb3+ in the glass but when Yb3+ is also present, this behaves as a two photon process. The lifetime of the S3/24 level of Er3+ in glasses containing only Er3+ and also those containing both Er3+ and Yb3+ has also been measured in different conditions.

  5. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    characteristic of alcoholism type 2 is seeking for excitement (Novelty Seeking, NS), unchanged dopamine transmission and decreased serotonin transmission. These neurochemical differences among alcoholism subtypes represent the basis for a different therapy approach. Intake of alcohol changes different gene expression in the human brain. The inheritance model of alcoholism is not fully explained, however, it is considered that the disease is connected to a larger gene number included in neurotransmission, cell mechanisms and general metabolic function, with a simultaneous influence of the environment. The contribution of genetic factors is stronger in certain types of alcoholism and thus we have been confronted in the last years of alcoholism research with studies researching the connections of some alcoholism subtypes with the polymorphism phenomenon in the genes coding the synaptic proteins included in the alcoholism etiology. The primary role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain is catalysis of deamination of the oxidative neurotransmitter amines, i.e. serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. Thus, this enzyme is the key factor for maintaining cytoplasmic concentration of various neurotransmitters and for regulation of the neurotransmitting synaptic activity. Taken this MAO function into consideration, MAO is the enzyme included in the etiology and pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. The finding of the decreased platelet MAO activity in various psychiatric disorders has brought us to the assumption that this enzyme may be a constitutional/genetic indicator (trait marker) or an indicator of disease condition (state marker) in biologic psychiatry. There are only a few studies of alcohol addiction researching the connections of the MAO coding gene polymorphism and alcoholism; however, these studies are primarily related to the variable number of tandem repeats (VTNR) polymorphism in the regulatory gene region for MAO-A, considered to

  6. Liquidus slopes of impurities in ITS-90 fixed points from the mercury point to the copper point in the low concentration limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Jonathan V.; Gisby, John A.; Steur, Peter P. M.

    2016-08-01

    A knowledge of the effect of impurities at the level of parts per million on the freezing temperature of very pure metals is essential for realisation of ITS-90 fixed points. New information has become available for use with the thermodynamic modelling software MTDATA, permitting calculation of liquidus slopes, in the low concentration limit, of a wider range of binary alloy systems than was previously possible. In total, calculated values for 536 binary systems are given. In addition, new experimental determinations of phase diagrams, in the low impurity concentration limit, have recently appeared. All available data have been combined to provide a comprehensive set of liquidus slopes for impurities in ITS-90 metal fixed points. In total, liquidus slopes for 838 systems are tabulated for the fixed points Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, Au, and Cu. It is shown that the value of the liquidus slope as a function of impurity element atomic number can be approximated using a simple formula, and good qualitative agreement with the existing data is observed for the fixed points Al, Ag, Au and Cu, but curiously the formula is not applicable to the fixed points Hg, Ga, In, Sn, and Zn. Some discussion is made concerning the influence of oxygen on the liquidus slopes, and some calculations using MTDATA are discussed. The BIPM’s consultative committee for thermometry has long recognised that the sum of individual estimates method is the ideal approach for assessing uncertainties due to impurities, but the community has been largely powerless to use the model due to lack of data. Here, not only is data provided, but a simple model is given to enable known thermophysical data to be used directly to estimate impurity effects for a large fraction of the ITS-90 fixed points.

  7. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  10. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  13. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  14. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  15. Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Key Foundations and New Developments.

    PubMed

    Childers, Ryan E; Ahn, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a spectrum of conditions that include alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic alcoholic liver disease. The diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease remains founded in an accurate patient history and detailed physical examination. Concurrent with the physical examination, objective data from laboratory, imaging, and histologic studies are helpful to confirm a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Novel biomarkers, scoring systems, and imaging modalities are improving the ability to diagnose and manage alcoholic liver disease, but for most practicing clinicians, these have not been adopted widely because of their cost, but also because of limitations and uncertainty in their performance characteristics. PMID:27373609

  16. Assessing the impact of alcohol use on communities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  17. 27 CFR 18.54 - Transfer of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of concentrate. 18.54 Section 18.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.54 Transfer of concentrate. (a) Concentrate...

  18. Taxonomy of Caribbean Tourism Alcohol Venues: Implications for HIV Transmission*

    PubMed Central

    GUILAMO-RAMOS, Vincent; JACCARD, James; MCCARTHY, Katharine; QUIÑONES, Zahira; LUSHIN, Viktor; SKINNER-DAY, Molly; PADILLA, Mark; MEISTERLIN, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. Methods We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. Results We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g., sex work on site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. Conclusion Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas. PMID:23478154

  19. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  20. Sexual victimization in female and male college students: examining the roles of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Monks, Stormy M; Tomaka, Joe; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Sharon E

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol and alcohol expectancies relate to sexual victimization. The present study examined these links in a sample of 407 predominantly Hispanic male and female college students, along the Mexico-US border. The study also examined the independent contribution of sexual sensation seeking to the prediction of victimization. Results showed that victimization was associated with alcohol risk, alcohol consumption-related problems, and positive alcohol expectancies. Importantly, sexual sensation seeking independently predicted victimization and did so after controlling for alcohol risk and expectancies. Our results suggest that associations among victimization, alcohol risk, and expectancies generalize to Hispanic women and men. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20388010

  1. [Death by alcoholic ketoacidosis--analytical procedure and case report].

    PubMed

    Wöllner, Kirsten; Heß, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency, which is characterized at first by an elevated level of ketone bodies. The production of these ketone bodies is accompanied by an equimolar quantity of hydrogen ions and thus causes acidosis, which cannot be detected post-mortem due to anaerobic glycolysis, whereas the three ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone can be easily identified. However, the limits of ketone body concentrations mentioned in the literature for diagnosing ketoacidosis vary significantly, partly due to inhomogeneous study groups. A 44-year-old woman was found dead with numerous haematomas and partial mummification. Some days before, she had reported her partner to the police for rape. Consequently investigations for homicide were initiated. The autopsy itself did not reveal any morphologically identifiable cause of death. The ketone body concentrations in three matrices (vitreous humour, cerebrospinal fluid, cardiac blood) left no doubt that death was due to alcoholic ketoacidosis. PMID:26548035

  2. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  3. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. 31.35 Section 31.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited...

  4. Protease determination using an optimized alcohol enzyme electrode.

    PubMed

    Bardeletti, G; Carillon, C

    1993-12-01

    A new method for the determination of protease activities is described. In this large family, trypsin is used as a protease model that cleaves the ethyl or methyl ester of artificial substrates producing ethanol or methanol. Alcohol is detected using an alcohol oxidase enzyme electrode. The H2O2 production that occurs is measured amperometrically. At 30 degrees C, in a 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, the enzyme electrode response for ethanol was calibrated at 3.10(-6)-3.10(-3)M and for methanol from 3.10(-7) to 4.10(-4)M in the cell measurement. Trypsin levels as determined by the proposed method and by a conventional spectrophotometric method are in good agreement when using the same measurement conditions. A detection limit of 10 U.L-1 and a linear calibration curve of 10-100,000 U.L-1 in the sample were obtained. Measuring time for the required trypsin solution concentration was from 4 min (for the most dilute samples) to 1 min (for the most concentrate samples). In a typical experiment, protease measurements did not inactivate the alcohol oxidase on the probe, nor did a more classical use for alcohol detection. The procedure developed could permit any protease estimation on the condition that they hydrolyze ester bonds from synthetic substrate. PMID:8109959

  5. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AGE AND MODERATE ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON SIMULATED DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Fillmore, Mark T.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is a substantial body of literature documenting the deleterious effects of both alcohol consumption and age on driving performance. There is, however, limited work examining the interaction of age and acute alcohol consumption. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine if moderate alcohol doses differentially affect the driving performance of older and younger adults. Methods Healthy older (55 – 70) and younger (25 – 35) adults were tested during a baseline session and again following consumption of one of three beverages (0.0% (placebo), 0.04% or 0.065% target breath alcohol concentration). Measures of driving precision and average speed were recorded. Results Older adults performed more poorly on precision driving measures and drove more slowly than younger adults at baseline. After controlling for baseline performance, interactions between alcohol and age were observed following beverage consumption on two measures of driving precision with older adults exhibiting greater impairment as a result of alcohol consumption. Conclusions These data provide evidence that older adults may be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol on certain measures of driving performance. An investigation of mechanisms accounting for alcohol’s effects on driving in older and younger adults is required. Further evaluation using more complex driving environments is needed to assess the real-world implication of this interaction. PMID:24030469

  6. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  7. Observation of Aqueous Cm(III)/Eu(III) and UO22+ Nanoparticulates at Concentrations Approaching Solubility Limit by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.; Xia, Yuanxian; Buck, Edgar C.

