Sample records for alcohol concentrations bacs

  1. Effects of Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Feedback on BAC Estimates Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullers, Susan; Ennis, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of self-tested blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback, from personal hand-held breathalyzers, on the accuracy of BAC estimation. Using an e-mail prompted web-based questionnaire, 19 participants were asked to report both BAC estimates and subsequently measured BAC levels over the course of 27 days. Results from…

  2. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. International policies on alcohol impaired driving: are legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits in motorized countries compatible with the scientific evidence?

    PubMed

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Brussoni, Mariana; Shimizu, Shinji; Belayneh, Taye N

    2003-04-01

    Borkenstein et al. (1974) study indicated that drivers with BACs of 0.05 to 0.09 per cent were twice as likely to crash as drivers with a zero BAC. Drivers with BACs from 0.10 to 0.14 per cent were ten times as likely to have a fatal crash in 1964. There have been numerous efforts during the history of motorized countries to control the consumption of alcohol and the problems associated with it through legislative mandate, it was not until the 1970s that acceptance of legal BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) limits laws became widespread. In particular, as more and more people drive automobiles, the number of traffic accidents involving drunken drivers has soared, and many of these are known to be related to the consumption of alcohol. Thus, legislators find themselves under increasing pressure to find a reasonable and fair solution to the question of alcohol impaired driving, as the scientific evidence about alcohol consumption level and psycho motor functions impairment came to clear. A landmark event in the development of policies regarding impaired driving was the establishment of the fact that consumption of alcohol does, in fact, increase the probability of traffic crashes. Legal limit laws specify a maximum permissible BAC limit for drivers. Currently, a BAC laws range from zero tolerance and 0.02 to 0.10% constitutes prima facie evidence in most countries for 'Driving under Influence of Alcohol.' This latter standard is too permissive, as driving skills deteriorate and crash involvement risk increases beginning at 0.02%. There are consequences attached to setting a BAC limit so high that a 72 kg man can drink five bottles of beer and still be under legal limit. In this sense high legal BAC limit may influence people to make bad estimates of their relative risk of injury or death while driving. Provided there is adequate political will, millions of lives could be saved in the coming years. This review is an attempt to examine in detail the available

  4. The relationship between serious injury and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in fatal motor vehicle accidents: BAC = 0.01% is associated with significantly more dangerous accidents than BAC = 0.00%.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David P; Brewer, Kimberly M

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the severity of automotive injuries associated with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in increments of 0.01%. Epidemiological study using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. All people in US fatal automotive accidents, 1994-2008 (n = 1 495 667). The ratio of serious: non-serious injuries for drivers, by BAC. Accident severity increases significantly even when the driver is merely 'buzzed', a finding that persists after standardization for various confounding factors. Three mechanisms mediate between buzzed driving and high accident severity: compared to sober drivers, buzzed drivers are significantly more likely to speed, to be improperly seatbelted and to drive the striking vehicle. In addition, there is a strong 'dose-response' relationship for all three factors in relation to accident severity (e.g. the greater the BAC, the greater the average speed of the driver and the greater the severity of the accident). The severity of life-threatening motor vehicle accidents increases significantly at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) far lower than the current US limit of 0.08%. Lowering the legal limit could save lives, prevent serious injuries and reduce financial and social costs associated with motor vehicle accidents. © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  5. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  6. Driving Performance on the Descending Limb of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J.

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third asessement. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sentitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated. PMID:25723618

  7. Driving performance on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in undergraduate students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mathieu; Gallant, François; Lavallière, Martin; Chiasson, Martine; Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J; Johnson, Michel J

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third assessment. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sensitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated.

  8. Methods for estimating expected blood alcohol concentration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-08-01

    Estimates of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) typically are based on the amount of alcohol consumed per pound bodyweight. This method fails to consider either food intake or body composition, factors which significantly affect BAC. A laboratory expe...

  9. Methods for estimating expected blood alcohol concentration.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-12-01

    Estimates of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) typically are based on the amount of alcohol consumed per pound body weight. This method fails to consider food intake and body composition, which significantly affect BAC. A laboratory experiment was co...

  10. Self-Estimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Liguori, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) estimation training, which trains drinkers to discriminate distinct BAC levels and thus avoid excessive alcohol consumption. BAC estimation training typically combines education concerning alcohol metabolism with attention to subjective internal cues associated with specific concentrations. Estimation training was originally conceived as a component of controlled drinking programs. However, dependent drinkers were unsuccessful in BAC estimation, likely due to extreme tolerance. In contrast, moderate drinkers successfully acquired this ability. A subsequent line of research translated laboratory estimation studies to naturalistic settings by studying large samples of drinkers in their preferred drinking environments. Thus far, naturalistic studies have provided mixed results regarding the most effective form of BAC feedback. BAC estimation training is important because it imparts an ability to perceive individualized impairment that may be present below the legal limit for driving. Consequently, the training can be a useful component for moderate drinkers in drunk driving prevention programs. PMID:23380489

  11. Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in humans.

    PubMed

    Baek, In-hwan; Lee, Byung-yo; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2010-05-01

    Ethanol oxidation by the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system requires oxygen for alcohol metabolism, and a higher oxygen uptake increases the rate of ethanol oxidation. We investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in healthy humans (n = 49). The concentrations of dissolved oxygen were 8, 20, and 25 ppm in alcoholic drinks of 240 and 360 ml (19.5% v/v). Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by converting breath alcohol concentrations. Breath samples were collected every 30 min when the BAC was higher than 0.015%, 20 min at BAC < or =0.015%, 10 min at BAC < or =0.010%, and 5 min at BAC < or =0.006%. The high dissolved oxygen groups (20, 25 ppm) descended to 0.000% and 0.050% BAC faster than the normal dissolved oxygen groups (8 ppm; p < 0.05). In analyzing pharmacokinetic parameters, AUC(inf) and K(el) of the high oxygen groups were lower than in the normal oxygen group, while C(max) and T(max) were not significantly affected. In a Monte Carlo simulation, the lognormal distribution of mean values of AUC(inf) and t(1/2) was expected to be reduced in the high oxygen group compared to the normal oxygen group. In conclusion, elevated dissolved oxygen concentrations in alcoholic drinks accelerate the metabolism and elimination of alcohol. Thus, enhanced dissolved oxygen concentrations in alcohol may have a role to play in reducing alcohol-related side effects and accidents.

  12. The Consequences of Providing Drinkers with Blood Alcohol Concentration Information on Assessments of Alcohol Impairment and Drunk-Driving Risk*

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, MARK B.; VOAS, ROBERT B.; KELLEY-BAKER, TARA; FURR-HOLDEN, C. DEBRA M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of providing drinkers with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) information on subjective assessments of alcohol impairment and drunk-driving risk. Method We sampled 959 drinking participants from a natural drinking environment and asked them to self-administer a personal saliva-based alcohol test. Participants then were asked to rate their alcohol impairment and to indicate whether they could drive legally under one of four BAC feedback conditions (assigned at random): (1) control condition (no BAC feedback provided before the ratings); (2) categorical BAC information (low, high, and highest risk) from the saliva test; (3) categorical BAC information corroborated by a calibrated police breath alcohol analyzer; and (4) precise (three-digit) BAC information from the breath alcohol analyzer. Results Both control participants and participants who received precise BAC feedback gave subjective impairment ratings that correlated with actual BACs. For participants who received categorical BAC information from the saliva test, subjective impairment did not correlate with the actual BAC. Providing drinkers with BAC information, however, did help them predict more accurately if their BAC was higher than the legal BAC driving limit. Conclusions Although BAC information can influence drinkers’ assessments of alcohol impairment and drunk-driving risk, there is no strong evidence that personal saliva-based alcohol tests are particularly useful. PMID:18612570

  13. The association of alcohol-induced blackouts and grayouts to blood alcohol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Paul J; Argo, Tami R; Barnett, Mitchell J; Liesveld, Jill L; Liskow, Barry; Hernan, Jillian M; Trnka, Michael G; Brabson, Mary A

    2006-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between measured blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the presence and degree of amnesia (no amnesia, grayout, or blackout) in actively drinking subjects. A secondary aim was to determine potential factors other than BAC that contribute to the alcohol-induced memory loss. An interview questionnaire was administered to subjects regarding a recent alcohol associated arrest with a documented BAC greater than 0.08 g/dL for either public intoxication, driving under the influence, or under age drinking was administered. Demographic variables collected included drinking history, family history of alcoholism, presence of previous alcohol-related memory loss during a drinking episode, and drinking behavior during the episode. Memory of the drinking episode was evaluated to determine if either an alcohol-induced grayout (partial anterograde amnesia) or blackout (complete anterograde amnesia) occurred. Differences in (1) mean total number of drinks ingested before arrest, (2) gulping of drinks, and (3) BAC at arrest were found for those having blackouts compared with no amnesia; while differences in drinking more than planned were found between the no amnesia and grayout groups. A strong linear relationship between BAC and predicted probability of memory loss, particularly for blackouts was obvious. This finding clinically concludes that subjects with BAC of 310 g/dL or greater have a 0.50 or greater probability of having an alcoholic blackout.

