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Sample records for alcohol concentration limit

  1. Impact of lowering the legal blood alcohol concentration limit to 0.03 on male, female and teenage drivers involved alcohol-related crashes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Desapriya, E; Shimizu, S; Pike, I; Subzwari, S; Scime, G

    2007-09-01

    In June of 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences in Japan. Most notably, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving was lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. The rationale for the new lower BAC limit was predicated on the assumption that drinking drivers will comply with the new, lower limit by reducing the amount of alcohol they consume prior to driving, thereby lowering their risk of crash involvement. This, in turn, would lead to fewer alcohol-related crashes. A key limitation of previous lower BAC evaluation research in determining the effectiveness of lower legal BAC limit policies is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the laws. The present analysis is unique in this perspective and focuses on the evaluation of the impact of BAC limit reduction on different segments of the population. The chief objective of this research is to quantify the extent to which lowering the legal limit of BAC has reduced male, female and teenager involvement in motor vehicle crashes in Japan since 2002. Most notably, the introduction of reduced BAC limit legislation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the number of alcohol-impaired drivers on the road in Japan, indicating responsiveness to the legal change among adults and teenagers. In addition, this preliminary assessment appears to indicate that the implementation of 0.03 BAC laws and other associated activities are associated with statistically significant reductions in alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes. In comparison, the rates of total crashes showed no statistically significant decline nor increase in the period following the introduction of the BAC law, indicating that the lower BAC limit only had an effect on alcohol-related crashes in Japan. The evidence suggests that the lower BAC legal limit and perceived risk of detection are the two most important factors resulting in a

  2. Impact of alcohol on vestibular function in relation to the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l breath alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hou-Hsien; Young, Yi-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol on sacculocollic and vestibulo-ocular reflex systems, when the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is close to the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent vestibular evoked myogenic potential and caloric coupled with visual suppression tests. These tests were conducted prior to imbibing alcohol at a dosage of 0.5 g/kg to achieve a peak BrAC of around 0.25 mg/l. Once the peak BrAC was reached, these tests were performed again. Predosing and postdosing analytical results were compared, as were those with BrAC levels > or = 0.25 mg/l and <0.25 mg/l. After ingesting alcohol, 36 ears (90%) showed vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses, with a significantly increased latency of peak p13. The mean slow-phase velocity of caloric nystagmus in 40 ears after dosing was significantly reduced, and that with BrAC > or =0.25 mg/l was significantly less than that with BrAC <0.25 mg/l. Likewise, the visual suppression index decreased considerably after alcohol ingestion. In conclusion, from the perspective of vestibular function, the 0.25-mg/l BrAC limit gains clinical significance, because the vestibulo-ocular reflex performance deteriorates further, when the BrAC exceeds 0.25 mg/l. However, impaired performance of sacculocollic reflex and vestibulocerebellar interaction has occurred, when the BrAC was <0.25 mg/l, suggesting that a lower legal threshold is appropriate.

  3. The effectiveness of a 0.05 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board recently recommended that states establish a per se blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 0.05 or lower for all drivers who are not already required to adhere to lower BAC limits in a national effort to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for adopting this recommendation. A comprehensive review of the literature on BAC limits was conducted. The research indicates that virtually all drivers are impaired regarding at least some driving performance measures at a 0.05 BAC. The risk of being involved in a crash increases significantly at 0.05 BAC and above. The relative risk of being killed in a single-vehicle crash with BACs of 0.05–0.079 is 7–21 times higher than for drivers at 0.00 BAC. Lowering the BAC limit from 0.08 to 0.05 has been a proven effective countermeasure in numerous countries around the world. Most Americans do not believe a person should drive after having two or three drinks in 2 hours. It takes at least four drinks for the average 170-pound male to exceed 0.05 BAC in 2 hours (three drinks for the 137-pound female). Most industrialized nations have established a 0.05 BAC limit or lower for driving. Progress in reducing the proportion of drivers in fatal crashes with illegal BACs has stalled over the past 15 years. Lowering the BAC limit for driving from the current 0.08 to 0.05 has substantial potential to reduce the number of people who drink and drive in the United States and get involved in fatal crashes. PMID:24898061

  4. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  5. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  6. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  7. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  10. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  11. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  12. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  13. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  14. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  15. Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K.

    2003-12-01

    An FTIR spectrometer equipped with a long-path gas cell can be used to measure breath alcohol concentrations in an instrumental analysis laboratory course. Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash. They also calculate their blood alcohol levels immediately after chewing bread. The main goal of the experiment is to provide the students with an interesting laboratory exercise that teaches them about infrared spectrometers. While the results are meant to be only semiquantitative, they have compared well with results from other published studies. A reference is included that describes how to fabricate a long-path gas cell.

  16. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  17. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  18. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  19. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  20. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  1. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  2. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  3. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    PubMed

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination rates for the mother, fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1)  h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.

  5. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  6. Comparison of blood alcohol concentrations after beer and whiskey.

    PubMed

    Roine, R P; Gentry, R T; Lim, R T; Helkkonen, E; Salaspuro, M; Lieber, C S

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether blood alcohol concentrations achieved by ingestion of various alcoholic beverages differ as a function of prandial state, healthy male volunteers, aged 24 to 48 years, were given the same amount of alcohol (0.3 g/kg) as different beverages. The alcohol was consumed in three prandial states: postprandial (1 hr after a meal, n = 10), prandial (during the meal, n = 10), and preprandial (after an overnight fast, n = 9). Each subject was tested with both beer and whiskey, and in the postprandial state also with wine and sherry, in a within-subjects design. Blood alcohol concentrations were estimated by breath analysis for 4 hr or until concentrations reached zero. Peak blood alcohol levels were higher with beer than with whiskey in the postprandial and prandial conditions (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite was true in the preprandial state (p < 0.05). Similarly, the area under the blood alcohol curve was higher with beer in the prandial state (p < 0.05), and higher with whiskey in the preprandial condition (p < 0.01). Wine and sherry yielded peak concentrations intermediate between those of beer and whiskey in the postprandial state. The results indicate that a dilute alcoholic drink can yield either higher or lower blood alcohol levels than a concentrated beverage, depending on the prandial state.

  7. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  8. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  9. Limit of concentration for cylindrical concentrators under extended light sources.

    PubMed

    Miñano, J C; Luque, A

    1983-08-15

    Cylindrical concentrators illuminated by an extended source with an arbitrary distribution of radiance are analyzed taking into account basic properties derived from the Fermat principle and not from the specific concentrator shape. The upper limit of concentration achievable with this type of concentrator is obtained and it is found to be lower than that of general (3-D) concentrators. Cylindrical compound parabolic concentrators are analyzed in the light of this theory, and it is shown that they achieve the highest optical concentration possible for a cylindrical concentrator. PMID:18196152

  10. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    PubMed

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around. PMID:20607887

  11. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    PubMed

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun-earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around. PMID:20588575

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Complications associated with blood alcohol concentration following injury.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol increases the risk of injuring oneself and others. However, following an injury there appears to be a benefit to alcohol in mediating the body's response to a traumatic injury and reducing mortality. The physiological mechanism underlying this reported association is poorly understood. One approach to explaining the pathways by which alcohol affects acute mortality following a traumatic injury is to identify differential prevalence of medical complications associated with increased mortality. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration and complications subsequent to a traumatic injury that are associated with increased in-hospital mortality. This study involved a retrospective analysis of traumatic injuries occurring between 2000 and 2009 as reported by all level I and II trauma units in the state of Illinois. The study includes all patients with blood alcohol toxicological examination levels ranging from zero to 500 mg/dL and meeting additional inclusion criteria (n = 84,974). A reduction in complications of cardiac and renal function by 23.5% and 30.0%, respectively, was attributable to blood alcohol concentration. In addition, blood alcohol concentration was associated with fewer cases of pneumothorax and convulsions. However, blood alcohol concentration continued to be positively associated with aspiration pneumonitis and acute pancreatitis in the final models. The net impact of alcohol following an injury is protective, largely attributable to a reduction in complications relating to cardiac and renal function. This study helps to explain the observed protective effect from blood alcohol concentrations in reducing in-hospital mortality after an injury, as reported in many studies.

  14. Saliva alcohol concentrations in accident and emergency attendances

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, T; Murphy, N; Peck, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Although alcohol is known to play a key part in accidents, no UK study has assessed alcohol concentrations in a comprehensive sample of accident and emergency (A&E) attenders. This study set out to do this, and examine the relation between alcohol concentrations and the severity, type and circumstances of presentation, and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients. Methods—A survey was conducted of all new A&E attenders (aged 10 years or over). Two 24 hour periods for each day of the week were covered in 6, 7 or 11 hour sessions over a two month period. Alcohol concentrations were assessed from saliva samples using a disposable device. Data were collected from 638 attenders, of whom 544 provided saliva samples; the remainder refused or were unable to participate. Results—Positive saliva alcohol readings were obtained in 22% of attenders (95%CI 19% to 26%); this increased to 25% if others were included (for example, those who refused to participate but were judged to be intoxicated). Alcohol was associated with 94% of incidents of self harm, 54% of non-specific/multiple complaints, 47% of collapses, 50% of assaults, and 50% of patients admitted to hospital. Higher concentrations of alcohol were found from Friday to Sunday, between midnight and 0900, and in patients aged 41 to 60. Among people with positive alcohol results, those attending with a companion had higher concentrations than those attending alone. There were no significant differences between men and women in alcohol concentrations. Discussion—These findings show that alcohol use is an important factor in A&E attendance, but it should not be assumed that there is a causal relation between alcohol use and injury. Several accident related and sociodemographic variables were predictive of alcohol use before attending. The overall level of prediction was too weak to permit accurate identification of drinkers for screening purposes, but routine alcohol concentration assessments may be

  15. Turbidimetric Estimation of Alcohol Concentration in Aqueous-Alcohol Mixtures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, William E.; Zimmerman, Bonnie L.; Powell, Kinsey; Moore, Stephen D.; Iordanov, Tzvetelin D.

    2014-01-01

    A concept of the turbidimetric method for determining the concentration of ethanol in water-ethanol mixtures is described. A closed sample cell containing the analyte was heated to achieve vapor saturation and subsequent condensation. As the condensation occurred, the decrease in percentage transmittance with time due to light scattering was…

  16. Influence of moderate alcohol intake on wakening plasma thiopental concentration.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Jensen, V; Rørsgaard, S

    1983-06-01

    In an earlier study, an inverse correlation between thiopental-induced sleeping time and alcohol intake in the preceding week was demonstrated in women undergoing termination of pregnancy. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the apparent cross-tolerance, the relationship between alcohol consumption in the week preceding thiopental/nitrous oxide/oxygen anesthesia and wakening plasma thiopental concentration on one hand and sleeping time on the other was examined in 68 women scheduled for termination of pregnancy and in 37 women scheduled for diagnostic uterine dilatation and curettage. In terms of pure alcohol, the weekly intake (mean +/- s.d.) was 1.17 +/- 2.07 ml . kg-1 in the former and 1.49 +/- 1.70 ml . kg-1 in the latter group. A positive correlation between alcohol consumption and wakening plasma thiopental concentration was found in both groups, reaching statistical significance (P less than 0.05) in the group undergoing termination of pregnancy, but not in the other. The inverse correlation found earlier between alcohol intake and sleeping time was not reproduced significantly in any of the groups. The results indicate that moderate alcohol intake may induce cerebral tolerance to thiopental.

  17. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  18. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R.; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K.

    1999-05-01

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  19. Indiana Residents' Perceptions of Driving and Lower Blood Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammed R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Congress passed .08 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the national standard for impaired driving in October 2000, 28 U.S. States including Indiana have enacted .08 BAC law. This study investigated perceived impact of the .08 law among Indiana residents and their attitudinal and perceptional changes since the enforcement of the law. The…

  20. Measurement of low breath-alcohol concentrations: laboratory studies and field experience.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1999-10-01

    Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occur at breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L. We therefore studied performance of vapor-alcohol and breath-alcohol measurement at low alcohol concentrations in the laboratory and in the field, with current-generation evidential analyzers. We report here chiefly our field experience with evidential breath-alcohol testing of drinking drivers on paired breath samples using 62 Intoxilyzer 5000-D analyzers, for BrACs of 0-0.059 g/210 L. The data from 62 law enforcement breath-alcohol testing sites were collected and pooled, with BrACs recorded to three decimal places, and otherwise carried out under the standard Oklahoma evidential breath-alcohol testing protocol. For 2105 pooled simulator control tests at 0.06-0.13 g/210 L the mean +/- SD of the differences between target and result were -0.001 +/- 0.0035 g/210 L and 0.003 +/- 0.0023 g/210 L for signed and absolute differences, respectively (spans -0.016-0.010, 0.000-0.016). For 2078 paired duplicate breath-alcohol measurements with the Intoxilyzer 5000-D, the mean +/- SD difference (BrAC1-BrAC2) were 0.002 +/- 0.0026 (span 0-0.020 g/210 L). Variability of breath-alcohol measurements was related inversely to the alcohol concentration. Ninety-nine percent prediction limits for paired BrAC measurements correspond to a 0.020 g/210 L maximum absolute difference, meeting the NSC/CAOD recommendation that paired breath-alcohol analysis results within 0.02 g/210 L shall be deemed to be in acceptable agreement. We conclude that the field system for breath-alcohol analysis studied by us can and does perform reliably and accurately at low BrACs.

  1. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  2. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  3. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  4. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  5. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  6. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  7. Determining concentrations of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and dibromopropene in ground water using quantitative methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panshin, Sandra Y.

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining levels of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 2,3-dibromopropene from ground-water samples using liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were extracted from the water using three aliquots of dichloromethane. The aliquots were combined and reduced in volume by rotary evaporation followed by evaporation using a nitrogen stream. The extracts were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. Estimated method detection limits were 30 nanograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 10 nanograms per liter for 2,3-dibromopropene. Recoveries were determined by spiking three matrices at two concentration levels (0.540 and 5.40 micrograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol; and 0.534 and 5.34micro-grams per liter for dibromopropene). For seven replicates of each matrix at the high concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.9 to 64.9 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 87.5 to 99.3 percent for dibromopropene. At the low concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.8 to 95.2 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 71.3 to 84.9 percent for dibromopropene.

  8. [The comparison of concentration of endogenous ethanol blood serum in alcoholics and in non-alcoholics at different stages of abstinence].

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, A; Markowski, T; Pawlak, D

    1997-01-01

    In this report the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum in alcoholics at different stages of abstinence and in non-alcoholics was studied. 36 people--26 alcoholics and 10 non-alcoholics were examined and gas chromatography was used. It was revealed that the longer the period of abstinence in alcoholics, the lower the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum. Moreover, the alcoholics showed a higher concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum as compared to non-alcoholics.

  9. Phytochemical concentrations and biological activities of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Pangloli, Philipus; Jones, Lynsey; McClure, Angela; Patel, Anjali

    2016-08-10

    Sorghum is an important cereal with reported health benefits. The objectives of this study were to measure the biological activities of alcoholic extracts of ten sorghum varieties and to determine the association between the color of the extracts and their biological activities. Variation on concentrations of bioactives among sorghum varieties was observed with ethanolic extracts giving higher concentrations than methanolic extracts. The color of the extracts significantly correlated with the concentrations of bioactives and with nitric oxide scavenging activity. Freeze-dried ethanol extract is more potent than freeze-dried methanol extract and caused cytotoxicity to A27801AP and PTX-10 OVCA with ED50 values of 0.69 and 1.29 mg mL(-1), respectively. Pre-treatment of OVCA with ethanol extract led to chemosensitization to paclitaxel and the proliferation and colony formation of OVCA cells were reduced by 14.7 to 44.6% and 36.4 to 40.1%, respectively. Sorghum is a potential source of colorants with health promoting properties. This is the first report on the capability of sorghum alcoholic extracts to cause cytotoxicity and chemosensitize ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27406291

  10. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  11. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  12. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  13. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  14. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  15. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  16. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  17. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  18. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  19. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration....

  20. [A method to estimate one's own blood alcohol concentration when the ministerial tables are not avaible].

    PubMed

    Dosi, G; Taggi, F; Macchia, T

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the prevalence of driving under the influence, tables allowing to estimate one's own blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by type and quantity of alcoholic drinks intake have been enacted by decree in Italy. Such tables, based on a modified Widmark's formula, are now put up in all public concerns serving alcoholic beverages. Aim of this initiative is to try to get subjects which consume alcoholics and then will drive a vehicle take in account their own estimated BAC and, on this base, put into effect, if needed, suitable actions (to avoid or to limit a further consumption, to wait more time before driving, to leave driving a sober subject). Nevertheless, many occasions exist in which these tables are not available. To allow anybody to rough estimate his own BAC in these cases too, a proper method has been developed. Briefly, the weight (in grams) of consumed alcohol has to be divided by half her own weight, if female drunk on an empty stomach (by the 90% of her own weight, if she drunk on a full stomach); by 70% of his own weight, if male drunk on an empty stomach (by 120% of his own weight, if he drunk in a full stomach). Consistency between BAC values estimated by the proposed method and those shown in the ministerial tables is very narrow: they differ in a few hundredth of grams/liter. Unlike the ministerial tables, the proposed method needs to compute the grams of ingested alcohol. This maybe involves some difficulties that, nevertheless, can be overcome easily. In our opinion, the skillfulness in computing the grams of assumed alcohol is of great significance since it provides the subject with a strong signal not only in road safety terms, but also in health terms. The ministerial tables and the proposed method should be part of teaching to issue the driving licence and to recovery of driving licence taken away points. In broad terms, the school should teach youngs to calculate alcohol quantities assumed by drink to acquaint them with the risks paving

  1. High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Xuan, Ziming; Aryal, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). Methods. In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. Results. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Conclusions. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed. PMID:26180984

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces mandibular calcium and phosphorus concentrations in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Isabel C S; Martinelli, Carolina da S M; Milhan, Noala V M; Marchini, Adriana M P da S; Dutra, Tamires P; de Souza, Daniela M; da Rocha, Rosilene F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure affects fetal bone development, including bone quality. This study evaluated the chemical composition of mandibles from newborn rats after maternal 20% alcohol consumption before and throughout gestation. Nine rats were initially distributed into three groups: an Alcohol group, Pair-fed group, and Control group. The groups were fed prespecified diets for 8 weeks before and the 3 weeks during pregnancy. At age 5 days, eight newborns from each group were euthanized (total, n = 24). Using energy dispersive spectrometry, we evaluated samples of mandibles from newborns to identify changes in bone mineralization, specifically Ca and P concentrations. Ca and P concentrations were lower in the Alcohol group than in the Control and Pair-fed groups (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). In summary, alcohol exposure before and throughout gestation reduces mandibular Ca and P concentrations in newborn rats. (J Oral Sci 58, 439-444, 2016). PMID:27665985

  3. Instructing Medical Students on Alcoholism: What to Teach with Limited Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocks, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Research literature dealing with physicians' attitudes toward alcoholism, reasons for their feelings, and attempts to change them through teaching is reviewed. It is suggested that, due to the limited time in the medical school curriculum, emphasis should be on physician attitudes. A Yale-VA Medical Center course on alcoholism is described.…

  4. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  5. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability. PMID:26427279

  6. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  7. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  8. Microstructured light guides overcoming the two-dimensional concentration limit.

    PubMed

    Leutz, Ralf; Ries, Harald

    2005-11-10

    Light guides are employed to homogenize an illumination distribution, to translate cross-sectional beam shapes, and to provide concentration. Microstructures enhance the performance of light guides based on the selective mixing of direction vector components in the two-dimensional phase space (etendue) that is perpendicular to the system's optical axis. For linear concentrators we find that the microstructured light guide beats the two-dimensional concentration limit and roughly allows for a three-dimensional concentration ratio. This result is verified in simulation and experiment.

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  10. [Experimental study on different concentration alcohol humidifying oxygen supply improving hypoxia caused by pulmonary edema].

    PubMed

    Jiang, X W; Gao, M Z; Liang, J H

    1996-07-01

    In order to research the best alcoholic concentration in the humidifying bottle when pneumonedema oxygen inhalation, 32 rabbits, divided into 4 groups, are replicated into pneumonedema models using method of rapid transfusion, and given oxygen inhalation with 20%, 50%, 70%, and 90% alcohol as humidifying agent (shortly called alcoholic oxygen). The results are as follows: using 20% alcohol as humidifying agent, the increasing amplitude of blood PaO2 is 147.30% (P < 0.001), the injury to the pulmonary bronchial mucosa and the wall of pulmonary alveoli is slight; using 50% alcohol, the increasing amplitude of blood PaO2 is 39.46% (P < 0.001), the injury to the parts mentioned above exacerbates and bronchiole cavity mucosa has moderate bleeding; using 70% alcohol, the increasing amplitude of blood PaO2 is 21.97% (P < 0.05), pneumorrhagia occurs; using 90% alcohol, the increasing amplitude of blood PaO2 is 94.46% (P < 0.01), a great number of blood cells aggregate inside the pulmonary alveoli and the bronchiole. This study proves that choosing 20% alcohol as humidifying agent has the best result, and as well, the explanation of the mechanism of alcohol suppressing foam, meaning being able to decrease only the surface tension of the foam inside the pulmonary alveoli, is incomprehensive, and the nature of the material itself forming foam has decisive function.

  11. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  12. Physical Limit to Concentration Sensing Amid Spurious Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    To adapt their behavior in changing environments, cells sense concentrations by binding external ligands to their receptors. However, incorrect ligands may bind nonspecifically to receptors, and when their concentration is large, this binding activity may interfere with the sensing of the ligand of interest. Here, I derive analytically the physical limit to the accuracy of concentration sensing amid a large number of interfering ligands. A scaling transition is found when the mean bound time of correct ligands is twice that of incorrect ligands. I discuss how the physical bound can be approached by a cascade of receptor states generalizing kinetic proofreading schemes.

  13. What are the costs of limiting CO2 concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of stabilizing the concentration of CO2 is fundamentally different than the problem of stabilizing the concentration of a conventional pollutant or even other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. A fraction of any net anthropogenic emission is permanently committed to the atmosphere and in the very long term net anthropogenic emissions must cease if atmospheric CO2 concentrations are to be stabilized. Many of the technologies that could play a large future role in limiting cumulative carbon emissions are minor elements in the present energy system. A portfolio of technologies will be needed to address the variety of technology needs across the world's regions and over time.

  14. Biomarkers of recent drinking, retrograde extrapolation of blood-alcohol concentration and plasma-to-blood distribution ratio in a case of driving under the influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2011-07-01

    This case report describes the police investigation of a road-traffic accident involving a collision at night (01.00 am) between a car and a truck in which a passenger in the car was killed. The driver of the truck was found responsible for the crash although a roadside breath-alcohol test was negative (<0.1 mg/L breath or 20 mg/100 mL blood). Because of injuries sustained in the crash, the female driver of the car was not breath-tested at the time but was transported to a local hospital for emergency treatment. After swabbing the skin with isopropanol an indwelling catheter was inserted at 01.40 am. A blood sample was taken at 02.10 am and the plasma portion contained 8 mmol/L ethanol according to analysis at the hospital clinical laboratory using a gas chromatographic method. Another blood sample was taken at 05.45 am for analysis of ethanol at a forensic toxicology laboratory, although the result was negative (<10 mg/100 mL). The police authorities wanted an explanation for the discrepancy between the clinical and forensic laboratory results and inquired whether the driver of the car was above the legal alcohol limit (>20 mg/100 mL) at the time of the crash. The scientific basis for converting a plasma-ethanol concentration into a blood-ethanol concentration and back extrapolation of the driver's blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) is explained. The risk of contaminating a blood sample by swabbing the skin with isopropanol is discussed along with the use of alcohol biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate) as evidence of recent drinking. PMID:21663869

  15. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  16. Limits to collaborative concentration sensing in cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fancher, Sean; Mugler, Andrew

    Cells sense chemical concentrations with a precision that approaches the physical limit set by molecular diffusion. Recent experiments have vividly shown that cells can beat this limit when they communicate. We derive the physical limits to concentration sensing for cells that communicate over short distances by directly exchanging small molecules across their membranes (juxtacrine signaling), and over long distances by secreting and absorbing a diffusive messenger molecule (paracrine signaling). In the latter case, we find that the cell spacing that optimizes precision can be large, due to a tradeoff between maintaining communication strength and reducing signal cross-correlations. This leads to the surprising result that paracrine signaling allows more precise sensing than juxtacrine signaling for sufficiently large populations, even though this means that the cells are spaced far apart. We compare our results to recent experiments. This work is supported by a Grant from the Simons Foundation (376198 to A.M.).

  17. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:26276763

  18. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption.

  19. A lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism interacts with consumption of alcohol and unsaturated fat to modulate serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Baik, Inkyung; Lee, Seungku; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2013-10-01

    There are limited data from prospective studies regarding interactions between lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) and lifestyle factors in association with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, a biomarker of coronary heart disease risk. Our prospective cohort study investigated the interactive effects of a common LPL polymorphism and lifestyle factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary intake, on follow-up measurements of HDL-C and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A total of 5314 Korean men and women aged 40-69 y participated in the study. Serum HDL-C and TG concentrations were measured in all participants at baseline and 6-y follow-up examinations. On the basis of genome-wide association data for HDL-C and TG concentrations, we selected the most significant polymorphism (rs10503669), which was in high linkage disequilibrium with the serine 447 stop (S447×) mutation (D' = 0.99) of LPL. We found that carrying the T allele reflecting the LPL ×447 allele was positively associated with follow-up measurement of HDL-C concentrations (P < 0.001). In the linear regression model adjusted for baseline HDL-C concentration and potential risk factors, we observed interactive effects of the polymorphism and consumption of alcohol (P-interaction < 0.01) and unsaturated fat (P-interaction < 0.05) on follow-up measurement of HDL-C concentrations. We also observed interactive effects of the polymorphism and body mass index (P-interaction < 0.01) on follow-up measurement of TG concentrations after adjusting for the baseline level and potential risk factors. Our findings suggest that carriers of the LPL ×447 allele benefit from moderate alcohol consumption and a diet high in unsaturated fat to minimize reduction of blood HDL-C concentrations and that obese persons who do not carry the LPL ×447 allele need to control body weight to prevent hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. How Alcohol Chain-Length and Concentration Modulate Hydrogen Bond Formation in a Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Allison N.; Faller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to measure the change in properties of a hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer when solvated with ethanol, propanol, and butanol solutions. There are eight oxygen atoms in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine that serve as hydrogen bond acceptors, and two of the oxygen atoms participate in hydrogen bonds that exist for significantly longer time spans than the hydrogen bonds at the other six oxygen atoms for the ethanol and propanol simulations. We conclude that this is caused by the lipid head group conformation, where the two favored hydrogen-bonding sites are partially protected between the head group choline and the sn-2 carbonyl oxygen. We find that the concentration of the alcohol in the ethanol and propanol simulations does not have a significant influence on the locations of the alcohol/lipid hydrogen bonds, whereas the concentration does impact the locations of the butanol/lipid hydrogen bonds. The concentration is important for all three alcohol types when the lipid chain order is examined, where, with the exception of the high-concentration butanol simulation, the alcohol molecules having the longest hydrogen-bonding relaxation times at the favored carbonyl oxygen acceptor sites also have the largest order in the upper chain region. The lipid behavior in the high-concentration butanol simulation differs significantly from that of the other alcohol concentrations in the order parameter, head group rotational relaxation time, and alcohol/lipid hydrogen-bonding location and relaxation time. This appears to be the result of the system being very near to a phase transition, and one occurrence of lipid flip-flop is seen at this concentration. PMID:17218462

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  3. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of College Students' Alcohol Consumption at Two Universities with Limited Greek Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Schroat, David A.; Cashwell, Craig S.; Gmutza, Brian M

    2003-01-01

    At 2 moderately sized, public, urban universities with limited Greek systems, 1,246 college students completed the CORE survey. Serious alcohol-related behaviors and concerns were noted. Implications of findings and suggestions for addictions counselors are presented. (Contains 32 references.) (Author)

  6. Effects of Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Feedback on BAC Estimates Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullers, Susan; Ennis, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of self-tested blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback, from personal hand-held breathalyzers, on the accuracy of BAC estimation. Using an e-mail prompted web-based questionnaire, 19 participants were asked to report both BAC estimates and subsequently measured BAC levels over the course of 27 days. Results from…

  7. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  8. Limits of sensing temporal concentration changes by single cells.

    PubMed

    Mora, Thierry; Wingreen, Ned S

    2010-06-18

    Berg and Purcell [Biophys. J. 20, 193 (1977)] calculated how the accuracy of concentration sensing by single-celled organisms is limited by noise from the small number of counted molecules. Here we generalize their results to the sensing of concentration ramps, which is often the biologically relevant situation (e.g., during bacterial chemotaxis). We calculate lower bounds on the uncertainty of ramp sensing by three measurement devices: a single receptor, an absorbing sphere, and a monitoring sphere. We contrast two strategies, simple linear regression of the input signal versus maximum likelihood estimation, and show that the latter can be twice as accurate as the former. Finally, we consider biological implementations of these two strategies, and identify possible signatures that maximum likelihood estimation is implemented by real biological systems.

  9. Limits of Sensing Temporal Concentration Changes by Single Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Thierry; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2010-06-01

    Berg and Purcell [Biophys. J. 20, 193 (1977)BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/S0006-3495(77)85544-6] calculated how the accuracy of concentration sensing by single-celled organisms is limited by noise from the small number of counted molecules. Here we generalize their results to the sensing of concentration ramps, which is often the biologically relevant situation (e.g., during bacterial chemotaxis). We calculate lower bounds on the uncertainty of ramp sensing by three measurement devices: a single receptor, an absorbing sphere, and a monitoring sphere. We contrast two strategies, simple linear regression of the input signal versus maximum likelihood estimation, and show that the latter can be twice as accurate as the former. Finally, we consider biological implementations of these two strategies, and identify possible signatures that maximum likelihood estimation is implemented by real biological systems.

  10. Accounting for Sex-Related Differences in the Estimation of Breath Alcohol Concentrations using Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Roache, John D.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previously we reported methods to estimate peak breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) from transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC) under conditions where alcohol consumption was controlled to produce similar BrAC levels in both sexes. Objective This study characterized differences in the relationship between BrAC and TAC as a function of sex, and developed a model to predict peak BrAC that accounts for known sex differences in peak BrAC. Methods TAC and BrAC were monitored during the consumption of a varying number of beers on different days. Both men (n = 11) and women (n = 10) consumed 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 beers at the same rate in a two-hour period. Sex and sex-related variables were considered for inclusion in a multilevel-model to develop an equation to estimate peak BrAC levels from TAC. Results While peak BrAC levels were significantly higher in women than men, sex differences were not significant in observed TAC levels. This lack of correspondence was evidenced by significant sex differences in the relationship between peak TAC and peak BrAC. The best model to estimate peak BrAC accounted for sex-related differences by including peak TAC, time-to-peak TAC, and sex. This model was further validated using previously collected data. Conclusions The relationship between peak TAC and actual peak BrAC differs between men and women, and these differences can be accounted for in a statistical model to better estimate peak BrAC. Further studies are required to extend these estimates of peak BrAC to the outpatient environment where naturalistic drinking occurs. PMID:24923985

  11. Application of 0.05 per cent legal blood alcohol limits to traffic injury control in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Plitapolkarnpim, Adisak; Tawonwanchai, Araya

    2002-04-01

    A substantial proportion (44%) of traffic injury cases seeking emergency services in public hospitals had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.1 per cent or more. To reduce alcohol related traffic injuries and deaths, a law was enacted setting a criminal per se legal blood alcohol limit at 0.05 per cent in 1994. However, not until 1997, was an active public education program undertaken on a national scale to raise awareness against drink driving and to support law enforcement. This includes dissemination of knowledge through multiple channels e.g., roadside posters; stickers on the back of vehicles; sporadic radio and TV programs or spots; public announcements; press reports. In 1999, highly visible sobriety check points were set up as a measure for law enforcement. In order to systematically assess the campaign, multiple methods were used to collect relevant data. This report focused on the outcomes of the campaign based on hospital surveillance data in the emergency rooms of 4 public hospitals from March to November, 2000 on alternate months. It was found that the campaign succeeded in raising public awareness and support for law enforcement against drink driving. However, the proportion of road victims with illegal BAC seeking emergency care did not decline after 17 months of the campaign. Limitations and weaknesses of law enforcement activities were discussed along with recommendation for future action. PMID:12118498

  12. The Role of Immigrant Concentration Within and Beyond Residential Neighborhoods in Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Aubrey L; Browning, Christopher R; Krivo, Lauren J; Kwan, Mei-Po; Washington, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhoods are salient contexts for youth that shape adolescent development partly through informal social controls on their behavior. This research examines how immigrant concentration within and beyond the residential neighborhood influences adolescent alcohol use. Residential neighborhood immigrant concentration may lead to a cohesive, enclave-like community that protects against adolescent alcohol use. But heterogeneity in the immigrant concentrations characterizing the places residents visit as they engage in routine activities outside of the neighborhood where they live may weaken the social control benefits of the social ties and shared cultural orientations present in enclave communities. This study investigates whether the protective influence of residential neighborhood immigrant concentration on adolescent alcohol consumption diminishes when youth live in communities where residents collectively are exposed to areas with more diverse immigrant concentrations. This study tests this contention by analyzing survey and geographic routine activity space data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, and the 2000 census. The sample includes 793 adolescents (48.7% female, 16.5% foreign-born Latino, 42.5% US-born Latino, 11.0% black, 30% white/other) between the ages of 12 and 17 who live in 65 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Immigrant concentration among these neighborhoods derives primarily from Latin America. The results from multilevel models show that immigrant concentration protects against adolescent alcohol use only when there is low neighborhood-level diversity of exposures to immigrant concentration among the contexts residents visit outside of their residential neighborhood. This research highlights the importance of considering the effects of aggregate exposures to non-home contexts on adolescent wellbeing.