    2006-07-20

    Eu(III), Cm(III) and the uranyl ion display intense fluorescence spectra in the visible range and the spectroscopic characteristics are dependent on the composition and structure of the individual metal complexes. In this work, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in identification of nanoparticles of (1) Eu(III) and Cm(III) in basic solutions (pH > 10) in the presence of organic chelates including EDTA, HEDTA, NTA and oxalate and (2) sodium uranyl phosphate after equilibration with synthetic sodium uranyl phosphate suspensions. Fluorescence spectral and SEM results indicate that Eu(III) and Cm(III) can exist as colloidal nanoparticles in filtered 0.1 M NaOH solutions. Such nanoparticles, which display largely red-shifted fluorescence spectra as compared with the aqueous complexes and unusually short fluorescence lifetimes, contribute to the measured concentrations of Eu(III)/Cm(III) in the aqueous solutions. Similarly, uranyl spectroscopic signatures indicate that the determination of the solubility of uranium phosphate minerals is prone to the presence of uranyl phosphate nanoparticles. Due to the presence of such nanoparticles, the common solubility measurements may only indicate an upper limit of the ''true'' solubility.

  8. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  9. 27 CFR 18.54 - Transfer of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Rendering concentrate unfit for beverage use. Concentrate may be rendered unfit for beverage use by reducing the alcohol content to not more than 15 percent alcohol by volume (if the reduction does not result...

  10. 27 CFR 18.54 - Transfer of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Rendering concentrate unfit for beverage use. Concentrate may be rendered unfit for beverage use by reducing the alcohol content to not more than 15 percent alcohol by volume (if the reduction does not result...

  11. Amazonian mid- to high-latitude glaciation on Mars: Supply-limited ice sources, ice accumulation patterns, and concentric crater fill glacial flow and ice sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    Crater deposit thicknesses (~50 m) cannot fill the craters in a time period compatible with the interpreted formation times of the Pedestal Crater mantled ice layers. We use a representative obliquity solution to drive an ice flow model and show that a cyclical pattern of multiply recurring layers can both fill the craters with a significant volume of ice, as well as transport debris from the crater walls out into the central regions of the craters. The cyclical pattern of waxing and waning mantling layers results in a rippled pattern of surface debris extending out into the crater interiors that would manifest itself as an observable concentric pattern, comparable in appearance to concentric crater fill. In this scenario, the formation of mantling sublimation till layers seals the accumulating ice and sequesters it from significant temperature variations at diurnal, annual and spin-axis/orbital cycle time scales, to produce ancient ice records preserved today below CCF crater floors. Lack of meltwater features associated with concentric crater fill provides evidence that the Late Amazonian climate did not exceed the melting temperature in the mid- to high-latitudes for any significant period of time. Continued sequestration of ice with time in CCF and related deposits (lobate debris aprons and lineated valley fill) further reduces the already supply-limited polar ice sources, suggesting that there has been a declining reservoir of available ice with each ensuing glacial period. Together, these deposits represent a candidate library of climate chemistry and global change dating from the Late Amazonian, and a non-polar water resource for future exploration.

  12. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  13. Microkinetic Modeling of Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on Carbon-Supported Palladium Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Savara, Aditya; Rossetti, Ilenia; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Prati, Laura; Villa, Alberto

    2016-07-14

    Six products are formed from benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd nanoparticles using O2 as the oxidant: benzaldehyde, toluene, benzyl ether, benzene, benzoic acid, and benzyl benzoate. Three experimental parameters were varied here: alcohol concentration, oxygen concentration, and temperature. Microkinetic modeling using a mechanism published recently with surface intermediates was able to produce all 18 trends observed experimentally with mostly quantitative agreement. Approximate analytical equations derived from the microkinetic model for isothermal conditions reproduced the isothermal trends and provided insight. The most important activation energies are Ea2=57.9 kJ mol₋1, Ea5=129 kJ mol₋1, and Ea6=175 kJ mol₋1, which correspond to alcohol dissociation,more » alkyl hydrogenation, and the reaction of alkyl species with alkoxy species. Upper limits for other activation energies were identified. The concepts of a sticking coefficient and steric factor in solution were applied.« less

  14. Vapor compression evaporator concentrates, recovers alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.N.; Robe, K.; Bacchetti, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    This article focuses on presenting a solution to the high energy cost of operating a steam heated, single effect evaporator used by Monsanto Industrial Chemical Company at a plant in Seattle, Wash., to produce vanillin from pulp and paper mill sulfite. Use of the single effect flash evaporator resulted in high energy usage due not only to the ''single effect'' use of steam, but also because energy consumption was reduced only slightly at low operating rates. The solution to this problem was the replacement of the single effect evaporator with a vapor recompression evaporator. Operating for over 1 1/2 years, the vapor recompression evaporator system has had no significant maintenance problems. The system operates with only 1/60th the steam consumption and 15% of the total energy consumption of the previous evaporator and has had no tube fouling. Also, since the distillate is condensed within the evaporator, less cooling water is required, allowing two heat exchangers to be taken out of service. When operating at less than design capacity, the energy consumption drops almost linearly with the feed rate. At low feed rates, a by-pass valve unloads the compressor to reduce energy consumption. Total energy consumption, now 15% of the previous level, results in an estimated pay-back of less than three years.

  15. Alcohol from membrane processed concentrated cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, K.; Kosikowskik, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    A fermentable whey substrate in the form of a high solids permeate was obtained by reconstituting spray-dried whey powder to 36% total solids followed by ultrafiltration to separate the protein. The high solids permeate was demineralized to permit rapid yeast growth. The final permeate with 24% lactose and at pH 4.8 gave high yields of EtOH rapidly upon inoculation with lactose-fermenting yeasts. One yeast species, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415, yielded 108.8 g of EtOH/L, giving 84.3% of the theoretical maximum. Batch EtOH productivity was 3.2 g/L/h. The cost analysis of the ultrafiltration-fermentation process is highly favorable, if evaporation instead of the widely used reverse osmosis is employed for preconcentration of whey.

  16. Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Search The CDC Injury Prevention & Control: Motor Vehicle Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Motor Vehicle Safety State Data and Information State Data Linkage ...