  14. Drivers who self-estimate lower blood alcohol concentrations are riskier drivers after drinking.

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol increases the tendency for risky driving in some individuals but not others. Little is known about the factors underlying this individual difference. Studies find that those who underestimate their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) following a dose of alcohol tend to be more impulsive and report greater willingness to drive after drinking than those who estimate their BACs to be greater than their actual BAC. BAC underestimation could contribute to risky driving behavior following alcohol as such drivers might perceive little impairment in their driving ability and thus no need for caution. This study was designed to test the relationship between drivers' BAC estimations following a dose of alcohol or a placebo and the degree of risky driving they displayed during a simulated driving test. Forty adult drivers performed a simulated driving test and estimated their blood alcohol concentration after receiving a dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg for men and 0.56 g/kg for women) or a placebo. Alcohol increased risk-taking and impaired driving skill. Those who estimated their BAC to be lower were the riskiest drivers following both alcohol and placebo. The tendency to estimate lower BACs could support a series of high-risk decisions, regardless of one's actual BAC. This could include the decision to drive after drinking.

  15. Drivers who self-estimate lower blood alcohol concentrations are riskier drivers after drinking

    PubMed Central

    Laude, Jennifer R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol increases the tendency for risky driving in some individuals, but not others. Little is known about the factors underlying this individual difference. Studies find that those who underestimate their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) following a dose of alcohol tend to be more impulsive and report greater willingness to drive after drinking than those who estimate their BACs to be greater than their actual BAC. BAC underestimation could contribute to risky driving behavior following alcohol as such drivers might perceive little impairment in their driving ability and thus no need for caution. Objectives This study was designed to test the relationship between drivers’ BAC estimations following a dose of alcohol or a placebo and the degree of risky driving they displayed during a simulated driving test. Methods Forty adult drivers performed a simulated driving test and estimated their blood alcohol concentration after receiving a dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg for men; 0.56 g/kg for women) or a placebo. . Results Alcohol increased risk taking and impaired driving skill. Those who estimated their BAC to be lower were the riskiest drivers following both alcohol and placebo. Conclusions The tendency to estimate lower BACs could support a series of high-risk decisions, regardless of one’s actual BAC. This could include the decision to drive after drinking. PMID:26861796

  16. The effects of moderate alcohol concentrations on driving and cognitive performance during ascending and descending blood alcohol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Nicola J; Charlton, Samuel G

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol has an adverse effect on driving performance; however, the effects of moderate doses on different aspects of the driving task are inconsistent and differ across the intoxication curve. This research aimed to investigate driving and cognitive performance asymmetries (acute tolerance and acute protracted error) accompanying the onset and recovery from moderate alcohol consumption. Sixty-one participants received a placebo, medium (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC] 0.05 mg/ml) or high (target BAC 0.08 mg/ml) dose of alcohol. Participants completed a simulated drive, cognitive tests and subjective rating scales five times over a 3.5 h period. When ascending and descending BACs (0.05 and 0.09 mg/ml) were compared participants' self-ratings of intoxication and willingness to drive showed acute tolerance. Acute protracted errors were observed for response speed, maze learning errors, time exceeding the speed limit and exaggerated steering responses to hazards. Participants' estimates of their level of intoxication were poorly related to their actual BAC levels (and hence degree of impairment), and various aspects of driving and cognitive performance worsened during descending BACs. This indicates that drivers are not good at judging their fitness to drive after drinking only moderate amounts of alcohol and suggests an important focus for public education regarding alcohol and driving. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Blood alcohol concentration measurement using a salivary reagent stick: a reliable tool for emergency departments?

    PubMed

    Phair, I C; Mardel, S; Bodiwala, G G

    1990-06-01

    Measurements of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were made on patients who presented to an accident and emergency department with acute alcohol intoxication. A correlation of r = 0.418 was noted to exist between BAC as measured by sampling saliva and blood. Blood alcohol concentrations as measured by salivary reagent strip (ALCO-SCREEN, Chem Elec.) were significantly lower (p less than 0.0001) than those determined by gas chromatography of serum. Although such reagent strips offer a rapid measurement of BAC, it is concluded that they are unreliable for the quantitative measurement of BAC in accident and emergency departments.

  18. Perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving and the blood alcohol concentration standard in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole; Lepkowski, James M; Bergen, Gwen

    2017-12-01

    Although the number of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) fatalities has declined over the past several years, AID continues to be a serious public health problem. The purpose of this effort was to gain a better understanding of the U.S. driving population's perceptions and thoughts about the impacts of lowering the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) driving standard below.08% on AID, health, and other outcomes. A questionnaire was administered to a nationally representative sample of licensed drivers in the U.S. (n=1011) who were of age 21 or older on driving habits, alcohol consumption habits, drinking and driving habits, attitudes about drinking and driving, experiences with and opinions of drinking and driving laws, opinions about strategies to reduce drinking and driving, general concerns about traffic safety issues, and demographics. One-third of participants supported lowering the legal BAC standard, and participants rated a BAC standard of .05% to be moderately acceptable on average. 63.9% indicated that lowering 30 the BAC to .05% would have no effect on their decisions to drink and drive. Nearly 60% of respondents lacked accurate knowledge of their state's BAC standard. Public support for lowering the BAC standard was moderate and was partially tied to beliefs about the impacts of a change in the BAC standard. The results suggest that an opportunity for better educating the driving population about existing AID policy and the implications for lowering the BAC level on traffic injury prevention. The study results are useful for state traffic safety professionals and policy makers to have a better understanding of the public's perceptions of and thoughts about BAC standards. There is a clear need for more research into the effects of lowering the BAC standard on crashes, arrests, AID behavior, and alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  20. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  1. Indiana Residents' Perceptions of Driving and Lower Blood Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammed R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Congress passed .08 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the national standard for impaired driving in October 2000, 28 U.S. States including Indiana have enacted .08 BAC law. This study investigated perceived impact of the .08 law among Indiana residents and their attitudinal and perceptional changes since the enforcement of the law. The…

  2. Evaluation of the effects of North Carolina's 0.8% BAC laws

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-11-12

    This report describes a study of the effects of the North Carolina 0.08% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit on alcohol-related crashes. On October 1, 1993 the per se illegal BAC limit for drivers was reduced from 0.10% to 0.08%. To determine wha...

  3. Ethylglucuronide in hair is a top predictor of impaired driving recidivism, alcohol dependence, and a key marker of the highest BAC interlock tests.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Yegles, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the predictive and comparative significance of ethyl glucuronide measured in head hair (hEtG) for estimating risks associated with alcohol-impaired driving offenders. Earlier work compared different alcohol biomarkers for estimating rates of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) tests logged during 8 months of interlock participation. These analyses evaluate the comparative performance of several alcohol markers including hEtG and other markers, past driver records, and psychometric assessment predictors for the detection of 4 criteria: new driving under the influence (DUI) recidivism, alcohol dependence, and interlock record variables including fail rates and maximal interlock BACs logged. Drivers charged with alcohol impairment (DUI) in Alberta, Canada (n = 534; 64% first offenders, 36% multiple offenders) installed ignition interlock devices and consented to participate in research to evaluate blood-, hair-, and urine-derived alcohol biomarkers; sit for interviews; take psychometric assessments; and permit analyses of driving records and interlock log files. Subject variables included demographics, alcohol dependence at program entry, preprogram prior DUI convictions, postenrollment new DUI convictions, self-reported drinking assessments, morning and overall rates of failed interlock BAC tests, and maximal interlock BAC readings. Recidivism, dependence, high BAC, and combined fail rates were set as criteria; other variables were set as predictors. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (A') estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Additional analyses were conducted on baseline hEtG levels. Driver performance and drinking indicators were evaluated against the standard hEtG cutoff for excessive drinking at (30 pg/mg) and a higher criterion of 50 pg/mg. HEtG splits were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney rank statistic. HEtG emerged as a top overall predictor for discriminating new recidivism events that

  4. Driver characteristics and impairment at various BACs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine (a) the magnitude of alcohol impairment of driving skills as blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) varied from zero to 0.10% and (b) whether age, gender, and drinking practice characteristics of the subje...

  5. The accuracy of evidential breath testers at low BACs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-05-01

    This Technical Note reports on the low blood alcohol concentration (BAC) laboratory testing of seven evidential breath testers widely used by law enforcement. The findings indicated that these devices are just as accurate at low BACs in the 0.020-0.0...

  6. Perceived driving safety and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) the morning after drinking amongst young Australians attending a music festival: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Mario; Buckland, Johanna; Melwani, Prashina; Tent, Vanessa; Preston, Philip; Pit, Sabrina Winona

    2018-06-20

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes remain a significant and costly public health issue globally. Particularly young people are over-represented in these incidents. This study set out to explore the factors that influence individuals' perceptions of their safety to drive, and the factors related to a change in intention to drive. Four hundred nine young people aged 18-40 attending an Australian multi-day music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, alcohol use, amount of sleep obtained the previous night, intention to drive, number of passengers, perceived safety to drive, estimated BAC (measured in g/210 L) and change in intention to drive following a BAC measurement via breathalysers. Statistical analyses involved univariate tests of association and multivariate logistic regression. Only one in five participants felt they were completely safe to drive. Males self-rated as less safe to drive than females. Multivariate analyses showed that licence class, sleep hours, units of alcohol consumed in the past 24 h and estimated BAC had statistically significant associations with driving safety perception. Participants who slept for greater than seven hours the previous night were three times more likely to feel safe to drive than those who had less than five hours of sleep (OR 3.05 (95% CI 1.25, 7.45)). Forty-one percent of participants changed their intended time of driving after having their BAC measured with a breathalyser. There was a statistically significant association between changing the intention to drive to a later time with an increase in each extra passenger in a participant's vehicle (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.02, 2.30)). Whilst concerning behaviours relating to high-risk alcohol consumption were found, the study uncovered promising findings about young peoples' perceptions of their safety to drive, and their propensity to change their driving intention. The strong correlation between hours of sleep, estimated BAC, units of alcohol consumed and

  7. Blood alcohol concentration in drivers of Liege area (Belgium): a 5-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Deville, M; Charlier, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to describe 'the results of the blood alcohol determinations made on drivers from the Liege area between 2007 and 2012. The results were interpreted according to the sex, to the age, to the circumstances and temporal variation of the test. Statistical analysis was performed using R® software. 2725 determinations were done, mainly after crashes. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 1.69 g/L, and 2132 drivers were above the legal threshold. A majority of offenders were men, but the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men and women. A correlation between age and mean BAC can be observed on the positive cases. Lowest and highest mean BACs are observed during the daytime and during the night, respectively, but no significant difference can be observed between the week and the weekend. Finally, no significant difference in BAC was observed over years.