  13. [Value of blood alcohol concentration in the assessment of legal responsibility].

    PubMed

    Miltner, E; Schmidt, G; Six, A

    1990-07-01

    We analysed the files of an Amts- and Landgericht from the years 1982/83. Among about 4000 cases we found 148 condemnations, in which sections 20/21 StGB were discussed. Each offence included 207 variables. 63 cases were left to be evaluated: 10 cases with section 20, 43 cases with section 21, 10 cases with refused section 21. Most of the delinquents lived alone, drank much alcohol very often, were socially unadaptable, previously convicted, unemployed and little qualified. Due to lack of findings of facts and diverging testimonies of psychic findings we found no significant correlation between level of blood alcohol concentration, psychic findings and degree of decreased condemnability.

  14. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  15. Alcohol and single-cell protein production by Kluyveromyces in concentrated whey permeates with reduced ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, M.M.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    Five Kluyveromyces yeasts were grown in concentrated whey permeates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to produce single-cell protein and ethanol. K. fragilis NRRL Y2415 produced the highest yield of alcohol, 9.1%, and K. bulgaricus ATCC 1605 gave the highest yield of biomass, 13.5 mg/mL. High ash, apparently through Na and K effects, inhibited production of biomass and alcohol. A 0.77% ash was optimum. Lactose utilization was more rapid under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and urea supplementation were without effect on yeast growth or were slightly inhibitory. A 1% peptone inclusion gave the highest biomass yield with minimum alcohol production.

  16. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  17. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  18. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration by horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous methods like distillation followed by iodometric titrations, gas chromatograph (GC)-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer, GC-Headspace, Breath analyzer, and biosensors including alcohol dehydrogenase (enzymatic) have been used to determine blood alcohol concentration (BAC). In the present study, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy had been used to determine BAC in whole blood. The asymmetric stretching frequency of C-C-O group of ethanol in water (1,045 cm(-1)) had been used to calculate BAC using Beer's Law. A seven-point calibration curve of ethanol was drawn in the concentration range 24-790 mg dL(-1). The curve showed good linearity over the concentration range used (r(2)=0.999, standard deviation=0.0023). The method is accurate, reproducible, rapid, simple, and nondestructive in nature. PMID:20541351

  19. Low blood alcohol concentrations and driving impairment. A review of experimental studies and international legislation.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Zancaner, S; Giorgetti, R

    1994-01-01

    While noting that there is no international scientific or legislative uniformity in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels admissible for driving motor vehicles, the authors analyse problems concerning the effects of low levels of ethyl alcohol on driving ability. A summary of the international literature on this subject reveals: the existence of contrasting assumptions, with scientific evidence clearly demonstrating altered psychomotor functions; the need to adopt sufficiently complex psychometric tests to reveal the effects of low BACs; the need to improve standardization of experimental studies on man-machine interaction; the need to investigate the following areas: tolerance to alcohol; low BACs with inexperienced, infrequent drinkers and chronic, heavy drinkers; hangover effects; alcohol-gender-age interactions, and specific effects on young drivers; alcohol-drug combinations. The analysis of legislation and enforcement policies also reveals the need for: re-evaluation of the international legal BAC threshold and standardization of procedures for ascertaining the degree of driving disability; further scientific research to compare and evaluate selected legislative initiatives currently in place in most states; to identify the best strategies and procedures to detect and arrest impaired drivers; to determine the optimum random testing rate to maximize deterrent effects in the workplace at minimal cost; to design innovative and comprehensive approaches to rehabilitation programs needed for subgroups of offenders and of workers; to study the effectiveness of new legislations and policies. PMID:8038109

  20. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  1. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties.

  2. Physical limits to concentration sensing in biochemical signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas; Setayeshgar, Sima

    2011-03-01

    In many biological systems, signals are carried by changes in the concentration of diffusable molecules which are transduced by receptors. It has been demonstrated experimentally that many signaling systems, from regulation of gene expression during development to bacterial chemotaxis, operate with remarkable sensitivity as indicated by a reliable response to small fractional changes in concentration. This sensitivity has contributions from an irreducible noise arising from the inherent random nature of the diffusing input signal, as well as from the chemical measurement process. By explicitly evaluating these theoretically derived contributions for the experimentally well- characterized bacterial chemotaxis network and motor response, we show that they are comparable to within factors of order unity, consistent with the observation that the measurement error approaches the physical lower limit set by diffusion. We extend our analysis to a class of ligand-gated ion channels, demonstrating the generality of this result where accuracy is especially important for the signaling system. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Thermodynamic limitations of photosynthetic water oxidation at high proton concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Ivelina; Wichmann, Jörg M; Dau, Holger

    2011-05-20

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, solar energy drives the oxidation of water catalyzed by a Mn(4)Ca complex bound to the proteins of Photosystem II. Four protons are released during one turnover of the water oxidation cycle (S-state cycle), implying thermodynamic limitations at low pH. For proton concentrations ranging from 1 nm (pH 9) to 1 mm (pH 3), we have characterized the low-pH limitations using a new experimental approach: a specific pH-jump protocol combined with time-resolved measurement of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence after nanosecond flash excitation. Effective pK values were determined for low-pH inhibition of the light-induced S-state transitions: pK(1)=3.3 ± 0.3, pK(2)=3.5 ± 0.2, and pK(3)≈pK(4)=4.6 ± 0.2. Alkaline inhibition was not observed. An extension of the classical Kok model facilitated assignment of these four pK values to specific deprotonation steps in the reaction cycle. Our results provide important support to the extended S-state cycle model and criteria needed for assessment of quantum chemical calculations of the mechanism of water oxidation. They also imply that, in intact organisms, the pH in the lumen compartment can hardly drop below 5, thereby limiting the ΔpH contribution to the driving force of ATP synthesis. PMID:21464129

  4. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001). In smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  5. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  6. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control.

  7. A novel approach for estimating sugar and alcohol concentrations in wines using refractometer and hydrometer.

    PubMed

    Son, H S; Hong, Y S; Park, W M; Yu, M A; Lee, C H

    2009-03-01

    To estimate true Brix and alcoholic strength of must and wines without distillation, a novel approach using a refractometer and a hydrometer was developed. Initial Brix (I.B.), apparent refractometer Brix (A.R.), and apparent hydrometer Brix (A.H.) of must were measured by refractometer and hydrometer, respectively. Alcohol content (A) was determined with a hydrometer after distillation and true Brix (T.B.) was measured in distilled wines using a refractometer. Strong proportional correlations among A.R., A.H., T.B., and A in sugar solutions containing varying alcohol concentrations were observed in preliminary experiments. Similar proportional relationships among the parameters were also observed in must, which is a far more complex system than the sugar solution. To estimate T.B. and A of must during alcoholic fermentation, a total of 6 planar equations were empirically derived from the relationships among the experimental parameters. The empirical equations were then tested to estimate T.B. and A in 17 wine products, and resulted in good estimations of both quality factors. This novel approach was rapid, easy, and practical for use in routine analyses or for monitoring quality of must during fermentation and final wine products in a winery and/or laboratory.

  8. The drunk utilitarian: blood alcohol concentration predicts utilitarian responses in moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Duke, Aaron A; Bègue, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The hypothetical moral dilemma known as the trolley problem has become a methodological cornerstone in the psychological study of moral reasoning and yet, there remains considerable debate as to the meaning of utilitarian responding in these scenarios. It is unclear whether utilitarian responding results primarily from increased deliberative reasoning capacity or from decreased aversion to harming others. In order to clarify this question, we conducted two field studies to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication on utilitarian responding. Alcohol holds promise in clarifying the above debate because it impairs both social cognition (i.e., empathy) and higher-order executive functioning. Hence, the direction of the association between alcohol and utilitarian vs. non-utilitarian responding should inform the relative importance of both deliberative and social processing systems in influencing utilitarian preference. In two field studies with a combined sample of 103 men and women recruited at two bars in Grenoble, France, participants were presented with a moral dilemma assessing their willingness to sacrifice one life to save five others. Participants' blood alcohol concentrations were found to positively correlate with utilitarian preferences (r=.31, p<.001) suggesting a stronger role for impaired social cognition than intact deliberative reasoning in predicting utilitarian responses in the trolley dilemma. Implications for Greene's dual-process model of moral reasoning are discussed.

  9. A novel approach for estimating sugar and alcohol concentrations in wines using refractometer and hydrometer.

    PubMed

    Son, H S; Hong, Y S; Park, W M; Yu, M A; Lee, C H

    2009-03-01

    To estimate true Brix and alcoholic strength of must and wines without distillation, a novel approach using a refractometer and a hydrometer was developed. Initial Brix (I.B.), apparent refractometer Brix (A.R.), and apparent hydrometer Brix (A.H.) of must were measured by refractometer and hydrometer, respectively. Alcohol content (A) was determined with a hydrometer after distillation and true Brix (T.B.) was measured in distilled wines using a refractometer. Strong proportional correlations among A.R., A.H., T.B., and A in sugar solutions containing varying alcohol concentrations were observed in preliminary experiments. Similar proportional relationships among the parameters were also observed in must, which is a far more complex system than the sugar solution. To estimate T.B. and A of must during alcoholic fermentation, a total of 6 planar equations were empirically derived from the relationships among the experimental parameters. The empirical equations were then tested to estimate T.B. and A in 17 wine products, and resulted in good estimations of both quality factors. This novel approach was rapid, easy, and practical for use in routine analyses or for monitoring quality of must during fermentation and final wine products in a winery and/or laboratory. PMID:19323723

  10. Lowering state legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08%: the effect on fatal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine whether reductions in alcohol-related fatal crashes following adoption of 0.08% legal blood alcohol limits were independent of general regional trends. METHODS: The first five states that lowered legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08% were paired with five nearby states that retained a 0.10% legal standard. Within each pair, comparisons were made for the maximum equal available number of pre- and postlaw years. RESULTS: States adopting 0.08% laws experienced 16% and 18% relative postlaw declines in the proportions of fatal crashes involving fatally injured drivers whose blood alcohol levels were 0.08% or higher and 0.15% or higher. CONCLUSIONS: It all states adopted 0.08% legal blood alcohol limits, at least 500 to 600 fewer fatal crashes would occur annually. PMID:8806383

  11. Experimental Limiting Oxygen Concentrations for Nine Organic Solvents at Temperatures and Pressures Relevant to Aerobic Oxidations in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Applications of aerobic oxidation methods in pharmaceutical manufacturing are limited in part because mixtures of oxygen gas and organic solvents often create the potential for a flammable atmosphere. To address this issue, limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) values, which define the minimum partial pressure of oxygen that supports a combustible mixture, have been measured for nine commonly used organic solvents at elevated temperatures and pressures. The solvents include acetic acid, N-methylpyrrolidone, dimethyl sulfoxide, tert-amyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, methanol, acetonitrile, and toluene. The data obtained from these studies help define safe operating conditions for the use of oxygen with organic solvents. PMID:26622165

  12. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  13. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  14. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  15. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  16. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  17. Effect of different breath alcohol concentrations on driving performance in horizontal curves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Ma, Jianming; Rong, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol on curved roadway segments has a higher risk than driving on straight segments. To explore the effect of different breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels on driving performance in roadway curves, a driving simulation experiment was designed to collect 25 participants' driving performance parameters (i.e., speed and lane position) under the influence of 4 BrAC levels (0.00%, 0.03%, 0.06% and 0.09%) on 6 types of roadway curves (3 radii×2 turning directions). Driving performance data for 22 participants were collected successfully. Then the average and standard deviation of the two parameters were analyzed, considering the entire curve and different sections of the curve, respectively. The results show that the speed throughout curves is higher when drinking and driving than during sober driving. The significant interaction between alcohol and radius exists in the middle and tangent segments after a curve exit, indicating that a small radius can reduce speed at high BrAC levels. The significant impairment of alcohol on the stability of speed occurs mainly in the curve section between the point of curve (PC) and point of tangent (PT), with no impairment noted in tangent sections. The stability of speed is significantly worsened at higher BrAC levels. Alcohol and radius have interactive effects on the standard deviation of speed in the entry segment of curves, indicating that the small radius amplifies the instability of speed at high BrAC levels. For lateral movement, drivers tend to travel on the right side of the lane when drinking and driving, mainly in the approach and middle segments of curves. Higher BrAC levels worsen the stability of lateral movement in every segment of the curve, regardless of its radius and turning direction. The results are expected to provide reference for detecting the drinking and driving state.

  18. Why should i comply? Sellers' accounts for (non-)compliance with legal age limits for alcohol sales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Availability is an important predictor of early and excessive alcohol consumption by adolescents. Many countries have implemented age limits to prevent underage purchases of alcohol. However, shop-floor compliance with these age limits appears to be problematic. This study addresses the issue of non-compliance with age limits. Which measures do vendors take to avoid underage alcohol sales, and what do they report as important reasons to comply or not with age limits for alcohol sales? Methods Open-ended telephone interviews were conducted with store managers selling alcohol (N = 106). Prior to the interviews, all outlets were visited by an underage mystery shopper in order to measure compliance with the legal age limits on alcohol sales. The interview results are compared against actual compliance rates. Results Several measures have been taken to prevent underage sales, but the compliance level is low. Furthermore, open coding resulted in 19 themes, representing both valid and invalid arguments, that vendors mentioned as relevant to their decisions of whether to comply with the law. Compliance with age limits is dependent on the knowledge of the rules and the ability and motivation to follow the rules. The ability aspect in particular seems to be problematic, but in many cases, the motivation to actively comply with the age limits is lacking. Conclusions To enhance compliance, it is important to raise the awareness of the importance of age limits and to connect possible violations of the regulations to negative consequences. PMID:22269016

  19. Interactions between mecamylamine and alcohol in Long-Evans rats: flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, behavior, and blood alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Bauer, Alison M

    2013-06-01

    experimentally naïve adult male Holtzman albino and Long-Evans hooded rats were given (ip) either alcohol or mecamylamine plus alcohol. Tail vein samples were taken 30 min later. For both rat strains, blood alcohol concentration in the mecamylamine pretreatment group was significantly less at this time interval by about 50-60 mg/dL, suggesting a mechanism whereby mecamylamine can mitigate some of the acute effects of alcohol (e.g., on VC components N39 and P46).

  20. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  1. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  2. Functional Limitation, Pain, and Alcohol Use: Exploring Gender Differences in the Mediating Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study considered the processes linking functional limitation and pain with depressive symptoms and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking) over a 3-year period. Method: Data were drawn from a two-wave Miami-Dade County community study of people with physical disabilities (N = 559). Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether depressive symptoms mediated the associations among functional limitation, bodily pain, and the alcohol-related outcomes considered, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. Results: When the effects of the sociodemographic control variables were controlled for, depressive symptoms partly explained the effects of Wave 1 functional limitation and bodily pain on problematic drinking at Wave 2. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than for women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate clear linkages between two physical health indicators, depressive symptoms and drinking, and highlight the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding these associations. PMID:26402362

  3. A nonhuman primate model of type II excessive alcohol consumption? Part 1. Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations and diminished social competence correlate with excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1996-06-01

    Developmental, biochemical, and behavioral concomitants of excessive alcohol consumption were investigated using a nonhuman primate model. The variables of interest were: (1) interindividual stability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) from infancy to adulthood, (2) effect of parental deprivation early in life on adult CSF 5-HIAA concentrations; (3) correlations between CSF 5-HIAA and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) concentrations and alcohol consumption; and (4) correlation between the frequency of competent social behaviors and alcohol consumption. Twenty-nine rhesus macaques were reared for their first 6 months either with their mothers or without adults in peer-only conditions. At 6 and 50 months of age, each subject underwent a series of four, 4-day social separations. Cisternal CSF was sampled before and during the first and last separations; concomitantly, observational data were collected on social dominance behavior in the home-cage. When they reached 50 months of age, the monkeys were provided free access to a palatable alcohol solution daily for 1-hr periods before, during, and after the social separations. Before and after the 50-month separations, data were collected on all types of social behavior in the home-cage. Results showed that peer-reared subjects consumed more alcohol than mother-reared subjects during baseline conditions. Mother-reared subjects, however, increased their rates of consumption to equal peer-reared subjects' rates of consumption during the conditions of a social separation stressor. Peer-reared subjects also exhibited lower CSF 5-HIAA concentrations in infancy and adulthood than their mother-reared counterparts. With rearing condition held constant, interindividual differences in CSF 5-HIAA, MHPG, and homovanillic acid were stable from infancy to adulthood, and high rates of alcohol were consumed by the young adult monkeys with low CSF 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations, particularly when the CSF

  4. Effect of alcohol on the properties of micellar systems. Part 1. Critical micellization concentration, micelle molecular weight and ionization degree

    SciTech Connect

    Zana, R.; Yiv, S.; Strazielle, C.; Lianos, P.

    1981-03-01

    Additions of alcohols of medium chain length (butanol to hexanol) to micellar solutions result in a decrease of critical micelle concentration and micelle molecular weight, and an increase of the micelle ionization degree. Moreover, the micelle molecular weight (or surfactant aggregation number) at a given alcohol concentration increases with the surfactant concentration and may reach values larger than in the absence of alcohol. Striking differences have been found in the changes of molecular weight of TTAB micelles in H/sub 2/O-pentanol mixtures in the presence of 0.1 M KBr and in the absence of salt. These various results have been explained by considering the effect of the micelle solubilized alcohol on the micelle surface charge density and on the dielectric constant of the palisade layer. 48 references.

  5. The administration of atomoxetine during alcohol deprivation induces a time-limited increase in alcohol consumption after relapse.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Serrano, Antonia; Gorriti, Miguel Ángel; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Orio, Laura; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Antón, María; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) typically used as antidepressants increases alcohol consumption after an alcohol deprivation period in rats. However, the appearance of this effect after the treatment with selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has not been studied. In the present work we examined the effects of a 15-d treatment with the SNRI atomoxetine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in male rats trained to drink alcohol solutions in a 4-bottle choice test. The treatment with atomoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) during an alcohol deprivation period increased alcohol consumption after relapse. This effect only lasted one week, disappearing thereafter. Treatment with atomoxetine did not cause a behavioral sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating the absence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. This effect is markedly different from that of SSRI antidepressants that produced both long-lasting increases in alcohol consumption and behavioral sensitization. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25025529

  6. Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Murphy, James M; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J

    2009-04-01

    High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 5-7 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit 'loss-of-control' of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available.

  7. Blood alcohol concentration at 0.06 and 0.10% causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of body movement control.

    PubMed

    Modig, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Patel, Mitesh

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol-related falls are recognized as a major contributor to the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The control of upright standing balance is complex and composes of contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as appropriate information from multiple sensory systems and correct feedback and feed forward movement control. Analysis of multisegmented body movement offers a rarely used option for detecting the fine motor problems associated with alcohol intoxication. The study aims were to investigate whether (1) alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the body movements under unperturbed and perturbed standing; and (2) alcohol affected the ability for sensorimotor adaptation. Body movements were recorded in 25 participants (13 women and 12 men, mean age 25.1 years) at five locations (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and head) during quiet standing and during balance perturbations from pseudorandom pulses of calf muscle vibration over 200s with eyes closed or open. Tests were performed at 0.00, 0.06, and 0.10% BAC. The study revealed several significant findings: (1) an alcohol dose-specific effect; (2) a direction-specific stability decrease from alcohol intoxication; (3) a movement pattern change related to the level of alcohol intoxication during unperturbed standing and perturbed standing; (4) a sensorimotor adaptation deterioration with increased alcohol intoxication; and (5) that vision provided a weaker contribution to postural control during alcohol intoxication. Hence, alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% BAC causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of human postural control.

  8. [Autochthonous yeasts isolated in Tenerife wines and their influence on ethyl acetate and higher alcohol concentrations analyzed by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Salvadores, M P; Díaz, M E; Cardell, E

    1993-12-01

    A taxonomic study of yeasts present on Tenerife wines, (Tacoronte-Acentejo Specific Denomination) has been carried out. Nine species of the genera: Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Hansenula, Pichia and Candida have been isolated. Parallely we analysed volatile compounds of the wines such as ethyl acetate, methanol, isobutanol and amylic alcohols by gas chromatography. Appreciable quantities of ethyl acetate were detected due to the low fermentative power of species such as Candida glabrata and Debaryomyces hansenii. The greatest concentration of amylic alcohols were found in wines containing yeast with high alcohol producing power like Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Błażewicz, Anna; Kiciński, Paweł; Sak, Jarosław J.; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb) in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:27304961

  10. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  11. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  12. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  13. Plasma concentrations of carbohydrates and sugar alcohols in term newborns after milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Cavalli, Claudio; Harwood, Jeri E F; Casadei, Annachiara; Teng, Cecilia C; Traggiai, Cristina; Serra, Giovanni; Bevilacqua, Giulio; Battaglia, Frederick C

    2008-08-01

    Nonglucose carbohydrates such as galactose, mannose, and inositol play a clinically important role in fetal and neonatal nutrition, though little is known about their metabolism in the neonate. The aim of this study was to determine whether postprandial changes in plasma carbohydrate and sugar alcohol concentrations are affected by clinical variables such as postnatal age (PNA), milk type, feeding volume, or feeding duration in term newborns. Neonates (n = 26) taking intermittent enteral feedings were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (immediately before the start of a feeding) and at 2-3 subsequent time points up to 110 min. Postprandial rise was only observed for plasma glucose concentrations [Glu] and plasma galactose concentrations [Gal] and clinical variables did not predict this change. Despite equimolar delivery in milk, the median of [Glu] rise minus [Gal] rise from baseline to second postprandial plasma sample was 674 microM (-38, 3333 microM; p < 0.0001), reflecting efficient hepatic first-pass metabolism of galactose. A significant PNA effect on [Gal] was observed such that for each day PNA there was an 18% decrease in [Gal] (p = 0.03). [Gal] are a function of PNA, suggesting maintenance of a significant ductus venosus shunt in term infants.

  14. Ethanol at low concentrations protects glomerular podocytes through alcohol dehydrogenase and 20-HETE.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ellen T; Zhou, Jianping; Eckert, Ryan; Genochio, David; Sharma, Rishi; Oni, Olurinde; De, Alok; Srivastava, Tarak; Sharma, Ram; Savin, Virginia J; Sharma, Mukut

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest cardiovascular and renal benefits of ingesting small amounts of ethanol. Effects of ethanol, role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in podocytes of the glomerular filtration barrier have not been reported. We found that mouse podocytes at baseline generate 20-HETE and express ADH but not CYP2e1. Ethanol at high concentrations altered the actin cytoskeleton, induced CYP2e1, increased superoxide production and inhibited ADH gene expression. Ethanol at low concentrations upregulated the expression of ADH and CYP4a12a. 20-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite generated by CYP4a12a, blocked the ethanol-induced cytoskeletal derangement and superoxide generation. Ethanol at high concentration or ADH inhibitor increased glomerular albumin permeability in vitro. 20-HETE and its metabolite produced by ADH activity, 20-carboxy-arachidonic acid, protected the glomerular permeability barrier against an ADH inhibitor, puromycin or FSGS permeability factor. We conclude that ADH activity is required for glomerular function, 20-HETE is a physiological substrate of ADH in podocytes and that podocytes are useful biosensors to understand glomeruloprotective effects of ethanol.

  15. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Definitions § 227.27 Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). (a) The limiting permissible...

  16. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    PubMed

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol. PMID:26675839

  17. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  18. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  19. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  20. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  1. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer...

  2. Pre-concentration of trace elements in short chain alcohols using different commercial cation exchange resins prior to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N; Catherine Ngila, J; Kamau, Joseph N; Msagati, Titus A M; Marjanovic, Ljiljana; Moodley, Brenda

    2013-07-17

    Chelex-100, Dowex 50W-x8 and Dowex MAC-3 exchange resins were investigated for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti and Zn in alcohols with respect to retention and desorption characteristics. Dowex 50W-x8 was found to be the best sorbent with percentages recoveries >95%. In addition, Chelex-100 appeared to be suitable for the pre-concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn, whereas Dowex MAC-3 was selective for Cu and Fe. Therefore, Dowex 50W-x8 was used for further investigations. The relative standard deviations <4% (n=20), limits of detection and quantification were 0.1-1.2 μg L(-1) and 0.3-1.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The SPE method was validated against a certified reference material and the results were in agreement with certified values. The accuracy of the optimized method was verified by the recovery test in the spiked alcohol samples. The accuracy and spike recovery test for different metal ions were in the range 98-102% and 95-105%, respectively. The optimized method was applied to the separation and pre-concentration of metal ions in different commercial alcohol samples.

  3. 76 FR 6756 - Recommendations Regarding Modifications to the Concentration Limit on Large Financial Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... stability, moral hazard in the financial system, the efficiency and competitiveness of United States... Council expects the impact of the concentration limit on moral hazard, competition, and the...

  4. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Clugston, Robin D; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D; Goldberg, Ira J; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S

    2013-07-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body's retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minor RE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24046868

  5. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Clugston, Robin D; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D; Goldberg, Ira J; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S

    2012-07-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body's retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption. A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minor RE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23583843

  6. The Limits of Tolerance: Convicted Alcohol-Impaired Drivers Share Experiences Driving Under the Influence

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C

    2010-01-01

    Most people are aware that regular alcohol drinkers can become tolerant to the effects of alcohol. Tolerance can lessen the outward manifestations of intoxication, and this poses challenges for the drinker and other observers, including law enforcement officers. On the basis of a National Institutes of Health-funded longitudinal study examining a cohort of convicted alcohol-impaired drivers, this article presents commentary regarding this phenomenon in offenders convicted of driving under the influence and the implications for traffic safety. PMID:20740113

  7. A study into blood alcohol concentration in fatal accidents among vulnerable road users in a tertiary care hospital Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Anuruddhi Samanthika; Kitulwatte, Indira Deepthi; Senarathne, Udara Dilrukshi

    2015-01-01

    Reckless driving behaviour associated with alcohol has been well known. In Sri Lanka, research on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in road fatalities is scares. Thus, we studied the BAC in vulnerable road users (VRUs) encountered in medico-legal autopsies. A retrospective descriptive study based on case records of VRU fatalities from 2005 to 2012 referred for a tertiary care unit for post-mortem examination was conducted. A pro-forma was developed to extract data from the post-mortem blood alcohol reports. Data were analysed using percentages and p-values. There were 119 cases from the 328 autopsies to investigate blood alcohol tests. A total of 51% (n = 61) out of 119 had BAC above 80 mg/100 ml and mean level was 103 mg/100 ml. 2/3 of pedestrians had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml with a mean level of 139 mg/dl. The highest mean blood alcohol (158 mg/dl) was reported from three-wheeler users. Majority of cases with more than 80 mg/100 ml BAC was reported in the age group of 40-60 years, while 40% of the elderly too had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml. The comparison between pedestrians having above 80 mg/100 ml of BAC with that of other VRUs (active road users) showed a significant statistical difference (p = 0.017). The study results suggest that alcohol influence among pedestrians represent a significant risk factor for fatal road traffic accidents. PMID:24341667

  8. A Simple Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz de, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The change of activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient with addition of contaminants to the original liquid gives rise to a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration for ethyl and methyl alcohol. Our detailed investigation on the alcohol-water mixtures along with discussion on possible future potential application of the simple and very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. We compared our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. We also discuss a part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage.

  9. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. PMID:27469095

  10. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis.

  11. Drink-driving law enforcement and the legal blood alcohol limit in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Homel, R

    1994-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary analysis of daily fatal crashes in New South Wales, Australia, between July 1975 and December 1986. The analysis unexpectedly uncovered a small but statistically significant decline in crashes coinciding with the introduction of a law lowering the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from .08 to .05 g%. The original aim of the analysis was to develop for a larger study appropriate log-linear techniques to assess the impact of a range of government initiatives, including laws aimed at the drinking driver: increased penalties, the .05 law, and random breath testing (RBT). The analysis showed that RBT immediately reduced fatal crashes by 19.5% overall and by 30% during holiday periods, and that the .05 law, introduced two years before RBT, apparently reduced fatal crashes by 13% on Saturdays. There was no significant effect of the .05 law on any other day of the week, and there was no clear evidence that any other initiative had a statistically significant effect on accidents. Although the apparent impact of the .05 law was small, it is surprising that any effect was discernible, since the law was not extensively advertised and police enforcement was no more intense than is usual over Christmas. However, any effects of the .05 law may not have been sustained if RBT had not been introduced two years later.

  12. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being...

  13. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being...

  14. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being...

  15. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being...

  16. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being...

  17. Cleanroom airborne particulate limits and 70% isopropyl alcohol: a lingering problem for pharmaceutical manufacturing?

    PubMed

    Eaton, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Seventy percent isopropyl alcohol (70% IPA) in water for injection is extensively utilised within pharmaceutical cleanrooms for glove and surface disinfection. When supplied in pressurised containers and delivered as an aerosol, it has been demonstrated that large quantities of 70% IPA particles are generated that remain airborne for substantial periods of time. Within non-unidirectional airflow cleanroom areas, such particles are likely to be recorded by the particle monitoring system. Consequently, the derived operational limits for particles will almost certainly be at "artificially high" levels and any particle generating activities with contamination potential may be masked. These high particle levels may not comply with the requirements of Annex 1 of the European Unions Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices (EU GGMP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Aseptic Processing Guideline. This is the case predominantly for the larger particles (> or =5 microm), the monitoring of which is exclusively required by the Annex 1 guide. However, by using canisters that deliver the 70% IPA as a stream, large quantities of particles are not generated and more meaningful and compliant operational levels can be obtained. Additionally, the EU GGMP's Annex 1 continuing requirement to monitor particles > or =5 microm appears to have little value or scientific justification and restricts further harmonisation of the European guide with the US FDA Aseptic Processing Guideline.

  18. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  19. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

  20. Can the Blood Alcohol Concentration Be a Predictor for Increased Hospital Complications in Trauma Patients Involved in Motor Vehicle Crashes?

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) <100 mg/dL, 538 (14%) 100–199 mg/dL, and 643 (17%) >200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0–20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4–27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5–49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification. PMID:20617025

  1. Membrane-associated polypeptides induced in Chlamydomonas by limiting CO sub 2 concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, M.H.; Jeffrey, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other unicellular green algae have a high apparent affinity for CO{sub 2}, little O{sub 2} inhibition of photosynthesis, and reduced photorespiration. These characteristics result from operation of a CO{sub 2}-concentrating system. The CO{sub 2}-concentrating system involves active inorganic carbon transport and is under environmental control. Cells grown at limiting CO{sub 2} concentrations have inorganic carbon transport activity, but cells grown at 5% CO{sub 2} do not. Four membrane-associated polypeptides (M{sub r}, 19, 21, 35, and 36 kilodaltons) have been identified which either appear or increase in abundance during adaptation to limiting CO{sub 2} concentrations. The appearance of two of the polypeptides occurs over roughly the same time course as the appearance of the CO{sub 2}-concentrating system activity in response to CO{sub 2} limitation.