  17. Alcohol and Caffeine: The Perfect Storm

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely believed that caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol, the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are incompletely understood. It is known that both caffeine and alcohol alter adenosine neurotransmission, but the relationship is complex, and may be dose dependent. In this article, we review the available literature on combining caffeine and alcohol. Ethical constraints prohibit laboratory studies that would mimic the high levels of alcohol intoxication achieved by many young people in real-world settings, with or without the addition of caffeine. We propose a possible neurochemical mechanism for the increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences that have been observed in persons who simultaneously consume caffeine. Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. During acute alcohol intake, caffeine antagonizes the “unwanted” effects of alcohol by blocking the adenosine A1 receptors that mediate alcohol's somnogenic and ataxic effects. The A1 receptor–mediated “unwanted” anxiogenic effects of caffeine may be ameliorated by alcohol-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of adenosine. Moreover, by means of interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate the effects of alcohol-induced dopamine release. Chronic alcohol intake decreases adenosine tone. Caffeine may provide a “treatment” for the withdrawal effects of alcohol by blocking the effects of upregulated A1 receptors. Finally, blockade of A2A receptors by caffeine may contribute to the reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:24761263

  18. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  20. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  1. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.

    1982-08-01

    A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau basalts in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at saturation or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are saturated to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are saturated to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the basalt. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the basaltic glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of basaltic glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the basalts are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the basalt fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.

  5. Effects of Pregnancy and Nutritional Status on Alcohol Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolism of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors as well as physiologic state. For a given alcohol intake, the rate of alcohol clearance, which ultimately determines tissue ethanol concentrations, may be the most significant risk factor for many of the detrimen...

  6. Concentrations of drugs determined in blood samples collected from suspected drugged drivers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Burch, Hilary J; Clarke, Elizabeth J; Hubbard, Alison M; Scott-Ham, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This communication reports the blood concentrations of alcohol and drugs from 376 cases of alleged driving under the influence of drugs analysed at the Forensic Science Service Chorley and London laboratories between February 2010 and March 2011. The samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, cocaine, MDMA, opiates, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, methadone and methylmethcathinone (the 4-isomer of which is known as mephedrone). The results were interpreted with respect to the number and type of drugs of abuse detected and the concentrations measured. Alcohol was quantified in 113 cases (30%), and of these a level in excess of the prescribed UK limit for driving of 80 mg% was present in 90 cases. In 80 cases, only the concentration of alcohol was measured, the concentrations of both drugs and alcohol were measured in 33 cases. In the remaining 263 cases, only the concentrations of relevant drugs of abuse were measured. The most common drug of abuse quantified was cocaine which was detected in 92 cases, either as the active drug or as its major metabolite benzoylecgonine, followed by diazepam which was quantified in 76 cases. Concentrations of some new drugs, and drugs rarely reported in driving under the influence cases are also presented. PMID:23622475

  7. High blood alcohol levels in women. The role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism.

    PubMed

    Frezza, M; di Padova, C; Pozzato, G; Terpin, M; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S

    1990-01-11

    After consuming comparable amounts of ethanol, women have higher blood ethanol concentrations than men, even with allowance for differences in size, and are more susceptible to alcoholic liver disease. Recently, we documented significant "first-pass metabolism" of ethanol due to its oxidation by gastric tissue. We report a study of the possible contribution of this metabolism to the sex-related difference in blood alcohol concentrations in 20 men and 23 women. Six in each group were alcoholics. The first-pass metabolism was determined on the basis of the difference in areas under the curves of blood alcohol concentrations after intravenous and oral administration of ethanol (0.3 g per kilogram of body weight). Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also measured in endoscopic gastric biopsies. In nonalcoholic subjects, the first-pass metabolism and gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the women were 23 and 59 percent, respectively, of those in the men, and there was a significant correlation (rs = 0.659) between first-pass metabolism and gastric mucosal alcohol dehydrogenase activity. In the alcoholic men, the first-pass metabolism and gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity were about half those in the nonalcoholic men; in the alcoholic women, the gastric mucosal alcohol dehydrogenase activity was even lower than in the alcoholic men, and first-pass metabolism was virtually abolished. We conclude that the increased bioavailability of ethanol resulting from decreased gastric oxidation of ethanol may contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of women to acute and chronic complications of alcoholism. PMID:2248624

  8. Manganese Regulation of Veratryl Alcohol in White Rot Fungi and Its Indirect Effect on Lignin Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Mester, T.; de Jong, E.; Field, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Many white rot fungi are able to produce de novo veratryl alcohol, which is known to be a cofactor involved in the degradation of lignin, lignin model compounds, and xenobiotic pollutants by lignin peroxidase (LiP). In this study, Mn nutrition was shown to strongly influence the endogenous veratryl alcohol levels in the culture fluids of N-deregulated and N-regulated white rot fungi Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767, respectively. Endogenous veratryl alcohol levels as high as 0.75 mM in Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 and 2.5 mM in P. chrysosporium were observed under Mn-deficient conditions. In contrast, veratryl alcohol production was dramatically decreased in cultures supplemented with 33 or 264 (mu)M Mn. The LiP titers, which were highest in Mn-deficient media, were shown to parallel the endogenous veratryl alcohol levels, indicating that these two parameters are related. When exogenous veratryl alcohol was added to Mn-sufficient media, high LiP titers were obtained. Consequently, we concluded that Mn does not regulate LiP expression directly. Instead, LiP titers are enhanced by the increased production of veratryl alcohol. The well-known role of veratryl alcohol in protecting LiP from inactivation by physiological levels of H(inf2)O(inf2) is postulated to be the major reason why LiP is apparently regulated by Mn. Provided that Mn was absent, LiP titers in Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 increased with enhanced fungal growth obtained by increasing the nutrient N concentration while veratryl alcohol levels were similar in both N-limited and N-sufficient conditions. PMID:16535027

  9. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M L; Nokia, M S; Govindaraju, K P; Shors, T J

    2012-11-01

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, "moderate" amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4% ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of 2 weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08%, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning 2 days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40%. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:22906480

  10. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation the plasma concentration of Sabarubicin and its alcohol metabolite M3 in Chinese small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Peng; Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Feng, Yun; Song, Yuanyuan; Shi, Yuankai; Han, Xiaohong

    2016-07-01

    To support a novel anthracycline agent - Sabarubicin's pharmacokinetics study in Chinese small cell lung cancer patients, a rapid, sensitive, and high throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using Doxorubicin hydrochloride as internal standard (IS) was developed and validated for simultaneously quantifying Sabarubicin and its alcohol metabolite M3 in human plasma. Plasma samples were pre-extracted with n-hexane to remove hydrophobic interferences and the target compounds were extracted into a 1ml mixture of chloroform and isopropanol (1:1, v/v) and separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column with gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was performed by electrospray ionization in the positive ionization mode under multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 644→130 for Sabarubicin, m/z 646→333.2 for M3, and m/z 544→360 for IS. For Sabarubicin and M3, calibration curves over 2-400ng/ml and 0.5-100ng/ml could achieve excellent linearity respectively(r>0.99). Intra- and inter-day precisions were 1.5%-9.1% and 2.2%-12.8%, and accuracy were -9.6% to 0.7% and -4.8% to 5.9% for Sabarubicin and M3 respectively at four concentration levels. The mean recovery for Sabarubicin was 62.4%, 71.9% for M3, and 58.8% for IS. This method was completely validated and successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics study of Sabarubicin and M3 in Chinese small cell lung cancer patients. PMID:27243582

  11. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates

    MedlinePlus

    ... estimates are based on data from NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Unfortunately, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ... involvement); and NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590 ...