  8. Effects of introducing an administrative .05% blood alcohol concentration limit on law enforcement patterns and alcohol-related collisions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Blais, Étienne; Bellavance, François; Marcil, Alexandra; Carnis, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Except for Quebec, all Canadian provinces have introduced administrative laws to lower the permitted blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to .05% or .04% for driving-or having the care of-a motor vehicle. Using linear mixed effects models for longitudinal data, this study evaluates the effect of administrative BAC laws on fatal alcohol related crashes and law enforcement patterns in Canada from 1987 to 2010. Results reveal a significant decrease of 3.7% (95% C.I.: 0.9-6.5%) in fatally injured drivers with a BAC level equal or greater than .05% following the introduction of these laws. Reductions were also observed for fatally injured drivers with BAC levels greater that .08% and .15%. The introduction of administrative BAC laws led neither to significant changes in the rate of driving while impaired (DWI) incidents reported by police officers nor in the probability of being charged for DWI under the Criminal Code. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory analysis of risky driving at 0.05% and 0.08% blood alcohol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Background The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic crashes are a continuing problem for society. One harm reduction strategy has been to employ per se limits for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at which drivers can legally operate motor vehicles. This limit is currently 0.08% in all 50 US states. Recently, the National Transportation Safety Board proposed lowering the legal limit to 0.05 % (NTSB, 2013). While research has well-validated the ability of alcohol to impair driving performance and heighten crash-risk at these BACs, relatively little is known about the degree to which alcohol might increase drivers’ risk-taking. Methods Risk-taking was examined in 20 healthy adults who were each tested in a driving simulator following placebo and two doses of alcohol calculated to yield peak BACs of 0.08% and 0.05%, the respective current and proposed BAC limits. The drive test emphasized risk-taking by placing participants in a multiple-lane, high-traffic environment. The primary measure was how close drivers maneuvered relative to other vehicles on the road (i.e., time-to-collision, TTC). Results Alcohol increased risk-taking by decreasing drivers’ TTC at the 0.08% target BAC relative to placebo. Moreover, risk-taking at the 0.05% target was less than risk-taking at 0.08% target BAC. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that reducing the legal BAC limit in the USA to 0.05% would decrease risk-taking among drivers. A clearer understanding of the dose-response relationship between various aspects of driving behaviors, such as drivers’ accepted level of risk while driving, is an important step to improving traffic safety. PMID:28412303

  10. Study I: effects of 0.06% and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration on human postural control.

    PubMed

    Modig, F; Patel, M; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol intoxication causes many accidental falls presented at emergency departments, with the injury severity often related to level of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). One way to evaluate the decline in postural control and the fall risk is to assess standing stability when challenged. The study objective was to comprehensively investigate alcohol-related impairments on postural control and adaptive motor learning at specific BAC levels. Effects of alcohol intoxication at 0.06% and 0.10% BAC were examined with posturography when unperturbed or perturbed by calf vibration. Twenty-five participants (mean age 25.1 years) were investigated standing with either eyes open or closed. Our results revealed several significant findings: (1) stability declined much faster from alcohol intoxication between 0.06% and 0.10% BAC (60-140%) compared with between 0.0% and 0.06% BAC (30%); (2) sustained exposure to repeated balance perturbations augmented the alcohol-related destabilization; (3) there were stronger effects of alcohol intoxication on stability in lateral direction than in anteroposterior direction; and (4) there was a gradual degradation of postural control particularly in lateral direction when the balance perturbations were repeated at 0.06% and 0.10% BAC, indicating adaptation deficits when intoxicated. To summarize, alcohol has profound deteriorating effects on human postural control, which are dose dependent, time dependent and direction specific. The maximal effects of alcohol intoxication on physiological performance might not be evident initially, but may be revealed first when under sustained sensory-motor challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability of blood alcohol content (BAC) determinations: the role of measurement uncertainty, significant figures, and decision rules for compliance assessment in the frame of a multiple BAC threshold law.

    PubMed

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela; Zancanaro, Flavio; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of blood-alcohol content (BAC) is a crucial analytical determination required to assess if an offence (e.g. driving under the influence of alcohol) has been committed. For various reasons, results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. As a consequence, measurement uncertainty becomes a critical topic when assessing compliance with specification limits for forensic purposes. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate major sources of variability for BAC determinations; (2) to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine BAC determinations; (3) to discuss the role of measurement uncertainty in compliance assessment; (4) to set decision rules for a multiple BAC threshold law, as provided in the Italian Highway Code; (5) to address the topic of the zero-alcohol limit from the forensic toxicology point of view; and (6) to discuss the role of significant figures and rounding errors on measurement uncertainty and compliance assessment. Measurement variability was investigated by the analysis of data collected from real cases and internal quality control. The contribution of both pre-analytical and analytical processes to measurement variability was considered. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty was 8.0%. Decision rules for the multiple BAC threshold Italian law were set by adopting a guard-banding approach. 0.1 g/L was chosen as cut-off level to assess compliance with the zero-alcohol limit. The role of significant figures and rounding errors in compliance assessment was discussed by providing examples which stressed the importance of these topics for forensic purposes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Impact of lowering the legal blood alcohol concentration limit to 0.03 on male, female and teenage drivers involved alcohol-related crashes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Desapriya, E; Shimizu, S; Pike, I; Subzwari, S; Scime, G

    2007-09-01

    In June of 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences in Japan. Most notably, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving was lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. The rationale for the new lower BAC limit was predicated on the assumption that drinking drivers will comply with the new, lower limit by reducing the amount of alcohol they consume prior to driving, thereby lowering their risk of crash involvement. This, in turn, would lead to fewer alcohol-related crashes. A key limitation of previous lower BAC evaluation research in determining the effectiveness of lower legal BAC limit policies is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the laws. The present analysis is unique in this perspective and focuses on the evaluation of the impact of BAC limit reduction on different segments of the population. The chief objective of this research is to quantify the extent to which lowering the legal limit of BAC has reduced male, female and teenager involvement in motor vehicle crashes in Japan since 2002. Most notably, the introduction of reduced BAC limit legislation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the number of alcohol-impaired drivers on the road in Japan, indicating responsiveness to the legal change among adults and teenagers. In addition, this preliminary assessment appears to indicate that the implementation of 0.03 BAC laws and other associated activities are associated with statistically significant reductions in alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes. In comparison, the rates of total crashes showed no statistically significant decline nor increase in the period following the introduction of the BAC law, indicating that the lower BAC limit only had an effect on alcohol-related crashes in Japan. The evidence suggests that the lower BAC legal limit and perceived risk of detection are the two most important factors resulting in a

  13. Student drinking patterns and blood alcohol concentration on commercially organised pub crawls in the UK.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Commercial student pub crawls are associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, and are of growing concern amongst public health and student bodies. However, little is currently known about drinking behaviours whilst participating in these events. A questionnaire was implemented amongst 227 students attending commercial pub crawls across three UK events. Questions established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview and throughout the remaining night out, and pub crawl experience. Breathalyser tests were used to measure breath alcohol concentration (converted to blood alcohol concentration [BAC]) at interview. Analyses used chi squared, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression. 94.3% of participants had consumed alcohol, 90.9% of whom reported preloading. Drinkers reported consuming a median of 10.0 alcohol units (80g of pure alcohol) up to the point of interview (range one-40.6), with estimated total consumption over the evening exceeding 16units (range three-70.6). Median BAC of drinkers at the time of interview was 0.10%BAC (range 0.00-0.27). High BAC (>0.08%; at interview) was associated with having not eaten food in the four hours prior (AOR 4.8, p<0.01), time spent drinking (AOR 1.4, p<0.01) and number of units drank per hour (AOR 1.2, p<0.01). Measures to prevent high levels of alcohol consumption before and during commercial pub crawls should aim to alter drinking behaviours such as preloading and rapid and excessive drinking. Organisers, local authorities, universities and students should all be involved in ensuring the effective management of pub crawls, including implementation of harm prevention measures. © 2013.