  2. Limited to no responsibility: addiction, alcoholism and the law in modern Germany.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    In Germany, a perpetrator had to be of sound mind to be convicted of a crime throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The criminal code was clear, but reality was not. From the moment that physicians accepted alcoholism and drug addiction as diseases of mind and body, the question of what to do with alcoholic and addicted criminals troubled legal theorists. How were judges to maintain the balance of justice if, on the one hand, a potential perpetrator chose to be of unsound mind by drinking or using drugs, but on the other, he was sick, unable to control his actions? As this article demonstrates, the legal system was lenient towards inebriated perpetrators as a by-product of the insistence of German doctors that alcoholism and addiction were diseases.

  3. Impact of available nitrogen and sugar concentration in musts on alcoholic fermentation and subsequent wine spoilage by Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Childs, Bradford C; Bohlscheid, Jeffri C; Edwards, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    The level of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) supplementation required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to complete fermentation of high sugar musts in addition to the impact of non-metabolized nitrogen on post-alcoholic spoilage by Brettanomyces bruxellensis was studied. A 2 × 3 factorial design was employed using a synthetic grape juice medium with YAN (150 or 250 mg N/L) and equal proportions of glucose/fructose (230, 250, or 270 g/L) as variables. S. cerevisiae ECA5 (low nitrogen requirement) or Uvaferm 228 (high nitrogen requirement) were inoculated at 10(5) cfu/mL while B. bruxellensis E1 or B2 were added once alcoholic fermentation ceased. Regardless of YAN concentration, musts that contained 230 or 250 g/L glucose/fructose at either nitrogen level attained dryness (mean = 0.32 g/L fructose) while those containing 270 g/L generally did not (mean = 2.5 g/L fructose). Higher concentrations of YAN present in musts yielded wines with higher amounts of α-amino acids and ammonium but very little (≤ 6 mg N/L) was needed by B. bruxellensis to attain populations ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL. While adding nitrogen to high sugar musts does not necessarily ensure completion of alcoholic fermentation, residual YAN did not affect B. bruxellensis growth as much as ethanol concentration.

  4. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  5. A controlled study of the time-course of breath alcohol concentration after moderate ingestion of ethanol following a social drinking session.

    PubMed

    Barquín, Jesús; Luna, Juan de Dios; Hernández, Antonio F

    2008-05-20

    This paper evaluates the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), nausea (feeling of being slightly intoxicated) and subjective driving performance after ingesting a moderate dose of alcohol in the presence of a light meal, which intends to approach a social drinking setting. 119 healthy individuals (69 males and 50 females, aged 21.7+/-3.0) ingested three glasses of wine (95mL each) and their BrAC was determined by an Alcotest 7410 at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min post-drinking. 46% of females and no male subjects exceeded a BrAC of 0.25mg/L, the legal limit for driving fixed by some Western countries. 53% of the study population felt nausea during the experimental session and 20% self-reported impairment of their driving skills. In both cases these subjective effects were more pronounced in females. The major determinants of mean BrAC were time post-drinking, gender (male) and body mass index (BMI), all these variables being inversely associated. Females and individuals with a BMI lower than 22.5kg/m(2) were at an increased risk of exceeding the legal limit of BrAC. The feeling of nausea was significantly associated with gender (females), the ingestion of up to 2 drinks on weekdays, and having exceeded a BrAC of 0.25mg/L during the experimental study. The main predictor of self-perception of impaired driving skills was the feeling of nausea, followed by a BrAC in excess of 0.25mg/L. In conclusion, both females and subjects with lower BMI are at an increased risk of exceeding the legal limit of BrAC after moderate alcohol consumption resembling a social drinking setting.

  6. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty alcohols in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2015-07-01

    By analysis of experimental data, a quantitative theoretical interpretation of the solubility limit of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols in micellar solutions of water-soluble surfactants is presented. A general picture of the phase behavior of the investigated systems is given in the form of phase diagrams. The limited solubility of the fatty alcohols in the micelles of conventional surfactants is explained with the precipitation of their monomers in the bulk, rather than with micelle phase separation. The long chain fatty alcohols (with n=14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms) exhibit an ideal mixing in the micelles of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Deviations from ideality are observed for the alcohols of shorter chain (n=10 and 12), which can be explained by a mismatch with the longer chains of the surfactant molecules. Using the determined thermodynamic parameters of the systems, their phase diagrams are constructed. Such a diagram consists of four domains, viz. mixed micelles; coexistent micelles and precipitate (dispersed crystallites or droplets); precipitate without micelles, and molecular solution. The four boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, Q. For ionic surfactants (like SLES), a detailed theory for calculating the boundary lines of the phase diagrams is developed and verified against data for the positions of the kinks in surface tension isotherms. The theory takes into account the electrostatic interactions in the micellar solutions and the effect of counterion binding. The results can be useful for a quantitative interpretation and prediction of the phase behavior of mixed solutions of two (or more) surfactants, one of them being water soluble and forming micelles, whereas the other one has a limited water solubility, but readily forms mixed micelles with the former surfactant.

  7. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  8. Concentrations, Distribution and Persistence of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Sludge-Applied Soils near Decatur, Alabama, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil samples were collected for fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) analyses from six fields to which sludge had been applied and one “background” field that had not received sludge. Ten analytes in soil extracts were quantified using GC/MS. Sludge-applied fields had surface soil FTOH c...

  9. Concentration multiplicity in a draft tube fluidized-bed bioreactor involving two limiting substrates.

    PubMed

    Tong, C C; Fan, L S

    1988-01-01

    Concentration multiplicity in a two-phase or three-phase draft tube fluidized-bed bioreactor containing biofloc particles is studied. The kinetics of biological reactions considered involve two limiting substrates. The necessary and sufficient conditions for concentration multiplicity in both the biofilm and bioreactor are examined in terms of effectiveness factor, inlet and bulk concentration of substrates, and liquid flow rate. Hysteresis behavior in both the biofilm and bioreactor and multiplicity of concentration profiles in the biofilm are also discussed. PMID:18581559

  10. Effect of the PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) concentration on the optical properties of Eu-doped YAG phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Daniela A.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Ferreira, Nilson S.; Teixeira, Verônica C.; dos S. Rezende, Marcos V.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration on the synthesis and structural, morphological and optical properties of Y3Al5O13: Eu (Eu-doped YAG) was systematically investigated in this work. The final concentration of PVA in the preparation step influenced the crystallite size and also the degree of particle agglomeration in Eu-doped YAG phosphors. X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) emission spectra results indicated typical Eu3+ emission lines and an abnormally intense 5D0 → 7F4. The intensity parameters Ω2 and Ω4 were calculated and indicated the PVA concentration affects the ratio Ω2:Ω4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results showed Eu valence did not change and the symmetry around the Eu3+ is influenced by the PVA concentration. XEOL-XAS showed the luminescence increases as a function of energy.

  11. The different effects on cranial and trunk neural crest cell behaviour following exposure to a low concentration of alcohol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Czarnobaj, Joanna; Bagnall, Keith M; Bamforth, J Steven; Milos, Nadine C

    2014-05-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells give rise to large regions of the face and peripheral nervous system. Exposure of these cells to high alcohol concentrations leads to cell death in the craniofacial region resulting in facial defects. However, the effects of low concentrations of alcohol on neural crest cells are not clear. In this study, cranial neural crest cells from Xenopus laevis were cultured in an ethanol concentration approximately equivalent to one drink. Techniques were developed to study various aspects of neural crest cell behaviour and a number of cellular parameters were quantified. In the presence of alcohol, a significant number of cranial neural crest cells emigrated from the explant on fibronectin but the liberation of individual cells was delayed. The cells also remained close to the explant and their morphology changed. Cranial neural crest cells did not grow on Type 1 collagen. For the purposes of comparison, the behaviour of trunk neural crest cells was also studied. The presence of alcohol correlated with increased retention of single cells on fibronectin but left other parameters unchanged. The behaviour of trunk neural crest cells growing on Type 1 collagen in the presence of alcohol did not differ from controls. Low concentrations of alcohol therefore significantly affected both cranial and trunk neural crest cells, with a wider variety of effects on cells from the cranial as opposed to the trunk region. The results suggest that low concentrations of alcohol may be more detrimental to early events in organ formation than currently suspected.

  12. Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy.

    PubMed

    Wise, Marshall; Calvin, Katherine; Thomson, Allison; Clarke, Leon; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Sands, Ronald; Smith, Steven J; Janetos, Anthony; Edmonds, James

    2009-05-29

    Limiting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to low levels requires strategies to manage anthropogenic carbon emissions from terrestrial systems as well as fossil fuel and industrial sources. We explore the implications of fully integrating terrestrial systems and the energy system into a comprehensive mitigation regime that limits atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that this comprehensive approach lowers the cost of meeting environmental goals but also carries with it profound implications for agriculture: Unmanaged ecosystems and forests expand, and food crop and livestock prices rise. Finally, we find that future improvement in food crop productivity directly affects land-use change emissions, making the technology for growing crops potentially important for limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  13. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  14. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  15. Cytochrome P450 CYP 2E1 induction during chronic alcohol exposure occurs by a two-step mechanism associated with blood alcohol concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Ronis, M J; Huang, J; Crouch, J; Mercado, C; Irby, D; Valentine, C R; Lumpkin, C K; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Badger, T M

    1993-02-01

    Intragastric infusion of ethanol to male rats as part of a system of total enteral nutrition allows chronic ethanol treatment without the nutritional and feeding problems associated with traditional liquid diets. Even though ethanol was infused at a constant rate 24 h a day, blood alcohol concentrations were observed to cycle over a 5- to 7-day period from values less than 10 mg/dl to greater than 400 mg/dl. Examination of the hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase system in animals chronically treated with ethanol using this model revealed variable induction of cytochrome P450 CYP 2E1, the principal component of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. Correlations were observed between urine alcohol concentrations (UACs) and 1) the level of expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Northern blot analysis, 2) the level of CYP 2E1 apoprotein in Western blot analysis and, 3) microsomal p-nitrophenol (PNP) hydroxylation. The data from ethanol-treated animals were expressed as low UAC group (UACs < 200 mg/dl) and a high UAC group (UACs > 300 mg/dl) and compared to total enteral nutrition controls. In the low UAC group, a 6- to 7-fold induction in microsomal PNP hydroxylase (a CYP 2E1-dependent activity) was accompanied by a 4- to 5-fold increase in CYP 2E1 apoprotein, but no increase in CYP 2E1 mRNA levels. In contrast, in the high UAC group, induction of PNP hydroxylase was 15- to 16-fold, induction of CYP 2E1 apoprotein was 12- to 13-fold and CYP 2E1 mRNA was elevated 5- to 6-fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Limiting concentrations of activated mononucleotides necessary for poly(C)-directed elongation of oligoguanylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Chang, S.; Alberas, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Selected imidazolide-activated nucleotides have been subjected to hydrolysis under conditions similar to those that favor their template-directed oligomerization. Rate constants of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), kh, have been determined in the presence/absence of magnesium ion as a function of temperature and polycytidylate [poly(C)] concentration. Using the rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-MeImpG and the rate constant of elongation, i.e., the reaction of an oligoguanylate with 2-MeImpG in the presence of poly(C) acting as template, the limiting concentration of 2-MeImpG necessary for oligonucleotide elongation to compete with hydrolysis can be calculated. The limiting concentration is defined as the initial concentration of monomer that results in its equal consumption by hydrolysis and by elongation. These limiting concentrations of 2-MeImpG are found to be 1.7 mM at 37 degrees C and 0.36 mM at 1 degrees C. Boundary conditions in the form of limiting concentration of activated nucleotide may be used to evaluate a prebiotic model for chemical synthesis of biopolymers. For instance, the limiting concentration of monomer can be used as a basis of comparison among catalytic, but nonenzymatic, RNA-type systems. We also determined the rate constant of dimerization of 2-MeImpG, k2 = 0.45 +/- 0.06 M-1 h-1 in the absence of poly(C), and 0.45 +/- 0.06 less than or equal to k2 less than or equal to 0.97 +/- 0.13 M-1 h-1 in its presence at 37 degrees C and pH 7.95.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Exceedance of PM10 and ozone concentration limits in Germany - Spatial variability and influence of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, Majana; Bernhofer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ground-level ozone (O3) have negative impacts on human health, e.g., increased risk of respiratory disease, and the environment. European Union (EU) air policy and air quality standards led to continuously reduced air pollution problems in recent decades. Nevertheless, the limit values for PM10 (particles with diameter of 10 micrometers or less) and ozone - defined by the directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament - are still exceeded frequently. Poor air quality and the exceedance of limits result mainly from the combination of high emissions and unfavourable weather conditions. Datasets from German monitoring stations are used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of the exceedance of concentration limits for PM10 and ozone for the federal states of Germany. Time series are analysed for the period 2000-2012 for PM10 and for the period 1990-2012 for ozone. Furthermore, the influence of weather patterns on the exceedance of concentration limits on a regional scale was investigated. Here, the "objective weather types" of the German Weather Service were used. As expected, for most regions anticyclonic weather types (with a negative cyclonality index for the two levels 950 and 500 hPa) show a high frequency on exeedance days, both for PM10 and ozone. The results could contribute to estimate the future exceedance frequency of concentration limits and to develop possible countermeasures.

  18. Evaporation of Binary Sessile Drops: Infrared and Acoustic Methods To Track Alcohol Concentration at the Interface and on the Surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin; Toubal, Malika; Carlier, Julien; Harmand, Souad; Nongaillard, Bertrand; Bigerelle, Maxence

    2016-09-27

    Evaporation of droplets of three pure liquids (water, 1-butanol, and ethanol) and four binary solutions (5 wt % 1-butanol-water-based solution and 5, 25, and 50 wt % ethanol-water-based solutions) deposited on hydrophobic silicon was investigated. A drop shape analyzer was used to measure the contact angle, diameter, and volume of the droplets. An infrared camera was used for infrared thermal mapping of the droplet's surface. An acoustic high-frequency echography technique was, for the first time, applied to track the alcohol concentration in a binary-solution droplet. Evaporation of pure alcohol droplets was executed at different values of relative humidity (RH), among which the behavior of pure ethanol evaporation was notably influenced by the ambient humidity as a result of high hygrometry. Evaporation of droplets of water and binary solutions was performed at a temperature of 22 °C and a mean humidity of approximately 50%. The exhaustion times of alcohol in the droplets estimated by the acoustic method and the visual method were similar for the water-1-butanol mixture; however, the time estimated by the acoustic method was longer when compared with that estimated by the visual method for the water-ethanol mixture due to the residual ethanol at the bottom of the droplet. PMID:27506399

  19. Evaporation of Binary Sessile Drops: Infrared and Acoustic Methods To Track Alcohol Concentration at the Interface and on the Surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin; Toubal, Malika; Carlier, Julien; Harmand, Souad; Nongaillard, Bertrand; Bigerelle, Maxence

    2016-09-27

    Evaporation of droplets of three pure liquids (water, 1-butanol, and ethanol) and four binary solutions (5 wt % 1-butanol-water-based solution and 5, 25, and 50 wt % ethanol-water-based solutions) deposited on hydrophobic silicon was investigated. A drop shape analyzer was used to measure the contact angle, diameter, and volume of the droplets. An infrared camera was used for infrared thermal mapping of the droplet's surface. An acoustic high-frequency echography technique was, for the first time, applied to track the alcohol concentration in a binary-solution droplet. Evaporation of pure alcohol droplets was executed at different values of relative humidity (RH), among which the behavior of pure ethanol evaporation was notably influenced by the ambient humidity as a result of high hygrometry. Evaporation of droplets of water and binary solutions was performed at a temperature of 22 °C and a mean humidity of approximately 50%. The exhaustion times of alcohol in the droplets estimated by the acoustic method and the visual method were similar for the water-1-butanol mixture; however, the time estimated by the acoustic method was longer when compared with that estimated by the visual method for the water-ethanol mixture due to the residual ethanol at the bottom of the droplet.

  20. Driving performance on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in undergraduate students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mathieu; Gallant, François; Lavallière, Martin; Chiasson, Martine; Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J; Johnson, Michel J

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third assessment. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sensitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated.

  1. Driving simulator sickness: Impact on driving performance, influence of blood alcohol concentration, and effect of repeated simulator exposures.

    PubMed

    Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. PMID:27322638

  2. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that selection pressure from antibiotics in the environment may accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there is currently no regulatory system that takes such risks into account. In part, this is due to limited knowledge of environmental concentrations that might exert selection for resistant bacteria. To experimentally determine minimal selective concentrations in complex microbial ecosystems for all antibiotics would involve considerable effort. In this work, our aim was to estimate upper boundaries for selective concentrations for all common antibiotics, based on the assumption that selective concentrations a priori need to be lower than those completely inhibiting growth. Data on Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for 111 antibiotics from the public EUCAST database. The 1% lowest observed MICs were identified, and to compensate for limited species coverage, predicted lowest MICs adjusted for the number of tested species were extrapolated through modeling. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection were then assessed using an assessment factor of 10 to account for differences between MICs and minimal selective concentrations. The resulting PNECs ranged from 8 ng/L to 64 μg/L. Furthermore, the link between taxonomic similarity between species and lowest MIC was weak. This work provides estimated upper boundaries for selective concentrations (lowest MICs) and PNECs for resistance selection for all common antibiotics. In most cases, PNECs for selection of resistance were below available PNECs for ecotoxicological effects. The generated PNECs can guide implementation of compound-specific emission limits that take into account risks for resistance promotion.

  3. Western blot analysis of a limited number of cells: a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed tissue after laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Wim; Abbeloos, Vanessa; Van Acker, Nathalie; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Herman, Arnold G; Kockx, Mark M

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, laser capture microdissection (LCM) has been used successfully to obtain distinct populations of cells for subsequent molecular analysis. Because of the limited sample availability and the absence of in vitro amplification steps for proteins, the use of LCM for proteome analysis largely depends on highly sensitive protein detection methods. In this study, a western blot protocol was developed and validated for the detection of beta-actin and the moderately expressed cell death protein caspase-3 in small numbers of cells. Initially, cultured human U937 monocytes and whole sections of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils were used to optimize protein electrophoresis and western blotting conditions. High-performance NuPAGE Bis-Tris gels in combination with high-quality transfer membranes, optimized antibody concentrations, and a sensitive chemiluminescent substrate provided a strong signal for beta-actin with approximately 500 U937 cells. In the same way, procaspase-3 could be identified with approximately 1000 cells. Similar results were obtained with germinal centre cells that were procured from paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils by LCM. Treatment of U937 cells with etoposide rapidly induced cell death and allowed the detection of active caspase-3 with approximately 2500 cells (0.8 pg of protein). The findings of this study suggest that western blotting is a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of LCM procured cells.

  4. The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of increasing honey concentrations from 10% to 30% within the Honey (H)/polyvinyl alcohol (P)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers was investigated. Changes in the electrospun nanofiber diameters, crystallinity, thermal behavior, porosity and antibacterial activity have been assessed using SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA, mercury porosimeter and viable cell count technique. The HPCS nanofibers were cross-linked and tested for their swelling abilities and degradation behavior. The mean diameter of HPCS nanofibers increased from 284±97nm to 464±185nm upon increasing the honey concentration from 10% to 30%. Irrespective the honey concentrations, the nanofibers have demonstrated enhanced porosity. Increasing the honey concentration resulted in a reduction in the swelling of the 1h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers containing 10% and 30% H from 520% to 100%; respectively. Degradation after 30days was reduced in the 3h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers compared to the non-crosslinked HPCS nanofibers. Enhanced antibacterial activity was achieved against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli upon increasing the honey concentration. Changing the honey concentration and the extent of nanofiber crosslinking can be used to adjust different parameters of the HPCS nanofibers to suit their applications in wound healing and tissue engineering.

  5. The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of increasing honey concentrations from 10% to 30% within the Honey (H)/polyvinyl alcohol (P)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers was investigated. Changes in the electrospun nanofiber diameters, crystallinity, thermal behavior, porosity and antibacterial activity have been assessed using SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA, mercury porosimeter and viable cell count technique. The HPCS nanofibers were cross-linked and tested for their swelling abilities and degradation behavior. The mean diameter of HPCS nanofibers increased from 284±97nm to 464±185nm upon increasing the honey concentration from 10% to 30%. Irrespective the honey concentrations, the nanofibers have demonstrated enhanced porosity. Increasing the honey concentration resulted in a reduction in the swelling of the 1h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers containing 10% and 30% H from 520% to 100%; respectively. Degradation after 30days was reduced in the 3h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers compared to the non-crosslinked HPCS nanofibers. Enhanced antibacterial activity was achieved against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli upon increasing the honey concentration. Changing the honey concentration and the extent of nanofiber crosslinking can be used to adjust different parameters of the HPCS nanofibers to suit their applications in wound healing and tissue engineering. PMID:27287123

  6. How low can you go? Assessing minimum concentrations of NSC in carbon limited tree saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Guenter; Hartmann, Henrik; Schwendener, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are frequently used to determine the carbon balance of plants. Over the last years, an increasing number of studies have inferred carbon starvation in trees under environmental stress like drought from low tissue NSC concentrations. However, such inferences are limited by the fact that minimum concentrations of NSC required for survival are not known. So far, it was hypothesized that even under lethal carbon starvation, starch and low molecular sugar concentrations cannot be completely depleted and that minimum NSC concentrations at death vary across tissues and species. Here we present results of an experiment that aimed to determine minimum NSC concentrations in different tissues of saplings of two broad-leaved tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus and Quercus petratea) exposed to lethal carbon starvation via continuous darkening. In addition, we investigated recovery rates of NSC concentrations in saplings that had been darkened for different periods of time and were then re-exposed to light. Both species survived continuous darkening for about 12 weeks (confirmed by testing the ability to re-sprout after darkness). In all investigated tissues, starch concentrations declined close to zero within three to six weeks of darkness. Low molecular sugars also decreased strongly within the first weeks of darkness, but seemed to stabilize at low concentrations of 0.5 to 2 % dry matter (depending on tissue and species) almost until death. NSC concentrations recovered surprisingly fast in saplings that were re-exposed to light. After 3 weeks of continuous darkness, tissue NSC concentrations recovered within 6 weeks to levels of unshaded control saplings in all tissues and in both species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental attempt to quantify minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal carbon starvation. Most importantly, our results suggest that carbon-starved tree saplings are able to

  7. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.

  8. Vapor pressures of the fluorinated telomer alcohols--limitations of estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Stock, Naomi L; Ellis, David A; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2004-03-15

    The influence of the unique, physical properties of poly- and perfluorinated chemicals on vapor pressure was investigated. Vapor pressures of a suite of fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) (CF3(CF2)nCH2CH2OH, where n = 3, 5, 7, or 9) were measured using the boiling point method and ranged from 144 to 992 Pa. Comparison of experimental and literature values indicate that perfluorocarbons (CF3(CF2)nCF3, where n = 0-6) and fluorinated telomer alcohols have vapor pressures equal to or greater than that of their hydrogen analogues. These chemically counterintuitive results can be explained by the unique geometry of poly- and perfluorinated chemicals--in particular the stiff, helical perfluorinated chain and the significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the FTOHs. The majority of models investigated for the estimation of vapor pressure did not compensate for this unique geometry and consistently underpredicted the vapor pressures of the FTOHs. Calculation of partitioning constants using both experimental and estimated vapor pressures indicate that both the Antoine and Modified Grain models, and to a lesser degree the Mackay model, are insufficiently accurate for estimating the vapor pressures of the FTOHs, particularly the longer chain FTOHs. Future models should consider parameters such as geometry, strength, and location of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and otherfunction groups in the molecule in order to improve vapor pressure estimation accuracy. It appears likely that the unique molecular geometry of the FTOHs influences not only their vapor pressure but also other physical properties and hence environmental fate and dissemination.

  9. Threshold scaling limits of RO concentrates flowing in a long waste disposal pipeline.

    PubMed

    Semiat, R; Hasson, D; Zelmanov, G; Hemo, I

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of RO concentrates emanating from inland brackish water desalination plants presents a difficult environmental problem. The solution adopted by Mekorot--the National Water Company of Israel--is to construct a 30 km waste disposal pipeline for collecting concentrates emanating from several RO desalination plants and discharging them into the sea. The discharged concentrates are highly supersaturated with respect to CaCO3. Scale precipitation during concentrate flow through the RO module is inhibited by the presence of anti-scalants. The retention time of the concentrate solution in the discharge pipe will exceed 100 hours. This raises the issue of the risk of scale precipitation in the discharge pipe that could impair its proper functioning. The aim of the present study was to provide data for guiding the design and operation of the disposal pipeline. The extent of the induction period prior to the onset of precipitation was measured in a pilot plant simulating flow of concentrate solutions dosed with anti-scalants. The parameters investigated were the scaling potential, the anti-scalant concentration and the presence of a mixture of several anti-scalants. The results of this study provide threshold scaling limits under various conditions.

  10. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; DiManno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP) after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow "conventional wisdom" that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  11. NOTE: Detection limits for ferrimagnetic particle concentrations using magnetic resonance imaging based proton transverse relaxation rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoe, H.; Chua-anusorn, W.; St. Pierre, T. G.; Dobson, J.

    2003-03-01

    A clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to measure proton transverse relaxation rates (R2) in agar gels with varying concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in a field strength of 1.5 T. The nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of either dextran or polyvinyl alcohol. The method of preparation resulted in loosely packed clusters (dextran) or branched chains (polyvinyl alcohol) of particles containing of the order of 600 and 400 particles, respectively. For both methods of particle preparation, concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron in agar gel less than 0.01 mg ml-1 had no measurable effect on the value of R2 for the gel. The results indicate that MRI-based R2 measurements using 1.5 T clinical scanners are not quite sensitive enough to detect the very low concentrations of nanoparticulate biogenic magnetite reported in human brain tissue.

  12. Fibrinogen concentrate improves survival during limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in a Swine model.

    PubMed

    White, Nathan J; Wang, Xu; Liles, Conrad; Stern, Susan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fibrinogen concentrate, as a hemostatic agent, on limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. We use a swine model of hemorrhagic shock with free bleeding from a 4-mm aortic tear to test the effect of adding a one-time dose of fibrinogen concentrate given at the onset of limited fluid resuscitation. Immature female swine were anesthetized and subjected to catheter hemorrhage and aortic tear to induce uniform hemorrhagic shock. Animals (n = 7 per group) were then randomized to receive (i) no fluid resuscitation (neg control) or (ii) limited resuscitation in the form of two boluses of 10 mL/kg of 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution given 30 min apart (HEX group), or (iii) the same fluid regimen with one dose of 120-mg/kg fibrinogen concentrate given with the first hydroxyethyl starch bolus (FBG). Animals were then observed for a total of 6 h with aortic repair and aggressive resuscitation with shed blood taking place at 3 h. Survival to 6 h was significantly increased with FBG (7/8, 86%) versus HEX (2/7, 29%) and neg control (0/7, 0%) (FBG vs. HEX, Kaplan-Meier log-rank P = 0.035). Intraperitoneal blood loss adjusted for survival time was increased in HEX (0.4 mL/kg per minute) when compared with FBG (0.1 mg/kg per minute, P = 0.047) and neg control (0.1 mL/kg per minute, P = 0.041). Systemic and cerebral hemodynamics also showed improvement with FBG versus HEX. Fibrinogen concentrate may be a useful adjunct to decrease blood loss, improve hemodynamics, and prolong survival during limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock.

  13. Predictive model for diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics of nanocolloids under high concentration.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco

    2012-01-12

    Smoluchowski's equation for the rate of aggregation of colloidal particles under diffusion-limited conditions has set the basis for the interpretation of kinetics of aggregation phenomena. Nevertheless, its use is limited to sufficiently dilute conditions. In this work we propose a correction to Smoluchowski's equation by using a result derived by Richards ( J. Phys. Chem. 1986 , 85 , 3520 ) within the framework of trapping theory. This corrected aggregation kernel, which accounts for concentration dependence effects, has been implemented in a population-balance equations scheme and used to model the aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles undergoing diffusion-limited aggregation under concentrated conditions (up to a particle volume fraction of 30%). The predictions of population balance calculations have been validated by means of Brownian dynamic simulations. It was found that the corrected kernel can very well reproduce the results from Brownian dynamic simulations for all concentration values investigated, and is also able to accurately predict the time required by a suspension to reach the gel point. On the other hand, classical Smoluchowski's theory substantially underpredicts the rate of aggregation as well as the onset of gelation, with deviations becoming progressively more severe as the particle volume fraction increases. PMID:22148884

  14. Biodegradation of high concentration of nitrobenzene by Pseudomonas corrugata embedded in peat-phosphate esterified polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Li, Hai-Jun; Shi, Yue-E; Zhu, Bo-Lin; Gao, Song

    2013-10-01

    Efficiency on biodegradation of high concentration of nitrobenzene (NB) by peat-phosphate esterified polyvinyl alcohol-embedded NB-degrading bacteria Pseudomonas corrugata was conducted compared to free bacteria cells. Its biodegradation kinetics, reuse ability, degradation effect in the absence of the essential element needed for the growth of bacteria and degradation efficiency of the raw water from the contaminated site were also invested. Results show that the degradation rate when the concentration of NB was at 600, 750, and 900 mg/L reached 91.02, 83.23, and 55.9 %, which was higher than that observed in free bacteria at the same concentration levels. Biodegradation kinetics of the material could be well described by first- and zero-order kinetics when the concentration of NB was at 300, 450 mg/L and 600, 750, 900 mg/L, respectively. Stable degradation activity (stayed at a level of approximately 70 %) was displayed during the 11th repeat-batch experiment. The affect of absence of phosphorus in the medium can be abated ascribed to the addition of peat, which contributes with organic matter and other elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus necessary to maintain metabolically active the microorganisms. Effective biodegradation of the raw water from the experimental site revealed that the material can be a potential candidate for treating NB-contaminated wastewater in the practical setting. PMID:23576015

  15. Tryptophan in Alcoholism Treatment I:  Kynurenine Metabolites Inhibit the Rat Liver Mitochondrial Low Km Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity, Elevate Blood Acetaldehyde Concentration and Induce Aversion to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Abdulla A.-B.; Bano, Samina; Steptoe, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The aims were to provide proofs of mechanism and principle by establishing the ability of kynurenine metabolites to inhibit the liver mitochondrial low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity after administration and in vivo, and to induce aversion to alcohol. Methods: Kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) were administered to normal male Wistar rats and ALDH activity was determined both in vitro in liver homogenates and in vivo (by measuring blood acetaldehyde following ethanol administration). Alcohol consumption was studied in an aversion model in rats and in alcohol-preferring C57 mice. Results: ALDH activity was significantly inhibited by all three metabolites by doses as small as 1 mg/kg body wt. Blood acetaldehyde accumulation after ethanol administration was strongly elevated by KA and 3-HK and to a lesser extent by 3-HAA. All three metabolites induced aversion to alcohol in rats and decreased alcohol preference in mice. Conclusions: The above kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan induce aversion to alcohol by inhibiting ALDH activity. An intellectual property covering the use of 3-HK and 3-HAA and derivatives thereof in the treatment of alcoholism by aversion awaits further development. PMID:21896552

  16. Inverse dependency of particle residence times in ponds to the concentration of phosphate, the limiting nutrient.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly A; Santschi, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    234Th, a commonly used short-lived particle-reactive tracer in marine systems, was measured in three different holding pond series at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Colorado, along with its parent nuclide 238U, to determine steady-state residence times of particle-reactive actinides such as Pu, and of particles. Series B ponds, which received industrial effluent that includes ortho-phosphate (PO4) and actinides, differed from series A and C ponds, which did not. This difference was also evident in the calculated particle residence times, which were <1 day for the ponds B4 and B5, where PO4 concentrations were higher (1.4 and 1.8 mg/l), and 3 and 3.4 days for ponds A3 and C2, respectively, where ortho-phosphate concentrations were lower (<0.1 mg/l). Particle residence times thus showed an inverse relationship with the concentration of ortho-phosphate, the limiting nutrient in fresh water systems. The same relationship to the concentration of ortho-phosphate or any of the other nutrient elements was not evident for the residence times of dissolved 234Th, which ranged between 0.1 and 2 days. This can be attributed to higher concentrations of dissolved and particulate ligands with greater binding potential for actinides such as four-valent Th and Pu in ponds with higher ortho-phosphate concentrations. Regardless of actual ortho-phosphate concentration, however, at water residence (holding) times of 1 month in these ponds, particles and associated actinides would be expected to be completely removed from the pond water to sediments. PMID:15261419

  17. Inverse dependency of particle residence times in ponds to the concentration of phosphate, the limiting nutrient.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly A; Santschi, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    234Th, a commonly used short-lived particle-reactive tracer in marine systems, was measured in three different holding pond series at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Colorado, along with its parent nuclide 238U, to determine steady-state residence times of particle-reactive actinides such as Pu, and of particles. Series B ponds, which received industrial effluent that includes ortho-phosphate (PO4) and actinides, differed from series A and C ponds, which did not. This difference was also evident in the calculated particle residence times, which were <1 day for the ponds B4 and B5, where PO4 concentrations were higher (1.4 and 1.8 mg/l), and 3 and 3.4 days for ponds A3 and C2, respectively, where ortho-phosphate concentrations were lower (<0.1 mg/l). Particle residence times thus showed an inverse relationship with the concentration of ortho-phosphate, the limiting nutrient in fresh water systems. The same relationship to the concentration of ortho-phosphate or any of the other nutrient elements was not evident for the residence times of dissolved 234Th, which ranged between 0.1 and 2 days. This can be attributed to higher concentrations of dissolved and particulate ligands with greater binding potential for actinides such as four-valent Th and Pu in ponds with higher ortho-phosphate concentrations. Regardless of actual ortho-phosphate concentration, however, at water residence (holding) times of 1 month in these ponds, particles and associated actinides would be expected to be completely removed from the pond water to sediments.