  12. Polycondensation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation kinetics is considered.

  13. Activation and injury of Clostridium perfringens spores by alcohols.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, S E; Blankenship, L C

    1985-01-01

    The activation properties of Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8679 spores were demonstrated by increases in CFU after heating in water or aqueous alcohols. The temperature range for maximum activation, which was 70 to 80 degrees C in water, was lowered by the addition of alcohols. The response at a given temperature was dependent on the time of exposure and the alcohol concentration. The monohydric alcohols and some, but not all, of the polyhydric alcohols could activate spores at 37 degrees C. The concentration of a monohydric alcohol that produced optimal spore activation was inversely related to its lipophilic character. Spore injury, which was manifested as a dependence on lysozyme for germination and colony formation, occurred under some conditions of alcohol treatment that exceeded those for optimal spore activation. Treatment with aqueous solutions of monohydric alcohols effectively activated C. perfringens spores and suggests a hydrophobic site for spore activation. PMID:2864897

  14. Recent developments in alcoholism:genetic transmission.

    PubMed

    Goldman, D

    1993-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of developments in the study of genetic factors in vulnerability in alcoholism. The focus is on recent developments, including heritability studies in twins and transmission studies in families, both of which have continued to reveal evidence for a substantial role for genetic factors but also for etiologic complexity and variation in vulnerability across generations and across cultures. Studies are discussed which utilized psychophysiological and neurochemical markers for alcoholism for analysis of genetic association, transmission, and linkage. These markers include the low P300 event-related potential, sensitivity to ethanol's intoxicating and euphoric effects, platelet adenylate cyclase, and neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations. Although it is highly likely that many alcoholism-associated physiologic phenotypes are secondary traits, these approaches have increased the specificity of genetic analyses and genetic analyses are clarifying their relationship to alcoholism. For example, early efforts to study, in families, the co-occurrence of the P300 marker and alcoholism have yielded results indicating that the P300 abnormality precedes significant exposure to alcohol and that relatives of alcoholics are more likely to have this trait. In the area of animal models, two nonhuman primate species, the vervet monkey and the rhesus macaque, were shown to willingly consume alcohol to intoxicating blood levels. Also, linkage studies using the quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping strategy were attempted for phenotypes relevant for alcoholism. The QTL strategy is theoretically capable of identifying determinant genes which contribute only a small portion of the variance. In human linkage studies, a genetic association was found to the DRD2 dopamine receptor. The DRD2 finding generated controversy, as a number of other groups failed to replicate it, and also focused attention on the advantages and pitfalls of the population association

  15. 27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... any such products; or (iii) The direct effect of the sale, purchase, offer or contract is to...

  16. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... transactions in interstate or foreign commerce in any such products; or (iii) The direct effect of...

  17. 27 CFR 10.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 10.4 Section 10.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... direct effect of the inducement is to prevent, deter, hinder, or restrict other persons from selling...

  18. 27 CFR 8.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 8.4 Section 8.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...) The direct effect of the requirement is to prevent, deter, hinder, or restrict other persons...

  19. It's not just the alcohol: gender, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence in Mae La refugee camp, Thailand, 2009.

    PubMed

    Ezard, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol use is common in many conflict-displaced populations; population perspectives of alcohol use have not been well studied. Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 97 people (September-December 2009) in Mae La, a long-standing refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border, and analyzed thematically. Intimate partner violence (IPV) emerged as a prominent theme, with four subthemes: alcohol use is subject to strongly gendered social controls; alcohol use is changing under the pressures of displacement; IPV is an emergent alcohol-related harm; the relationship between IPV and alcohol is complex. The study's limitations are noted, and future practice and research directions are discussed. PMID:24377756

  20. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  1. Subjective Responses to Alcohol Prime Event-Specific Alcohol Consumption and Predict Blackouts and Hangover*

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol and the occurrence of blackouts and hangover are associated with the development of alcohol-use disorders. As such, subjective responses to alcohol, blackouts, and hangover may share a biological vulnerability to excessive alcohol consumption. The purpose of the current study was to examine subjective responses to alcohol as predictors of estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC), blackouts, and hangover for a single heavy drinking event. Method: Data were collected on 150 (50% female) college students at a large, public university who reported consuming alcohol during their 21st birthday celebration. Using semi-structured interviews and self-report measures, subjective responses to alcohol (at midpoint of a 21st birthday celebration) were examined as predictors of final estimated BAC, blackouts, and hangover. Results: Stimulant effects reported for the midpoint of the drinking event predicted final estimated BAC. Both stimulant and sedative alcohol effects directly predicted blackouts during the drinking event and the occurrence of a hangover. Neither stimulant nor sedative effects were mediated by final estimated BAC. Conclusions: Retrospective reports of subjective responses to alcohol were associated with the level of intoxication, blackouts, and hangover during a heavy drinking event. Findings therefore suggest the utility of incorporating subjective responses to alcohol into event-specific interventions that are designed to reduce or prevent heavy episodic drinking. PMID:19515300

  2. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  3. Alcohol Measurement Methodology in Epidemiology: Recent Advances and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss measurement issues in survey assessment of alcohol consumption for epidemiological studies. Methods The following areas are considered: implications of cognitive studies of question answering like self-referenced schemata of drinking, reference period and retrospective recall, as well as the assets and liabilities of types of current (e.g., food frequency, quantity frequency, graduated frequencies, and heavy drinking indicators) and lifetime drinking measures. Finally we consider units of measurement and improving measurement by detailing the ethanol content of drinks in natural settings. Results and conclusions Cognitive studies suggest inherent limitations in the measurement enterprise, yet diary studies show promise of broadly validating methods that assess a range of drinking amounts per occasion; improvements in survey measures of drinking in the life course are indicated; attending in detail to on and off-premise drink pour sizes and ethanol concentrations of various beverages shows promise of narrowing the coverage gap plaguing survey alcohol measurement. PMID:18422826

  4. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  5. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  6. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  7. Glutamate signaling proteins and tyrosine hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Karolewicz, Beata; Johnson, Laurel; Szebeni, Katalin; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    It has been postulated that alcoholism is associated with abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission. This study examined the density of glutamate NMDA receptor subunits and its associated proteins in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) in deceased alcoholic subjects. Our previous research indicated that the NMDA receptor in the human LC is composed of obligatory NR1 and regulatory NR2C subunits. At synapses, NMDA receptors are stabilized through interactions with postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95). PSD-95 provides structural and functional coupling of the NMDA receptor with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), an intracellular mediator of NMDA receptor activation. LC tissue was obtained from 10 alcohol-dependent subjects and 8 psychiatrically healthy controls. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2C subunits, as well as PSD-95 and nNOS, were measured using Western blotting. In addition we have examined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of norepinephrine. The amount of NR1 was lower in the rostral (−30%) and middle (−41%)portions of the LC of alcoholics as compared to control subjects. No differences in the amounts of NR2C, PSD-95, nNOS and TH were detected comparing alcoholic to control subjects. Lower levels of NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the LC implicates altered glutamate-norepinephrine interactions in alcoholism. PMID:17481661

  8. Alcohol and gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    MacMath, T L

    1990-11-01

    Ethanol has experimentally been shown to be "ulcerogenic," independent of gastric intraluminal pH. Ethanol remains ulcerogenic despite antisecretory doses of H2-receptor antagonists. Low-dose alcohol stimulates acid secretion in man, an effect possibly mediated by histamine or gastrin. High-dose alcohol reduces intraluminal acid by damaging mucosa, thereby enhancing back diffusion of hydrogen ion, and also by direct damage to oxyntic (parietal) cells. Ethanol is capable of increasing gastric mucosal permeability as evidenced by the increase in back diffusion (increases intraluminal pH) and by the characteristic fall in transmucosal potential difference which reflects surface cell layer exfoliation. This exfoliation may offer an explanation for the potentiating effect of alcohol on gastric mucosal injury when it is ingested simultaneously with other gastric irritants. Ethanol of greater than 20% concentration can rapidly destroy the gastric mucus-bicarbonate layer, which may be a defense layer for both the inhibition of back diffusion and bicarbonate neutralization of existing acid. Ethanol depletes sulfhydryl compounds in gastric mucosa. These sulfhydryls may be necessary for stabilization of cell membranes as well as for binding free radicals. Ethanol is damaging to the mucosal microcirculation. The rapidity of ethanol-induced damage makes it unlikely that the process is purely ischemic. The cytoprotective phenomenon, as this brief literature review suggests, is a multifactorial, dynamic process. The complex interplay of mucosal defense factors, endogenous and exogenous stimuli, induction of humoral responses, and ultimately the success or failure of cellular repair, is unlikely to be solely mediated by endogenous prostaglandins. Although prostaglandins are unquestionably significant to cytoprotection, the supporting and, perhaps, major roles of leukotrienes, sulfhydryls, histamines, and like substances cannot be ignored. Several innovative therapeutic agents