  14. Perception of intoxication in a field study of the night-time economy: Blood alcohol concentration, patron characteristics, and event-level predictors.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Droste, Nicolas; Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Miller, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Determine the relationship of subjective intoxication to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and examine whether patron and event-level characteristics modify the relationship of BAC to subjective intoxication. An in-situ systematic random sample of alcohol consumers attending night-time entertainment districts between 10pm and 3am on Friday and Saturday nights in five Australian cities completed a brief interview (n=4628). Participants reported age, sex, and pre-drinking, energy drink, tobacco, illicit stimulant and other illicit drug use that night, and their subjective intoxication and BAC were assessed. Male and female drinkers displayed equally low sensitivity to the impact of alcohol consumption when self-assessing their intoxication (BAC only explained 19% of variance). The marginal effect of BAC was not constant. At low BAC, participants were somewhat sensitive to increases in alcohol consumption, but at higher BAC levels that modest sensitivity dissipated (actual BAC had less impact on self-assessed intoxication). The slope ultimately leveled out to be non-responsive to additional alcohol intake. Staying out late, pre-drinking, and being young introduced biases resulting in higher self-assessed intoxication regardless of actual BAC. Further, both energy drinks and stimulant use modified the association between BAC and perceived intoxication, resulting in more compressed changes in self-assessment as BAC varies up or down, indicating less ability to perceive differences in BAC level. The ability of intoxicated patrons to detect further intoxication is impaired. Co-consumption of energy drinks and/or stimulant drugs is associated with impaired intoxication judgment, creating an additional challenge for the responsible service and consumption of alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists in the United States with high blood alcohol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2018-06-01

    Little research has focused on the problem of alcohol impairment among pedestrians and bicyclists in the United States. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of alcohol-impaired fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were analyzed for fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists 16 and older during 1982-2014. Logistic regression models examined whether personal, roadway, and crash characteristics were associated with high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) among fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists. From 1982 to 2014, the percentage of fatally injured pedestrians with high BACs (≥0.08g/dL) declined from 45% to 35%, and the percentage of fatally injured bicyclists with high BACs declined from 28% to 21%. By comparison, the percentage of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs declined from 51% in 1982 to 32% in 2014. The largest reductions in alcohol impairment among fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists were found among ages 16-20. During 2010-2014, fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists ages 40-49 had the highest odds of having a high BAC, compared with other age groups. A substantial proportion of fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists have high BACs, and this proportion has declined less dramatically than for fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers during the past three decades. Most countermeasures used to address alcohol-impaired driving may have only limited effectiveness in reducing fatalities among alcohol-impaired pedestrians and bicyclists. Efforts should increase public awareness of the risk of walking or bicycling when impaired. Results suggest the primary target audience for educational campaigns directed at pedestrians and bicyclists is middle-age males. Further research should evaluate the effectiveness of potential countermeasures, such as lowering speeds or improving

  16. 0.08 BAC Illegal Per Se Level

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to have laws that make it illegal for a person to operate a motor vehicle if he or she has blood or breath alcohol concentration (BAC) of...

  17. BAC and crash responsibility of injured older drivers : an analysis of Trauma Center data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the distribution of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in injured drivers 65 and older and the relationship of older-driver BAC to driving record and crash responsibility. Researchers conducted a retrospective examination of 11 y...

  18. A study into blood alcohol concentration in fatal accidents among vulnerable road users in a tertiary care hospital Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Anuruddhi Samanthika; Kitulwatte, Indira Deepthi; Senarathne, Udara Dilrukshi

    2015-01-01

    Reckless driving behaviour associated with alcohol has been well known. In Sri Lanka, research on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in road fatalities is scares. Thus, we studied the BAC in vulnerable road users (VRUs) encountered in medico-legal autopsies. A retrospective descriptive study based on case records of VRU fatalities from 2005 to 2012 referred for a tertiary care unit for post-mortem examination was conducted. A pro-forma was developed to extract data from the post-mortem blood alcohol reports. Data were analysed using percentages and p-values. There were 119 cases from the 328 autopsies to investigate blood alcohol tests. A total of 51% (n = 61) out of 119 had BAC above 80 mg/100 ml and mean level was 103 mg/100 ml. 2/3 of pedestrians had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml with a mean level of 139 mg/dl. The highest mean blood alcohol (158 mg/dl) was reported from three-wheeler users. Majority of cases with more than 80 mg/100 ml BAC was reported in the age group of 40-60 years, while 40% of the elderly too had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml. The comparison between pedestrians having above 80 mg/100 ml of BAC with that of other VRUs (active road users) showed a significant statistical difference (p = 0.017). The study results suggest that alcohol influence among pedestrians represent a significant risk factor for fatal road traffic accidents.

  19. The effects of 0.08 BAC laws

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-03-01

    Straightforward and powerful reasons exist for lowering the legal limit of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from 0.10 to 0.08. In 1964, Borkenstein et al. showed that drivers who had been drinking were more likely to be involved in a crash than sobe...

  20. Blood Alcohol Concentration-Related Lower Performance in Immediate Visual Memory and Working Memory in Adolescent Binge Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working

  1. Blood Alcohol Concentration-Related Lower Performance in Immediate Visual Memory and Working Memory in Adolescent Binge Drinkers.

    PubMed

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 - 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 - 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects' immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working memory to

  2. Relative risk of fatal crash involvement by BAC, age, and gender

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this study was to re-examine and refine estimates for alcohol-related relative risk of driver involvement in fatal crashes by age and gender as a function of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) using recent data. The method of study wa...

  3. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    PubMed

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p < 0.0001), whereas the correlations between body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  4. Exploring structural relationships between blood alcohol concentration and signs and clinical assessment of intoxication in alcohol-involved injury cases.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jason; Witbrodt, Jane; Ye, Yu; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Room, Robin; Monteiro, Maristela G

    2014-01-01

    Although the relationship between the Y90 (blood alcohol concentration, BAC) and Y91 (clinician intoxication assessment) ICD-10 codes has received attention recently, the role of 10 signs of intoxication in the Y91-Y90 relationship has not been studied yet. This work examines these signs in the estimation of alcohol intoxication levels of patients in medical settings. Collected and analyzed were data on 1997 injured emergency room patients from 17 countries worldwide reporting drinking prior to injury or presenting with a non-zero BAC from 17 countries worldwide. A model is estimated describing how the 10 signs inform the Y91, Y90 prediction with the goal of the use of observations on patients in place of a biological measure. Signs were consistent with a single underlying construct that strongly predicted Y91. Smell of alcohol on breath predicted Y91 above its contribution through the construct and was stronger for those with tolerance to alcohol than for those without. Controlling for Y91, no sign further contributed to prediction of Y90 indicating that Y91 incorporated all intoxication sign information in predicting Y90. Variance explained was high for Y91 (R(2) = 0.84) and intoxication signs (above 0.72 for all but smell on the breath, 0.57) and lower for Y90 (0.38). Intoxication assessments are well predicted by overall intoxication severity, which itself is well represented by intoxication signs along with differential emphasis on smell of alcohol on breath, especially for those with alcohol tolerance. However, BAC levels remain largely unexplained by intoxication signs with a clinician's assessment serving as the primary predictive measure. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Breath analyzer screening of emergency department patients suspected of alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sebbane, Mustapha; Claret, Pierre-Géraud; Jreige, Riad; Dumont, Richard; Lefebvre, Sophie; Rubenovitch, Josh; Mercier, Grégoire; Eledjam, Jean-Jacques; de la Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel

    2012-10-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication is a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) visits. Evaluating a patient's alcohol intoxication is commonly based on both a physical examination and determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). To demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of using a last-generation infrared breath analyzer as a non-invasive and rapid screening tool for alcohol intoxication in the ED. Adult patients suspected of acute alcohol intoxication were prospectively enrolled over 10 days. Breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) were measured using a handheld infrared breath analyzer. BAC was determined simultaneously by automated enzymatic analysis of a venous blood sample. The relationship between BAC and BrAC values was examined by both linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. The study included 54 patients (mean age 40±14 years, sex ratio M/F of 3/1). Breath and blood alcohol concentrations ranged from 0 to 1.44 mg/L and from 0 to 4.40 g/L (0-440 mg/dL), respectively. The mean individual BAC/BrAC ratio was 2615±387, 95% confidence interval 2509-2714, which is 30% higher than the legal ratio in France (2000). The correlation between both measurements was excellent: r=0.95 (0.92-0.97). Linear regression revealed BAC=0.026+1.29 (BrAC×2000) and BAC=0.026+0.99 (BrAC×2615). Mean BAC-BrAC differences and limits of agreement were 0.49 g/L [-0.35, 1.34] (or 49 mg/dL [-35, 134] and 0.01 g/L [-0.68, 0.71] (or 1 mg/dL [-68, 71]), for the 2000 and 2615 ratios, respectively. The calculated conversion coefficient provided a satisfactory determination of blood alcohol concentration. Breath alcohol testing, using appropriate BAC/BrAC conversion, different from the legal BAC/BrAC, could be a reliable alternative for routine screening and management of alcohol intoxication in the ED. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcohol in fatal recreational boating accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-05-01

    Data on the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of fatal recreational boating accident : victims were assembled for four states with reasonably good reporting on BAC between : 1980 and 1985. In all there were data on BAC for 370 dead boaters. Of these ...