  18. Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Sands, Ronald D.; Smith, Steven J.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Edmonds, James A.

    2009-05-29

    This paper is the first to simultaneously examine the implications of extending the concept of placing a value on carbon beyond fossil fuel and industrial emissions to all sources, including those associated with land use and land use change. The paper reports a variety of results that have bearing on recent discussions in the literature regarding the role of bioenergy and the indirect emission of carbon through land-use change as well as the burgeoning literature on interactions between bioenergy and crop prices. This paper goes beyond results currently in the literature by using an integrated assessment model to assess energy use and supply, atmospheric composition, land use, and terrestrial carbon in the context of limiting the concentration of atmospheric CO2. We find that when the concept of valuing carbon emissions is extended to all carbon emissions, regardless of origin, that in contrast to a mitigation scenario where only fossil fuel and industrial carbon emissions are valued, deforestation is replaced by afforestation and expanded unmanaged ecosystems; the cost of limiting CO2 concentrations falls; crop prices rise; and human diets are transformed as people shift away from consumption of beef and other carbon-intensive protein sources. The increase in crop prices flows directly from the consideration of land-use change emissions in a comprehensive emissions mitigation program and occurs even in the absence of the use of purpose-grown bioenergy. Finally, we find that the assumed rate of improvement in food and fiber crop productivity (e.g. wheat, rice, corn) has a strong influence on land-use change emissions, making the technology for growing crops potentially as important for limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations as energy technologies such as CO2 capture and storage.

  19. Soil Redox Chemistry Limitation of Selenium Concentration in Carex Species Sedges

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; John Mionczynski; Patrick A. Hnilicka

    2007-09-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is required in the production of enzymes that protect mammalian cells from oxidative damage due to the byproducts of aerobic respiration. Its deficiency in livestock results in the nutritional muscular dystrophy called white muscle disease. This especially affects juveniles in the preweaning period. Symptoms have also been reported in wild herbivores on low-Se forage, and their appearance may be episodic, suggesting temporal variations in Se uptake by plants. Here, we report variations in selenium concentrations in Carex spp. sedges used as forage by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on summer range in the Wyoming, Wind River Mountains, and correlate those variations with soil conditions that affect the bioavailability of selenium. Variations in available Se are explained based upon the known oxidation/reduction chemistry of the element. It is concluded that water-saturated, alpine soils provide conditions suitable for the reduction of Se to the unavailable, elemental form, limiting its concentration in forage plants.

  20. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  1. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  2. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  3. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week.

  4. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p < 0.005), respectively, at 1 hr after drinking whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p < 0.0005, n = 21), at 1 hr after drinking whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  5. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  6. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  7. Breath gas concentrations mirror exposure to sevoflurane and isopropyl alcohol in hospital environments in non-occupational conditions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Mar; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Sánchez, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Anaesthetic gases and disinfectants are a primary source of air contamination in hospitals. A highly sensitive sorbent-trap methodology has been used to analyse exhaled breath samples with detection limits in the pptv range, which allows volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected at significantly lower levels (5-6 orders of magnitude below) than the recommended exposure limits by different organizations. Two common VOCs used in hospital environments, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and sevoflurane, have been evaluated. Forced-expiratory breath samples were obtained from 100 volunteers (24 hospital staff, 45 hospital visitors and 31 external controls). Significant differences for IPA were found between samples from volunteers who had not been in contact with hospital environments (mean value of 8.032 ppbv) and people staying (20.981 ppbv, p  =  0.0002) or working (19.457 ppbv, p  =  0.000 09) in such an environment. Sevoflurane, an anaesthetic gas routinely used as an inhaled anaesthetic, was detected in all samples from volunteers in the hospital environment but not in volunteers who had not been in recent contact with a hospital environment. The levels of sevoflurane were significantly higher (p  =  0.000 24) among staff members (0.522 ppbv) than among visitors to the hospital (0.196 ppbv). We conclude that highly sensitive methods are required to detect anaesthetic gas contamination in hospital environments. PMID:26824193

  8. Breath gas concentrations mirror exposure to sevoflurane and isopropyl alcohol in hospital environments in non-occupational conditions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Mar; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Sánchez, Juan M

    2016-01-29

    Anaesthetic gases and disinfectants are a primary source of air contamination in hospitals. A highly sensitive sorbent-trap methodology has been used to analyse exhaled breath samples with detection limits in the pptv range, which allows volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected at significantly lower levels (5-6 orders of magnitude below) than the recommended exposure limits by different organizations. Two common VOCs used in hospital environments, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and sevoflurane, have been evaluated. Forced-expiratory breath samples were obtained from 100 volunteers (24 hospital staff, 45 hospital visitors and 31 external controls). Significant differences for IPA were found between samples from volunteers who had not been in contact with hospital environments (mean value of 8.032 ppbv) and people staying (20.981 ppbv, p  =  0.0002) or working (19.457 ppbv, p  =  0.000 09) in such an environment. Sevoflurane, an anaesthetic gas routinely used as an inhaled anaesthetic, was detected in all samples from volunteers in the hospital environment but not in volunteers who had not been in recent contact with a hospital environment. The levels of sevoflurane were significantly higher (p  =  0.000 24) among staff members (0.522 ppbv) than among visitors to the hospital (0.196 ppbv). We conclude that highly sensitive methods are required to detect anaesthetic gas contamination in hospital environments.

  9. Influence of human saliva on odorant concentrations. 2. aldehydes, alcohols, 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines, methoxyphenols, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Andrea

    2002-11-20

    The influence of human whole saliva on selected alcohols, aldehydes, 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines, and phenols in food-relevant concentrations was investigated. At pH 7.5-8 it was found that the alcohols, methoxyphenols, methoxypyrazines, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone remained unmodified by saliva, whereas aldehydes were reduced to their corresponding alcohols. Generally, the processes were found to be dependent on the salivary activity of the panelists as well as on the concentration of the applied odorants. Reduction of the aldehydes did not occur after thermal treatment of the saliva. These investigations are aimed at finding an explanation for longer lasting aftertaste in humans, as it is induced by some odor-active compounds after the consumption of food materials.

  10. Aggressive crime, alcohol and drug use, and concentrated poverty in 24 U.S. urban areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Curtis, Russell L

    2007-01-01

    The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios.

  11. Aggressive Crime, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Concentrated Poverty in 24 U.S. Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Curtis, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios. PMID:17668345

  12. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  13. mGluR1 within the nucleus accumbens regulates alcohol intake in mice under limited-access conditions.

    PubMed

    Lum, Emily N; Campbell, Rianne R; Rostock, Charlotte; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic or alcohol-induced increases in the expression and function of the Group1 metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) within the extended amygdala are theorized to contribute to an individual's propensity to consume excessive amounts of alcohol. In the past, the detailed study of the functional relevance of mGluR1 for alcoholism-related behaviors in animal models was hampered by the poor solubility and non-specific side effects of available inhibitors; however, the advent of the highly potent and soluble mGluR1 negative allosteric modulator JNJ-16259685 [(3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] has instigated a re-examination of the role for this mGluR subtype in mediating the behavioral effects of alcohol. In this regard, systemic pretreatment with JNJ-16259685 was proven effective at reducing alcohol reinforcement and motivation for the drug. mGluR1 is a Gαq/o-coupled receptor, the stimulation of which activates phospholipase C (PLC). Thus, the present study investigated potential neuroanatomical substrates and intracellular molecules involved in the ability of JNJ-16259685 to reduce alcohol intake. JNJ-16259685 (0-30 pg/side) was infused into the shell subregion of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of C57BL/6J and Homer2 knock-out (KO) mice, either alone or in combination with the PLC inhibitor U-73122 (5.8 fg/side). Alcohol intake was then assessed under Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) procedures. Intra-NAC JNJ-16259685 infusion dose-dependently reduced alcohol consumption by C57BL/6J mice; this effect was not additive with that produced by U-73122, nor was it present in Homer2 KO animals. These data provide novel evidence in support of a critical role for mGluR1-PLC signaling, scaffolded by Homer2, within the NAC shell, in maintaining alcohol consumption under limited access procedures. Such findings have relevance for both the pharmacotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics of risky alcohol drinking and alcoholism.

  14. Diffraction-limited Fabry-Perot cavity in the near concentric regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, K.; Nguyen, C. H.; Leong, V.; Straupe, S.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2014-10-01

    Nearly concentric optical cavities can be used to prepare optical fields with a very small mode volume. We implement an anaclastic design of such a cavity that significantly simplifies mode matching to the fundamental cavity mode. The cavity is shown to have diffraction-limited performance for a mode volume of ≈ {{10}4}{{λ }3}. This is in sharp contrast with the behavior of cavities with plano-concave mirrors, where aberrations significantly decrease the coupling of the input mode to the fundamental mode of the cavity and increase the coupling to the higher-order modes. We estimate the related cavity quantum electrodynamics parameters and show that the proposed cavity design allows for strong coupling without a need for high finesse or small physical-cavity volume.

  15. Limits to anaerobic energy and cytosolic concentration in the living cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglietti, A.

    2015-11-01

    For many physical systems at any given temperature, the set of all states where the system's free energy reaches its largest value can be determined from the system's constitutive equations of internal energy and entropy, once a state of that set is known. Such an approach is fraught with complications when applied to a living cell, because the cell's cytosol contains thousands of solutes, and thus thousands of state variables, which makes determination of its state impractical. We show here that, when looking for the maximum energy that the cytosol can store and release, detailed information on cytosol composition is redundant. Compatibility with cell's life requires that a single variable that represents the overall concentration of cytosol solutes must fall between defined limits, which can be determined by dehydrating and overhydrating the cell to its maximum capacity. The same limits are shown to determine, in particular, the maximum amount of free energy that a cell can supply in fast anaerobic processes, starting from any given initial state. For a typical skeletal muscle in normal physiological conditions this energy, i.e., the maximum anaerobic capacity to do work, is calculated to be about 960 J per kg of muscular mass. Such energy decreases as the overall concentration of solutes in the cytosol is increased. Similar results apply to any kind of cell. They provide an essential tool to understand and control the macroscopic response of single cells and multicellular cellular tissues alike. The applications include sport physiology, cell aging, disease produced cell damage, drug absorption capacity, to mention the most obvious ones.

  16. Incorporation of concentration data below the limit of quantification in population pharmacokinetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Ron J; Jansen, Robert S; Rosing, Hilde; Thijssen, Bas; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2015-01-01

    Handling of data below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analyses is important for reducing bias and imprecision in parameter estimation. We aimed to evaluate whether using the concentration data below the LLOQ has superior performance over several established methods. The performance of this approach (“All data”) was evaluated and compared to other methods: “Discard,” “LLOQ/2,” and “LIKE” (likelihood-based). An analytical and residual error model was constructed on the basis of in-house analytical method validations and analyses from literature, with additional included variability to account for model misspecification. Simulation analyses were performed for various levels of BLOQ, several structural PopPK models, and additional influences. Performance was evaluated by relative root mean squared error (RMSE), and run success for the various BLOQ approaches. Performance was also evaluated for a real PopPK data set. For all PopPK models and levels of censoring, RMSE values were lowest using “All data.” Performance of the “LIKE” method was better than the “LLOQ/2” or “Discard” method. Differences between all methods were small at the lowest level of BLOQ censoring. “LIKE” method resulted in low successful minimization (<50%) and covariance step success (<30%), although estimates were obtained in most runs (∼90%). For the real PK data set (7.4% BLOQ), similar parameter estimates were obtained using all methods. Incorporation of BLOQ concentrations showed superior performance in terms of bias and precision over established BLOQ methods, and shown to be feasible in a real PopPK analysis. PMID:26038706

  17. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  18. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  19. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization. PMID:26192921

  20. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization.

  1. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization. PMID:26192921

  2. The effects of low concentrations of the enantiomers of mushroom alcohol (1-octen-3-ol) on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Richard; Lee, Samantha; Bennett, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    “Mushroom alcohol,” or 1-octen-3-ol, is a common fungal volatile organic compound (VOC) that has been studied for its flavor properties, its effects on fungal spore germination, mushroom development, and as a signaling agent for insects. Far less is known about its effects on plants. We exposed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, under conditions conducive to germination, to high (10 and 100 mg/1) and low concentrations (1, 2, and 3 mg/1) of racemic, S, and R forms of 1-octen-3-ol for 3 days. In addition, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week-old A. thaliana plants also were exposed to 1 mg/1 of the compounds for the same period of time. Seedling formation was retarded with all tested levels of exposure to 1-octen-3-ol for both enantiomers and the racemer, while 95% of unexposed control seeds germinated to seedling within 3 days. There was a dose-dependent response in the reduction of seedling formation between 1 mg/1 and 3 mg/1 of exposure. When exposed seeds were removed from the VOC, nearly all resumed germination. Young plants exposed to 1 mg/1 of the R and S enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol exhibited a mild inhibition of growth and chlorophyll production at 2 and 3 weeks but not at 4 weeks. PMID:24999439

  3. Rising taurine and ethanol concentrations in nucleus accumbens interact to produce the dopamine-activating effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Chau, Peipei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol misuse and addiction is a worldwide problem causing enormous individual suffering as well as financial costs for the society. To develop pharmacological means to reduce suffering, we need to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of ethanol in the brain. Ethanol is known to increase extracellular levels of both dopamine and taurine in the nucleus accumbens (nAc), a part of the brain reward system, but the two events have not been connected. In previous studies we have demonstrated that glycine receptors in the nAc are involved in modulating both basal- and ethanol-induced dopamine output in the same brain region. By means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats we here demonstrate that the endogenous glycine receptor ligand taurine mimics ethanol in activating the brain reward system. Furthermore, administration of systemic ethanol diluted in an isotonic (0.9% NaCl) or hypertonic (3.6% NaCl) saline solution was investigated with respect to extracellular levels of taurine and dopamine in the nAc. We found that ethanol given in a hypertonic solution, contrary to an isotonic solution, failed to increase concentrations of both taurine and dopamine in the nAc. However, a modest, non-dopamine elevating concentration of taurine in the nAc disclosed a dopamine elevating effect of systemic ethanol also when given in a hypertonic solution. We conclude that the elevations of taurine and dopamine in the nAc are closely related and that in order for ethanol to induce dopamine release, a simultaneous increase of extracellular taurine levels in the nAc is required. These data also -provide support for the notion that the nAc is the primary target for ethanol in its dopamine-activating effect after systemic administration and that taurine is a prominent participant in activating the brain reward system.

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  5. Effect of salt of various concentrations on liquid limit, and hydraulic conductivity of different soil-bentonite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Ohtsubo, Masami; Li, Loretta Y.; Higashi, Takahiro; Park, Junboum

    2009-05-01

    Effect of the various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 on the four different soil-bentonite mixtures has been evaluated. The results show that the liquid limit of the mixtures decreases with an increase in the salt concentration. Liquid limit decreased significantly with an increase in CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 0.1 N. However, a further increase in the concentration did not produce any significant decrease in liquid limit. A quite opposite trend was observed for the NaCl solution. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0 to 0.1 N did not produce any major decrease in the liquid limit, but a further increase in concentration from 0.1 to 1 N decreased the liquid limit significantly. Consolidation tests were carried out on the mixtures to evaluate the effect of mineralogical composition of the bentonite on the hydraulic conductivity ( k) of the mixture in the presence of various salts concentrations. The k for any mixtures was found to be decreasing with decrease in the salt concentration. At relatively low concentration, Ca2+ had more effect on the k in comparison to the same concentration of Na+. However, at 1 N of NaCl and CaCl2 almost an equal value of k was observed. A comparison of the performance of four bentonites showed that the mixture with bentonite having highest exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) exhibited the lowest k when permeated with de-ionized (DI) water, however, k increased with an increase in the salt concentration. Similarly, mixture with a bentonite of lower ESP exhibited a higher k with DI water but with the increase in the salt concentration alteration in the k, compared to all other mixtures, was relatively less.

  6. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  7. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  8. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  9. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  10. 36 CFR 3.10 - What are the regulations regarding operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... breath is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (b) If State law that applies to operating a vessel while under the influence of alcohol establishes more restrictive limits of alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or...

  11. Translating evidence into policy: lessons learned from the case of lowering the legal blood alcohol limit for drivers.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Shawna L; Sleet, David A; Elder, Randy W; Cole, Krista Hopkins; Shults, Ruth A; Nichols, James L

    2010-06-01

    This case study examines the translation of evidence on the effectiveness of laws to reduce the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drivers into policy. It was reconstructed through discussions among individuals involved in the processes as well as a review of documentation and feedback on oral presentations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated extensively with federal and non-federal partners and stakeholders in conducting a rigorous systematic review, using the processes of the Guide to Community Preventive Services to evaluate the body of empirical evidence on 0.08% BAC laws. The timely dissemination of the findings and related policy recommendations-made by the independent Task Force on Community Preventive Services-to Congress very likely contributed to the inclusion of strong incentives to States to adopt 0.08 BAC laws by October 2003. Subsequent dissemination to partners and stakeholders informed decision-making about support for state legislative and policy action. This case study suggests the value of: clearly outlining the relationships between health problems, interventions and outcomes; systematically assessing and synthesizing the evidence; using a credible group and rigorous process to assess the evidence; having an impartial body make specific policy recommendations on the basis of the evidence; being ready to capitalize in briefly opening policy windows; engaging key partners and stakeholders throughout the production and dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; undertaking personalized, targeted and compelling dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; involving multiple stakeholders in encouraging uptake and adherence of policy recommendations; and addressing sustainability. These lessons learned may help others working to translate evidence into policy.

  12. Influence of drugs of abuse and alcohol upon patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards: physician's assessment compared to blood drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mordal, Jon; Medhus, Sigrid; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-06-01

    In acute psychiatric services, rapid and accurate detection of psychoactive substance intake may be required for appropriate diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) drug influence as assessed by physicians and (b) blood drug concentrations among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. We also explored the possible effects of age, sex, and psychotic symptoms on physician's assessment of drug influence. In a cross-sectional study, the sample comprised 271 consecutive admissions from 2 acute psychiatric wards. At admission, the physician on call performed an overall judgment of drug influence. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Blood samples were screened for a wide range of psychoactive substances, and quantitative results were used to calculate blood drug concentration scores. Patients were judged as being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol in 28% of the 271 admissions. Psychoactive substances were detected in 56% of the blood samples. Altogether, 15 different substances were found; up to 8 substances were found in samples from 1 patient. Markedly elevated blood drug concentration scores were estimated for 15% of the patients. Physician's assessment was positively related to the blood drug concentration scores (r = 0.52; P < 0.001), to symptoms of excitement, and to the detection of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines. The study demonstrates the major impact of alcohol and drugs in acute psychiatric settings and illustrates the challenging nature of the initial clinical assessment.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag... measured using the test methods specified in § 63.1450(a). (b) Smelting furnaces. For each smelting...

  14. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  15. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  16. Efficacy of hand rubs with a low alcohol concentration listed as effective by a national hospital hygiene society in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some national hospital hygiene societies in Europe such as the French society for hospital hygiene (SFHH) have positive lists of disinfectants. Few hand disinfectants with a rather low concentration of ethanol are listed by one society as effective for hygienic hand disinfection with 3 mL in 30 s including a virucidal activity in 30 s or 60 s, but published data allow having doubts. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used hand disinfectants according to EN 1500 and EN 14476. Methods Products 1 (Aniosgel 85 NPC) and 2 (Aniosrub 85 NPC) were based on 70% ethanol, product 3 (ClinoGel derma+) on 60% ethanol and 15% isopropanol (all w/w). They were tested in 3 laboratories according to EN 1500. Three mL were applied for 30 s and compared to the reference treatment of 2 × 3 mL applications of isopropanol 60% (v/v), on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each laboratory used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 or 20 volunteers. The virucidal activity of the products was evaluated (EN 14476) in one laboratory against adenovirus and poliovirus in different concentrations (80%, 90%, 97%), with different organic loads (none; clean conditions; phosphate-buffered saline) for up to 3 min. Results Product 1 revealed a mean log10-reduction of 3.87 ± 0.79 (laboratory 1) and 4.38 ± 0.87 (laboratory 2) which was significantly lower compared to the reference procedure (4.62 ± 0.89 and 5.00 ± 0.87). In laboratory 3 product 1 was inferior to the reference disinfection (4.06 ± 0.86 versus 4.99 ± 0.90). Product 2 revealed similar results. Product 3 fulfilled the requirements in one laboratory but failed in the two other. None of the three products was able to reduce viral infectivity of both adenovirus and poliovirus by 4 log10 steps in 3 min according to EN 14476. Conclusions Efficacy data mentioned in a positive list published by a society for hospital hygiene should still be regarded with caution

  17. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  18. Applicability Limits of Beer's Law for Dispersion Media with a High Concentration of Particles.

    PubMed

    Dick, V P

    1998-07-20

    This study analyzes the values of volume concentrations of scatterers at which radiation extinction in dispersion media obeys Beer's law. The dependence of the maximum particle concentration at which Beer's law holds on the properties of the dispersion medium is investigated. It is shown that the maximum concentration is strongly dependent on the scatterers' parameters and varies over a wide range, from tenths to tens of percent.

  19. Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

    2009-02-01

    A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

  20. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  1. An Innovative Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Studies on Change of Activation Energies of the Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz Dikko, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient changes with addition of contaminants to the original liquid. This forms the basis of a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer designed and constructed for this purpose. We find that the viscosity coefficient μ of alcohol increased almost linearly with water concentration at a rate that depends on the type of alcohol and water concentration. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration. This increase also depends on type of alcohol. Our detailed investigation on alcohol-water mixtures for both ethyl and methyl alcohol along with discussion on possible future potential application of such a simple, yet very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. A comparison is made of our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. A part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage in order to explain some of the observed properties is presented.

  2. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...,” and “Water,” are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the...). Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent... water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...,” and “Water,” are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the...). Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent... water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral...

  5. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; or, when there are no applicable marine water quality criteria, (2) That concentration of waste or... procedures. (3) When there is reasonable scientific evidence on a specific waste material to justify the use... not cause unreasonable acute or chronic toxicity or other sublethal adverse effects based on...

  6. The relative risk of involvement in fatal crashes as a function of race/ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.; de la Rosa, Mario; Lacey, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature presents a puzzling picture of Latinos being overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes, but not in noncrash drinking and driving. This report examines if, like other demographic variables in which some groups are at a higher crash risk than others (e.g., young drivers), different racial/ethnic groups face different crash risks Method This study compares blood-alcohol information from the 2006–2007 U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control data from the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Logistic regression, including a dual interaction between BAC and race/ethnicity, was used to estimate crash risk at different BAC levels. Results It was found that, although Hispanic and African-American drivers were less likely to be involved in single-vehicle crashes than their White counterparts, all drivers face similar BAC relative crash risk regardless of their group membership. The overrepresentation of Latino drivers in alcohol-related crashes could be explained by differences in patterns of consumption, driving exposure, lack of awareness of driving rules, and/or socioeconomics. PMID:24529097

  7. Melanin-concentrating hormone expression in the rat hypothalamus is not affected in an experiment of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Chometton, Sandrine; Franchi-Bernard, Gabrielle; Houdayer, Christophe; Mariot, Amandine; Poncet, Fabrice; Fellmann, Dominique; Risold, Pierre-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a "fetal alcoholic syndrome" (FAS) in the progeny. This syndrome is characterized by important brain defects often associated to a decreased expression of the morphogenic protein sonic hedgehog (Shh). The goal of this study was to verify if a FAS could modify the differentiation of hypothalamic neurons producing MCH. Indeed, the expression of this peptide and neurons producing it are dependent of a Shh controlled genetic cascade in the embryo. To address this question, female rats received a 15% ethanol solution to drink during pregnancy and lactation. Higher abortion rate and smaller pups at birth confirmed that descendants were affected by this experimental condition. MCH expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in embryos taken at E11 and E13, or in pups and young adults born from control and alcoholic mothers. MCH expression level, number of MCH neurons or ratio of MCH sub-populations were not modified by our experimental conditions. However, Shh expression was significantly lover at E11 and we also observed that hindbrain serotonergic neurons were affected as reported in the literature. These findings as well as other data from the literature suggest that protective mechanisms are involved to maintain peptide expressions and differentiation of some specific neuron populations in the ventral diencephalon in surviving embryos exposed to ethanol during pregnancy. PMID:25093909

  8. Limitations to the Measurement of Oxygen Concentrations by HRTEM Imposed by Surface Roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R; Chisholm, Matthew F; van Benthem, Klaus; Allen, L. J.; Oxley, Mark P; Findlay, Scott D.; Varela del Arco, Maria; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    In an article published in Microscopy and Microanalysis recently (Jia et al., 2004), it was claimed that aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) allows the quantitative measurement of oxygen concentrations in ceramic materials with atomic resolution. Similar claims have recently appeared elsewhere, based on images obtained through aberration correction (Jia et al., 2003; Jia & Urban, 2004) or very high voltages (Zhang et al., 2003). Seeing oxygen columns is a significant achievement of great importance (Spence, 2003) that will doubtlessly allow some exciting new science; however, other models could provide a better explanation for some of the experimental data than variations in the oxygen concentration. Quantification of the oxygen concentrations was attempted by comparing experimental images with simulations in which the fractional occupancy in individual oxygen columns was reduced. The results were interpreted as representing nonstoichiometry within the bulk and at grain boundaries. This is plausible because previous studies have shown that grain boundaries can be nonstoichiometric (Kim et al., 2001), and it is indeed possible that oxygen vacancies are present at boundaries or in the bulk. However, is this the only possible interpretation? We show that for the thicknesses considered a better match to the images is obtained using a simple model of surface damage in which atoms are removed from the surface, which would usually be interpreted as surface damage or local thickness variation (from ion milling, for example).

  9. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed essential oil and alcoholic extract on the morphology, capsule expression and urease activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Sattari, Morteza; Bigdeli, Mohsen

    2008-11-01

    Cuminum cyminum L., commonly known as cumin, is a plant with a considerable reputation. The aim of this work was to study the activity of cumin seed essential oil and alcoholic extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and clinical K. pneumoniae isolates by evaluating the effect of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) on cell morphology, capsule expression and urease activity. Growth of K. pneumoniae strains exposed to sub-MICs of C. cyminum extracts resulted in cell elongation and repression of capsule expression. Urease activity was decreased. The major constituent of the oil determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was cumin aldehyde.

  10. Existence of a Thermodynamic Spin-Glass Phase in the Zero-Concentration Limit of Anisotropic Dipolar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Juan Carlos; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Oganesyan, Vadim; Schechter, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    The nature of ordering in dilute dipolar interacting systems dates back to the work of Debye and is one of the most basic, oldest and as-of-yet unsettled problems in magnetism. While spin-glass order is readily observed in several RKKY-interacting systems, dipolar spin glasses are the subject of controversy and ongoing scrutiny, e.g., in LiHoxY1 -xF4, a rare-earth randomly diluted uniaxial (Ising) dipolar system. In particular, it is unclear if the spin-glass phase in these paradigmatic materials persists in the limit of zero concentration or not. We study an effective model of LiHoxY1 -xF4 using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that combine parallel tempering with a special cluster algorithm tailored to overcome the numerical difficulties that occur at extreme dilutions. We find a paramagnetic to spin-glass phase transition for all Ho+ ion concentrations down to the smallest concentration numerically accessible, 0.1%, and including Ho+ ion concentrations that coincide with those studied experimentally up to 16.7%. Our results suggest that randomly diluted dipolar Ising systems have a spin-glass phase in the limit of vanishing dipole concentration, with a critical temperature vanishing linearly with concentration. The agreement of our results with mean-field theory testifies to the irrelevance of fluctuations in interactions strengths, albeit being strong at small concentrations, to the nature of the low-temperature phase and the functional form of the critical temperature of dilute anisotropic dipolar systems. Deviations from linearity in experimental results at the lowest concentrations are discussed.

  11. Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stokdyk, Joel P.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Spencer, Susan K.; Burch, Tucker R; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay alone rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop an approach to determine the 95% LOD (lowest concentration at which 95% of positive samples are detected) for the entire process of waterborne pathogen detection. We began by spiking the lowest concentration that was consistently positive at the qPCR step (based on its standard curve) into each procedural step working backwards (i.e., extraction, secondary concentration, primary concentration), which established a concentration that was detectable following losses of the pathogen from processing. Using the fraction of positive replicates (n = 10) at this concentration, we selected and analyzed a second, and then third, concentration. If the fraction of positive replicates equaled 1 or 0 for two concentrations, we selected another. We calculated the LOD using probit analysis. To demonstrate our approach we determined the 95% LOD for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, adenovirus 41, and vaccine-derived poliovirus Sabin 3, which were 11, 12, and 6 genomic copies (gc) per reaction (rxn), respectively (equivalent to 1.3, 1.5, and 4.0 gc L−1 assuming the 1500 L tap-water sample volume prescribed in EPA Method 1615). This approach limited the number of analyses required and was amenable to testing multiple genetic targets simultaneously (i.e., spiking a single sample with multiple microorganisms). An LOD determined this way can facilitate study design, guide the number of required technical replicates, aid method evaluation, and inform data interpretation.

  12. CVD synthesis of mono- and few-layer graphene using alcohols at low hydrogen concentration and atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Botello-Méndez, Andrés R.; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Hackens, Benoit; Pardoen, Thomas; Kaiser, Ute; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    An original and easy route to produce mono-, bi- and tri-layer graphene is proposed using the chemical vapor deposition technique. The synthesis is carried out at atmospheric pressure using liquid precursors, copper as catalyst, and a single gas injection line consisting of a very diluted mixture of H2 in Argon (H2: 5%). Two different alcohols are investigated as possible sources of carbon: 2-phenylethanol and ethanol. The characterization of the samples with SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of graphene on top of copper, and yields a detailed picture of the structure of the produced graphene layers.

  13. Toxicity of atrazine, glyphosate, and quinclorac in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to concentrations below legal limits.

    PubMed

    Dornelles, M F; Oliveira, G T

    2016-01-01

    This work sought to ascertain survival and possible changes in levels of glycogen, triglycerides, total lipids, cholesterol, protein, and lipid peroxidation in gills, liver, and muscle of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) exposed to low concentrations of atrazine (2.5 μg L(-1)), glyphosate (18 μg L(-1)), and quinclorac (0.025 μg L(-1)) at laboratorial conditions. Tadpoles showed a reduction of glycogen and triglyceride in all organs and an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) compared with control animals. Total lipid in gills and muscle increased in exposure to atrazine, and gills alone in exposure to glyphosate, but decreased in gills, liver, and muscle after quinclorac. Cholesterol increased in gills and liver after atrazine, in gills and muscle after glyphosate, and decreased in liver after quinclorac. Total protein in gills decreased after exposure to all herbicides, increased in muscle after atrazine, and in liver and muscle after quinclorac. These findings show that at concentrations of these herbicides tested can lead to an increase in energy expenditure to maintain homeostasis and survival of these animals despite the increase in lipid peroxidation levels in all organs analyzed. Responses observed can be one of the factors responsible for the decline in the number of amphibians around the world.