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. Identification of alcohol abuse and alcoholism with biological parameters.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Mohs, M E; Eskelson, C; Sampliner, R E; Hartmann, B

    1986-08-01

    The prevalence and incidence of heavy alcohol consumption are major problems which have been increasing in many countries in recent years. It is crucial for physicians to consistently identify early drinking problems as well as the various end disease states in order to minimize suffering and maximize recovery. This paper reviews the evolutionary development of clinical tools for detection of alcohol abuse. The focus is primarily on clinical/biochemical indicators of alcohol abuse, emphasizing but not limited to changes in hematological characteristics, liver enzyme activity, lipids, immune function factors, hormones, neurological factors, and some physically based tests. Use of test combinations and sophisticated statistical analysis of pattern changes in test batteries evidence increased diagnostic efficiency. PMID:2875672

  11. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  12. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  13. Alcohol and migraine: trigger factor, consumption, mechanisms. A review.

    PubMed

    Panconesi, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates the importance of alcohol as a migraine trigger factor, the prevalence of alcohol consumers and the mechanism of headache provocation. A MEDLINE search from 1988 to October 2007 was performed for "headache and alcohol", "headache and wine", "migraine and alcohol" and "migraine and wine". In retrospective studies, about one-third of the migraine patients reported alcohol as a migraine trigger, at least occasionally, but only 10% of the migraine patients reported alcohol as a migraine trigger frequently. Regional differences were reported, perhaps depending in part on alcohol habits. No differences were found between migraine and tension headache and different genders. However, prospective studies limit considerably the importance of alcohol as a trigger. Recent studies show that migraine patients consume less alcohol than controls. Red wine was reported to be the principal trigger of migraine, but other studies show that white wine or other drinks are more involved. Then, the discussion based on the different composition of the various alcoholic beverages, in order to discover the content of alcoholic drinks responsible for migraine attack, reflects this uncertainty. Biogenic amines, sulphites, flavonoid phenols, 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms and vasodilating effects are discussed. The fact that few headache patients cannot tolerate some alcoholic drinks does not justify the consideration that alcohol is a major trigger and the suggestion of abstinence. In fact, low doses of alcohol can have a beneficial effect on patients such as migraineurs, who were reported to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:18231712

  14. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  15. The Burden of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual’s genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community that determine how accessible and affordable alcohol is. Consequences of college drinking include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death. This article examines recent findings about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies. PMID:24881329

  16. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Felix H.; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol toxicity in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. Elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolster these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607

  17. [Clinical and biological specificities of female alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2002-01-01

    Even though the number of alcohol-dependent women is only about 1/3 of the number of alcoholic men, the alcoholism in women, by its clinical features and its course, is the source of therapeutic and economic stakes, particularly in young women among whom an increase of alcohol consumption related problems is reported. Another specificity of the female alcoholism is the lack of care seeking, whereas women have tendency globally to solicit more often care structures than men. Women represent only 1/4 of the overall treated alcoholic patients. The main explanation for this phenomenon is the pejorative social and moral connotation of the female alcoholism, with frequent feelings of shame and deep guilt, that also account for the frequency of hidden and lonely alcohol intakes. The female alcoholism is essentially characterized by an increased vulnerability to the toxic effects of the alcohol, whereas the pathological consumption starts later and with smaller daily amounts. Most studies have revealed a higher vulnerability in women to somatic complications directly attributable to the alcohol organs toxicity, such as hepatic cirrhosis and cardiovascular complications (high blood pressure, non obstructive cardiomyopathy). The reported brain morphological abnormalities could also occur more precociously in alcoholic women than in men. A decreased corpus callosum size among alcoholic women, but not in alcoholic men, was thus found in a recent study, compared with healthy controls. Among the different hypothesis proposed to explain this increased alcohol toxicity, the most incriminated is higher alcohol blood rates for the same ingested amount, mainly of the fact of a lower size with a weaker proportion of the bodily total water, but also of weaker concentrations of gastro-intestinal tract ADH, or of a longer metabolism during some menstrual phases. Indeed, some experimental studies on animal showed that the alcohol toxic effects may occur only from a threshold of alcohol

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  19. Brown's second alcohol fuel cookbook

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructions are given for making and using various types of alcohol fuels in internal combustion engines. The distillation column is treated at some length as well as stripper columns for sugar substances, reflux ratio and proof concentration, condensers, and junkyard steam boilers. Safety features are stressed as well as plant layout. Enzymes for alcohol production and starch fermentation are described as well as commercial enzyme production, continuous fermentation, distillation of crude oil, alcohol production from cellulose (sawdust), and preparation of alcohol fuel and other products (butanol, acetone, ether) without distillation. Production of dry ice (solidified CO/sub 2/) is described. The conversion of carburetor jets in auto engines for different fuel blends, and the use of heat risers and pre-heaters to facilitate engine starting are discussed at length. In an appendix, a patent for production of acetone and alcohol by bacteriological action is included as well as congressional testimony on a hearing dealing with biomass, renewable fuel sources, fuel economy of engines and related topics. (MJJ)

  20. Solution thermodynamics for alkoxy phenols in alcohol and in water-alcohol systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beezer, A.E.; Hunter, W.H.; Lima, M.C.P.; Volpe, P.L.O.

    1986-04-01

    Solubilities have been measured for m-alkoxyphenols in water-alcohol mixtures. The alcohols ranged from the co-solvent methanol to the co-solute 1-octanol, and each alcohol was present at the saturating concentration of 1-octanol in water viz. 0.00316M. Plots of solubility vs. carbon number of the alcohols show discontinuities. Enthalpies of solution in these same solvent systems have also been measured. The enthalpies of solution and the derived enthalpies of transfer both support the observations on solubilities. The results are discussed on the basis of solvent-solute interactions and in terms of solute volumes.

  1. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L. PMID:26964003

  2. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  3. [Psychiatric complications of alcoholism: alcohol withdrawal syndrome and other psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Cláudia; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence

    2004-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is an acute condition secondary to total or partial reduction of alcohol consumption, characterized by self limited signs and symptoms and different degrees of severity. It can be complicated by several clinical and/or other psychiatric related problems. The objective of this article is to review the most important psychiatric complications to alcohol withdrawal syndrome as well as other psychiatric disorders associated with alcohol dependence as Wernicke Korsakoff and Marchiava Bignami syndromes. We aim to promote early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, minimizing morbidity and mortality associated with them. PMID:15729445

  4. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…

  5. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  6. Alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence by alcoholic men: comparing violent and nonviolent conflicts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christopher M; Winters, Jamie; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William; Murphy, Marie

    2005-03-01

    Alcoholic men and their relationship partners were interviewed about a conflict in which physical assault occurred and 1 in which psychological aggression occurred without physical assault. The interview assessed the quantity of alcohol consumed prior to each conflict, other drug use, and the topics, location, timing, duration, and speed of escalation for each conflict. The number of standard drinks consumed by the husband in the previous 12 hr was significantly higher prior to violent versus nonviolent conflicts for both self- and collateral reports, as was blood alcohol concentration estimated from self-report. Other drug use was not significantly different. Greater drinking by wives prior to violent conflicts was found in some analyses. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that alcohol consumption is a proximal risk factor for partner violence in alcoholic men. PMID:15783276