  7. Exploring Structural Relationships Between Blood Alcohol Concentration and Signs and Clinical Assessment of Intoxication in Alcohol-Involved Injury Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jason; Witbrodt, Jane; Ye, Yu; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Room, Robin; Monteiro, Maristela G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although the relationship between the Y90 (blood alcohol concentration, BAC) and Y91 (clinician intoxication assessment) ICD-10 codes has received attention recently, the role of 10 signs of intoxication in the Y91–Y90 relationship has not been studied yet. This work examines these signs in the estimation of alcohol intoxication levels of patients in medical settings. Methods: Collected and analyzed were data on 1997 injured emergency room patients from 17 countries worldwide reporting drinking prior to injury or presenting with a non-zero BAC from 17 countries worldwide. A model is estimated describing how the 10 signs inform the Y91, Y90 prediction with the goal of the use of observations on patients in place of a biological measure. Results: Signs were consistent with a single underlying construct that strongly predicted Y91. Smell of alcohol on breath predicted Y91 above its contribution through the construct and was stronger for those with tolerance to alcohol than for those without. Controlling for Y91, no sign further contributed to prediction of Y90 indicating that Y91 incorporated all intoxication sign information in predicting Y90. Variance explained was high for Y91 (R2 = 0.84) and intoxication signs (above 0.72 for all but smell on the breath, 0.57) and lower for Y90 (0.38). Conclusion: Intoxication assessments are well predicted by overall intoxication severity, which itself is well represented by intoxication signs along with differential emphasis on smell of alcohol on breath, especially for those with alcohol tolerance. However, BAC levels remain largely unexplained by intoxication signs with a clinician's assessment serving as the primary predictive measure. PMID:24705784

  8. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  9. Stakeholder perceptions of lowering the blood alcohol concentration standard in the United States.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to better understand the past change in the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) standard from 0.10% to 0.08% in the United States, as well as explore stakeholder perceptions about potential health and other impacts of further lowering the standard below 0.08%. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 20 organizations considered to have an interest and investment in the potential impacts of strategies to decrease alcohol-impaired related crashes and injuries. Interviews were conducted by a trained moderator, using a structured guide. Themes from the interviews are presented for several discussion topics explored for both the earlier change in the legal BAC limit from 0.10% to 0.08% and a potential lowering of the limit below 0.08%. Topics included arguments for and against change; organizational position on the change; stakeholders on both sides of the issue; strategies to support or oppose the change; health and economic impacts; and enforcement and adjudication challenges. Collectively, results suggest that moving the BAC standard below the current level will require considerable effort and time. There was strong, but not complete, agreement that it will be difficult, and maybe infeasible in the short-term, for states to implement a BAC standard lower than 0.08%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of lower BAC limits for convicted OUI offenders in Maine

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-01

    This is the final report of a project evaluating the effectiveness of a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for drivers convicted of operating under the influence of intoxicants (OUI) in Maine. The law made it illegal for an OUI offender to...

  11. Blood alcohol concentration is negatively associated with gambling money won on the Iowa gambling task in naturalistic settings after controlling for trait impulsivity and alcohol tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Mathieson, Nicole; Edwards, Mark S

    2015-02-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication has been found to increase perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a well known neuropsychological index of prefrontal cortical functioning, in both laboratory and naturalistic settings. The present study examined the relationship between levels of alcohol consumption at campus drinking venues and performance of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), another neuropsychological test designed to assess prefrontal cortex dysfunction, after controlling for potential confounding variables including habitual alcohol intake (as a proxy for alcohol tolerance), trait impulsivity, and everyday executive functioning. The 49 participants of both genders aged 18 to 30years were recruited at the relevant venues and showed a broad range of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) from virtually zero (.002%) to .19%. After controlling for demographic variables, habitual use of alcohol and illicit drugs, and frontal lobe related behavioural traits including impulsivity and disinhibition, BAC negatively predicted gambling money won on the last two trial blocks of the IGT. Trait impulsivity and habitual alcohol use were also significant predictors. Results are discussed in terms of acute effects of alcohol on brain systems and the behavioural consequences of such effects on decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breath alcohol concentration determined with a new analyzer using free exhalation predicts almost precisely the arterial blood alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, L; Brauer, S; Wollmer, P; Goldberg, L; Jones, A W; Olsson, S G

    2007-05-24

    A new breath alcohol (ethanol) analyzer has been developed, which allows free exhalation, standardizes measured exhaled alcohol concentration to fully saturated water vapor at a body temperature of 37 degrees C (43.95 mg/L) and includes a built-in self-calibration system. We evaluated the performance of this instrument by comparing standardized alcohol concentration in freely expired breath (BrAC) with arterial (ABAC) and venous (VBAC) blood alcohol concentrations in fifteen healthy volunteers who drank 0.6 g of alcohol per kg body weight. The precision (coefficient of variation, CV) of the analyzer based on in vivo duplicate measurements in all phases of the alcohol metabolism was 1.7%. The ABAC/BrAC ratio was 2251+/-46 (mean+/-S.D.) in the post-absorptive phase and the mean bias between ABAC and BrAC x 2251 was 0.0035 g/L with 95% limits of agreement of 0.033 and -0.026. The ABAC and BrAC x 2251 were highly correlated (r=0.998, p<0.001) and the regression relationship was ABAC = 0.00045 + 1.0069 x (BrAC x 2251) indicating excellent agreement and no fixed or proportional bias. In the absorption phase, ABAC exceeded BrAC x 2251 by at most 0.04+/-0.03 g/L when tests were made at 10 min post-dosing (p<0.05). The VBAC/BrAC ratio never stabilized and varied continuously between 1834 and 3259. There was a proportional bias between VBAC and BrAC x 2251 (ABAC) in the post-absorptive phase (p<0.001). The pharmacokinetic analysis of the elimination rates of alcohol and times to zero BAC confirmed that BrAC x 2251 and ABAC agreed very well with each other, but not with VBAC (p<0.001). We conclude that this new breath analyzer using free exhalation has a high precision for in vivo testing. The BrAC reflects very accurately ABAC in the post-absorption phase and substantially well in the absorption phase and thereby reflects the concentration of alcohol reaching the brain. Our findings highlight the magnitude of arterio-venous differences in alcohol concentration and support

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between blood and urine alcohol concentrations in apprehended drivers who claimed consumption of alcohol after driving with and without supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2010-01-30

    For various reasons, many people suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) are not apprehended sitting behind the wheel, but some time after the driving. This gives them the opportunity to claim they drank alcohol after the time of driving or after they were involved in a road-traffic crash. Alleged post-offence drinking is not easy for the prosecution to disprove, which often means that the DUIA charge is dropped or the person is acquitted if the case goes to trial. The routine practice of sampling and measuring the concentration of alcohol in blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and calculating urine/blood ratios (UAC/BAC) and the changes in UAC between two successive voids furnishes useful information to support or challenge alleged drinking after driving. We present here a retrospective case series of DUIA offenders (N=40) in half of which there was supporting evidence of an after-drink (eye witness or police reports) and in the other half no such evidence existed apart from the suspect's admission. When there was supporting evidence of an after-drink, the UAC/BAC ratio for the first void was close to or less than unity (mean 1.04, median 1.08, range 0.54-1.21) and the UAC increased by 0.21 g/L (range 0.02-0.57) between the two voids. Without any supporting evidence of post-offence drinking the mean UAC/BAC ratio was 1.46 (range 1.35-1.93) for the first void, verifying that absorption and distribution of alcohol in all body fluids and tissues was complete. In these cases, the UAC between successive voids decreased by 0.25 g/L on average (range 0.10-0.49), indicating the post-absorptive phase of the BAC curve. Long experience from investigating claims of post-offence drinking leads us to conclude that in the vast majority of cases this lacks any substance and is simply a last resort by DUIA offenders to evade justice. Unless supporting evidence exists (eye witness, police reports, etc.) of post-offence drinking the courts are encouraged to ignore this

  15. [A method to estimate one's own blood alcohol concentration when the ministerial tables are not avaible].

    PubMed

    Dosi, G; Taggi, F; Macchia, T

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the prevalence of driving under the influence, tables allowing to estimate one's own blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by type and quantity of alcoholic drinks intake have been enacted by decree in Italy. Such tables, based on a modified Widmark's formula, are now put up in all public concerns serving alcoholic beverages. Aim of this initiative is to try to get subjects which consume alcoholics and then will drive a vehicle take in account their own estimated BAC and, on this base, put into effect, if needed, suitable actions (to avoid or to limit a further consumption, to wait more time before driving, to leave driving a sober subject). Nevertheless, many occasions exist in which these tables are not available. To allow anybody to rough estimate his own BAC in these cases too, a proper method has been developed. Briefly, the weight (in grams) of consumed alcohol has to be divided by half her own weight, if female drunk on an empty stomach (by the 90% of her own weight, if she drunk on a full stomach); by 70% of his own weight, if male drunk on an empty stomach (by 120% of his own weight, if he drunk in a full stomach). Consistency between BAC values estimated by the proposed method and those shown in the ministerial tables is very narrow: they differ in a few hundredth of grams/liter. Unlike the ministerial tables, the proposed method needs to compute the grams of ingested alcohol. This maybe involves some difficulties that, nevertheless, can be overcome easily. In our opinion, the skillfulness in computing the grams of assumed alcohol is of great significance since it provides the subject with a strong signal not only in road safety terms, but also in health terms. The ministerial tables and the proposed method should be part of teaching to issue the driving licence and to recovery of driving licence taken away points. In broad terms, the school should teach youngs to calculate alcohol quantities assumed by drink to acquaint them with the risks paving

  16. Evaluation of the 3D BacT/ALERT automated culture system for the detection of microbial contamination of platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C P; Rogers, A; Cox, M; Smith, R; Roy, A; Robbins, S; Hartley, S; Barbara, J A J; Rothenberg, S; Stutzman, L; Widders, G

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial transmission remains the major component of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion-transmitted infections. Platelet concentrates are the most common cause of bacterial transmission. The BacT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture system has the potential to screen platelet concentrates for the presence of bacteria. Evaluation of this system was performed by spiking day 2 apheresis platelet units with individual bacterial isolates at final concentrations of 10 and 100 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1. Fifteen organisms were used which had been cited in platelet transmission and monitoring studies. BacT/ALERT times to detection were compared with thioglycollate broth cultures, and the performance of five types of BacT/ALERT culture bottles was evaluated. Sampling was performed immediately after the inoculation of the units, and 10 replicates were performed per organism concentration for each of the five types of BacT/ALERT bottles. The mean times for the detection of these 15 organisms by BacT/ALERT, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, ranged from 9.1 to 48.1 h (all 10 replicates were positive). In comparison, the time range found using thioglycollate was 12.0-32.3 h (all 10 replicates were positive). P. acnes' BacT/ALERT mean detection times ranged from 89.0 to 177.6 h compared with 75.6-86.4 h for the thioglycollate broth. BacT/ALERT, with the exception of P. acnes, which has dubious clinical significance, gave equivalent or shorter detection times when compared with the thioglycollate broth system. The BacT/ALERT system detected a range of organisms at levels of 10 and 100 cfu mL-1. This study validates the BacT/ALERT microbial detection system for screening platelets. Currently, the system is the only practically viable option available for routinely screening platelet concentrates to prevent bacterial transmission.