  14. Dynamic simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions with screened long-range hydrodynamic interactions: Algorithm and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions exert a critical effect on the dynamics of macromolecules. As the concentration of macromolecules increases, by analogy to the behavior of semidilute polymer solutions or the flow in porous media, one might expect hydrodynamic screening to occur. Hydrodynamic screening would have implications both for the understanding of macromolecular dynamics as well as practical implications for the simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions, e.g., in cells. Stokesian dynamics (SD) is one of the most accurate methods for simulating the motions of N particles suspended in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number, in that it considers both far-field and near-field hydrodynamic interactions. This algorithm traditionally involves an O(N3) operation to compute Brownian forces at each time step, although asymptotically faster but more complex SD methods are now available. Motivated by the idea of hydrodynamic screening, the far-field part of the hydrodynamic matrix in SD may be approximated by a diagonal matrix, which is equivalent to assuming that long range hydrodynamic interactions are completely screened. This approximation allows sparse matrix methods to be used, which can reduce the apparent computational scaling to O(N). Previously there were several simulation studies using this approximation for monodisperse suspensions. Here, we employ newly designed preconditioned iterative methods for both the computation of Brownian forces and the solution of linear systems, and consider the validity of this approximation in polydisperse suspensions. We evaluate the accuracy of the diagonal approximation method using an intracellular-like suspension. The diffusivities of particles obtained with this approximation are close to those with the original method. However, this approximation underestimates intermolecular correlated motions, which is a trade-off between accuracy and computing efficiency. The new method makes it possible to perform large-scale and

  15. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2008-04-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem.

  16. Limitations of the whole cell patch clamp technique in the control of intracellular concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, R T; Cohen, I S; Oliva, C

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental studies (Pusch and Neher, 1988) and theoretical studies (Oliva et al., 1988) have found that the pipette tip is a significant barrier to diffusion in the whole cell patch clamp configuration. In this paper, we extend the theoretical analysis of fluxes between the pipette and cell to include transmembrane fluxes. The general conclusions are: (a) within the pipette, ion fluxes are driven primarily by diffusion rather than voltage gradients. (b) At steady state there is a concentration difference between the bulk pipette and intracellular solution that is described by delta c = jRp/Dp, where delta c = 1 mM for a flux, j = 1 fmol/s, through a pipette of resistance, Rp = 1 M omega, filled with a solution of resistivity, p = 100 omega --cm, given a solute diffusion coefficient, D = 10(-5) cm2/s. (c) The time to steady state is always accelerated by membrane transport, regardless of the direction of transport. We apply our analysis to the measurement of transport by the Na/K pump and Na/Ca exchanger in cells from the ventricles of mammalian heart. We find that the binding curve for intracellular Na+ to the Na/K pump will appear significantly less steep and more linear if one does not correct for the concentration difference between intracellular and pipette Na+. Similar shifts in the binding curve for extracellular Na+ to the Na/Ca exchanger can occur due to depletion of intracellular Ca(+)+ when the exchanger is stimulated. Lastly, in Appendix we analyze the effects of mobile and fixed intracellular buffers on the movement of Ca(+)+ between the pipette and cell. Fixed buffers greatly slow the time for equilibration of pipette and intracellular Ca(+)+. Mobile buffers act like a shuttle system, as they carry Ca(+)+ from pipette to cell then diffuse back when they are empty. Vigorous transport by the Na/Ca exchanger depletes mobile buffered calcium, thus stimulating diffusion from the pipette to match the rate of Ca(+)+ transport. Moreover, we find that

  17. Fermentation of High Concentrations of Maltose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Limited by the COMPASS Methylation Complex▿

    PubMed Central

    Houghton-Larsen, Jens; Brandt, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes encoding maltose permeases and maltases are located in the telomeric regions of different chromosomes. The COMPASS methylation complex, which methylates lysine 4 on histone H3, controls the silencing of telomeric regions. Yeast strains deleted for SWD1, SWD3, SDC1, SET1, BRE2, or SPP1, encoding components of the COMPASS complex, fermented a medium containing 22% maltose with noticeably higher attenuation than did the wild type, resulting in production of up to 29% more ethanol. The least effective strain was spp1. Absence of COMPASS components had no effect on the fermentation of media with 20% glucose, 20% sucrose, or 16% maltose. Deletion of SWD3 resulted in larger amounts of MAL12 transcript, encoding maltase, at the late stages of fermentation of 22% maltose. A similar effect on maltase activity and maltose uptake capability was seen. The lysine 4 residue of histone H3 was trimethylated in wild-type cells at the late stages, while only small amounts of the dimethylated form were detected. Trimethylation and dimethylation of this residue were not detected in strains deleted for SWD1, SWD3, SET1, BRE2, or SDC1. Trimethylated lysine 4 was apparent only at the early stages (48 and 96 h) of fermentation in an spp1 strain. This work indicates that the COMPASS complex represses the expression of maltose utilization genes during the late stages of fermentation of a high concentration of maltose. PMID:16980427

  18. Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis limits aluminum concentrations of the aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jugdaohsingh, R.; Thompson, R.P.H.; Powell, J.J.; Campbell, M.M.; Mccrohan, C.R.; White, K.N.

    1998-09-01

    Extracellular mucopolysaccharide (EPS) is a significant component in many waters. Its role in the cycling and mobilization of metals is unclear. In vitro studies were conducted to examine the influence of EPS, secreted by the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, on soluble water Al concentrations at near-neutral pH. Snails maintained in aerated water of known ion content and added aluminum reduced Al in solution as compared to controls. Although snails accumulated Al into soft tissue, this only accounted for a small percentage of the total reduction. The remaining Al was recovered following acidification of the water. This observation was attributed to pedal EPS secreted by L. stagnalis which is chiefly insoluble and substrate bound. The Al that remained in solution was more labile, possibly due to the influence of soluble EPS. Further experiments with isolated EPS, confirmed that this poorly soluble film binds and reduces Al in solution. The influence of EPS on the solution chemistry and bioavailability of Al and possibly other metals may be important in natural waters.

  19. The CO2 concentrating mechanism and photosynthetic carbon assimilation in limiting CO2 : how Chlamydomonas works against the gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingjun; Stessman, Dan J; Spalding, Martin H

    2015-05-01

    The CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) represents an effective strategy for carbon acquisition that enables microalgae to survive and proliferate when the CO2 concentration limits photosynthesis. The CCM improves photosynthetic performance by raising the CO2 concentration at the site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), simultaneously enhancing carbon fixation and suppressing photorespiration. Active inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake, Rubisco sequestration and interconversion between different Ci species catalyzed by carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are key components in the CCM, and an array of molecular regulatory elements is present to facilitate the sensing of CO2 availability, to regulate the expression of the CCM and to coordinate interplay between photosynthetic carbon metabolism and other metabolic processes in response to limiting CO2 conditions. This review intends to integrate our current understanding of the eukaryotic algal CCM and its interaction with carbon assimilation, based largely on Chlamydomonas as a model, and to illustrate how Chlamydomonas acclimates to limiting CO2 conditions and how its CCM is regulated.

  20. Organic Nitrogen in Atmospheric Drops and Particles: Concentrations, (Limited) Speciation, and Chemical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2003-12-01

    While quite a bit is known of the concentrations, speciation, and chemistry of inorganic forms of nitrogen in the atmosphere, the same cannot be said for organic forms. Despite this, there is growing evidence that organic N (ON) is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, especially in atmospheric condensed phases such as fog/cloud drops and aerosol particles. Although the major compounds that make up organic N are generally unknown, as are the sources of these compounds, it is clear that there are significant fluxes of ON between the atmosphere and ecosystems. It also appears that organic N can have significant effects in both spheres. The goal of our recent work in this area has been to better describe the atmospheric component of the biogeochemistry of organic nitrogen. Based on particle, gas, and fogwater samples from Northern California we have made three major findings: 1) Organic N represents a significant component, approximately 20%, of the total atmospheric N loading in these samples. This is broadly consistent with studies from other locations. 2) Amino compounds, primarily as combined amino acids, account for approximately 20% of the measured ON in our condensed phase samples. Given the properties of amino acids, these compounds could significantly affect the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric particles. 3) Organic nitrogen in atmospheric particles and drops is transformed to inorganic forms - primarily ammonium, nitrate, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) - during exposure to sunlight and/or ozone. These chemical reactions likely increase the bioavailability of the condensed phase nitrogen pool and enhance its biological effects after deposition to ecosystems.

  1. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  2. Temperature and food concentration have limited influence on the mixture toxicity of copper and Microcystis aeruginosa to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-03-01

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are conducted under constant and favorable experimental conditions. In natural communities, however, the toxicity of chemicals may be influenced by abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Firstly, the authors examined the influence of temperature and total food concentration on the nature of the combined effects of copper (Cu) and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to Daphnia magna (i.e., whether the combined effects deviated from noninteraction). Secondly, the authors investigated the relative influence of the percentage of M. aeruginosa in the diet, temperature, and total food concentration on chronic Cu toxicity to D. magna. The nature of the combined effects between Cu and M. aeruginosa (i.e., synergism according to the independent action reference model and noninteraction according to concentration addition reference model) was not affected by temperature and total food concentration. In line with other studies, the concentration addition reference model gave rise to more protective predictions of mixture toxicity than the independent action reference model, thus confirming the former model's suitability as a conservative scenario for evaluating mixture toxicity of Cu and M. aeruginosa under the temperature and food concentrations tested. Further, the 21-d median effective concentration for Cu based on reproduction varied between 20 μg/L and 100 μg/L, and the results indicate that the percentage of M. aeruginosa explained 76% of the variance in the Cu median effective concentration for reproduction, whereas the effects of temperature and total food were limited (together explaining 11% of the variance). The present study suggests that environmental risk assessment of Cu should consider specific situations where harmful M. aeruginosa blooms can co-occur with elevated Cu exposure.

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... Concentration Compliance Option You must comply with the emission limits that apply to your affected source in... concentration option to comply with the emission limitations for any coating operation(s) . . . Then you...

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... Concentration Compliance Option You must comply with the emission limits that apply to your affected source in... concentration option to comply with the emission limitations for any coating operation(s) . . . Then you...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... Concentration Compliance Option You must comply with the emission limits that apply to your affected source in... concentration option to comply with the emission limitations for any coating operation(s) . . . Then you...

  6. Estimating the concentration of aluminum-substituted hematite and goethite using diffuse reflectance spectrometry and rock magnetism: Feasibility and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengxiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Torrent, José; Barrón, Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Hematite and goethite in soils are often aluminum (Al) substituted, which can dramatically change their reflectance and magnetic properties and bias abundance estimates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and magnetic techniques. In this study, synthetic Al-substituted hematites and goethites and two Chinese loess/paleosol sequences were investigated to test the feasibility and limitations of estimating Al-hematite and Al-goethite concentration. When Al substitution is limited (Al/(Al + Fe) molar ratio < ~8%), the reflectance spectrum provides a reliable estimate of the goethite/hematite concentration ratio. New empirical relationships between the DRS band intensity ratio and the true concentration goethite/hematite ratio are estimated as goethite/hematite = 1.56 × (I425 nm/I535 nm) or goethite/hematite = 6.32 × (I480 nm/I535 nm), where I425 nm, I480 nm, and I535 nm are the amplitudes of DRS second-derivative curves for characteristic bands at ~425 nm, ~480 nm, and ~535 nm, respectively. High Al substitution (> ~8%) reduces DRS band intensity, which leads to biased estimates of mineral concentration. Al substitution and grain size exert a control on coercivity distributions of hematite and goethite and, thus, affect the hard isothermal remanent magnetization. By integrating DRS and magnetic methods, we suggest a way to constrain hematite and goethite Al substitution in natural loess. Results indicate that hematite and goethite in Chinese loess have Al contents lower than ~8% and, thus, that DRS can be used to trace hematite and goethite concentration variations.

  7. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631614

  8. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  9. The improvement effect of limited mental practice in individuals with poststroke hemiparesis: the influence of mental imagery and mental concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Katsuhito; Nagano, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether limited mental practice improves the motor performance of poststroke individuals with hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty-three participants with poststroke hemiparesis (40–82 years of age) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were divided into four groups with respect to a dart-throwing task: the no-practice, physical practice only, mental practice only, and mental and physical practice groups. The groups were compared in terms of gains in motor performance, mental imagery vividness, and level of concentration during mental practice. [Results] No statistically significant difference was found for gains in motor performance among groups, and there was no correlation between imagery vividness and motor performance gains. However, a correlation was found between gains in motor performance and mental concentration during mental practice. [Conclusion] The results suggested that limited mental practice for individuals with poststroke hemiparesis may not improve motor performance. However, a higher degree of concentration during mental practice may improve motor performance. PMID:26357451

  10. Early exposure to ethanol but not red wine at the same alcohol concentration induces behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in young and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Aloe, Luigi; di Fausto, Veronica; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only.

  11. Early exposure to ethanol but not red wine at the same alcohol concentration induces behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in young and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Aloe, Luigi; di Fausto, Veronica; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only. PMID:19100286

  12. A nonhuman primate model of type II alcoholism? Part 2. Diminished social competence and excessive aggression correlates with low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an animal model for behavioral features of type II, early-onset alcohol abuse. To perform this research, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations and home-cage social behaviors of 29 rhesus macaque subjects were examined in a 4-year longitudinal study. Half of the monkeys were reared for their first 6 months with their mothers, and the other half were reared without adults, instead with access only to monkeys of similar age. When the subjects were 6 months old, and again when they were 50 months old, they underwent a series of four, 4-day social separations. We obtained cisternal CSF before and during the first and last separation of each series to quantify 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid concentrations. After the 6-month separations, subjects were placed into social groups, and social dominance rankings were assessed. Before and after the 50-month separations, social dominance rankings were evaluated again, and home-cage aggression and social behavior data were collected. Over the 3 1/2 years between CSF samplings, records were maintained of subjects' removal from their social groups for excessive aggression or treatment for wounding. Our results showed that among infants, reduced CSF 5-HIAA was correlated with low social dominance. As young adults, subjects from both rearing groups with low CSF 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations exhibited reduced rates of social interaction and low social dominance rankings. In addition, peer-reared subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations exhibited inept social behaviors, and were frequently removed from their social groups for excessive aggression and deviant social behaviors. From these results, we conclude that the peer-rearing paradigm aggravates the untoward social consequences associated with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations over and beyond reducing CSF 5-HIAA concentrations, suggesting that early

  13. Influence of surface concentration on poly(vinyl alcohol) behavior at the water-vacuum interface: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tesei, Giulio; Paradossi, Gaio; Chiessi, Ester

    2014-06-19

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is an amphiphilic macromolecule with surfactant activity. The peculiar behavior of this polymer at the water-air interface is at the basis of its use as material for hydrated microdevices, films, and nanofibers. This work aims to investigate the behavior of PVA and water within the surface domain of highly diluted aqueous solutions by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Monodisperse atactic oligomers of 30 residues were distributed within water slabs in a vacuum box and allowed to diffuse toward the surface. After equilibration, structural features and dynamical properties of polymer chains and water in the interfacial domains were analyzed as a function of PVA surface concentration at 293 K. Surface pressure values obtained from simulations are in agreement with experimental values at corresponding polymer specific surface areas. In the explored concentration range of 6-34 μmol of residues/m(2), the chains display a transition between two states. At lower surface concentrations, elongated, quite rigid structures are adsorbed on the surface, whereas partially submerged globular aggregates, locally covered by thin water layers, are formed at higher surface concentrations. At PVA concentrations higher than about 20 μmol of residues/m(2), the percolation of chain aggregates over the interface plane produces a surface-confined polymer network with stable pores filled by water molecules. A substantial slowing of polymer and water dynamics in the interfacial domains is highlighted by the mean squared displacement time behavior of terminal residues and the interaction time of PVA-water hydrogen bonding. The diffusion coefficient of water and lifetime of hydrogen bonds between solvent molecules are halved and doubled, respectively, at the interface with the highest polymer concentration. The attenuation of water and polymer mobility concur to stabilize PVA hydrated networks in contact with air.

  14. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  15. Ruthenium-catalyzed C-C coupling of fluorinated alcohols with allenes: dehydrogenation at the energetic limit of β-hydride elimination.

    PubMed

    Sam, Brannon; Luong, Tom; Krische, Michael J

    2015-04-27

    Ruthenium(II) complexes catalyze the CC coupling of 1,1-disubstituted allenes and fluorinated alcohols to form homoallylic alcohols bearing all-carbon quaternary centers with good to complete levels of diastereoselectivity. Whereas fluorinated alcohols are relatively abundant and tractable, the corresponding aldehydes are often not commercially available because of their instability.

  16. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  18. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  19. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  20. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  1. Charge carrier concentration dependence of encounter-limited bimolecular recombination in phase-separated organic semiconductor blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiber, Michael C.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Deibel, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the complex intermolecular configurations and nanostructure present in organic semiconductor donor-acceptor blends impacts charge carrier motion, interactions, and recombination behavior is a critical fundamental issue with a particularly major impact on organic photovoltaic applications. In this study, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are used to numerically quantify the complex bimolecular charge carrier recombination behavior in idealized phase-separated blends. Recent KMC simulations have identified how the encounter-limited bimolecular recombination rate in these blends deviates from the often used Langevin model and have been used to construct the new power mean mobility model. Here, we make a challenging but crucial expansion to this work by determining the charge carrier concentration dependence of the encounter-limited bimolecular recombination coefficient. In doing so, we find that an accurate treatment of the long-range electrostatic interactions between charge carriers is critical, and we further argue that many previous KMC simulation studies have used a Coulomb cutoff radius that is too small, which causes a significant overestimation of the recombination rate. To shed more light on this issue, we determine the minimum cutoff radius required to reach an accuracy of less than ±10 % as a function of the domain size and the charge carrier concentration and then use this knowledge to accurately quantify the charge carrier concentration dependence of the recombination rate. Using these rigorous methods, we finally show that the parameters of the power mean mobility model are determined by a newly identified dimensionless ratio of the domain size to the average charge carrier separation distance.

  2. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  3. Do foliar, litter, and root nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations reflect nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical wet forest?

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Mack, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP) is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation--as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization--based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root) [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba) had 9% higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza) had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community. PMID:25901750

  4. Do Foliar, Litter, and Root Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations Reflect Nutrient Limitation in a Lowland Tropical Wet Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Mack, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP) is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation —as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization— based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root) [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba) had 9 % higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza) had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community. PMID:25901750

  5. Do foliar, litter, and root nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations reflect nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical wet forest?

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Mack, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP) is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation--as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization--based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root) [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba) had 9% higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza) had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community.

  6. A Stringent Limit on a Drifting Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio from Alcohol in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdonaite, Julija; Jansen, Paul; Henkel, Christian; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Menten, Karl M.; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of physics is built on the fundamental constants of nature, but it does not provide an explanation for their values, nor require their constancy over space and time. Here we set a limit on a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ by comparing transitions in methanol observed in the early universe with those measured in the laboratory. From radio-astronomical observations of PKS1830-211, we deduced a constraint of ∆μ/μ = (0.0 ± 1.0) × 10-7 at redshift z = 0.89, corresponding to a look-back time of 7 billion years. This is consistent with a null result.

  7. Low simvastatin concentrations reduce oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells: An in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; LINCZ, LISA F.; THORNE, RICK F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory condition caused by hepatic lipid accumulation that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although statins should be used with caution in liver diseases, they are increasingly investigated as a possible treatment for NAFLD. The present study recreated an in vitro model of NAFLD using HepG2 cells exposed to oleic acid (OA), which was used to quantify OA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, the effect of simvastatin on HepG2 cell morphology and microparticle generation as a marker of cell apoptosis was assessed. OA-induced lipid accumulation was quantified by Oil Red O staining and extraction for optical density determination. Stained lipid droplets were visualized using phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, HepG2 cell-derived microparticles were counted by flow cytometry subsequent to staining for Annexin V. HepG2 cells treated with 0–1 mM OA showed dose-dependent lipid accumulation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with increasing concentrations of simvastatin followed by treatment with 1 mM OA showed that low simvastatin concentrations (4–10 µM) were able to reduce lipid accumulation by ~40%, whereas high simvastatin concentrations (20 and 30 µM) induced apoptotic changes in cell morphology and increased the production of Annexin V+ microparticles. This suggests that low simvastatin doses may have a role in preventing NAFLD. However, further investigations are required to confirm this action in vivo and to determine the underlying mechanism by which simvastatin reduces hepatic steatosis. PMID:27073470

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration... following table as required by § 63.3490(d). If you use the control efficiency/outlet concentration...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration Compliance Option 3 Table 3 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Affected Sources Using the Control Efficiency/Outlet Concentration... following table as required by § 63.3490(d). If you use the control efficiency/outlet concentration...

  10. Targeting glutamate uptake to treat alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a serious public health concern that is characterized by the development of tolerance to alcohol's effects, increased consumption, loss of control over drinking and the development of physical dependence. This cycle is often times punctuated by periods of abstinence, craving and relapse. The development of tolerance and the expression of withdrawal effects, which manifest as dependence, have been to a great extent attributed to neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic and extended amygdala systems. Alcohol affects various neurotransmitter systems in the brain including the adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic systems. Due to the myriad of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems affected by alcohol, the efficacies of current pharmacotherapies targeting alcohol dependence are limited. Importantly, research findings of changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission induced by alcohol self- or experimenter-administration have resulted in a focus on therapies targeting glutamatergic receptors and normalization of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Glutamatergic receptors implicated in the effects of ethanol include the ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, Kainate, and NMDA) and some metabotropic glutamate receptors. Regarding glutamatergic homeostasis, ceftriaxone, MS-153, and GPI-1046, which upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) expression in mesocorticolimbic brain regions, reduce alcohol intake in genetic animal models of alcoholism. Given the hyperglutamatergic/hyperexcitable state of the central nervous system induced by chronic alcohol abuse and withdrawal, the evidence thus far indicates that a restoration of glutamatergic concentrations and activity within the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala as well as multiple memory systems holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25954150

  11. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    PubMed

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. PMID:27197859

  12. Physiology of Aspergillus niger in oxygen-limited continuous cultures: Influence of aeration, carbon source concentration and dilution rate.

    PubMed

    Diano, A; Peeters, J; Dynesen, J; Nielsen, J

    2009-08-01

    In industrial production of enzymes using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger supply of sufficient oxygen is often a limitation, resulting in the formation of by-products such as polyols. In order to identify the mechanisms behind formation of the different by-products we studied the effect of low oxygen availability, at different carbon source concentrations and at different specific growth rates, on the metabolism of A. niger, using continuous cultures. The results show that there is an increase in the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at low oxygen concentrations. Indeed, at these conditions, a decrease in the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity leads to an accumulation of NADH and to a decreased ATP production which uncouples catabolism and anabolism, influences the intracellular pH and leads to production and excretion of organic acids. Moreover, mannitol is being produced in order to ensure reoxidation of NADH, and this is the main cellular response to balance the ratio NADH/NAD at low oxygen availability. Mannitol production is also coupled to low specific growth rate, which suggests a control of carbon catabolite repression on the mannitol pathway. The roles of two other polyols, erythritol and glycerol, were also investigated. Both compounds are known to accumulate intracellularly, at high osmotic pressure, in order to restore the osmotic balance, but we show that the efficiency of this system is affected by a leakage of polyols through the membrane.

  13. Ethylglucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Assays in Clinical Trials, Interpretation and Limitations: Results of a Dose Ranging Alcohol Challenge Study and Two Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jatlow, Peter I.; Agro, Ann; Wu, Ran; Nadim, Haleh; Toll, Benjamin A.; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Nogueira, Christine; Shi, Julia; Dziura, James D.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are biomarkers of recent alcohol consumption that provide objective measures of abstinence. Our goals are to better understand the impact of cutoff concentration on test interpretation, the need for measuring both metabolites, and how best to integrate test results with self-reports in clinical trials. Methods Subjects (n=18) were administered, one week apart, 3 alcohol doses calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL respectively. Urinary EtG/EtS were measured at timed intervals during a 24 hour hospitalization and twice daily thereafter. In addition, participants from 2 clinical trials provided samples for EtG/EtS and drinking histories. Cutoffs for EtG/EtS of 100/50, 200/100 and 500/250 ng/mL were evaluated. Results Twelve hours following each challenge, EtG was always positive at the 100 and 200 cutoffs, but at 24 hours sensitivity was poor at all cutoffs following the low dose, and poor after 48 hours regardless of dose or cutoff. Similarly, in the clinical trials EtG sensitivity was good for detecting any drinking during the last 24 hours at the two lowest cutoffs, but under 40% during the last 24-48 hours. Sensitivity was reduced at the 500 ng/mL cutoff. Discrepancies between EtG and EtS were few. Comparison of self- reports of abstinence and EtG confirmed abstinence indicated under-reporting of drinking. Conclusions Any drinking the night before should be detectable the following morning with EtG cutoffs of 100 or 200 ng/mL. Twenty-four hours after drinking, sensitivity is poor for light drinking, but good for heavier consumption. At 48 hours, sensitivity is low following 6 drinks or less. Increasing the cutoff to 500 ng/mL leads to substantially reduced sensitivity. Monitoring both EtG and EtS should usually be unnecessary. We recommend EtG confirmed self-reports of abstinence for evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials. PMID:24773137

  14. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  15. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sujan C.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Hristov, Alexandar M.; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol abuse. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1. PMID:26002627

  16. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1.

  17. Seasonal Patterns of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Limitation in Four German Lakes and the Predictability of Limitation Status from Ambient Nutrient Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Kolzau, Sebastian; Wiedner, Claudia; Rücker, Jacqueline; Köhler, Jan; Köhler, Antje; Dolman, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    To identify the seasonal pattern of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) limitation of phytoplankton in four different lakes, biweekly experiments were conducted from the end of March to September 2011. Lake water samples were enriched with N, P or both nutrients and incubated under two different light intensities. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chla) was measured and a model selection procedure was used to assign bioassay outcomes to different limitation categories. N and P were both limiting at some point. For the shallow lakes there was a trend from P limitation in spring to N or light limitation later in the year, while the deep lake remained predominantly P limited. To determine the ability of in-lake N:P ratios to predict the relative strength of N vs. P limitation, three separate regression models were fit with the log-transformed ratio of Chla of the P and N treatments (Response ratio = RR) as the response variable and those of ambient total phosphorus:total nitrogen (TN:TP), dissolved inorganic nitrogen:soluble reactive phosphorus (DIN:SRP), TN:SRP and DIN:TP mass ratios as predictors. All four N:P ratios had significant positive relationships with RR, such that high N:P ratios were associated with P limitation and low N:P ratios with N limitation. The TN:TP and DIN:TP ratios performed better than the DIN:SRP and TN:SRP in terms of misclassification rate and the DIN:TP ratio had the highest R2 value. Nitrogen limitation was predictable, frequent and persistent, suggesting that nitrogen reduction could play a role in water quality management. However, there is still uncertainty about the efficacy of N restriction to control populations of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. PMID:24755935

  18. Differences between capillary and venous blood-alcohol concentrations as a function of time after drinking, with emphasis on sampling variations in left vs right arm.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Jönsson, K A; Jorfeldt, L

    1989-03-01

    Twelve healthy men drank 0.8 g of ethanol per kilogram of body weight during 30 min after an overnight (10 h) fast. At nine exactly timed intervals (30-390 min after the start of drinking), blood was sampled through indwelling catheters in cubital veins on the left and right arms. Immediately thereafter, capillary blood was sampled from fingertips on the left and right hands. The blood ethanol concentration (BAC) was determined by headspace gas chromatography. The SD for alcohol determinations in venous blood, including the left vs right arm sampling variation, was 30 mg/L (range 8.3-83 mg/L), whereas for capillary blood the SD was 35 mg/L (range 11-60 mg/L). This difference much exceeded the purely analytical errors: SD = 2.67 mg/L for venous blood and 14.2 mg/L for fingertip blood. During the first 60 min after the subjects started to drink, capillary BAC exceeded venous BAC, the mean difference at 30 min being 136 mg/L (range 36-216 mg/L). In the postabsorptive state later than 60 min after drinking, venous BAC exceeded capillary BAC [mean difference 58 mg/L (range 0.0-170 mg/L]), the values for venous and capillary BAC crossing 37 min (range 6-77 min) after the end of drinking. Apparently, the source of blood analyzed, venous or capillary, must be considered in clinical pharmacokinetic studies of ethanol.

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  20. A limited sampling schedule to estimate mycophenolic Acid area under the concentration-time curve in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E; Bemer, Meagan J; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Nash, Richard; McCune, Jeannine S

    2012-11-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a key component of postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The plasma area under the curve (AUC) of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), is associated with MMF efficacy and toxicity. This study developed a population pharmacokinetic model of MPA in HCT recipients and created limited sampling schedules (LSSs) to enable individualized pharmacotherapy. A retrospective evaluation of MPA concentration-time data following a 2-hour MMF intravenous (IV) infusion was conducted in 77 HCT recipients. The final model consisted of 1 and 2 compartments for MMF and MPA pharmacokinetics, respectively. The mean estimated values (coefficient of variation, %) for total systemic clearance, distributional clearance, and central and peripheral compartment volumes of MPA were 36.9 L/h (34.5%), 15.3 L/h (80.4%), 11.9 L (71.7%), and 182 L (127%), respectively. No covariates significantly explained variability among individuals. Optimal LSSs were derived using a simulation approach based on the scaled mean squared error. A 5-sample schedule of 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 6 hours from the start of the infusion precisely estimated MPA AUC(0-12 h) for Q12-hour IV MMF. A comparable schedule (2, 2.5, 3, 4, and 6 hours) similarly estimated MPA AUC(0-8) (h) for Q8-hour dosing.

  1. A Limited Sampling Schedule to Estimate Mycophenolic Acid Area Under the Concentration-Time Curve in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Nash, Richard; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a key component of post-grafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The plasma area under the curve (AUC) of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), is associated with MMF efficacy and toxicity. This study developed a population pharmacokinetic model of MPA in HCT recipients and created limited sampling schedules (LSS) to enable individualized pharmacotherapy. A retrospective evaluation of MPA concentration-time data following a 2 hr MMF intravenous (IV) infusion was conducted in 77 HCT recipients. The final model consisted of one and two compartments for MMF and MPA pharmacokinetics, respectively. The mean estimated values (coefficient of variation, %) for total systemic clearance, distributional clearance, and central and peripheral compartment volumes of MPA were 36.9 L/h (34.5%), 15.3 L/h (80.4%), 11.9 L (71.7%), and 182 L (127%), respectively. No covariates significantly explained variability among individuals. Optimal LSS were derived using a simulation approach based on the scaled mean squared error. A five-sample schedule of 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 6 hr from the start of the infusion precisely estimated MPA AUC0–12 hr for Q12 hr IV MMF. A comparable schedule (2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 6 hr) similarly estimated MPA AUC0–8hr for Q8 hr dosing. PMID:22174435

  2. Limiting factors in photosynthesis. V. Photochemical energy supply colimits photosynthesis at low values of intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Terry, N.

    1984-05-01

    Although there is now some agreement with the view that the supply of photochemical energy may influence photosynthetic rate (P) at high CO/sub 2/ pressures, it is less clear whether this limitation extends to P at low CO/sub 2/. This was investigated by measuring P per area as a function of the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (C/sub i/) at different levels of photochemical energy supply. Changes in the latter were obtained experimentally by varying the level of irradiance to normal (Fe-sufficient) leaves of Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1, and by varying photosynthetic electron transport capacity using leaves from Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. P and C/sub i/ were determined for attached sugar beet leaves using open flow gas exchange. The results suggest the P/area was colimited by the supply of photochemical energy at very low as well as high values of C/sub i/. Using the procedure developed by Perchorowicz et al., we investigated the effect or irradiance on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activation. The ratio of initial extractable activity to total inducible RuBPCase activity increased from 0.25 to 0.90 as leaf irradiance increased from 100 to 1500 microeinsteins photosynthetically active radiation per square meter per second. These data suggest that colimitation by photochemical energy supply at low C/sub i/ may be mediated via effects on RuBPCase activation.