  7. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  8. A morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Raut, Jayant S; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Regulation of morphogenesis through the production of chemical signalling molecules such as isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol, E-nerolidol and farnesol is reported in Candida albicans. The present study focuses on the effect of ethyl alcohol on C. albicans dimorphism and biofilm development. Ethyl alcohol inhibited germ tube formation induced by the four standard inducers in a concentration-dependent manner. The germ tube inhibitory concentration (4%) did not have any effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans cells. Ethyl alcohol also inhibited the elongation of germ tubes. Four percentage of ethyl alcohol significantly inhibited biofilm development on polystyrene and silicone surfaces. We suggest a potential morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol, which may influence dissemination, virulence and establishment of infection. PMID:21605190

  9. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  10. Salivary lysozyme in smoking alcohol dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the concentration and output of salivary lysozyme. Thirty seven men participated in the study, including 17 male smoking alcohol-dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS), and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking. The level of lysozyme was assessed by the radial immunodiffusion method. Significantly lower lysozyme output in the AS group compared to the CNS group was found. Moreover, gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in the CNS group. It appeared that the reduced salivary lysozyme output was more likely the result of ethanol action than smoking. In conclusion, persons addicted to alcohol and nicotine have a poorer periodontal status than non-smoking social drinkers, which may partially be due to the diminished protective effects of lysozyme present in the saliva. PMID:23264227

  11. Effects of a one year physical activity program on serum C Terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) concentrations among mobility limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: C terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) has been proposed as a potential circulating biomarker for predicting changes in physical function among older adults. To determine the effect of a one year PA intervention on changes in CAF concentrations and to evaluate baseline and longitudinal associat...

  12. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  13. Abnormal evaporation rate of ethanol from low concentration aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Grimshaw, J. ); O'Hare, K.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Evaporation of aqueous ethanol solutions was studied in a wind tunnel using a circular cell design which ensured control of all the major conditions of mass transfer. At lower concentrations of alcohol, the evaporation rate of alcohol per unit of alcohol showed a dramatic increase over that at higher concentrations. Various explanations for the effect were sought but it was concluded that preferential adsorption of alcohol at the interface in low alcohol concentrations solutions as suggested by the Gibbs adsorption allowed ethanol to evaporate more readily compared to that obtained at higher concentrations. 55 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  15. [The pancreas and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1985-07-20

    The action of acute and chronic administration of ethanol on pancreatic exocrine secretion in humans and several animal species is reviewed. If the data concerning the secretory action of ethanol on the pancreas are to the property assessed, several experimental variables have to be considered. Acute intravenous administration of ethanol inhibits basal and hormonally stimulated pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate and protein in nonalcoholic humans and most species of animals tested. Oral or intraduodenal ethanol causes moderate stimulation of pancreatic bicarbonate and enzyme secretion. Since anticholinergic agents and truncal vagotomy diminish the ethanol-induced inhibition of pancreatic secretion in the intact animal, it is possible that the action of ethanol on the pancreas is at least partly mediated by inhibitory cholinergic mechanisms. The action of ethanol on the pancreas may also be mediated by release of gastrointestinal hormones. Intravenous and oral administration of ethanol releases gastrin in dogs but not in humans. Pancreatic polypeptide is unlikely to be the hormonal mediator of the ethanol-induced inhibition of exocrine pancreatic secretion in humans and dogs, since ethanol does not release pancreatic polypeptide. The main secretory changes induced by chronic alcoholism in humans and dogs are increased basal secretion of pancreatic enzymes and decreased basal bicarbonate output, and these secretory changes may favour the occurrence of protein precipitates which are believed to be the first lesion of chronic pancreatitis in man. A decrease in the concentration of "pancreatic stone protein" in pancreatic juice may favour the development of protein precipitates in chronic alcoholic patients. PMID:3901251

  16. Limitations and design considerations for donor–acceptor systems in luminescent solar concentrators: the effect of coupling-induced red-edge absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Rowan W.; Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Webb, James E. A.; Falber, Alexander; Thordarson, Pall; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use luminescence and waveguiding to concentrate photons within thin dielectric slabs for use in photovoltaic, lighting, and photobioreactor applications. Donor–acceptor systems of organic chromophores are widely used in LSCs to broaden the sunlight absorption range and attempt to reduce loss-inducing reabsorption by the emitting chromophore. We use raytrace simulations across a large parameter space to model the performance of LSCs containing two novel donor–acceptor trimers based on the perylene moiety. We find that under certain conditions, trimers outperform single-dye LSCs as expected. However, at higher concentrations, a slight increase in red-edge absorption by the trimers increases reabsorption and has a deleterious effect on LSC performance. This underscores the large effect that even small changes in the red edge can have, and may discourage the use of donor–acceptor schemes with high interchromophore coupling that promotes red-edge absorption. Finally, we show that for a LSC-PV pair, selecting a PV cell that is well-matched with the LSC emission spectrum has a large effect on the flux gain of the system, and that the systems studied here are well-matched to emerging PV technologies.

  17. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  19. Treatment of alcohol use disorders in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Barrio, Pablo; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is one of the leading causes of disease and disability in almost all European countries. Among the alcohol-related diseases, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common. At present, alcohol is the most frequent cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world. The cornerstone of treatment for ALD is achieving total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse; medical and surgical treatments for ALD are limited when drinking continues. This narrative review summarizes current treatments for AUDs with a particular emphasis to the treatment of AUDs in patients with ALD. Medical management, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions are analyzed, underlying limits and options in AUD patients. Finally, this review discusses the most appropriate setting for the management of AUD patients with advanced liver disease as well as the indications for liver transplantation in AUD patients. PMID:27155530

  20. Virus production in phosphorus-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulated by a supply of naturally low concentrations of different phosphorus sources, far into the lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Maat, Douwe S; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; Witte, Harry J; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-09-01

    Earlier studies show that the proliferation of phytoplankton viruses can be inhibited by depletion of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; orthophosphate). In natural marine waters, phytoplankton phosphorus (P) availability is, however, largely determined by the supply rate of SRP (e.g. through remineralization) and potentially by the source of P as well (i.e. the utilization of soluble non-reactive P; SNP). Here we show how a steady low supply of P (mimicking natural P recycling) to virally infected P-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulates virus proliferation. Independent of the degree of P limitation prior to infection (0.32 and 0.97μmax chemostat cultures), SRP supply resulted in 2-fold higher viral burst sizes (viruses lysed per host cell) as compared with no addition (P starvation). Delaying these spikes during the infection cycle showed that the added SRP was utilized for extra M. pusilla virus (MpV) production far into the lytic cycle (18 h post-infection). Moreover, P-limited M. pusilla utilized several SNP compounds with high efficiency and with the same extent of burst size stimulation as for SRP. Finally, addition of virus-free MpV lysate (representing a complex SNP mixture) to newly infected cells enhanced MpV production, implicating host-associated alkaline phosphatase activity, and highlighting its important role in oligotrophic environments. PMID:27316561

  1. Glycerol clearance in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, D G; Alberti, K G; Wright, R; Blain, P G

    1982-01-01

    Glycerol clearance was studied by a primed dose-constant infusion technique in 14 patients with alcoholic liver disease and six normal control subjects. Fasting blood glycerol concentrations were raised in the alcoholic subjects (0.09 +/- 0.01 vs 0.06 +/- 0.01 mumol/l, p less than 0.05) and glycerol clearance was impaired (24.5 +/- 1.9 vs 37.5 +/- 3.2 ml/kg/min, p less than 0.005). Endogenous production rate of glycerol and distribution space at steady state were similar in alcoholic and control subjects. The metabolic clearance rate of glycerol correlated negatively with basal glycerol concentrations. Thus tissue uptake of glycerol is impaired in liver disease. As glycerol is metabolised primarily in the liver by conversion to glucose, these data suggest a defect of gluconeogenesis in alcoholic liver disease. PMID:7076002