  17. College Students' Underestimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration from Hypothetical Consumption of Supersized Alcopops: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Classroom Study.

    PubMed

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; Krall, Jenna R; Jernigan, David H

    2018-05-30

    Supersized alcopops are a class of single-serving beverages popular among underage drinkers. These products contain large quantities of alcohol. This study examines the extent to which young adults recognize how intoxicated they would become from consuming these products. The study sample included 309 undergraduates who had consumed alcohol within the past year. Thirty-two sections of a college English course were randomized to 1 of 2 survey conditions, based on hypothetical consumption of supersized alcopops or beer of comparable liquid volume. Students were provided an empty can of 1 of the 2 beverages to help them answer the survey questions. Equation-calculated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs)-based on body weight and sex-were compared to the students' self-estimated BACs for consuming 1, 2, and 3 cans of the beverage provided to them. In adjusted regression models, students randomized to the supersized alcopop group greatly underestimated their BAC, whereas students randomized to the beer group overestimated it. The supersized alcopop group underestimated their BAC by 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.034, 0.053), 0.09 (95% CI: 0.067, 0.107), and 0.13 g/dl (95% CI: 0.097, 0.163) compared to the beer group. When asked how much alcohol they could consume before it would be unsafe to drive, students in the supersized alcopop group had 7 times the odds of estimating consumption that would generate a calculated BAC of at least 0.08 g/dl, compared to those making estimates based on beer consumption (95% CI: 3.734, 13.025). Students underestimated the intoxication they would experience from consuming supersized alcopops. Revised product warning labels are urgently needed to clearly identify the number of standard drinks contained in a supersized alcopop can. Moreover, regulations are needed to limit alcohol content of single-serving products. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  19. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood alcohol limits: the presence of alcohol in traffic accidents according to category of driver in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Akan; İdiz, Nuri; Dalgiç, Mustafa; Uluçay, Tarik; Sincar, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under existing Turkish road traffic law, there are 2 different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits allowed for drivers in 2013: zero blood alcohol and ≤0.50 g/L. All public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol concentration while driving. Private vehicle drivers must maintain a BAC of 0.50 g/L or lower. The aim of the recent study was to evaluate the effect of these 2 legal blood alcohol limits on nonfatal traffic accidents that occurred due to the driver being under the influence of alcohol. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the blood alcohol concentration of 224 drivers in nonfatal road accidents between June 2010 and July 2011 using headspace gas chromatography at the Izmir Forensic Medicine Group Presidency, Turkey. All cases evaluated by the toxicology department were entered into a database. We used descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and independent sampling test to analyze the data. The total number of drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents was 224; 191 were private vehicle drivers and 33 were public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers. In the present study, alcohol was detected in the blood of about 27.2% (n = 61) of the 224 drivers. Sixty (31.4%) private vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents tested positive for alcohol. BAC values were also above the legal limit (0.50 g/L) in 27.7% (n = 53) of private vehicle drivers. However, the BAC was above the legal limit in only 3% (n = 1) of public transport, commercial, and official vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents. These results showed that private vehicle drivers subject to a BAC limit of ≤0.50 g/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of nonfatal accident involvement than drivers subject to a zero BAC limit (odds ratio [OR] = 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-92.22; Fisher's exact test, P <.001). Mean BAC in private vehicle drivers subject

  20. Defining “Binge” Drinking as Five Drinks per Occasion or Drinking to a 0.08% BAC: Which is More Sensitive to Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Jude, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Heavy episodic or “binge” drinking is commonly defined as drinking 4–5 drinks per occasion (5/4 definition) or drinking that results in a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%. The present study compared the validity of each binge definition as an indicator of at-risk, problem drinking. 251 college students were classified as non-binge drinkers or as binge drinkers based on the 5/4 definition or the 0.08% BAC definition. The two definitions of binge drinking were examined in terms of their sensitivity and specificity as indicators of alcohol-related problems as determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Over half the sample (56%) were at-risk drinkers according to the AUDIT. The 0.08% definition detected only one-half of these individuals. Gender differences were also evident. Female binge drinkers actually achieved significantly higher estimated BACs per episode than their male binge drinking counterparts. The findings suggest that drinking to a sub-threshold BAC (i.e., < 0.08%) is not sufficient to avoid alcohol-related problems, and that total quantity (i.e., total standard drinks) per occasion might contribute to risk independent of the BAC achieved during drinking episodes. The findings also highlight the importance of considering frequency of consumption in determining risky drinking versus relying solely on quantity measures. PMID:21838847

  1. The effects of breath alcohol concentration on postural control.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Dary D

    2018-05-19

    Two of the 3 standardized field sobriety tests that U.S. law enforcement uses at roadside checks have a postural equilibrium component to them. Those tests have been validated to detect impairment caused by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.08 g/dL or above. Many medical and traffic safety associations support a lower limit, and one state, Utah, has passed a law to lower the limit to 0.05 g/dL. Many studies have examined the effects of alcohol on postural control (of which postural equilibrium is a component), with a consensus emerging that impairment is usually found at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL. Most of these studies, however, had a relatively small number of subjects, usually between 10 and 30. The current study collected data from a much larger sample. The objective of this study was to provide additional evidence that posture control is negatively affected at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL or breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.06 g/210 L. This was a between-subjects study, with BrAC group as the independent variable (5 levels: 0.00, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/210 L); 4 measures of postural control as the dependent variables; and age, height, and weight as the covariates. Posture control was measured with a force-sensing platform connected to a computer. The feet's center of pressure (CoP) on the platform was recorded and the corresponding movement of the body in the anterior-posterior and lateral planes was derived. Participants (N = 96) were randomly assigned to one of the BrAC groups. Positive BrAC groups were compared to the zero BrAC group. Data were examined with hierarchical multiple regression. Adjusted for age, height, and weight, the main effect of lateral CoP with eyes open was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant main effect of alcohol on anterior-posterior CoP excursion with eyes open and with eyes closed and lateral CoP excursion with eyes closed. For all 3 of those variables, only BrACs of 0

  2. Biphasic Effects of Alcohol on Delay and Probability Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.; Grenga, Andrea; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting and probability discounting are behavioral economic indices of impulsive and risky decision making that have been associated with addictive behavior, but the acute biphasic effects of alcohol on these decision-making processes are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the biphasic effects of alcohol on delay and probability discounting across the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, which are respectively characterized by the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol. Delay and probability discounting were measured at four time points (Baseline, Ascending, Descending, and Endpoint) across the BAC curve at two target alcohol doses (40 mg/dl and 80 mg/dl) in healthy adults (N = 23 and 27, for both doses, respectively). There was no significant effect of alcohol on delay discounting at either dose. Alcohol significantly affected probability discounting, such that reduced discounting for uncertain rewards was evident during the descending limb of the BAC curve at the lower dose (p<.05) and during both the ascending and descending limb of the BAC curve at the higher dose (p<.05). Thus, alcohol resulted in increased risky decision making, particularly during the descending limb which is primarily characterized by the sedative effects of alcohol. These findings suggest that the biphasic effects of alcohol across the ascending and descending limbs of the BAC have differential effects on behavior related to decision-making for probabilistic, but not delayed, rewards. Parallels to and distinctions from previous findings are discussed. PMID:23750692

  3. Traffic safety facts 1998 : alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal traffic crash as being alcohol-related if either a driver or a nonoccupant (e.g., pedestrian) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or gre...

  4. Traffic safety facts 1995 : alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal traffic crash as being alcohol-related if either a driver or a nonoccupant (e.g., pedestrian) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or gre...

  5. Traffic safety facts 1993 : alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal traffic crash as being alcohol-related if either a driver or a nonoccupant (e.g., pedestrian) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or gre...

  6. Traffic safety facts 2000 : alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal traffic crash as being alcohol-related if either a driver or a nonoccupant (e.g., pedestrian) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or gre...

  7. Traffic safety facts 1994 : alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal traffic crash as being alcohol-related if either a driver or a nonoccupant (e.g., pedestrian) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or gre...

  8. Traffic safety facts 1999 : alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal traffic crash as being alcohol-related if either a driver or a nonoccupant (e.g., pedestrian) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or gre...

  9. Estimates of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes : new alcohol methodology

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has adopted a new method to : estimate missing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test result data. This new method, multiple : imputation, will be used by NHTSAs National Center for Statis...

  10. Levels and Types of Alcohol Biomarkers in DUI and Clinic Samples for Estimating Workplace Alcohol Problemsa

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways – a workplace for many – provides an example for work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this report, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average 8 months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programs log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher program entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This report summarizes selected biomarkers’ potential for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cutoff levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  11. Alcohol involvement in fatal traffic crashes 1996

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-01-01

    This report presents estimates of alcohol involvement in fatal traffic crashes that occurred during 1996. The data represent a combination of actual blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results recorded in the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS)...

  12. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.