  3. A limited sampling schedule to estimate mycophenolic Acid area under the concentration-time curve in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E; Bemer, Meagan J; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Nash, Richard; McCune, Jeannine S

    2012-11-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a key component of postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The plasma area under the curve (AUC) of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), is associated with MMF efficacy and toxicity. This study developed a population pharmacokinetic model of MPA in HCT recipients and created limited sampling schedules (LSSs) to enable individualized pharmacotherapy. A retrospective evaluation of MPA concentration-time data following a 2-hour MMF intravenous (IV) infusion was conducted in 77 HCT recipients. The final model consisted of 1 and 2 compartments for MMF and MPA pharmacokinetics, respectively. The mean estimated values (coefficient of variation, %) for total systemic clearance, distributional clearance, and central and peripheral compartment volumes of MPA were 36.9 L/h (34.5%), 15.3 L/h (80.4%), 11.9 L (71.7%), and 182 L (127%), respectively. No covariates significantly explained variability among individuals. Optimal LSSs were derived using a simulation approach based on the scaled mean squared error. A 5-sample schedule of 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 6 hours from the start of the infusion precisely estimated MPA AUC(0-12 h) for Q12-hour IV MMF. A comparable schedule (2, 2.5, 3, 4, and 6 hours) similarly estimated MPA AUC(0-8) (h) for Q8-hour dosing. PMID:22174435

  4. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30...

  5. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m....

  6. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  7. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  8. 40 CFR Table I-10 to Subpart I of... - Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack Systems I Table I-10 to Subpart I of Part... Subpart I of Part 98—Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG...

  9. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  10. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's... Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the...

  11. Estimation from PET data of transient changes in dopamine concentration induced by alcohol: support for a non-parametric signal estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, C. C.; Yoder, K. K.; Kareken, D. A.; Bouman, C. A.; O'Connor, S. J.; Normandin, M. D.; Morris, E. D.

    2008-03-01

    We previously developed a model-independent technique (non-parametric ntPET) for extracting the transient changes in neurotransmitter concentration from paired (rest & activation) PET studies with a receptor ligand. To provide support for our method, we introduced three hypotheses of validation based on work by Endres and Carson (1998 J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 18 1196-210) and Yoder et al (2004 J. Nucl. Med. 45 903-11), and tested them on experimental data. All three hypotheses describe relationships between the estimated free (synaptic) dopamine curves (FDA(t)) and the change in binding potential (ΔBP). The veracity of the FDA(t) curves recovered by nonparametric ntPET is supported when the data adhere to the following hypothesized behaviors: (1) ΔBP should decline with increasing DA peak time, (2) ΔBP should increase as the strength of the temporal correlation between FDA(t) and the free raclopride (FRAC(t)) curve increases, (3) ΔBP should decline linearly with the effective weighted availability of the receptor sites. We analyzed regional brain data from 8 healthy subjects who received two [11C]raclopride scans: one at rest, and one during which unanticipated IV alcohol was administered to stimulate dopamine release. For several striatal regions, nonparametric ntPET was applied to recover FDA(t), and binding potential values were determined. Kendall rank-correlation analysis confirmed that the FDA(t) data followed the expected trends for all three validation hypotheses. Our findings lend credence to our model-independent estimates of FDA(t). Application of nonparametric ntPET may yield important insights into how alterations in timing of dopaminergic neurotransmission are involved in the pathologies of addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  12. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits.

  13. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  14. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  15. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  16. ALCOHOL INTAKE AND RISK OF INJURY

    PubMed Central

    CREMONTE, MARIANA; CHERPITEL, CHERYL J.

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context. PMID:25188654

  17. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  18. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term.

  19. Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination.

    PubMed

    Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Panwar, N R; Singh, M V

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium and lead are important environmental pollutants with high toxicity to animals and human. Soils, though have considerable metal immobilizing capability, can contaminate food chain via plants grown upon them when their built-up occurs to a large extent. Present experiment was carried out with the objective of quantifying the limits of Pb and Cd loading in soil for the purpose of preventing food chain contamination beyond background concentration levels. Two separate sets of pot experiment were carried out for these two heavy metals with graded levels of application doses of Pb at 0.4-150 mg/kg and Cd at 0.02-20 mg/kg to an acidic light textured alluvial soil. Spinach crop was grown for 50 days on these treated soils after a stabilization period of 2 months. Upper limit of background concentration levels (C(ul)) of these metals were calculated through statistical approach from the heavy metals concentration values in leaves of spinach crop grown in farmers' fields. Lead and Cd concentration limits in soil were calculated by dividing C(ul) with uptake response slope obtained from the pot experiment. Cumulative loading limits (concentration limits in soil minus contents in uncontaminated soil) for the experimental soil were estimated to be 170 kg Pb/ha and 0.8 kg Cd/ha. Based on certain assumptions on application rate and computed cumulative loading limit values, maximum permissible Pb and Cd concentration values in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost were proposed as 170 mg Pb/kg and 0.8 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In view of these limiting values, about 56% and 47% of the MSW compost samples from different cities are found to contain Pb and Cd in the safe range.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate dryers, smelting furnaces, slag cleaning vessels... test methods specified in § 63.1450(a). (b) Smelting furnaces. For each smelting furnace, you...

  1. How Do Underage College Students Get Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and related problems are common among underage college students, yet qualitative, in-depth information on how/where these students obtain alcohol is limited. We conducted focus groups pertaining to access to alcohol and related issues with 19 underage college students. They reported that alcohol is easy to obtain from a variety…

  2. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  3. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  4. [Measurement and data analysis of drug concentrations at the target site--potentials, limitations and fields of application].

    PubMed

    Schäftlein, André; el Talia, Maurice; Kloft, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Drug measurements in the blood are only surrogates for drug concentrations in peripheral tissues, which often represent the target sites of the drug. Due to drug specific and physiological characteristics, however, blood and target site concentrations may differ. For this reason, methods to measure drug concentrations at the target site have been developed during the last years. During the last decade, microdialysis has become the method of choice for the continuous study of unbound tissue concentrations of drugs. In order to fully exploit these measurements to quantify the concentration-time profile of the investigated drug, different tools of data analysis can be applied. The aim is to contribute to decision-making in selecting the optimal dose 1) for dosing schedules during the development program of new drugs and 2) for therapeutic usage for physicians and pharmacists. For these aims, the so called ,,nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modelling approach" presents the method of choice as it determines the typical concentration-time profile of a drug as well as the variability within the investigated study population. Additionally, between-patient variability can be explained by patient-specific characteristics e.g. weight enabling dose individualisation within the whole investigated population. A systematic literature research in Pubmed for the use of antiinfectives in humans shows that the preferable methods of measuring concentrations at the target site (microdialysis) and data analysis (NLME) have rarely been used simultaneously. Hence, in future the benefit of linking both methods of choice should be further exploited in order to improve knowledge gain, to optimise antiinfective dosing regimens and to increase medication safety.

  5. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Selectivity and Mass Transfer Limitations in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis at High Concentrations and Increased Operating Pressures.

    PubMed

    Straub, Anthony P; Osuji, Chinedum O; Cath, Tzahi Y; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-10-20

    Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising source of renewable energy when hypersaline brines and other high concentration solutions are used. However, membrane performance under conditions suitable for these solutions is poorly understood. In this work, we use a new method to characterize membranes under a variety of pressures and concentrations, including hydraulic pressures up to 48.3 bar and concentrations of up to 3 M NaCl. We find membrane selectivity decreases as the draw solution concentration is increased, with the salt permeability coefficient increasing by a factor of 2 when the draw concentration is changed from 0.6 to 3 M NaCl, even when the applied hydraulic pressure is maintained constant. Additionally, we find that significant pumping energy is required to overcome frictional pressure losses in the spacer-filled feed channel and achieve suitable mass transfer on the feed side of the membrane, especially at high operating pressures. For a meter-long module operating at 41 bar, we estimate feedwater will have to be pumped in at a pressure of at least 3 bar. Both the reduced selectivity and increased pumping energy requirements we observe in PRO will significantly diminish the obtainable net energy, highlighting important new challenges for development of systems utilizing hypersaline draw solutions.

  7. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  8. A risk-based probabilistic framework to estimate the endpoint of remediation: Concentration rebound by rate-limited mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, F. P. J.; Fernã Ndez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2013-04-01

    Aquifer remediation is a challenging problem with environmental, social, and economic implications. As a general rule, pumping proceeds until the concentration of the target substance within the pumped water lies below a prespecified value. In this paper we estimate the a priori potential failure of the endpoint of remediation due to a rebound of concentrations driven by back diffusion. In many cases, it has been observed that once pumping ceases, a rebound in the concentration at the well takes place. For this reason, administrative approaches are rather conservative, and pumping is forced to last much longer than initially expected. While a number of physical and chemical processes might account for the presence of rebounding, we focus here on diffusion from low water mobility into high mobility zones. In this work we look specifically at the concentration rebound when pumping is discontinued while accounting for multiple mass transfer processes occurring at different time scales and parametric uncertainty. We aim to develop a risk-based optimal operation methodology that is capable of estimating the endpoint of remediation based on aquifer parameters characterizing the heterogeneous medium as well as pumping rate and initial size of the polluted area.

  9. Distribution coefficients of alcohols in the air-butanol system

    SciTech Connect

    Filimonov, V.N.; Milyaev, Yu.F.; Balyatinskaya, L.N.

    1987-12-01

    The chromatographic analysis of mixtures of lower C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ aliphatic alcohols was made; n-butanol was used as the absorbent. A Tsvet-100 chromatograph was used with a flame ionization detector, which was calibrated against standard solutions of alcohols in the n-butanol. Characteristics of the absorption concentration are shown. The liquid phase was analyzed for various concentrations of the substance being determined after bringing it into equilibrium with the gas phase. According to the limits of detection found experimentally, the gain in the increase in sensitivity in the analysis of alcohols having an equilibrium concentration compared with direct chromatographing comprises the values 1.1, 6.9, and 8.7.

  10. Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop a method to determine the 95% LOD (lowest co...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air... Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION... Hydrogen H 1 Indium In 49 Iodine I 53 Iridium Ir 77 Iron Fe 26 Krypton Kr 36 Lanthanum La 57 Lead Pb...

  12. Wipe-test and patch-test for alcohol misuse based on the concentration ratio of fatty acid ethyl esters and squalene CFAEE/CSQ in skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Auwärter, V; Kiessling, B; Dyes, C

    2004-07-16

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be formed in blood and almost all human tissues after alcohol consumption and to be incorporated from sebum into hair where they can be used as long-term markers for excessive alcohol consumption. In order to examine whether skin surface lipids which consist mainly of sebum are an equally useful matrix for measurement of FAEE as alcohol abuse markers, samples were collected by a wipe-test from the forehead of 13 teetotallers, 16 social drinkers, 10 death cases with known recent alcohol misuse and five death cases without indications of alcohol misuse. The samples were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate and by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for squalene, (SQ), as a natural reference substance which the FAEE concentrations were related to. The ratio mFAEE/mSQ ranged between 0.16 and 1.12 ng/microg (mean 0.34 ng/microg) for the teetotallers and between 0.08 and 0.94 ng/microg (mean 0.37 ng/microg) for the social drinkers with no significant difference between both groups. For the alcoholics 2.4-24.2 ng/microg (mean 13.1 ng/microg) were found. For two volunteers the course of mFAEE/mSQ 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after a single high alcohol dose was pursued by daily wipe tests. A strong increase of mFAEE/mSQ occurred between 7 and 12 days after the drinking event. This delay can be explained by the transition time of about 8 days between sebum production and its appearance on the skin surface known from literature. For seven social drinkers skin surface lipid samples were also collected using drug of abuse patches of the firm PharmCheck. The ratios mFAEE/mSQ in these samples were in the same range as from the wipe-test. The comparison with the self-reported ethanol amounts consumed the week before and during the test gave no good correlation (R2 = 0.42). It can be

  13. Facts on the Effects of Alcohol. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is one of the few alcohols that humans can drink. This alcohol is a byproduct of yeast's reaction with the sugars in fruit or vegetable juice and the process stops naturally with about an 11 to 14 percent alcoholic concentration, although distillation can greatly increase the alcoholic content. Once ingested, most alcohol…

  14. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  15. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Rounseville, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes. PMID:23180975

  16. Modeling the effects of a speed limit reduction on traffic-related elemental carbon (EC) concentrations and population exposure to EC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, W.; Fierens, F.; Trimpeneers, E.; Janssen, S.; Van de Vel, K.; Deutsch, F.; Viaene, P.; Vankerkom, J.; Dumont, G.; Vanpoucke, C.; Mensink, C.; Peelaerts, W.; Vliegen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scarce effect of speed limit reduction measures on total mass PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations, it is shown that the effect on the probably more hazardous component elemental carbon (EC) is more important which means that, from the viewpoint of health benefit, speed reductions during smog episodes may well be justified. Especially in the very dense highway network in Flanders with a 60% share of diesel cars (the highest in Europe) a speed limit reduction from 120 to 90 km/h during winter smog episodes on selected sections of Flemish highways leads to a significant decrease of the EC concentrations near those highways. Key findings are that the decrease in EC depends on the distance from the highways. In the direct vicinity of the highways, a decrease compared to the base-line scenario where no speed limit changes were implemented of up to 30% of the EC concentrations is modeled. Within a distance of 1500 m of the concerned highway sections there is an average decrease in EC of 0.18 μg m -3 affecting about 1 million people living in these areas. When the speed limit reduction measure is in force, the EC exposure of about 300,000 people decreases by at least 5% and 7500 people experience a decrease of 15% or more.

  17. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of safe operation; or (2) The alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath is 0.10 grams... breath. Provided however, that if State law that applies to operating a motor vehicle while under the... breath, those limits supersede the limits specified in this paragraph. (b) The provisions of paragraph...

  18. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of safe operation; or (2) The alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath is 0.10 grams... breath. Provided however, that if State law that applies to operating a motor vehicle while under the... breath, those limits supersede the limits specified in this paragraph. (b) The provisions of paragraph...

  19. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  20. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  1. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  2. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Banerjee, Tanima; Bergen, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving crashes account for approximately one third of all crash fatalities in the United States. In 2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States. To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and annual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at least one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a national rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region. Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21-34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobriety checkpoints, enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws, requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated, and increasing alcohol taxes.

  3. N limited herbivore consumer growth and low nutrient regeneration N:P ratios in nutrient poor Swedish lakes along a gradient in DOC concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, A. K.; Karlsson, D.; Karlsson, J.; Vrede, T.

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient limitation of primary producers and their consumers can have a large influence on ecosystem productivity. The nature and strength of nutrient limitation is driven both by external factors (nutrient loading) and internal processes (consumer-driven nutrient regeneration). Here we present results from a field study in 16 unproductive headwater lakes in northern subarctic and boreal Sweden where N deposition is low. We assessed the C:N:P stoichiometry of lake water, seston and zooplankton and estimated the consumer driven nutrient regeneration N:P ratio. The elemental imbalances between seston and zooplankton indicated that zooplankton were mainly N limited and regenerated nutrients with low N:P ratios (median 9.7, atomic ratio). The N:P regeneration ratios declined with increasing DOC concentrations, suggesting that catchment release of DOC accentuates the N limitation by providing more P to the lakes. The N:P regeneration ratios were related to responses in phytoplankton bioassays in mid-summer with low N:P regeneration with N limited phytoplankton, and high N:P regeneration with P limited phytoplankton. During other seasons, increased nutrient loading from the surrounding catchments during periods of greater water throughput had stronger effects on phytoplankton nutrient limitation. Our results suggest that herbivore zooplankton are N limited and recycle nutrients with low N:P ratio in low productive lakes with low N deposition. This will, at least during seasons when in-lake processes play an important role in nutrient turn over, contribute to continued N limitation of phytoplankton in these systems. We anticipate that increased N deposition and changes in climate and hydrology may affect this feedback and result in qualitative changes in these ecosystems, changing both autotroph producers and herbivore consumers from N- to P-limitation, eventually affecting important ecosystem characteristics such as productivity and turnover of energy and nutrients.

  4. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  5. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  6. [Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis Lucio; Cabanillas Campos, María Carmen; Navarro-Valls, Juan José; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro, Eva; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests.

  7. Ivermectin reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan; Wyatt, Letisha; Khoja, Sheraz; Asatryan, Liana; Ramaker, Marcia J.; Finn, Deborah A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Huynh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of therapeutic failure in the management of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) underscores the urgent need for novel and effective strategies that can deter ethanol consumption. Recent findings from our group showed that ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic with high tolerability and optimal safety profile in humans and animals, antagonized ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that IVM may reduce alcohol consumption; thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of this agent on several models of alcohol self-administration in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Overall, IVM (1.25–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) significantly reduced 24-h alcohol consumption and intermittent limited access (4-h) binge drinking, and operant alcohol self-administration (1-h). The effects on alcohol intake were dose-dependent with the significant reduction in intake at 9 h after administration corresponding to peak IVM concentrations (Cmax) in the brain. IVM also produced a significant reduction in 24-h saccharin consumption, but did not alter operant sucrose self-administration. Taken together, the findings indicate that IVM reduces alcohol intake across several different models of self-administration and suggest that IVM may be useful in the treatment of AUDs. PMID:22465817

  8. Ivermectin reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Wyatt, Letisha; Khoja, Sheraz; Asatryan, Liana; Ramaker, Marcia J; Finn, Deborah A; Alkana, Ronald L; Huynh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L

    2012-08-01

    The high rate of therapeutic failure in the management of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) underscores the urgent need for novel and effective strategies that can deter ethanol consumption. Recent findings from our group showed that ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic with high tolerability and optimal safety profile in humans and animals, antagonized ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that IVM may reduce alcohol consumption; thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of this agent on several models of alcohol self-administration in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Overall, IVM (1.25-10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) significantly reduced 24-h alcohol consumption and intermittent limited access (4-h) binge drinking, and operant alcohol self-administration (1-h). The effects on alcohol intake were dose-dependent with the significant reduction in intake at 9 h after administration corresponding to peak IVM concentrations (C(max)) in the brain. IVM also produced a significant reduction in 24-h saccharin consumption, but did not alter operant sucrose self-administration. Taken together, the findings indicate that IVM reduces alcohol intake across several different models of self-administration and suggest that IVM may be useful in the treatment of AUDs. PMID:22465817

  9. [Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis Lucio; Cabanillas Campos, María Carmen; Navarro-Valls, Juan José; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro, Eva; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests. PMID:23748942

  10. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  11. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E.; Wall, Tamara L.; Kirchhoff, Aaron M.; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y.; Stewart, Robert B.; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L.; Chester, Julia A.; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21–26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  12. Establishment of the tree shrew as an alcohol-induced Fatty liver model for the study of alcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals' suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  13. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-08-05

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.

  14. Tolerance of ARPE 19 cells to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos is limited to concentration and time of exposure.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, Narayanan; Sumantran, Venil N; Shabna, A; Sulochana, K N

    2015-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration is a blinding disease common in elder adults. The prevalence of age related macular degeneration has been found to be 1.8% in the Indian population. Organophosphates are widely used insecticides with well documented neurological effects, and the persistent nature of these compounds in the body results in long term health effects. Farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides in USA had an earlier onset of age related macular degeneration when compared to unexposed controls. A recent study found significant levels of an organophosphate, termed chlorpyrifos, in the blood samples of Indian farmers. Therefore, in understanding the link between age related macular degeneration and chlorpyrifos, the need for investigation is important. Our data show that ARPE-19 (retinal pigment epithelial cells) exhibit a cytoprotective response to chlorpyrifos as measured by viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide dismutase activity, and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione, after 24 h exposure to chlorpyrifos. However, this cytoprotective response was absent in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the same range of concentrations of chlorpyrifos for 48 h. These results have physiological significance, since HPLC analysis showed that effects of chlorpyrifos were mediated through its entry into ARPE-19 cells. HPLC analysis also showed that chlorpyrifos remained stable, as we recovered up to 80% of the chlorpyrifos added to 6 different ocular tissues. PMID:25619908

  15. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal.

  16. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal. PMID:25711824

  17. [Alcohol and street traffic (critical comments from the legal and traffic medicine viewpoint)].

    PubMed

    Heifer, U

    1990-01-01

    1. Our official traffic statistics in general and in regard to the problem "alcohol and road traffic security" is not reliable enough. It contains too many unaccounted factors, so that an objective reorganisation and supplement is badly needed. The present statistics is not suited to show the real dimension and the actual danger of the effects of "alcohol in traffic", especially in connection with relatively low blood-alcohol-concentration. 2. In connection with the problem "alcohol and road traffic" the Federal Republic of Germany is able to develop, by way of law, significant epidemiological research, which, so far, has been neglected. 3. Danger and frequency of low and high blood-alcohol-concentration in road traffic participants are collectively in inverse ratio: The larger group of the less dangerous road traffic participants with low blood-alcohol-concentration does not necessarily cause less damage, than the smaller group of the more dangerous ones with high blood-alcohol-concentration. 4. From the legal and traffic medical point of view the reaching and exceeding of the abstract promille limit of 0.8 shoudl be considered a violation within the meaning of penal law and should be connected with the loss of the driver's license. This was put up for discussion by Spiegel (1989). Such a legal measure would lead to a consequent and successful general and specific prevention. There should be initiated supportive side effects as for example discrimination of the drunken driver and permanent education concerning the effects of alcohol on traffic safety. 5. It seems reasonable to set the limit as low as possible, however, only if there is an sufficient police control to make it effective. 6. The concept "absolute driving incapability" has an extreme confidential value and will surely not result in any disadvantages, however, its preventive reaction is not sufficient. There is no need for this concept any more, if an abstract danger limit is connected with appropriate

  18. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  19. Concentrations of Contaminants with Regulatory Limits in Samples of Clam (Chamelea gallina) Collected along the Abruzzi Region Coast in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Scortichini, Giampiero; Suzzi, Giovanna; Diletti, Gianfranco; Schirone, Maria; Martino, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of pollutants with regulatory limits were determined in specimens of Chamelea gallina, a species of clam collected along the Abruzzi coastal region of the central Adriatic Sea. Nine sampling sites were selected to evaluate the distribution of contaminants in the environment and the health risk for consumers. The concentrations of all the examined compounds were lower than the maximums set by European legislation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total mercury were below the detection limit (0.18 μg/kg for benzo[a]anthracene, 0.30 μg/kg for chrysene, 0.12 μg/kg for benzo[b]fluoranthene, 0.08 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene, and 0.0050 mg/kg for total mercury) in all the analyzed samples. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 0.104 and 0.110 mg/kg, respectively. Of the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-138 were the most abundant at all sampling sites (1a to 9a) at 0.25 mi (ca. 0.4 km) and at some sampling sites (1b, 2b, 3b, 5b and 7b) at 0.35 mi (ca. 0.56 km). Principal component analysis revealed that the concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were similar at the majority of sampling sites, and O8CDD and 2,3,7,8-T4CDF were the predominant dioxin congeners.

  20. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  1. Insomnia, platelet serotonin and platelet monoamine oxidase in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nedic, Gordana; Nikolac, Matea; Mustapic, Maja; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2011-08-18

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder frequently occurring in chronic alcoholic patients. Neurobiological basis of insomnia, as well as of alcoholism, is associated with disrupted functions of the main neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Blood platelets are considered a limited peripheral model for the central 5-HT neurons, since both platelets and central 5-HT synaptosomes have similar dynamics of 5-HT. Platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) are assumed to represent biomarkers for particular symptoms and behaviors in psychiatric disorders. The hypothesis of this study was that platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet MAO-B activity will be altered in chronic alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to comparable values in patients without insomnia. The study included 498 subjects: 395 male and 103 female medication-free patients with alcohol dependence and 502 healthy control subjects: 325 men and 177 women. The effects of early, middle and late insomnia (evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), as well as sex, age and smoking on platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet MAO-B activity were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis by the stepwise method. Platelet 5-HT concentration, but not platelet MAO-B activity, was significantly reduced in alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to patients without insomnia. Multiple regression analysis revealed that platelet 5-HT concentration was affected by middle insomnia, smoking and sex, while platelet MAO activity was affected only by sex and age. The present and previous data suggest that platelet 5-HT concentration might be used, after controlling for sex and smoking, as a biomarker for insomnia in alcoholism, PTSD and in rotating shift workers.

  2. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  3. Feasibility of Trace Alcohol Congener Detection and Identification Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Shangmin; Zhao, Lixian; Liu, Liying; Wang, Dezhen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a feasible scheme is reported for the detection and identification of trace alcohol congeners that have identical elemental composition using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the scheme, an intensive pulsed laser is used to break down trace alcohol samples and the optical emission spectra of the induced plasma are collected for the detection and identification of alcohol molecules. In order to prepare trace alcohol samples, pure ethanol or methanol is bubbled by argon carrier gas and then mixed into matrix gases. The key issue for the scheme is to constitute indices from the LIBS data of the alcohol samples. Two indices are found to be suitable for alcohol detection and identification. One is the emission intensity ratio (denoted as H/C) of the hydrogen line (653.3 nm) to the carbon line (247.9 nm) for identification and the other is the ratio of the carbon line (as C/Ar) or the hydrogen line (as H/Ar) to the argon lines (866.7 nm) for quantitative detection. The calibration experiment result shows that the index H/C is specific for alcohol congeners while almost being independent of alcohol concentration. In detail, the H/C keeps a specific constant of 34 and 23 respectively for ethanol and methanol. In the meanwhile, the C/Ar and H/Ar indices respond almost linearly to the alcohol concentration below 1300 ppm, and are therefore competent for concentration measurement. With the indices, trace alcohol concentration measurement achieves a limit of 140 ppm using a laser pulse energy of 300 mJ.

  4. Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06 g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer's card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems.

  5. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  6. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  7. Concentrations of Contaminants with Regulatory Limits in Samples of Clam (Chamelea gallina) Collected along the Abruzzi Region Coast in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Scortichini, Giampiero; Suzzi, Giovanna; Diletti, Gianfranco; Schirone, Maria; Martino, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of pollutants with regulatory limits were determined in specimens of Chamelea gallina, a species of clam collected along the Abruzzi coastal region of the central Adriatic Sea. Nine sampling sites were selected to evaluate the distribution of contaminants in the environment and the health risk for consumers. The concentrations of all the examined compounds were lower than the maximums set by European legislation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total mercury were below the detection limit (0.18 μg/kg for benzo[a]anthracene, 0.30 μg/kg for chrysene, 0.12 μg/kg for benzo[b]fluoranthene, 0.08 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene, and 0.0050 mg/kg for total mercury) in all the analyzed samples. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 0.104 and 0.110 mg/kg, respectively. Of the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-138 were the most abundant at all sampling sites (1a to 9a) at 0.25 mi (ca. 0.4 km) and at some sampling sites (1b, 2b, 3b, 5b and 7b) at 0.35 mi (ca. 0.56 km). Principal component analysis revealed that the concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were similar at the majority of sampling sites, and O8CDD and 2,3,7,8-T4CDF were the predominant dioxin congeners. PMID:26319726

  8. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions.

  9. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.

  10. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  11. Chemometric evaluation of nine alcohol biomarkers in a large population of clinically-classified subjects: pre-eminence of ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair for confirmatory classification.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Valentina; Valente, Valeria; Oliveri, Paolo; De Bernardis, Angela; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2011-10-01

    An important goal of forensic and clinical toxicology is to identify biological markers of ethanol consumption that allow an objective diagnosis of chronic alcohol misuse. Blood and head hair samples were collected from 175 subjects-objectively classified as non-drinkers (N=65), social drinkers (N=51) and active heavy drinkers (N=59)-and analyzed to determine eight traditional indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and cholesterol and triglycerides in blood] and one direct biomarker [ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in head hair]. The experimental values obtained from these determinations were submitted to statistical evaluations. In particular, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and ROC curve analyses, together with principal component analysis (PCA), allowed the diagnostic performances of the various biomarkers to be evaluated and compared consistently. From these evaluations, it was possible to deduce that EtG measured in head hair is the only biomarker that can conclusively discriminate active heavy drinkers from social and non-drinkers, using a cut-off value of 30 pg/mg. In contrast, a few indirect biomarkers such as ALP, cholesterol, and triglycerides showed extremely low diagnostic abilities and may convey misleading information. AST and ALT proved to be highly correlated and exhibited quite low sensitivity and specificity. Consequently, either of these parameters can be discarded without compromising the classification efficiency. Among the indirect biomarkers, γ-GT provided the highest diagnostic accuracy, while CDT and MCV yielded high specificity but low sensitivity. It was therefore concluded that EtG in head hair is the only biomarker capable of supporting a confirmatory diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse in both forensic and clinical practice, while it was found

  12. Low-dose alcohol actions on α4β3δ GABAA receptors are reversed by the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, M.; Hanchar, H. J.; Olsen, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is now more than two decades since it was first reported that the imidazobenzodiazepine Ro15-4513 reverses behavioral alcohol effects, the molecular target(s) of Ro15-4513 and the mechanism of alcohol antagonism remain elusive. Here, we show that Ro15-4513 blocks the alcohol enhancement on recombinant “extrasynaptic” α4/6β3δ GABAA receptors at doses that do not reduce the GABA-induced Cl− current. At low ethanol concentrations (≤30 mM), the Ro15-4513 antagonism is complete. However, at higher ethanol concentrations (≥100 mM), there is a Ro15-4513-insensitive ethanol enhancement that is abolished in receptors containing a point mutation in the second transmembrane region of the β3 subunit (β3N265M). Therefore, α4/6β3δ GABA receptors have two distinct alcohol modulation sites: (i) a low-dose ethanol site present in α4/6β3δ receptors that is antagonized by the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 and (ii) a site activated at high (anesthetic) alcohol doses, defined by mutations in membrane-spanning regions. Receptors composed of α4β3N265Mδ subunits that lack the high-dose alcohol site show a saturable ethanol dose-response curve with a half-maximal enhancement at 16 mM, close to the legal blood alcohol driving limit in most U.S. states (17.4 mM). Like in behavioral experiments, the alcohol antagonist effect of Ro15-4513 on recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by flumazenil and β-carboline-ethyl ester (β-CCE). Our findings suggest that ethanol/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAA receptors are important mediators of behavioral alcohol effects. PMID:16698930

  13. Phytophenols in whisky lower blood acetaldehyde level by depressing alcohol metabolism through inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class I) in mice.

    PubMed

    Haseba, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo; Abe, Yuko; Ohno, Youkichi

    2008-12-01

    We recently reported that the maturation of whisky prolongs the exposure of the body to a given dose of alcohol by reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism and thus lowers the blood acetaldehyde level (Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:77s-82s). In this study, administration of the nonvolatile fraction of whisky was found to lower the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of mice by depressing alcohol metabolism through the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Four of the 12 phenolic compounds detected in the nonvolatile fraction (caffeic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, ellagic acid), the amounts of which increase during the maturation of whisky, were found to strongly inhibit mouse ADH 1 (class I). Their inhibition constant values for ADH 1 were 0.08, 7.9, 15.6, and 22.0 mumol/L, respectively, whereas that for pyrazole, a well-known ADH inhibitor, was 5.1 mumol/L. The 2 phenolic aldehydes and ellagic acid exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, whereas caffeic acid showed the competitive type. When individually administered to mice together with ethanol, each of these phytophenols depressed the elimination of ethanol, thereby lowering the acetaldehyde concentration of blood. Thus, it was demonstrated that the enhanced inhibition of liver ADH 1 due to the increased amounts of these phytophenols in mature whisky caused the depression of alcohol metabolism and a consequent lowering of blood acetaldehyde level. These substances are commonly found in various food plants and act as antioxidants and/or anticarcinogens. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in them together with alcohol may not only diminish the metabolic toxicity of alcohol by reducing both the blood acetaldehyde level and oxidative stress, but also help limit the amount of alcohol a person drinks by depressing alcohol metabolism.

  14. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  15. Visual search and urban driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lamers, C. T. J.; Ramaekers, J. G.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol, and their combination, on visual search at intersections and on general driving proficiency in the City Driving Test. Sixteen recreational users of alcohol and marijuana (eight males and eight females) were treated with these substances or placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer- and subject-blind design. On separate evenings, subjects received weight-calibrated doses of THC, alcohol or placebo in each of the following treatment conditions: alcohol placebo + THC placebo, alcohol + THC placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol. Alcohol doses administered were sufficient for achieving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.05 g/dl. Initial drinking preceded smoking by one hour. The City Driving Test commenced 15 minutes after smoking and lasted 45 minutes. The test was conducted over a fixed route within the city limits of Maastricht. An eye movement recording system was mounted on each subject's head for providing relative frequency measures of appropriate visual search at intersections. General driving quality was rated by a licensed driving instructor on a shortened version of the Royal Dutch Tourist Association's Driving Proficiency Test. After placebo treatment subjects searched for traffic approaching from side streets on the right in 84% of all cases. Visual search frequency in these subjects did not change when they were treated with alcohol or marijuana alone. However, when treated with the combination of alcohol and marijuana, the frequency of visual search dropped by 3%. Performance as rated on the Driving Proficiency Scale did not differ between treatments. It was concluded that the effects of low doses of THC (100 &mgr;g/kg) and alcohol (BAC < 0.05 g/dl) on higher-level driving skills as measured in the present study are minimal. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404559

  16. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  17. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  18. Acclimation conditions modify physiological response of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana to elevated CO2 concentrations in a nitrate-limited chemostat.