  2. [Acute lethal alcohol intoxication (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kringsholm, B

    1976-01-01

    In 14,744 autopsy cases from an 18-year period 92 cases (of which 7 were ruled out because of decomposition were observed in which death was supposed to be due to direct acute alcoholic intoxication. In the police reports 81 persons were designated as chronic alcoholics or abusers of spirits. The blood alcohol level ranged between 2.04 and 4.92 o/oo. The cases studied were divided into two groups, one with low and the other with high lethal alcohol level. Fatty liver and cirrhosis were found with identical frequency in the two groups, whereas cardiac hypertrophy of obscure origin occurred markedly more often in the group with low lethal blood alcohol level. On the basis the possible mechanism of death in the cases with cardiac hypertrophy is discussed. Finally, the relation between the blood and urine alcohol concentrations observed in 72 cases is discussed. On the assumption that the water phase of the blood was 75 per cent of the total blood, death occurred in the persons without cardiac hypertrophy with fairly identical frequency either in the phase of absorption or the phase of elimination, whereas in the persons with cardiac hypertrophy death most often occurred in the phase of absorption. These statements should, however, be taken with some reservation, partly because the water phase of the blood may vary considerably post mortem (60-90 per cent) and partly because the urine alcohol concentration depends on serval variable factors. PMID:137612

  3. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  4. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Facilitated Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Sprunger, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health problem that requires clear and testable etiological models that may translate into effective interventions. While alcohol intoxication and a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption are robust correlates of IPV perpetration, there has been limited research that examines the mediating mechanisms of how alcohol potentiates IPV. We provide a theoretical and methodological framework for researchers to conceptualize how alcohol intoxication causes IPV, and propose innovative laboratory methods that directly test mediational mechanisms. We conclude by discussing how these innovations may lead to the development of interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol-related IPV. PMID:26059921

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  9. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  11. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  12. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  13. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  16. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  17. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  18. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  19. Habit Formation: Implications for Alcoholism Research

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as “goal-directed” (action-outcome) and “habitual” (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming

  20. Alcohol-induced drying of carbon nanotubes and its implications for alcohol/water separation: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xingling; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Bo; Xiu, Peng; Tu, Yusong

    2013-05-01

    Alcohols are important products in chemical industry, but separating them from their aqueous solutions is very difficult due to the hydrophilic nature of alcohols. Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we observe a striking nanoscale drying phenomenon and suggest an energy-saving and efficient approach toward alcohol/water separation by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We use various common linear alcohols including C1-C6 1-alcohols and glycerol for demonstration (the phenol is also used as comparison). Our simulations show that when SWNTs are immersed in aqueous alcohols solutions, although the alcohols concentration is low (1 M), all kinds of alcohols can induce dehydration (drying) of nanotubes and accumulate inside wide [(13, 13)] and narrow [(6, 6) or (7, 7)] SWNTs. In particular, most kinds of alcohols inside the narrow SWNTs form nearly uniform 1D molecular wires. Detailed energetic analyses reveal that the preferential adsorption of alcohols over water inside nanotubes is attributed to the stronger dispersion interactions of alcohols with SWNTs than water. Interestingly, we find that for the wide SWNT, the selectivity for 1-alcohols increases with the number of alcohol's carbon atoms (Ncarbon) and exhibits an exponential law with respect to Ncarbon for C1-C5 1-alcohols; for narrow SWNTs, the selectivity for 1-alcohols is very high for methanol, ethanol, and propanol, and reaches a maximum when Ncarbon = 3. The underlying physical mechanisms and the implications of these observations for alcohol/water separation are discussed. Our findings provide the possibility for efficient dehydration of aqueous alcohols (and other hydrophilic organic molecules) by using SWNT bundles/membranes.

  1. [Misuse of alcohol and new drug treatments].

    PubMed

    Paille, François

    2011-12-01

    Three drugs are currently marketed in France in the prevention of relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Their efficacy though real remains limited and it is useful to develop other molecules. Some products are at present under evaluation, and are already or could be used in the near future in the treatment of alcohol dependence: baclofene, oxybate de sodium (GHB), nalmefene, topiramate, ondansetron and aripiprazole. The available studies on these molecules are still limited and the results sometimes clinically modest. Nevertheless, some of them open interesting future prospects. If there is no big revolution to wait in the short term in the treatment of alcohol dependence, we can consider some interesting orientations: better effectiveness on alcohol consumption, but also change of paradigm concerning the objectives and the methods of this treatment: reduction of consumption versus abstinence, treatment on request, choice of the molecule guided by objective criteria (psychosocial, biological, genetic...). PMID:22288352

  2. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents several variations on a demonstration in which alcohol vapors are combusted in large small-necked bottles, causing a blue flame to shoot from the bottle's mouth. Describes variations with different pure alcohols, temperature, alcohol/water solution concentration, oxygen concentration, type of container, and the addition of salt for color.…

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of the motion of colloidal nanoparticles in a solute concentration gradient and a comparison to the continuum limit.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Koplik, Joel; Maldarelli, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Chemical-mechanical transduction mechanisms which can actuate the movement of colloids through liquids are highly sought after as engines to propel miniaturized micro- and nanobots. One mechanism involves harnessing the long-range van der Waals attractive forces between the colloid and solute molecules dissolved in the liquid around the particle. If a concentration gradient of this solute is applied across the particle, then the imbalance in the van der Waals attraction drives the particle towards the higher concentration of solute. We present a molecular dynamics simulation using Lennard-Jones interactions between molecules of the solvent, solute, and colloid cluster which include short-range repulsive and long-range attractive potentials. The simulations demonstrate that a solute gradient can propel nanosized colloids, and that the velocity decreases with the colloid size. The solute-colloid short-range repulsive interactions are observed to be restricted to a region of specifically adsorbed solutes on the particle surface which are symmetrically adsorbed and do not contribute to the motion. The size of this region provides a cutoff for a continuum level description of the motion, and with this cutoff, continuum calculations are in excellent agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results, completing a description of the propulsion from the nano- to the microscale. PMID:24237522

  4. Relation between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness: A cross-sectional study of middle-aged Japanese women and men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kita, Toshiko; Okada, Eisaku; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data indicate the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mobility and mortality. However, studies assessing the relationship between alcohol consumption and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness have provided inconsistent results. In addition, data regarding the effect of alcohol on arterial stiffness in women has been limited. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between alcohol consumption and PWV among female and male workers in Japan. Study participants were local government employees in Hokkaido, Japan, who underwent annual health check-ups. All data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The average daily alcohol consumption of the previous month, based on the alcohol concentration of each beverage type (g/day, ethanol equivalent), was estimated according to the frequency and amount of consumption. Data from 3893 participants (812 women and 3081 men) were analyzed. In women, non-drinkers had significantly higher PWV than women who consumed <10 g/day of alcohol. In men, compared with those who reportedly drank 20-39 g/day, non-drinkers and those who drank <20 g/day and ≥60 g/day had significantly higher PWV. Alcohol consumption showed a J-shaped association with PWV in men (p for quadratic term < 0.036) and marginally in women (p < 0.056). The results of stratified analyses by age groups showed a significant J-shaped association, which was most notable for men ≥45 years (p < 0.005). In middle-aged Japanese women and men, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower PWV, which in turn correlates with a reduction in vascular stiffness. PMID:24239150