  13. “Let’s get Wasted!” and Other Apps: Characteristics, Acceptability, and Use of Alcohol-Related Smartphone Applications

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Emma R; Horyniak, Danielle R; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Smartphone applications (“apps”) offer a number of possibilities for health promotion activities. However, young people may also be exposed to apps with incorrect or poor quality information, since, like the Internet, apps are mostly unregulated. Little is known about the quality of alcohol-related apps or what influence they may have on young people’s behavior. Objective To critically review popular alcohol-related smartphone apps and to explore young people’s opinions of these apps, their acceptability, and use for alcohol-related health promotion. Methods First, a content analysis of 500 smartphone apps available via Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores was conducted. Second, all available blood alcohol concentration (BAC) apps were tested against four individual case profiles of known BAC from a previous study. Third, two focus group discussions explored how young people use alcohol-related apps, particularly BAC apps. Results 384 apps were included; 50% (192) were entertainment apps, 39% (148) were BAC apps, and 11% (44) were health promotion and/or stop drinking–related apps. When testing the BAC apps, there was wide variation in results, with apps tending to overestimate BAC scores compared with recorded scores. Participants were skeptical of the accuracy of BAC apps, and there was an overall concern that these apps would be used as a form of entertainment, further encouraging young people to drink, rather than reduce their drinking and risk taking. Conclusions The majority of popular alcohol-related apps encouraged alcohol consumption. Apps estimating blood alcohol concentration were widely available but were highly unreliable. Health departments and prominent health organizations need to endorse alcohol smartphone apps that are accurate and evidence-based to give specific apps credibility in the ever-expanding market of unregulated apps. PMID:25100681

  14. Breath alcohol of anesthesiologists using alcohol hand gel and the "five moments for hand hygiene" in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Helen A; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Bradfield, Charles N; Mitchell, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate hand hygiene reduces hospital-acquired infections. Anesthesiologists work in environments with numerous hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs). In a prospective observational study, we investigated the potential for an anesthesiologist to return a positive alcohol breath test during routine practice when using alcohol hand gel. We observed ten volunteer anesthesiologists over four hours while they implemented the World Health Organization (WHO) "five moments for hand hygiene" using our hospital's adopted standard 70% ethanol hand gel. We measured the expired alcohol concentration at shift start and every fifteen minutes thereafter with a fuel cell breathalyzer calibrated to measure the percentage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Blood alcohol specimens (analyzed with gas chromatography) were collected at shift start and, when possible, immediately after a participant's first positive breathalyzer test. Of the 130 breathalyzer tests obtained, there were eight (6.2%) positive breath alcohol results from six of the ten participants, all within two minutes of a HHO. The highest value breathalyzer BAC recorded was 0.064%, with an overall mean (SD) of 0.023 (0.017)%. Five (62.5%) of the positive breathalyzer tests returned to zero in less than seven minutes. All of three blood specimens obtained immediately after a positive breathalyzer reading tested negative for alcohol. Anesthesia practitioners using alcohol hand gel in a manner that conforms with recommended hand hygiene can test positive for alcohol on a breathalyzer assay. Positive tests probably arose from inhalation of alcohol vapour into the respiratory dead space following gel application. If workplace breath testing for alcohol is implemented, it should be completed more than 15 min after applying alcohol hand gel. Positive results should be verified with a BAC test.

  15. Acute tolerance to behavioral impairment by alcohol in moderate and heavy drinkers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-04-01

    The literature reports greater impairment effects of a given Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) during the rising than during the falling BAC periods. This may be termed acute tolerance to contrast it with chronic tolerance built up over a long period...

  16. Driving simulator sickness: Impact on driving performance, influence of blood alcohol concentration, and effect of repeated simulator exposures.

    PubMed

    Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects following the implementation of an 0.08 BAC limit and an administrative per se law in California.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-08-01

    On January 1, 1990 California lowered the allowable blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at which it is illegal to drive from 0.10 to 0.08. On July 1, 1990 California also implemented an Administrative Per Se (also known as Administrative License Revoca...

  18. Alcohol operant self-administration: Investigating how alcohol-seeking behaviors predict drinking in mice using two operant approaches

    PubMed Central

    Blegen, Mariah B.; Silva, Daniel da Silva E; Bock, Roland; Morisot, Nadege; Ron, Dorit; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). All mice were first exposed to alcohol in the home cage using the “drinking in the dark” (DID) procedure for 3 weeks and then were trained in alcohol self-administration using either of the operant paradigms for several weeks. Even without sucrose fading or food pre-training, mice acquired alcohol self-administration with both paradigms. However, neither lever press nor nose-poke rates were good predictors of alcohol intake or BAC. Only the lick rate and consumed alcohol were consistently and significantly correlated with BAC. Using this paradigm that accurately measures alcohol intake, unsupervised cluster analysis revealed three groups of mice: high-drinking (43%), low-drinking (37%), and non-drinking mice (20%). High-drinking mice showed faster acquisition of operant responding and achieved higher BACs than low-drinking mice. Lick rate and volume consumed varied with the alcohol concentration made available only for high- and low-drinking mice, but not for non-drinking mice. In addition, high- and low-drinking mice showed similar patterns during extinction and significant cue-induced reinstatement

  19. Effects of enhanced sanctions for high-BAC DWI offenders on case dispositions and rates of recidivism.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Shabanova, Veronika I

    2002-01-01

    High-BAC sanctioning systems seek to reduce recidivism among a high-risk group of impaired drivers. Minnesota's 1998 high-BAC law imposes more severe administrative and court sanctions on offenders with BAC> or =.20 than on offenders with BAC<.20. After the law, high-BAC first-time and repeat offenders did, in fact, receive more severe case dispositions (e.g., longer license revocation, stronger vehicle sanctions) than lower-BAC offenders. Alcohol test refusals declined. The severity of sanctions for high-BAC offenders declined in 1999 vs. 1998, especially for BACs.20-.22. Recidivism for high-BAC first offenders in 1998 was lower than for offenders with BACs.17-19.

  20. Recombining overlapping BACs into a single larger BAC.

    PubMed

    Kotzamanis, George; Huxley, Clare

    2004-01-06

    BAC clones containing entire mammalian genes including all the transcribed region and long range controlling elements are very useful for functional analysis. Sequenced BACs are available for most of the human and mouse genomes and in many cases these contain intact genes. However, large genes often span more than one BAC, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here we describe a system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone by homologous recombination. The method was used to link a 61-kb insert carrying the final 5 exons of the human CFTR gene onto a 160-kb BAC carrying the first 22 exons. Two rounds of homologous recombination were carried out in the EL350 strain of bacteria which can be induced for the Red genes. In the first round, the inserts of the two overlapping BACs were subcloned into modified BAC vectors using homologous recombination. In the second round, the BAC to be added was linearised with the very rare-cutting enzyme I-PpoI and electroporated into recombination efficient EL350 bacteria carrying the other BAC. Recombined BACs were identified by antibiotic selection and PCR screening and 10% of clones contained the correctly recombined 220-kb BAC. The system can be used to link the inserts from any overlapping BAC or PAC clones. The original orientation of the inserts is not important and desired regions of the inserts can be selected. The size limit for the fragments recombined may be larger than the 61 kb used here and multiple BACs in a contig could be combined by alternating use of the two pBACLink vectors. This system should be of use to many investigators wishing to carry out functional analysis on large mammalian genes which are not available in single BAC clones.

  1. Blood alcohol concentration in fatally injured drivers and the efficacy of alcohol policies of the new law on road traffic safety: A retrospective 10-year study in autonomous province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petković, Stojan; Palić, Kristina; Samojlik, Isidora

    2016-08-17

    The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate inebriated fatally injured drivers (FIDs) according to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a 10-year period (2004-2013) in Autonomous Province (AP) of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, to analyze the efficacy of alcohol polices in the new law on road traffic safety through changes in the number of inebriated FIDs before and after implementation of the law, as well as to identify factors that influence the occurrence of FIDs with BACs above the legal limit. All data for this retrospective study were obtained from the Centre of Forensic Medicine, Toxicology and Molecular Genetics of Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Novi Sad. Autopsy records for each case included age, gender, BAC, type of vehicle, and date of accident (year, month, and recalculated day of the week). BAC was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Statistical analysis was carried out by chi-square tests and Student's t test, with P < .05 as a statistical significance, and multiple binary logistic regression. Of the 354 inebriated FIDs (60% of all FIDs), the majority had BACs between of 0.031 and 0.3 mg/ml (28%), followed by those with BAC > 2.01 mg/ml (23%). The average BAC of those driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) for the whole period was 1.235 ± 1.00 mg/ml and the average number of DUIA/year was 35. Among the total number of FIDs there were significantly more males (93.7%; P < .001) than females (6.3%), though the distribution of intoxicated men and women was not different (P > .05). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of sober and inebriated FIDs according to age (P < .001) with the predominance of inebriated FIDs between 21 and 30 years. Although gender and age were found to be significant predictors of BAC above legal limit in FIDs, the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve showed that the model had poor discrimination (ROC = 0.673). Of all observed FIDs

  2. Does alcohol intoxication protect patients from severe injury and reduce hospital mortality? The association of alcohol consumption with the severity of injury and survival in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Su, Li-Ting; Wang, Yu-Chun; Fu, Chih-Yuan; Lo, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Chiu-Hsiu

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions are a major cause of mortality in trauma patients. This prospective observational study investigated the influence of antecedent alcohol use on outcomes in trauma patients who survived to reach the hospital. From 2005 to 2011, all patients who were older than 18 years and were admitted as a result of motor vehicle crashes were included. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was routinely measured for each patient on admission. Patients were divided into four groups based on their BAC level, which included nondrinking, BAC less than 100, BAC 100 to 200, and BAC 200 mg/dL or greater. Patient demographics, physical status and injury severity on admission, length of hospital stay, and outcome were compared between the groups. Odds ratios of having a severe injury, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality were estimated. Patients with a positive BAC had an increased risk of sustaining craniofacial and thoracoabdominal injuries. Odds ratios of having severe injuries (Injury Severity Score [ISS] 16 or greater) and a prolonged hospital stay were also increased. However, for those patients whose ISS was 16 or greater and who also had a brain injury, risk of fatality was significantly reduced if they were intoxicated (BAC 200 mg/dL or greater) before injury. Alcohol consumption does not protect patients from sustaining severe injuries nor does it shorten the length of hospital stay. However, there were potential survival benefits related to alcohol consumption for patients with brain injuries but not for those without brain injuries. Additional research is required to investigate the mechanism of this association further.