    PubMed

    Hennon, Gwenn M M; Quay, Paul; Morales, Rhonda L; Swanson, Lyndsey M; Virginia Armbrust, E

    2014-04-01

    Diatoms are responsible for a large proportion of global carbon fixation, with the possibility that they may fix more carbon under future levels of high CO2 . To determine how increased CO2 concentrations impact the physiology of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle et Heimdal, nitrate-limited chemostats were used to acclimate cells to a recent past (333 ± 6 μatm) and two projected future concentrations (476 ± 18 μatm, 816 ± 35 μatm) of CO2 . Samples were harvested under steady-state growth conditions after either an abrupt (15-16 generations) or a longer acclimation process (33-57 generations) to increased CO2 concentrations. The use of un-bubbled chemostat cultures allowed us to calculate the uptake ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon relative to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIC:DIN), which was strongly correlated with fCO2 in the shorter acclimations but not in the longer acclimations. Both CO2 treatment and acclimation time significantly affected the DIC:DIN uptake ratio. Chlorophyll a per cell decreased under elevated CO2 and the rates of photosynthesis and respiration decreased significantly under higher levels of CO2 . These results suggest that T. pseudonana shifts carbon and energy fluxes in response to high CO2 and that acclimation time has a strong effect on the physiological response.

  19. Alcoholic myopathy and acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Victor R; Crabb, David W; Farrés, Jaume; Emery, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathy is characterized by biochemical and morphological lesions within muscle, ranging from impairment of muscle strength and loss of lean tissue to cellular disturbances and altered gene expression. The chronic form of the disease is five times more common than cirrhosis and is characterized by selective atrophy of type 11 (anaerobic) fibres: type I (aerobic) fibres are relatively protected. Although the causative agent is known (i.e. ethanol), the intervening steps between alcohol ingestion and the development of symptoms and lesions are poorly understood. However, acetaldehyde appears to have an important role in the aetiology of the disease. For example, alcohol is a potent perturbant of muscle protein synthesis in vivo, and this effect is exacerbated by cyanamide pre-dosage, which raises acetaldehyde concentrations. Acetaldehyde alone also reduces muscle protein synthesis in vivo and proteolytic activity in vitro. The formation of acetaldehyde protein adducts is another mechanism of putative importance in alcoholic myopathy. These adducts are formed within muscle in response to either acute or chronic alcohol exposure and the adducts are located preferentially within the sarcolemmal and sub-sarcolemmal regions. However, the significance of protein adduct formation is unclear since we do not currently know the identity of the adducted muscle proteins nor whether adduction alters the biochemical or functional properties of skeletal muscle proteins.

  20. The Effect of Alcohol on Gastrointestinal Motility.

    PubMed

    Grad, Simona; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2016-01-01

    The Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most affected systems by alcohol consumption. Alcohol can affect the esophagus in several ways: induces mucosal inflammation, increases the risk for Barrett esophagus and esophageal cancer, and also impairs the esophageal motility. Numerous studies have reported an increased prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) or erosive esophagitis in alcoholics. Some alcoholics exhibit an abnormality of esophageal motility known as a "nutcracker esophagus". Alcohol effect on gastric motility depends on the alcohol concentration. In general, beverages with high alcohol concentrations (i.e., above 15 percent) appear to inhibit gastric motility and low alcohol doses (wine and beer) accelerate gastric emptying. Also, acute administration of ethanol inhibits the gastric emptying, while chronic administration of a large dose of alcohol accelerates gastric motility. The effect of alcohol on small bowel motility differs according to the type of consumption (acute or chronic). Acute administration of alcohol has been found to inhibit small bowel transit and chronic administration of a large dose of alcohol accelerates small bowel transit. This article reviews some of the below findings. PMID:27527893

  1. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    those who did not develop cirrhosis mainly died from causes related to alcohol abuse. In conclusion, the present thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used prognostic models may be helpful adjuvants in the routine management of patients with AH, provided that clinicians are aware of the models' limitations. The causes of death in AH are primarily due to liver-related complications, suggesting that patients with AH could benefit from continued follow-up by a hepatologist after the acute episode. PMID:25283626

  2. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  3. Collective Efficacy, Alcohol Outlet Density, and Young Men's Alcohol Use in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction. PMID:26071651

  4. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease.

  5. Liquidus slopes of impurities in ITS-90 fixed points from the mercury point to the copper point in the low concentration limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Jonathan V.; Gisby, John A.; Steur, Peter P. M.

    2016-08-01

    A knowledge of the effect of impurities at the level of parts per million on the freezing temperature of very pure metals is essential for realisation of ITS-90 fixed points. New information has become available for use with the thermodynamic modelling software MTDATA, permitting calculation of liquidus slopes, in the low concentration limit, of a wider range of binary alloy systems than was previously possible. In total, calculated values for 536 binary systems are given. In addition, new experimental determinations of phase diagrams, in the low impurity concentration limit, have recently appeared. All available data have been combined to provide a comprehensive set of liquidus slopes for impurities in ITS-90 metal fixed points. In total, liquidus slopes for 838 systems are tabulated for the fixed points Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, Au, and Cu. It is shown that the value of the liquidus slope as a function of impurity element atomic number can be approximated using a simple formula, and good qualitative agreement with the existing data is observed for the fixed points Al, Ag, Au and Cu, but curiously the formula is not applicable to the fixed points Hg, Ga, In, Sn, and Zn. Some discussion is made concerning the influence of oxygen on the liquidus slopes, and some calculations using MTDATA are discussed. The BIPM’s consultative committee for thermometry has long recognised that the sum of individual estimates method is the ideal approach for assessing uncertainties due to impurities, but the community has been largely powerless to use the model due to lack of data. Here, not only is data provided, but a simple model is given to enable known thermophysical data to be used directly to estimate impurity effects for a large fraction of the ITS-90 fixed points.

  6. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders.

  7. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted. PMID:26627094

  8. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  9. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  10. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  11. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  12. Quantification of uncertainty in mercury wastewater analysis at different concentration levels and using information from proficiency test with a limited number of participants.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Marcelo T; Lista, Adriana G; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2013-07-15

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the most required parameters of analytical quality in environmental decision-making. Several approaches have been reported for estimating uncertainty in analytical measurements. The use of proficiency test (PT) is an alternative, not only for assessing the performance of individual analytical laboratories, but also for estimating the concordance of an analytical method and their measurement uncertainties. Here we develop a PT scheme for a limited number of analytical laboratories that took part in the analysis of total mercury in samples with complex matrix (chlor-alkali process wastewater effluent) in absence of references of the highest metrological hierarchy (e.g. primary method, primary CRM). Two in-house reference materials (IHRMs) were prepared at different levels of analyte concentration and the homogeneity required was verified for the intended use. A set of parametric and robust statistical tests were applied to evaluate the assigned values of each IHRM. Metrological compatibility assessment of PT results, evaluation of individual and global performance of the laboratories, and determination of uncertainty of the analytical measurements were evaluated in this restricted study scenario. Between-laboratory differences were found not significant (α=0.05). For both concentration levels we computed a relative standard uncertainty of 30% for the total Hg content. PMID:23622527

  13. Quantification of uncertainty in mercury wastewater analysis at different concentration levels and using information from proficiency test with a limited number of participants.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Marcelo T; Lista, Adriana G; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2013-07-15

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the most required parameters of analytical quality in environmental decision-making. Several approaches have been reported for estimating uncertainty in analytical measurements. The use of proficiency test (PT) is an alternative, not only for assessing the performance of individual analytical laboratories, but also for estimating the concordance of an analytical method and their measurement uncertainties. Here we develop a PT scheme for a limited number of analytical laboratories that took part in the analysis of total mercury in samples with complex matrix (chlor-alkali process wastewater effluent) in absence of references of the highest metrological hierarchy (e.g. primary method, primary CRM). Two in-house reference materials (IHRMs) were prepared at different levels of analyte concentration and the homogeneity required was verified for the intended use. A set of parametric and robust statistical tests were applied to evaluate the assigned values of each IHRM. Metrological compatibility assessment of PT results, evaluation of individual and global performance of the laboratories, and determination of uncertainty of the analytical measurements were evaluated in this restricted study scenario. Between-laboratory differences were found not significant (α=0.05). For both concentration levels we computed a relative standard uncertainty of 30% for the total Hg content.

  14. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  15. Transcriptional reprogramming and stimulation of leaf respiration by elevated CO2 concentration is diminished, but not eliminated, under limiting nitrogen supply.

    PubMed

    Markelz, R J Cody; Lai, Lisa X; Vosseler, Lauren N; Leakey, Andrew D B

    2014-04-01

    Plant respiration responses to elevated CO2 concentration ( [CO2 ] ) have been studied for three decades without consensus about the mechanism of response. Positive effects of elevated [CO2 ] on leaf respiration have been attributed to greater substrate supply resulting from stimulated photosynthesis. Negative effects of elevated [CO2 ] on leaf respiration have been attributed to reduced demand for energy for protein turnover assumed to result from lower leaf N content. Arabidopsis thaliana was grown in ambient (370 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) [CO2 ] with limiting and ample N availabilities. The stimulation of leaf dark respiration was attenuated in limiting N (+12%) compared with ample N supply (+30%). This response was associated with smaller stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, but not interactive effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on leaf protein, amino acids or specific leaf area. Elevated [CO2 ] also resulted in greater abundance of transcripts for many components of the respiratory pathway. A greater transcriptional response to elevated [CO2 ] was observed in ample N supply at midday versus midnight, consistent with reports that protein synthesis is greatest during the day. Greater foliar expression of respiratory genes under elevated [CO2 ] has now been observed in diverse herbaceous species, suggesting a widely conserved response.

  16. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  17. Effect of limit feeding high- and low-concentrate diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on digestibility and on dairy heifer growth and first-lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Zanton, G I; Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-10-01

    Growth and digestibility were examined for heifers limit fed high- (HC; 60%) and low-concentrate (LC; 20%) diets with or without yeast culture (YC) addition in 2 experiments. A third experiment was undertaken to monitor first-lactation production of heifers limit fed HC or LC diets. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein heifers were individually fed at controlled intakes for 133 d to maintain a targeted average daily gain of 0.80 kg/d for all 4 treatments [HC; LC with and without Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Yea-Sacc(1026) (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), 1 g/kg as fed]. Targeted average daily gain was achieved for all treatments during the individual feeding period (0.80 +/- 0.01 kg/d). Average dry matter intake needed to maintain constant gain was slightly reduced for HC and YC treatments. Reduced dry matter intake and similar targeted average daily gain resulted in a tendency for improved feed efficiency of HC-fed heifers. Skeletal measurements and targeted average daily gain were not affected by concentrate level or YC. The objective of experiment 2 was to elucidate effects of concentrate level and YC on nutrient digestibility. Four young (284.35 +/- 4.51 d) and 4 older (410.28 +/- 2.14 d) heifers were allocated to the 4 treatments used in experiment 1. Heifers fed the HC diet had increased dry matter digestibility (75.67 vs.72.96 +/- 0.72%), and YC addition increased dry matter digestibility (74.97 vs. 73.65 +/- 0.71%). Intake of N and apparent N digestibility were similar for all treatments. High-concentrate diets and YC addition decreased wet and dry matter output of feces. Urine excretion was not different; therefore, total manure output was lower for HC-fed heifers as compared with LC-fed heifers. Results suggest that HC diets can improve feed efficiency without affecting growth when limit fed to dairy heifers. Yeast culture increased dry matter digestibility in HC- and LC-fed heifers; HC diets were more digestible and reduced fecal output, with YC enhancing this

  18. WHAT PSYCHIATRISTS THINK ABOUT ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Max

    1955-01-01

    The one approach most favored for alcoholism by psychiatrists in Southern California who answered a questionnaire is membership in Alcoholics Anonymous. Ninety-nine per cent of them approved Alcoholics Anonymous, and 80 per cent had referred patients to the organization. Yet they believed only 10 per cent of the persons who join A.A. remain sober for over two years. This against the claim of A.A. that 60 per cent or more of their fellowship are recovered emphasized the pessimism of the psychiatrists questioned. Ninety per cent of the psychiatrists who replied said they do not treat alcoholics or that they limit the number or the type they will accept for treatment. They obtain recovery, they said, of 10 per cent of patients, improvement of 50 per cent, and the rest are unchanged. The emphasis in psychiatry is on elimination of the anxieties leading to alcoholism; in Alcoholics Anonymous the emphasis is on the strength to bear these anxieties. Ninety per cent of the replies received were in favor of clinics for alcoholics, and the respondents felt that governmental agencies should support these clinics. Under such circumstances psychiatrists would combine their abilities with psychologists, social workers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Thirty-five per cent of psychiatrists said they are willing to work in a clinic, the majority without recompense. PMID:13270110

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  1. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  2. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  3. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply where:...

  4. The alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats--animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the literature on the utility of using the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats in studies examining high alcohol drinking in adults and adolescents, craving-like behavior, and the co-abuse of alcohol with other drugs. The P line of rats meets all of the originally proposed criteria for a suitable animal model of alcoholism. In addition, the P rat exhibits high alcohol-seeking behavior, demonstrates an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) under relapse drinking conditions, consumes amounts of ethanol during adolescence equivalent to those consumed in adulthood, and co-abuses ethanol and nicotine. The P line also exhibits excessive binge-like alcohol drinking, attaining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 200 mg% on a daily basis. The HAD replicate lines of rats have not been as extensively studied as the P rats. The HAD1,2 rats satisfy several of the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism, e.g., these rats will voluntarily consume ethanol in a free-choice situation to produce BACs between 50 and 200 mg%. The HAD1,2 rats also exhibit an ADE under repeated relapse conditions, and will demonstrate similar levels of ethanol intake during adolescence as seen in adults. Overall, the P and HAD1,2 rats have characteristics attributed to an early onset alcoholic, and can be used to study various aspects of alcohol use disorders.

  5. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    characteristic of alcoholism type 2 is seeking for excitement (Novelty Seeking, NS), unchanged dopamine transmission and decreased serotonin transmission. These neurochemical differences among alcoholism subtypes represent the basis for a different therapy approach. Intake of alcohol changes different gene expression in the human brain. The inheritance model of alcoholism is not fully explained, however, it is considered that the disease is connected to a larger gene number included in neurotransmission, cell mechanisms and general metabolic function, with a simultaneous influence of the environment. The contribution of genetic factors is stronger in certain types of alcoholism and thus we have been confronted in the last years of alcoholism research with studies researching the connections of some alcoholism subtypes with the polymorphism phenomenon in the genes coding the synaptic proteins included in the alcoholism etiology. The primary role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain is catalysis of deamination of the oxidative neurotransmitter amines, i.e. serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. Thus, this enzyme is the key factor for maintaining cytoplasmic concentration of various neurotransmitters and for regulation of the neurotransmitting synaptic activity. Taken this MAO function into consideration, MAO is the enzyme included in the etiology and pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. The finding of the decreased platelet MAO activity in various psychiatric disorders has brought us to the assumption that this enzyme may be a constitutional/genetic indicator (trait marker) or an indicator of disease condition (state marker) in biologic psychiatry. There are only a few studies of alcohol addiction researching the connections of the MAO coding gene polymorphism and alcoholism; however, these studies are primarily related to the variable number of tandem repeats (VTNR) polymorphism in the regulatory gene region for MAO-A, considered to

  6. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    characteristic of alcoholism type 2 is seeking for excitement (Novelty Seeking, NS), unchanged dopamine transmission and decreased serotonin transmission. These neurochemical differences among alcoholism subtypes represent the basis for a different therapy approach. Intake of alcohol changes different gene expression in the human brain. The inheritance model of alcoholism is not fully explained, however, it is considered that the disease is connected to a larger gene number included in neurotransmission, cell mechanisms and general metabolic function, with a simultaneous influence of the environment. The contribution of genetic factors is stronger in certain types of alcoholism and thus we have been confronted in the last years of alcoholism research with studies researching the connections of some alcoholism subtypes with the polymorphism phenomenon in the genes coding the synaptic proteins included in the alcoholism etiology. The primary role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain is catalysis of deamination of the oxidative neurotransmitter amines, i.e. serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. Thus, this enzyme is the key factor for maintaining cytoplasmic concentration of various neurotransmitters and for regulation of the neurotransmitting synaptic activity. Taken this MAO function into consideration, MAO is the enzyme included in the etiology and pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. The finding of the decreased platelet MAO activity in various psychiatric disorders has brought us to the assumption that this enzyme may be a constitutional/genetic indicator (trait marker) or an indicator of disease condition (state marker) in biologic psychiatry. There are only a few studies of alcohol addiction researching the connections of the MAO coding gene polymorphism and alcoholism; however, these studies are primarily related to the variable number of tandem repeats (VTNR) polymorphism in the regulatory gene region for MAO-A, considered to

  7. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  10. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  13. Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Key Foundations and New Developments.

    PubMed

    Childers, Ryan E; Ahn, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a spectrum of conditions that include alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic alcoholic liver disease. The diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease remains founded in an accurate patient history and detailed physical examination. Concurrent with the physical examination, objective data from laboratory, imaging, and histologic studies are helpful to confirm a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Novel biomarkers, scoring systems, and imaging modalities are improving the ability to diagnose and manage alcoholic liver disease, but for most practicing clinicians, these have not been adopted widely because of their cost, but also because of limitations and uncertainty in their performance characteristics. PMID:27373609

  14. Taxonomy of Caribbean Tourism Alcohol Venues: Implications for HIV Transmission*

    PubMed Central

    GUILAMO-RAMOS, Vincent; JACCARD, James; MCCARTHY, Katharine; QUIÑONES, Zahira; LUSHIN, Viktor; SKINNER-DAY, Molly; PADILLA, Mark; MEISTERLIN, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. Methods We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. Results We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g., sex work on site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. Conclusion Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas. PMID:23478154

  15. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  16. Gender comparisons of alcohol consumption in alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Welte, J W

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities and differences between male and female drinkers in terms of the estimated functional impact of alcohol intake on drinking occasions. Alcohol consumption on drinking occasions was documented in male and female alcoholics and occasional drinkers in face-to-face interviews and also in a general population statewide sample by means of a telephone survey. Expression of ethanol intake in terms of grams of ethanol consumed per kilogram of total body water yielded data consistent with the notion that blood concentrations of ethanol achieved by females on drinking occasions may have been quite similar to the values achieved by males. However, important gender differences were also found in terms of an older age of onset of regular drinking, less frequent alcohol intake and a higher percentage of abstainers among females.

  17. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  18. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  19. Amazonian mid- to high-latitude glaciation on Mars: Supply-limited ice sources, ice accumulation patterns, and concentric crater fill glacial flow and ice sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    Crater deposit thicknesses (~50 m) cannot fill the craters in a time period compatible with the interpreted formation times of the Pedestal Crater mantled ice layers. We use a representative obliquity solution to drive an ice flow model and show that a cyclical pattern of multiply recurring layers can both fill the craters with a significant volume of ice, as well as transport debris from the crater walls out into the central regions of the craters. The cyclical pattern of waxing and waning mantling layers results in a rippled pattern of surface debris extending out into the crater interiors that would manifest itself as an observable concentric pattern, comparable in appearance to concentric crater fill. In this scenario, the formation of mantling sublimation till layers seals the accumulating ice and sequesters it from significant temperature variations at diurnal, annual and spin-axis/orbital cycle time scales, to produce ancient ice records preserved today below CCF crater floors. Lack of meltwater features associated with concentric crater fill provides evidence that the Late Amazonian climate did not exceed the melting temperature in the mid- to high-latitudes for any significant period of time. Continued sequestration of ice with time in CCF and related deposits (lobate debris aprons and lineated valley fill) further reduces the already supply-limited polar ice sources, suggesting that there has been a declining reservoir of available ice with each ensuing glacial period. Together, these deposits represent a candidate library of climate chemistry and global change dating from the Late Amazonian, and a non-polar water resource for future exploration.

  20. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders.

  1. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AGE AND MODERATE ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON SIMULATED DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Fillmore, Mark T.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is a substantial body of literature documenting the deleterious effects of both alcohol consumption and age on driving performance. There is, however, limited work examining the interaction of age and acute alcohol consumption. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine if moderate alcohol doses differentially affect the driving performance of older and younger adults. Methods Healthy older (55 – 70) and younger (25 – 35) adults were tested during a baseline session and again following consumption of one of three beverages (0.0% (placebo), 0.04% or 0.065% target breath alcohol concentration). Measures of driving precision and average speed were recorded. Results Older adults performed more poorly on precision driving measures and drove more slowly than younger adults at baseline. After controlling for baseline performance, interactions between alcohol and age were observed following beverage consumption on two measures of driving precision with older adults exhibiting greater impairment as a result of alcohol consumption. Conclusions These data provide evidence that older adults may be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol on certain measures of driving performance. An investigation of mechanisms accounting for alcohol’s effects on driving in older and younger adults is required. Further evaluation using more complex driving environments is needed to assess the real-world implication of this interaction. PMID:24030469

  2. Erectile impotence in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tan, E T; Johnson, R H; Lambie, D G; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1984-01-01

    Erectile impotence is a common complaint in alcoholics, but its mechanism is unknown. We have studied nocturnal penile erection in 13 alcoholics who complained of impotence. Seven had normal erections and their impotence was therefore psychogenic. Six were found to have diminished or absent nocturnal erections. Plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were elevated in this latter group, with the exception of one patient who had only raised FSH. They also had more evidence of neurological damage than the other seven alcoholics, and two had evidence of damage to the parasympathetic nervous system. Investigation of erection during sleep in alcoholic patients with impotence may be useful in differentiating clinically between patients with psychogenic causes and patients with organic causes of impotence.

  3. Alcohol hangover: mechanisms and mediators.

    PubMed

    Swift, R; Davidson, D

    1998-01-01

    Hangovers are a frequent, though unpleasant, experience among people who drink to intoxication. Despite the prevalence of hangovers, however, this condition is not well understood scientifically. Multiple possible contributors to the hangover state have been investigated, and researchers have produced evidence that alcohol can directly promote hangover symptoms through its effects on urine production, the gastrointestinal tract, blood sugar concentrations, sleep patterns, and biological rhythms. In addition, researchers postulate that effects related to alcohol's absence after a drinking bout (i.e., withdrawal), alcohol metabolism, and other factors (e.g., biologically active, nonalcohol compounds in beverages; the use of other drugs; certain personality traits; and a family history of alcoholism) also may contribute to the hangover condition. Few of the treatments commonly described for hangover have undergone scientific evaluation.

  4. Cannabis effects on driving longitudinal control with and without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Pierce, Russell S; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Although evidence suggests cannabis impairs driving, its driving-performance effects are not fully characterized. We aimed to establish cannabis' effects on driving longitudinal control (with and without alcohol, drivers' most common drug combination) relative to psychoactive ∆(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood concentrations. Current occasional (≥1×/last 3 months, ≤3 days per week) cannabis smokers drank placebo or low-dose alcohol, and inhaled 500 mg placebo, low (2.9%), or high (6.7%) THC vaporized cannabis over 10 min ad libitum in separate sessions (within-subject, six conditions). Participants drove (National Advanced Driving Simulator, University of Iowa) simulated drives 0.5-1.3 h post-inhalation. Blood and breath alcohol samples were collected before (0.17 and 0.42 h) and after (1.4 and 2.3 h) driving. We evaluated the mean speed (relative to limit), standard deviation (SD) of speed, percent time spent >10% above/below the speed limit (percent speed high/percent speed low), longitudinal acceleration, and ability to maintain headway relative to a lead vehicle (headway maintenance) against blood THC and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). In N=18 completing drivers, THC was associated with a decreased mean speed, increased percent speed low and increased mean following distance during headway maintenance. BrAC was associated with increased SD speed and increased percent speed high, whereas THC was not. Neither was associated with altered longitudinal acceleration. A less-than-additive THC*BrAC interaction was detected in percent speed high (considering only non-zero data and excluding an outlying drive event), suggesting cannabis mitigated drivers' tendency to drive faster with alcohol. Cannabis was associated with slower driving and greater headway, suggesting a possible awareness of impairment and attempt to compensate. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.

    1982-08-01

    A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau basalts in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at saturation or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are saturated to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are saturated to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the basalt. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the basaltic glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of basaltic glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the basalts are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the basalt fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.

  6. Critical micelle concentrations and stirring are rate limiting in the loss of lipid mass during membrane degradation by phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Speijer, H; Giesen, P L; Zwaal, R F; Hack, C E; Hermens, W T

    1996-05-01

    In phospholipid membranes attacked by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), accumulation of degradation products influences the binding affinity as well as the catalytic activity of PLA(2). Such accumulation in its turn depends on the rate of membrane degradation and the efflux of degradation products from the membrane, the latter being influenced by the stirring conditions in the system. This complicated process was investigated with a new ellipsometric technique for in situ measurement of membrane mass in a well-defined flow system. Planar phospholipid bilayers were formed on rotating silicon discs in buffer solution. After the addition of 0.05-100 ng/ml of PLA(2) (from Naja mocambique mocambique) to the buffer, mass desorption could be measured with a precision of 3-5 ng/cm(2), that is, about 1% of the surface mass of a single bilayer. Using radiolabeled phospholipids and thin-layer chromatography, it was verified that only the degradation products desorb from the membrane, which was confirmed by the desorption of mixtures of phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and fatty acids. The rotating disc allows the exact calculation of the mass transfer constant for transport-limited exchange of lipid between fluid and disc surface, as a function of rotation rate. By using the mass transfer constant, the critical micelle concentrations, and the mole fractions of products, desorption kinetics could be fully described. The amount of degraded phospholipid could be continuously monitored as the sum of the product mass still present in the membrane, as inferred from the desorption rate, and the mass already lost from the surface. It is concluded that ellipsometry is a suitable tool for studying the effects of PLA(2) on membranes.

  7. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  8. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  9. Alcohol from membrane processed concentrated cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, K.; Kosikowskik, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    A fermentable whey substrate in the form of a high solids permeate was obtained by reconstituting spray-dried whey powder to 36% total solids followed by ultrafiltration to separate the protein. The high solids permeate was demineralized to permit rapid yeast growth. The final permeate with 24% lactose and at pH 4.8 gave high yields of EtOH rapidly upon inoculation with lactose-fermenting yeasts. One yeast species, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415, yielded 108.8 g of EtOH/L, giving 84.3% of the theoretical maximum. Batch EtOH productivity was 3.2 g/L/h. The cost analysis of the ultrafiltration-fermentation process is highly favorable, if evaporation instead of the widely used reverse osmosis is employed for preconcentration of whey.

  10. Vapor compression evaporator concentrates, recovers alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.N.; Robe, K.; Bacchetti, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    This article focuses on presenting a solution to the high energy cost of operating a steam heated, single effect evaporator used by Monsanto Industrial Chemical Company at a plant in Seattle, Wash., to produce vanillin from pulp and paper mill sulfite. Use of the single effect flash evaporator resulted in high energy usage due not only to the ''single effect'' use of steam, but also because energy consumption was reduced only slightly at low operating rates. The solution to this problem was the replacement of the single effect evaporator with a vapor recompression evaporator. Operating for over 1 1/2 years, the vapor recompression evaporator system has had no significant maintenance problems. The system operates with only 1/60th the steam consumption and 15% of the total energy consumption of the previous evaporator and has had no tube fouling. Also, since the distillate is condensed within the evaporator, less cooling water is required, allowing two heat exchangers to be taken out of service. When operating at less than design capacity, the energy consumption drops almost linearly with the feed rate. At low feed rates, a by-pass valve unloads the compressor to reduce energy consumption. Total energy consumption, now 15% of the previous level, results in an estimated pay-back of less than three years.

  11. Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Search The CDC Injury Prevention & Control: Motor Vehicle Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Motor Vehicle Safety State Data and Information State Data Linkage ...

  12. Microkinetic Modeling of Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on Carbon-Supported Palladium Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Savara, Aditya; Rossetti, Ilenia; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Prati, Laura; Villa, Alberto

    2016-07-14

    Six products are formed from benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd nanoparticles using O2 as the oxidant: benzaldehyde, toluene, benzyl ether, benzene, benzoic acid, and benzyl benzoate. Three experimental parameters were varied here: alcohol concentration, oxygen concentration, and temperature. Microkinetic modeling using a mechanism published recently with surface intermediates was able to produce all 18 trends observed experimentally with mostly quantitative agreement. Approximate analytical equations derived from the microkinetic model for isothermal conditions reproduced the isothermal trends and provided insight. The most important activation energies are Ea2=57.9 kJ mol₋1, Ea5=129 kJ mol₋1, and Ea6=175 kJ mol₋1, which correspond to alcohol dissociation,more » alkyl hydrogenation, and the reaction of alkyl species with alkoxy species. Upper limits for other activation energies were identified. The concepts of a sticking coefficient and steric factor in solution were applied.« less

  13. The metabolism of fatty alcohols in lipid nanoparticles by alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Mumper, R J

    2006-09-01

    Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (<100 nm) were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors using emulsifying wax NF as the oil phase and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) as the surfactant. Emulsifying wax contains both cetyl and stearyl alcohols. NPs were incubated with the enzyme and NAD+ at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h, and the concentrations of fatty alcohols were quantitatively determined over time by gas chromatography (GC). The concentrations of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol within the NPs decreased to only 10-20% remaining after 15-24 h of incubation. In parallel, NP size, turbidity and the fluorescence intensity of NADH all increased over time. It was concluded that horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase/NAD+ was able to metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs, suggesting that NPs made of fatty alcohols may be metabolized in the body via endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems. PMID:16954110

  14. The metabolism of fatty alcohols in lipid nanoparticles by alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Mumper, R J

    2006-09-01

    Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (<100 nm) were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors using emulsifying wax NF as the oil phase and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) as the surfactant. Emulsifying wax contains both cetyl and stearyl alcohols. NPs were incubated with the enzyme and NAD+ at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h, and the concentrations of fatty alcohols were quantitatively determined over time by gas chromatography (GC). The concentrations of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol within the NPs decreased to only 10-20% remaining after 15-24 h of incubation. In parallel, NP size, turbidity and the fluorescence intensity of NADH all increased over time. It was concluded that horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase/NAD+ was able to metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs, suggesting that NPs made of fatty alcohols may be metabolized in the body via endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems.

  15. Alcohol and Caffeine: The Perfect Storm

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely believed that caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol, the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are incompletely understood. It is known that both caffeine and alcohol alter adenosine neurotransmission, but the relationship is complex, and may be dose dependent. In this article, we review the available literature on combining caffeine and alcohol. Ethical constraints prohibit laboratory studies that would mimic the high levels of alcohol intoxication achieved by many young people in real-world settings, with or without the addition of caffeine. We propose a possible neurochemical mechanism for the increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences that have been observed in persons who simultaneously consume caffeine. Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. During acute alcohol intake, caffeine antagonizes the “unwanted” effects of alcohol by blocking the adenosine A1 receptors that mediate alcohol's somnogenic and ataxic effects. The A1 receptor–mediated “unwanted” anxiogenic effects of caffeine may be ameliorated by alcohol-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of adenosine. Moreover, by means of interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate the effects of alcohol-induced dopamine release. Chronic alcohol intake decreases adenosine tone. Caffeine may provide a “treatment” for the withdrawal effects of alcohol by blocking the effects of upregulated A1 receptors. Finally, blockade of A2A receptors by caffeine may contribute to the reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:24761263

  16. Glutamatergic targets for new alcohol medications

    PubMed Central

    Spanagel, Rainer; Krystal, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale An increasingly compelling literature points to a major role for the glutamate system in mediating the effects of alcohol on behavior and the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Preclinical studies indicate that glutamate signaling mediates certain aspects of ethanol’s intoxicating and rewarding effects, and undergoes adaptations following chronic alcohol exposure that may contribute to the withdrawal, craving and compulsive drug-seeking that drive alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Objectives We discuss the potential for targeting the glutamate system as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to treating alcohol use disorders, focusing on five major components of the glutamate system: the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and specific NMDA subunits, the glycineB site on the NMDA receptors (NMDAR), L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid ionotropic (AMPA) and kainate (KAR) receptors, metabotropic receptors (mGluR), and glutamate transporters. Results Chronic alcohol abuse produces a hyperglutamatergic state, characterized by elevated extracellular glutamate and altered glutamate receptors and transporters. Pharmacologically manipulating glutamatergic neurotransmission alters alcohol-related behaviors including intoxication, withdrawal, and alcohol-seeking, in rodents and human subjects. Blocking NMDA and AMPA receptors reduces alcohol consumption in rodents, but side-effects may limit this as a therapeutic approach. Selectively targeting NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits (e.g., GluN2B, GluA3), or the NMDAR glycineB site offers an alternative approach. Blocking mGluR5 potently affects various alcohol-related behaviors in rodents, and mGluR2/3 agonism also suppresses alcohol consumption. Finally, glutamate transporter upregulation may mitigate behavioral and neurotoxic sequelae of excess glutamate caused by alcohol. Conclusions Despite the many challenges that remain, targeting the glutamate system offers genuine promise for developing new

  17. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  18. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  19. 27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... any such products; or (iii) The direct effect of the sale, purchase, offer or contract is to...