  5. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  6. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  7. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  8. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  9. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  11. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  12. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  13. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  14. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  15. Alcohol expectancies and behavioral and emotional responses to placebo versus alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, C T; Noll, R T; Wood, M D

    1992-04-01

    Forty normal drinking males were recruited for a study of "responses to alcohol." Following the completion of an alcohol use questionnaire that included measures of expectancies of alcohol effects, subjects were randomly assigned to either receive the actual 0.6 g/kg dose of ethanol to bring their peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to near 0.075 g/dl or to receive a placebo dose. Neither the subject nor the tester was aware of the condition to which the subject has been assigned. Prior to dosing and at repeated 1/2-hr intervals following dosing, subjects were tested on a battery of motor coordination, perceptual speed, reaction time, and mood measures. Significant alcohol effects were found for several measures, but the only significant interaction of individual differences in expectancies of alcohol effects with alcohol dosing occurred for self-perceived intoxication. Subjects who expected more disinhibition after alcohol dosing and who were administered alcohol reported more intoxication than those expecting less disinhibition, while no expectancy effect was found for subjects administered the placebo. PMID:1590547

  16. Alcohol Induced Facial Dysmorphology in C57BL/6 Mouse Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Bruce; Vinci-Booher, Sophia; Wetherill, Leah; Ward, Richard; Goodlett, Charles; Zhou, Feng C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which includes a range of developmental deficits. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe form of FASD and can be diagnosed with pathognomonic facial features (smooth philtrum, short palpebral fissure, and thin upper vermilion). However, many children with developmental damage due to prenatal alcohol exposure exhibit no, or only a subset, of the above features, making diagnosis difficult. This study explored novel analyses to quantify the effect of a known dose of alcohol on specific facial measurements in sub-strains C57BL/B6J (B6J) and C57BL/6NHsd (B6N) mice. Mouse dams were provided alcohol (Alc) consisting of 4.8% (v/v) alcohol in a liquid diet for 16 days pre-pregnancy, chow and water diet during mating, and the alcohol liquid diet reinstated on gestational days 7(E7) to E17. Treatment controls included a pair-fed (PF) group given matched volumes of an alcohol-free liquid diet made isocalorically, and a group given ad lib access to lab chow and water (Chow). Maternal diet intake (Alc and PF), blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), embryo weights, and 15 morphometric facial measurements for E17 embryos were analyzed. B6N dams drank more alcohol during pregnancy and generated higher BAC than B6J dams. Both the Alc and PF treatments induced significant reductions in embryo weights relative to Chow in both sub-strains. Alcohol treatments produced significant changes, relative to controls, in four of the 15 facial measures for the B6N sub-strain, but only in two measures for the B6J sub-strain. Discriminant analysis demonstrated successful classification of the B6N alcohol-exposed versus non-alcohol exposed embryos with high sensitivity (86%), and specificity (80%), and overall classification (total correct 83%), while, B6J mice yielded sensitivity of 80%, specificity 78%, and overall correct classification in 79%. In addition, B6N mice showed significantly more effects of

  17. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  18. Effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink and alcohol alone on subjective intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Andrea; Hemberger, Sophie Helene; Loidl, Alexandra; Dufek, Stephanie; Pablik, Eleonore; Fodor, Sugarka; Herle, Marion; Aufricht, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the combination of caffeine-containing drinks together with alcohol might reduce the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication-the so-called "masking effect". In this study, we aimed to review the effects of alcohol in combination with caffeine or energy drink with special focus on the "masking effect". Fifty-two healthy male volunteers were analysed concerning breath alcohol concentration and subjective sensations of intoxication using a 18 item Visual Analogue Scale in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, four treatments cross-over trial after consumption of (A) placebo, (B) alcohol (vodka 37.5% at a dose of 46.5 g ethanol), (C) alcohol in combination with caffeine at a dose of 80 mg (equivalent to one 250 ml can of energy drink) and (D) alcohol in combination with energy drink at a dose of 250 ml (one can). Primary variables were headache, weakness, salivation and motor coordination. Out of four primary variables, weakness and motor coordination showed a statistically significant difference between alcohol and non-alcohol group, out of 14 secondary variables, five more variables (dizziness, alterations in sight, alterations in walking, agitation and alterations in speech) also showed significant differences due mainly to contrasts with the non-alcohol group. In none of these end points, could a statistically significant effect be found for the additional ingestion of energy drink or caffeine on the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication. This within-subjects study does not confirm the presence of a "masking effect" when combining caffeine or energy drink with alcohol. PMID:24178765

  19. Simulation of Transport and Reaction Using Random Walks: Reactions Without Concentrations and the Automatic Simulation of Drastically Different Thermodynamic--- Versus Diffusion---Limited Reaction Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. A.; Meerschaert, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    We extend the advantages of Lagrangian random walk particle tracking (RWPT) methods that have long been used to simulate advection and dispersion in highly heterogeneous media. By formulating dissolution as a random, independent decay process, the classical continuum rate law is recovered. A novel formulation of the random precipitation process requires a consideration of the probability that two nearby particles will occupy the same differential volume in a given time period. This depends on local mixing (as by diffusion) and the total domain particle number density, which are fixed and therefore easy to calculate. The result is that the effective reaction rate follows two regimes. First, for high thermodynamic reaction probability and/or fast mixing, the classical continuum rate laws are reproduced. These are coded in the Gillespie method. This implies an exponentially fast approach to equilibrium. Second, for diffusion (mixing) limited reaction rates, equilibrium is approached much more slowly, following a power law that differs for 1-, 2-, or 3-d. At long enough times, the classical law of mass action for equilibrium reactions is reproduced, in an ensemble sense, for either rate regime. The same number of parameters for A+B ⇌ C are needed in a probabilistic versus continuum reaction simulation---one each for forward and backward probabilities that correspond to continuum thermodynamic rates. The random nature of the simulations allows for significant disequilibrium in any given region at any time that is independent of the numerical details such as time stepping or particle density. This is exemplified by nearby or intermingled groups of reactants and little or no product---a result that is often noted in the field that is difficult to reconcile with continuum methods or coarse-grained Eulerian models. Our results support both the recent experiments that show mixing-limited reactions and the results of perturbed advection-dispersion-reaction continuum models

  20. Associations between driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, speeding and seatbelt use among fatally injured car drivers in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Larsson, Magnus; Holtan, Anders; Staff, Trine; Vindenes, Vigdis; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, all fatal road traffic crashes in Norway have been analyzed in-depth by multidisciplinary investigation teams organized by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). During the period 2005-2010, 608 drivers of cars or vans were killed in road traffic crashes. Blood samples were collected from 372 (61%) of the drivers and analyzed for alcohol and a large number of psychoactive drugs at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH). After coupling the analytical results with the NPRA crash database, 369 drivers with a fatal outcome were identified and included. Alcohol or drug concentrations in blood above the legal limits were found in 39.8% of the drivers who were investigated for alcohol or drug impairment; 33.9% had blood alcohol concentrations above 0.5g/L or concentrations of drugs above the equivalent Norwegian legal impairment limits or concentrations of amphetamines above 200μg/L. Among drivers with a fatal outcome who had been impaired by alcohol or drugs, 64.6% were unbelted and 71.7% were speeding when the crash occurred; whereas 24.2% and 33.2% of the sober drivers were unbelted or speeding, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between impairment by alcohol or amphetamines and driving unbelted or speeding. Excessive speeding is one of the main reasons for road traffic crashes and together with being unbelted the main reasons for a fatal outcome. This behavior might in many cases be due to increased risk-taking or negligence of safety measures as a result of alcohol or drug use. PMID:25725424