  20. 27 CFR 8.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 8.4 Section 8.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...) The direct effect of the requirement is to prevent, deter, hinder, or restrict other persons...

  1. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  2. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  3. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  4. Flammability limits of fuel/fluorocarbon azeotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Hammond, P.R.; Foote, K.; Ford, H.W. Jr.

    1981-02-10

    Both Dehn and Thorne have intimated that flash point (FP) measurements could be used to define the gas-phase flammability limits of fire and retardant vapor mixtures above the surface of heated retardant containing flammable liquids. However, it was found that ignitable mixtures exist above the liquid surface, where the concentration of the agent in the fluid is well beyond the limiting concentrating for inerting of alcohol fires. Clearly this anomaly results from diffusion competition of air and liquid vapor mixture at the position of the ignitor, as influenced by the design of the experimental apparatus. The authors are skeptical about the need or worth of attempting to define flammability limits using FP data, especially since unknown variables control the response. More important is to define the concentration of liquid phase retardant that will affect gas phase inerting. Thus, it is necessary to continue practical testing of retardant-containing liquids for their effectiveness in mitigating possible accidents, e.g., the next phase of this work will assess the effectiveness of halocarbons to inert high-pressure alcohol/agent leaks impinging on both electrical and flame ignition sources.

  5. Lipid diffusion in alcoholic environment.

    PubMed

    Rifici, Simona; Corsaro, Carmelo; Crupi, Cristina; Nibali, Valeria Conti; Branca, Caterina; D'Angelo, Giovanna; Wanderlingh, Ulderico

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the effects of a high concentration of butanol and octanol on the phase behavior and on the lateral mobility of 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) by means of differential scanning calorimetry and pulsed-gradient stimulated-echo (PGSTE) NMR spectroscopy. A lowering of the lipid transition from the gel to the liquid-crystalline state for the membrane-alcohol systems has been observed. NMR measurements reveal three distinct diffusions in the DPPC-alcohol systems, characterized by a high, intermediate, and slow diffusivity, ascribed to the water, the alcohol, and the lipid, respectively. The lipid diffusion process is promoted in the liquid phase while it is hindered in the interdigitated phase due to the presence of alcohols. Furthermore, in the interdigitated phase, lipid lateral diffusion coefficients show a slight temperature dependence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that lateral diffusion coefficients on alcohol with so a long chain, and at low temperatures, are reported. By the Arrhenius plots of the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients, we have evaluated the apparent activation energy in both the liquid and in the interdigitated phase. The presence of alcohol increases this value in both phases. An explanation in terms of a free volume model that takes into account also for energy factors is proposed.

  6. Concentrations of drugs determined in blood samples collected from suspected drugged drivers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Burch, Hilary J; Clarke, Elizabeth J; Hubbard, Alison M; Scott-Ham, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This communication reports the blood concentrations of alcohol and drugs from 376 cases of alleged driving under the influence of drugs analysed at the Forensic Science Service Chorley and London laboratories between February 2010 and March 2011. The samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, cocaine, MDMA, opiates, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, methadone and methylmethcathinone (the 4-isomer of which is known as mephedrone). The results were interpreted with respect to the number and type of drugs of abuse detected and the concentrations measured. Alcohol was quantified in 113 cases (30%), and of these a level in excess of the prescribed UK limit for driving of 80 mg% was present in 90 cases. In 80 cases, only the concentration of alcohol was measured, the concentrations of both drugs and alcohol were measured in 33 cases. In the remaining 263 cases, only the concentrations of relevant drugs of abuse were measured. The most common drug of abuse quantified was cocaine which was detected in 92 cases, either as the active drug or as its major metabolite benzoylecgonine, followed by diazepam which was quantified in 76 cases. Concentrations of some new drugs, and drugs rarely reported in driving under the influence cases are also presented.

  7. The physiological role of liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H A; Perkins, J R

    1970-07-01

    1. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was used to determine ethanol in the portal and hepatic veins and in the contents of the alimentary canal of rats given a diet free from ethanol. Measurable amounts of a substance behaving like ethanol were found. Its rate of interaction with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and its volatility indicate that the substance measured was in fact ethanol. 2. The mean alcohol concentration in the portal blood of normal rats was 0.045mm. In the hepatic vein, inferior vena cava and aorta it was about 15 times lower. 3. The contents of all sections of the alimentary canal contained measurable amounts of ethanol. The highest values (average 3.7mm) were found in the stomach. 4. Infusion of pyrazole (an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) raised the alcohol concentration in the portal vein 10-fold and almost removed the difference between portal and hepatic venous blood. 5. Addition of antibiotics to the food diminished the ethanol concentration of the portal blood to less than one-quarter and that of the stomach contents to less than one-fortieth. 6. The concentration of alcohol in the alimentary canal and in the portal blood of germ-free rats was much decreased, to less than one-tenth in the alimentary canal and to one-third in the portal blood, but detectable quantities remained. These are likely to arise from acetaldehyde formed by the normal pathways of degradation of threonine, deoxyribose phosphate and beta-alanine. 7. The results indicate that significant amounts of alcohol are normally formed in the gastro-intestinal tract. The alcohol is absorbed into the circulation and almost quantitatively removed by the liver. Thus the function, or a major function, of liver alcohol dehydrogenase is the detoxication of ethanol normally present. 8. The alcohol concentration in the stomach of alloxan-diabetic rats was increased about 8-fold. 9. The activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase is generally lower in carnivores than in herbivores and omnivores

  8. Alcohol and inflammatory responses: Highlights of the 2015 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Abigail R; Morris, Niya L; Hammer, Adam M; Curtis, Brenda; Remick, Daniel G; Yeligar, Samantha M; Poole, Lauren; Burnham, Ellen L; Wyatt, Todd A; Molina, Patricia E; So-Armah, Kaku; Cisneros, Trinidad; Wang, Guoshun; Lang, Charles H; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2016-08-01

    On September 27, 2015 the 20th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held as a satellite symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Leukocyte Biology in Raleigh, NC. The 2015 meeting focused broadly on adverse effects of alcohol and alcohol-use disorders in multiple organ systems. Divided into two plenary sessions, AIRIG opened with the topic of pulmonary inflammation as a result of alcohol consumption, which was followed by alcohol's effect on multiple organs, including the brain and liver. With presentations showing the diverse range of underlying pathology and mechanisms associated with multiple organs as a result of alcohol consumption, AIRIG emphasized the importance of continued alcohol research, as its detrimental consequences are not limited to one or even two organs, but rather extend to the entire host as a whole. PMID:27522326

  9. Polycondensation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation kinetics is considered.

  10. A survey of metal profiles in some traditional alcoholic beverages in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Ojelum, Anwuli L; Bassey, Francisca I

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg, Ca, K, and Na were determined in some traditional alcoholic beverages (oil palm wine, raphia palm wine, burukutu, pito, ogogoro) consumed in southern Nigeria, with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of essential metals and exposure of humans to toxic metals. The concentrations of these 13 elements were determined by atomic spectrometry after nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide digestion. The mean concentrations of the metals (mg/L) in the samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 for Cd; 0.01 to 0.19 for Pb; nd to 0.11 for Ni, nd to 0.15 for Cr; 0.09 to 0.60 for Cu; 0.01-0.08 for Co; 0.30 to 10.3 for Fe; 0.02 to 3.97 for Mn; 0.12 to 3.84 for Zn; 2.08 to 301.3 for Mg; 2.21 to 49.2 for Ca; 35.05 to 926.1 for K; 6.30-58.1 for Na. The mean concentrations of metals in these alcoholic beverages were below statutory limits for the metals in alcoholic beverages and were similar to concentrations found in other alcoholic beverages in the literature. The estimated daily intakes of metals from the consumption of these alcoholic beverages were less than 2% of the recommended dietary allowance values except for Cd and Pb. The individual and combined metals target hazard quotient values were less than 1 except for raphia palm wine and burukutu. From the estimated target hazard, no long life health concerns of metals are associated with the consumption of these alcoholic beverages.

  11. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  12. Alcohol consumption and negative sex-related consequences among college women: the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategies.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Mohn, Richard S; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS-controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction strategies-on the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior and sexual victimization. Participants were 459 undergraduate women (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Both types of PBS significantly qualified the alcohol-sexual victimization link, but neither type of PBS qualified the alcohol-risky sexual behavior link.

  13. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  14. Sex and alcohol: the effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Greene, L W; Hollander, C S

    1980-01-01

    Effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are complex. Those at the gonadal level are best defined in studies such as those presented in this issue. However, there is an accumulating body of data supporting central effects of alcohol. The precise locus or loci is not certain. Further investigations probably including in vitro methodologies are likely to enhance our knowledge in this area. Our understanding of the effects of alcohol in the human female is especially limited.

  15. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  16. IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ameliorates alterations in protein synthesis, eIF4E availability, and myostatin in alcohol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Frost, Robert A; Svanberg, Elisabeth; Vary, Thomas C

    2004-06-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption decreases the concentration of the anabolic hormone IGF-I, and this change is associated with impaired muscle protein synthesis. The present study evaluated the ability of IGF-I complexed with IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 to modulate the alcohol-induced inhibition of muscle protein synthesis in gastrocnemius. After 16 wk on an alcohol-containing diet, either the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 binary complex (BC) or saline was injected two times daily for three consecutive days. After the final injection of BC (3 h), plasma IGF-I concentrations were elevated in alcohol-fed rats to values not different from those of similarly treated control animals. Alcohol feeding decreased the basal rate of muscle protein synthesis by limiting translational efficiency. BC treatment of alcohol-fed rats increased protein synthesis back to basal control values, but the rate remained lower than that of BC-injected control rats. The BC partially reversed the alcohol-induced decrease in the binding of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E with eIF4G. This change was associated with reversal of the alcohol-induced dephosphorylation of eIF4G but was independent of changes in the phosphorylation of either 4E-BP1 or eIF4E. However, BC reversed the alcohol-induced increase in IGFBP-1 and muscle myostatin, known negative regulators of IGF-I action and muscle mass. Hence, exogenous IGF-I, administered as part of a BC to increase its circulating half-life, can in part reverse the decreased protein synthesis observed in muscle from chronic alcohol-fed rats by stimulating selected components of translation initiation. The data support the role of IGF-I as a mediator of chronic alcohol myopathy in rats.

  17. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  18. Alcohol Measurement Methodology in Epidemiology: Recent Advances and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss measurement issues in survey assessment of alcohol consumption for epidemiological studies. Methods The following areas are considered: implications of cognitive studies of question answering like self-referenced schemata of drinking, reference period and retrospective recall, as well as the assets and liabilities of types of current (e.g., food frequency, quantity frequency, graduated frequencies, and heavy drinking indicators) and lifetime drinking measures. Finally we consider units of measurement and improving measurement by detailing the ethanol content of drinks in natural settings. Results and conclusions Cognitive studies suggest inherent limitations in the measurement enterprise, yet diary studies show promise of broadly validating methods that assess a range of drinking amounts per occasion; improvements in survey measures of drinking in the life course are indicated; attending in detail to on and off-premise drink pour sizes and ethanol concentrations of various beverages shows promise of narrowing the coverage gap plaguing survey alcohol measurement. PMID:18422826

  19. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  20. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  1. Genotypic and sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-induced anxiolysis in High Drinking in the Dark selected mice.

    PubMed

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Crabbe, John C

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid in humans. In rodent lines selected for alcohol drinking, differences in anxiety-like behavior are also seen. The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) lines of mice are selectively bred for drinking to intoxication during limited access to alcohol, and these mice represent a genetic model of risk for binge-like drinking. The present studies investigated whether these selected lines differ from control (HS) mice in basal anxiety behavior or in anxiolytic response to alcohol. We also assessed the genetic correlation between alcohol drinking in the dark (DID) and basal anxiety-like behavior using existing inbred strain data. Mice of both sexes and HDID replicates (HDID-1 and HDID-2) were tested on an elevated zero maze immediately following a DID test. In general, HDID mice showed more time spent in the open arms after drinking alcohol than HS mice, and open-arm time was significantly correlated with blood alcohol concentration. HDID-1 male mice also showed less anxiety-like behavior at baseline (water-drinking controls). In a separate experiment, HDID-1 and HS mice were tested for anxiolytic dose-response to acute alcohol injections. Both genotypes showed increasing time spent in the open arms with increasing alcohol doses, and HDID-1 and female mice had greater open-arm time across all doses. HDID-1 control males showed lower anxiety-like behavior than the HS control males. Inbred strain data analysis also showed no significant genetic relationship between alcohol DID and anxiety. These findings suggest that HDID selection has not produced systematic changes in anxiety-like behavior or sensitivity to alcohol-induced anxiolysis, though there is a tendency in the male mice of the first replicate toward reduced basal anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, anxiety state and sensitivity to alcohol's anxiolytic effects do not appear to contribute significantly to the high drinking behavior of the HDID mice.

  2. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  3. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  4. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  5. Effects of a one year physical activity program on serum C Terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) concentrations among mobility limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: C terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) has been proposed as a potential circulating biomarker for predicting changes in physical function among older adults. To determine the effect of a one year PA intervention on changes in CAF concentrations and to evaluate baseline and longitudinal associat...

  6. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Obesity: An Update.

    PubMed

    Traversy, Gregory; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Recreational alcohol intake is a widespread activity globally and alcohol energy (7 kcal/g) can be a contributing factor to weight gain if not compensated for. Given that both excessive alcohol intake and obesity are of public health interest, the present paper provides an update on the association between alcohol consumption and body weight. In general, recent prospective studies show that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is not associated with adiposity gain while heavy drinking is more consistently related to weight gain. Experimental evidence is also mixed and suggests that moderate intake of alcohol does not lead to weight gain over short follow-up periods. However, many factors can explain the conflicting findings and a better characterization of individuals more likely to gain weight as a result of alcohol consumption is needed. In particular, individuals who frequently drink moderate amounts of alcohol may enjoy a healthier lifestyle in general that may protect them from weight gain. In conclusion, despite the important limitations of current studies, it is reasonable to say that alcohol intake may be a risk factor for obesity in some individuals, likely based on a multitude of factors, some of which are discussed herein.

  8. The Burden of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual’s genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community that determine how accessible and affordable alcohol is. Consequences of college drinking include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death. This article examines recent findings about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies. PMID:24881329

  9. [Clinical and biological specificities of female alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2002-01-01

    Even though the number of alcohol-dependent women is only about 1/3 of the number of alcoholic men, the alcoholism in women, by its clinical features and its course, is the source of therapeutic and economic stakes, particularly in young women among whom an increase of alcohol consumption related problems is reported. Another specificity of the female alcoholism is the lack of care seeking, whereas women have tendency globally to solicit more often care structures than men. Women represent only 1/4 of the overall treated alcoholic patients. The main explanation for this phenomenon is the pejorative social and moral connotation of the female alcoholism, with frequent feelings of shame and deep guilt, that also account for the frequency of hidden and lonely alcohol intakes. The female alcoholism is essentially characterized by an increased vulnerability to the toxic effects of the alcohol, whereas the pathological consumption starts later and with smaller daily amounts. Most studies have revealed a higher vulnerability in women to somatic complications directly attributable to the alcohol organs toxicity, such as hepatic cirrhosis and cardiovascular complications (high blood pressure, non obstructive cardiomyopathy). The reported brain morphological abnormalities could also occur more precociously in alcoholic women than in men. A decreased corpus callosum size among alcoholic women, but not in alcoholic men, was thus found in a recent study, compared with healthy controls. Among the different hypothesis proposed to explain this increased alcohol toxicity, the most incriminated is higher alcohol blood rates for the same ingested amount, mainly of the fact of a lower size with a weaker proportion of the bodily total water, but also of weaker concentrations of gastro-intestinal tract ADH, or of a longer metabolism during some menstrual phases. Indeed, some experimental studies on animal showed that the alcohol toxic effects may occur only from a threshold of alcohol

  10. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  11. Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

  12. Alcohol and Inflammatory Responses: Summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Niya L.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Chen, Michael M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Hines, Ian N.; Haddad, Gorges E.; Chang, Sulie L.; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2014-01-01

    Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois hosted the 18th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting on November 22, 2013. This year’s meeting emphasized alcohol’s effect on inflammatory responses in diverse disease states and injury conditions. The meeting consisted of three plenary sessions demonstrating the adverse effects of alcohol, specifically, liver inflammation, adverse systemic effects, and alcohol’s role in infection and immunology. Researchers also presented insight on modulation of microRNAs and stress proteins following alcohol consumption. Additionally, researchers revealed sex- and concentration-dependent differences in alcohol-mediated pathologies. PMID:25468277

  13. Limitations and design considerations for donor–acceptor systems in luminescent solar concentrators: the effect of coupling-induced red-edge absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Rowan W.; Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Webb, James E. A.; Falber, Alexander; Thordarson, Pall; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use luminescence and waveguiding to concentrate photons within thin dielectric slabs for use in photovoltaic, lighting, and photobioreactor applications. Donor–acceptor systems of organic chromophores are widely used in LSCs to broaden the sunlight absorption range and attempt to reduce loss-inducing reabsorption by the emitting chromophore. We use raytrace simulations across a large parameter space to model the performance of LSCs containing two novel donor–acceptor trimers based on the perylene moiety. We find that under certain conditions, trimers outperform single-dye LSCs as expected. However, at higher concentrations, a slight increase in red-edge absorption by the trimers increases reabsorption and has a deleterious effect on LSC performance. This underscores the large effect that even small changes in the red edge can have, and may discourage the use of donor–acceptor schemes with high interchromophore coupling that promotes red-edge absorption. Finally, we show that for a LSC-PV pair, selecting a PV cell that is well-matched with the LSC emission spectrum has a large effect on the flux gain of the system, and that the systems studied here are well-matched to emerging PV technologies.

  14. Limitations and design considerations for donor-acceptor systems in luminescent solar concentrators: the effect of coupling-induced red-edge absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Rowan W.; Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Webb, James E. A.; Falber, Alexander; Thordarson, Pall; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use luminescence and waveguiding to concentrate photons within thin dielectric slabs for use in photovoltaic, lighting, and photobioreactor applications. Donor-acceptor systems of organic chromophores are widely used in LSCs to broaden the sunlight absorption range and attempt to reduce loss-inducing reabsorption by the emitting chromophore. We use raytrace simulations across a large parameter space to model the performance of LSCs containing two novel donor-acceptor trimers based on the perylene moiety. We find that under certain conditions, trimers outperform single-dye LSCs as expected. However, at higher concentrations, a slight increase in red-edge absorption by the trimers increases reabsorption and has a deleterious effect on LSC performance. This underscores the large effect that even small changes in the red edge can have, and may discourage the use of donor-acceptor schemes with high interchromophore coupling that promotes red-edge absorption. Finally, we show that for a LSC-PV pair, selecting a PV cell that is well-matched with the LSC emission spectrum has a large effect on the flux gain of the system, and that the systems studied here are well-matched to emerging PV technologies.

  15. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of n-alcohols adsorbed on an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of normal alcohol (n-alcohol) on water and the effect of salt on the structural and dynamical properties of n-alcohol on aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The stability of the alcohol distribution was studied for three types of n-alcohol (n-propanol, C3H7OH; n-heptanol, C7H15OH; and n-undecanol, C11H23OH), four or five concentrations of alcohol, and three concentrations of salt. The simulation results reveal the following. The distribution of n-propanol on water is homogeneous at all n-alcohol concentrations studied here and the distribution of n-heptanol and n-undecanol on water is heterogeneous. The n-alcohol concentration at which fluctuations in the alcohol distribution begin to increase depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. Salt concentration affects the surface excess concentration of n-alcohol and the stability of the adsorbed layer of n-alcohol. The degree of each effect depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. For n-undecanol, the surface structure of n-alcohol is independent of salt concentration because interaction between the hydrocarbon chains is sufficiently strong. In absorption refrigeration technology, to enhance the absorption rate of water vapor into a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte solution, a small amount of alcohols is added to the aqueous electrolyte solution, which induces cellular convection referred to as Marangoni instability. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, only n-heptanol induces strong cellular convection. The simulations reveal two required conditions for Marangoni instability: generation of fluctuations in the alcohol distribution on water, and strong correlation between the structural and dynamical properties and salt concentration. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, based on the simulations, only n-heptanol satisfies both conditions.

  17. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  18. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…

  19. Virus production in phosphorus-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulated by a supply of naturally low concentrations of different phosphorus sources, far into the lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Maat, Douwe S; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; Witte, Harry J; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-09-01

    Earlier studies show that the proliferation of phytoplankton viruses can be inhibited by depletion of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; orthophosphate). In natural marine waters, phytoplankton phosphorus (P) availability is, however, largely determined by the supply rate of SRP (e.g. through remineralization) and potentially by the source of P as well (i.e. the utilization of soluble non-reactive P; SNP). Here we show how a steady low supply of P (mimicking natural P recycling) to virally infected P-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulates virus proliferation. Independent of the degree of P limitation prior to infection (0.32 and 0.97μmax chemostat cultures), SRP supply resulted in 2-fold higher viral burst sizes (viruses lysed per host cell) as compared with no addition (P starvation). Delaying these spikes during the infection cycle showed that the added SRP was utilized for extra M. pusilla virus (MpV) production far into the lytic cycle (18 h post-infection). Moreover, P-limited M. pusilla utilized several SNP compounds with high efficiency and with the same extent of burst size stimulation as for SRP. Finally, addition of virus-free MpV lysate (representing a complex SNP mixture) to newly infected cells enhanced MpV production, implicating host-associated alkaline phosphatase activity, and highlighting its important role in oligotrophic environments. PMID:27316561

  20. Virus production in phosphorus-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulated by a supply of naturally low concentrations of different phosphorus sources, far into the lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Maat, Douwe S; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; Witte, Harry J; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-09-01

    Earlier studies show that the proliferation of phytoplankton viruses can be inhibited by depletion of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; orthophosphate). In natural marine waters, phytoplankton phosphorus (P) availability is, however, largely determined by the supply rate of SRP (e.g. through remineralization) and potentially by the source of P as well (i.e. the utilization of soluble non-reactive P; SNP). Here we show how a steady low supply of P (mimicking natural P recycling) to virally infected P-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulates virus proliferation. Independent of the degree of P limitation prior to infection (0.32 and 0.97μmax chemostat cultures), SRP supply resulted in 2-fold higher viral burst sizes (viruses lysed per host cell) as compared with no addition (P starvation). Delaying these spikes during the infection cycle showed that the added SRP was utilized for extra M. pusilla virus (MpV) production far into the lytic cycle (18 h post-infection). Moreover, P-limited M. pusilla utilized several SNP compounds with high efficiency and with the same extent of burst size stimulation as for SRP. Finally, addition of virus-free MpV lysate (representing a complex SNP mixture) to newly infected cells enhanced MpV production, implicating host-associated alkaline phosphatase activity, and highlighting its important role in oligotrophic environments.

  1. 27 CFR 18.56 - Receipt of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt of concentrate. 18.56 Section 18.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.56...

  2. 27 CFR 18.53 - Use of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of concentrate. 18.53 Section 18.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.53 Use...

  3. 27 CFR 18.56 - Receipt of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of concentrate. 18.56 Section 18.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.56...

  4. 27 CFR 18.53 - Use of concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of concentrate. 18.53 Section 18.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.53 Use...

  5. La Esperanza del Valle: alcohol prevention novelas for Hispanic youth and their families.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, B; Rabinowitz, P; Shefsky, M L; Washienko, K

    1997-10-01

    With extensive Hispanic community involvement, a television, radio, and storybook novela were developed to improve Hispanic parent-youth communications and youth attitudes regarding alcohol. Focus groups with the target audiences determined the novelas' concentration on alcohol, their medium and language of choice for Hispanic youth versus parents, and the health messages and cultural values to be portrayed. Reactions to the novelas were obtained via self-report surveys, random street interviews, radio listener call-ins, and community group meetings. Favorable reactions were obtained regarding the novelas' cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, and their potential to affect future behavior change. The affect of the television novela on Hispanic youth was evaluated by a pre-post self-report survey administered to middle and high school students. Survey results indicated the television novela may have had some positive impact on Hispanic youth attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding alcohol. The evaluation time line was limiting, however, and further evaluation is required.

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  7. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  8. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  9. Genetics of alcoholism: simultaneous presentation of a chocolate drink diminishes alcohol preference in high drinking HAD rats.

    PubMed

    Lankford, M F; Myers, R D

    1994-10-01

    Through selective crossbreeding of the N/Nih heterogeneous stock of rats, two genetic lines of rats have been developed that are categorized by their preference for ethyl alcohol as high alcohol drinking (HAD) and low alcohol drinking (LAD) animals. Corresponding to other strains of rat bred for alcohol selection or rejection, they were subdivided on the basis of their intake of a solution of 10% alcohol vs. water. The present experiments were designed to determine whether the HAD-1 and LAD-1 lines are similar to the P and NP rats in their profile of alcohol consumption. Five successive three-bottle preference tests for alcohol drinking in the presence of water were undertaken in both HAD (n = 9) and LAD (n = 10) rats as follows: 10% alcohol for 5 days; 3-30% concentrations of alcohol increased over 11 days; the maximally preferred concentration of alcohol for 5 days; this maximally preferred concentration of alcohol plus either chocolate Slender for 5 days, or an aspartame solution for 5 days. The intake of alcohol of the LAD rats during the 10% test was 0.4 g/kg/day, whereas during the 3-30% test, the maximum intake was 1.7 g/kg/day; their maximally preferred concentrations ranged between 7% and 9% alcohol. In contrast, the intake of 10% alcohol of the HAD rats was 6.5 g/kg/day, whereas during the 3-30% test the mean daily intake was 6.6 g/kg/day; the maximally preferred solutions of the HAD rats ranged between 13 to 20%, with the mean maximum intake of 10.57 g/kg/day reached at the 20% concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Evaluation of the protein concentration in enzymes via determination of sulfur by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry — limitations of the method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, M.; Rittmeyer, C.; Kolbesen, B. O.

    2001-11-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) offers many advantages for the identification of trace elements in biological samples like proteins, enzymes, tissues or plants. Because of difficult and time consuming isolations and cleaning procedures enzyme samples are often available in small amounts only. Using TXRF without any preliminary treatment, a 'screening' of such samples to determine the element composition is of interest and importance. Transition metals like Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and the alkaline earth metal Ca may be determined with high accuracy. A further aspect of the investigation of enzymes is the simple and simultaneous determination of light elements. Sulfur, especially, is of interest. This element is a component of two amino acids, methionine and cysteine, and of iron-sulfur clusters and may be used for easy and simultaneous calculation of the protein concentration. Hence quantitative determination of sulfur by TXRF allows a cross-check regarding of conventional quantitative determination of protein concentration by, e.g. the Lowry method. On the basis of two selected enzymes of different origins and molecular weights this paper will demonstrate the influence of bio-organic matrix and different buffer media on sulfur determination by TXRF. The influence of layer thicknesses of the dry residues and absorption or scattering effects will be discussed. The results indicate that in enzymes with low molecular weights and minor amounts of buffer components a reliable determination of sulfur is possible. By contrast, for enzymes stored in higher buffer concentrations poorer results are given on account of the matrix effects described.

  11. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  12. Treatment and prevention of alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Penning, Renske

    2010-06-01

    The search for alcohol hangover cures is as old as alcohol itself. Many cures and prophylactic agents are available, but scientific evidence for their effectiveness is generally lacking. This review summarizes and discusses the limited number of studies that examined the effectiveness of alcohol hangover treatments. From these studies it must be concluded that most remedies do not significantly reduce overall hangover severity. Some compounds reduce specific symptoms such as vomiting and headache, but are not effective in reducing other common hangover symptoms such as drowsiness and fatigue. Hangover cures that showed positive effects were those inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis or accelerating alcohol metabolism. Future studies should elucidate the pathology of alcohol hangover. Until then, it is unlikely that an effective hangover cure will be developed.

  13. Managing alcohol problems and risky drinking.

    PubMed

    Babor, T F; Aguirre-Molina, M; Marlatt, G A; Clayton, R

    1999-01-01

    While overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related automobile deaths have declined, rates of alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, and alcohol-related problems remain high among adults, and binge drinking continues as a major health risk for high school and college students. Some individual-level downstream interventions have been evaluated with sufficient rigor to recommend widespread dissemination, and widened availability of new pharmacotherapies could further increase effectiveness. Midstream population-based programs, such as screening and brief interventions in hospitals and managed care organizations, may have greater public health impact than tertiary treatment because of early identification and low cost. Upstream programs and policies that place limits on alcohol availability (e.g., higher legal purchasing age) have the greatest potential to reduce morbidity and mortality at the least cost to society. PMID:10724728

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Motion of Colloidal Nanoparticles in a Solute Concentration Gradient and a Comparison to the Continuum Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Koplik, Joel; Maldarelli, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Chemical-mechanical transduction mechanisms which can actuate the movement of colloids through liquids are highly sought after as engines to propel miniaturized micro- and nanobots. One mechanism involves harnessing the long-range van der Waals attractive forces between the colloid and solute molecules dissolved in the liquid around the particle. If a concentration gradient of this solute is applied across the particle, then the imbalance in the van der Waals attraction drives the particle towards the higher concentration of solute. We present a molecular dynamics simulation using Lennard-Jones interactions between molecules of the solvent, solute, and colloid cluster which include short-range repulsive and long-range attractive potentials. The simulations demonstrate that a solute gradient can propel nanosized colloids, and that the velocity decreases with the colloid size. The solute-colloid short-range repulsive interactions are observed to be restricted to a region of specifically adsorbed solutes on the particle surface which are symmetrically adsorbed and do not contribute to the motion. The size of this region provides a cutoff for a continuum level description of the motion, and with this cutoff, continuum calculations are in excellent agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results, completing a description of the propulsion from the nano- to the microscale.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of the motion of colloidal nanoparticles in a solute concentration gradient and a comparison to the continuum limit.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Koplik, Joel; Maldarelli, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Chemical-mechanical transduction mechanisms which can actuate the movement of colloids through liquids are highly sought after as engines to propel miniaturized micro- and nanobots. One mechanism involves harnessing the long-range van der Waals attractive forces between the colloid and solute molecules dissolved in the liquid around the particle. If a concentration gradient of this solute is applied across the particle, then the imbalance in the van der Waals attraction drives the particle towards the higher concentration of solute. We present a molecular dynamics simulation using Lennard-Jones interactions between molecules of the solvent, solute, and colloid cluster which include short-range repulsive and long-range attractive potentials. The simulations demonstrate that a solute gradient can propel nanosized colloids, and that the velocity decreases with the colloid size. The solute-colloid short-range repulsive interactions are observed to be restricted to a region of specifically adsorbed solutes on the particle surface which are symmetrically adsorbed and do not contribute to the motion. The size of this region provides a cutoff for a continuum level description of the motion, and with this cutoff, continuum calculations are in excellent agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results, completing a description of the propulsion from the nano- to the microscale.

  16. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  17. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified.

  18. 27 CFR 18.52 - Production of high-proof concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production of high-proof concentrate. 18.52 Section 18.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.52 Production of...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673