  3. The NASOROSSO (Rednose) Project: An Italian Study on Alcohol Consumption in Recreational Places

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, Roberta; Pierantozzi, Andrea; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Palmi, Ilaria; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Mortali, Claudia; Pichini, Simona

    2013-01-01

    The Nasorosso project of the Italian Youth Department and the National Institute of Health, aimed to raise awareness about drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol among club goers with a series of initiatives. Within the framework of the project, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on 106,406 individuals before and after clubbing in 66 different recreational sites from 11 Italian provinces, over 16 months. Participating individuals were interviewed regarding sociodemographic and environmental characteristics and alcohol intoxicated people were offered to be taken home. The BAC median at the club entry was 0.26 g/L with 65.3% subjects showing a BAC value under the driving legal limit of 0.5g/L. At the exit from clubs, BAC median value rose to 0.44 g/L and subjects with BAC value under the legal limit decreased to 54.9%. Being male, aged between 18 and 34 years with a diploma, being a drinker and entering the disco with a BAC already beyond the legal limit predicted a BAC value beyond 0.5 g/L at exit from the recreational place. Conversely, being a driver, being a student and exiting from the disco before 4 a.m. reduced the probability of having a BAC higher than 0.5 g/L at the end of the night. Health policies to prevent harmful use of alcohol in young people should continue to offer targeted information/ prevention; in order to steadily increase the awareness of the dangers and the damages of excessive use of alcohol. PMID:23615454

  4. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving and riding in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roadside prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving among drivers and riders in northern Ghana. The study also verifies motorists' perceptions of their own alcohol use and knowledge of the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in Ghana. With the assistance of police, systematic random sampling was used to collect data at roadblocks using a cross-sectional study design. Breathalyzers were used to screen whether motorists had detectable alcohol in their breath and follow-up breath tests were conducted to measure the actual breath alcohol levels among positive participants. In all, 9.7% of the 789 participants had detectable alcohol, among whom 6% exceeded the legal BAC limit of 0.08%. The prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving/riding was highest among cyclists (10% of all cyclists breath-tested) followed by truck drivers (9%) and motorcyclists (7% of all motorcyclists breath-tested). The occurrence of a positive BAC among cyclists was about 8 times higher (odds ratio [OR] = 7.73; P < .001) and it was 2 times higher among motorcyclists (OR = 2.30; P = .039) compared to private car drivers. The likelihood for detecting a positive BAC among male motorists/riders was higher than that among females (OR = 1.67; P = .354). The odds for detecting a positive BAC among weekend motorists/riders was significantly higher than on weekdays (OR = 2.62; P = .001). Alcohol-impaired driving/riding in Ghana is high by international standards. In order to attenuate the harmful effects of alcohol misuse such as alcohol-impaired driving/riding, there is the need to educate road users about how much alcohol they can consume and stay below the legal limit. The police should also initiate random breath testing to instill the deterrence of detection, certainty of apprehension and punishment, and severity and celerity of punishment among drink-driving motorists and riders.

  5. Responses to Alcohol and Cigarette Use During Ecologically Assessed Drinking Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Piasecki, Thomas M.; Wood, Phillip K.; Shiffman, Saul; Sher, Kenneth J.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco and alcohol are frequently used together, and this may be partly explained by a distinct profile of subjective effects associated with co-administration. Ecological Momentary Assessment studies have examined effects of naturally occurring co-use, but, to date, have not assessed differing effects as alcohol levels rise and fall. Objectives To describe subjective states and appraisals of cigarette and alcohol effects reported during the entirety of real-world drinking episodes. Methods Currently-smoking frequent drinkers (N = 255) carried electronic diaries for 21 days. Analyses focused on reports made during 2,046 drinking episodes. Signaled prompts intensively oversampled moments in the hours following consumption of the first drink in an episode. Multilevel regression analyses were used to predict ratings of buzz, dizziness, excitement, and sluggishness as a function of person-level and contextual covariates, estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) level, ascending vs. descending eBAC, smoking, and their interactions. Appraisals of cigarette and alcohol effects were also examined within this framework. Results Buzz, excitement, and pleasure from alcohol and cigarettes were prominent features of real-world drinking episodes. Smoking was associated with enhanced buzz and excitement when eBAC was high and descending. Smoking slightly accentuated the relation between eBAC and ratings of drinking pleasure among women, but this relation was somewhat weakened by smoking among men. Conclusions Smoking during drinking episodes may be partly be explained by a persistence of stimulant alcohol effects beyond the BAC peak. Acute effects of nicotine and tobacco use on the descending limb deserve further scrutiny in experimental alcohol challenge research. PMID:22538731

  6. Examination of the feasibility of alcohol interlocks for motorcycles.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-01

    In 2011 some 30 percent of the 4,612 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashes had blood alcohol concentrations : (BACs) of .08 g/dL or higher. Although alcohol ignition interlocks are a common sanction to deter impaired driving, : they are not ...

  7. Federal actions to incentivise state adoption of 0.08 g/dL blood alcohol concentration laws.

    PubMed

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Webster, Daniel W; Gielen, Andrea C

    2017-10-01

    To model rates of 0.08 g/dL blood alcohol concentration (BAC) per se law implementation among the states associated with (1) a federal incentive grant programme and (2) a threat from the federal government to withhold highway transportation funds. An observational study of state-level 0.08 g/dL BAC per se law enactment among all 50 US states from 1982 to 2006 using a parametric survival analysis to assess the time-dependent risk of policy enactment. The federal government's threat to withhold transportation funds was associated with a 10.30 times greater hazard (HR: 10.30, 95% CI 3.88 to 27.36) of states adopting a 0.08 g/dL BAC law compared with periods of time when this threat was not in place. The incentive grant programme created by the federal government was associated with a non-significant 17% decrease in the hazard of states adopting a 0.08 g/dL BAC law (HR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.0). In the case of 0.08 g/dL BAC per se laws, the federal government's threat to withhold transportation funds was effective at accelerating policy adoption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Statistical analysis of alcohol-related driving trends, 1982-2005

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    Overall, the percent of drivers involved in fatal crashes who had consumed alcohol and had blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of .08 or above prior to the crash steadily decreased from 1982 to 1997 and then leveled off (more or less). In an attempt to...

  9. The role of alcohol in road traffic accidents with fatal outcome: 10-year period in Croatia Split-Dalmatia County.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Scepanovic, Antonija; Bosnjak, Marinko; Versic-Bratincevic, Maja; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and fatal road traffic accidents that took place in Split-Dalmatia County (Croatia) during a 10-year period (from August 2001 to August 2011). A retrospective analysis of 474 autopsy reports was performed, with an emphasis on 337 toxicologal findings of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the mode of participation in traffic (driver, passenger, pedestrian, or cyclist). Relations between the BAC, the weekday on which death occurred, victim's age and gender, and differences according to 3 successive legislation periods within the observed time frame were analyzed. The BAC was measured by gas chromatography with headspace and flame ionization detection. Alcohol was regarded as a contributive death factor if BAC was positive; that is, higher than 0.5 g/kg. BAC was positive in 177 cases. Most often it was the car driver who had a positive BAC. Victims of traffic accidents were mostly male drivers, and those accidents were more often associated with alcohol consumption. Consumption of alcohol produced a significant increase in culpability. The results of our study show that alcohol remains one of the main contributing factors of traffic accidents in Split-Dalmatia County. Unfortunately, legislation changes regarding the allowed BAC did not cause any reduction in casualties among drivers driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA). Chi-square test of the number of total driver victims and driver victims who were DUIA revealed no significant difference (P = .173).

  10. Impact of a Structural Intervention to Address Alcohol Use Among Gay Bar Patrons in San Francisco: The PACE Study.

    PubMed

    Charlebois, Edwin D; Plenty, Albert H; Lin, Jessica; Ayala, Alicia; Hecht, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the impact on alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of a multi-level structural intervention to increase the availability of free water, coupled with messaging on pacing alcohol intake and normative feedback of blood alcohol concentration in a convenience sample of gay bars in San Francisco. Participants (n = 1,293) were recruited among exiting patrons of four gay bars (two intervention bars and two control bars). Participants were surveyed on alcohol intake and BAC was measured by breathalyzer. Prior to the intervention there were no significant differences in baseline alcohol measures between intervention and control bars. Post-intervention there were significant differences on objective and subjective measures of alcohol consumption: 30% of intervention bar participants had BAC% levels over the legal driving limit (0.08%) compared to 43% of control bar participants, p < 0.0001 and 78% of intervention bar participants were above the AUDIT-C cut-off for hazardous drinking compared to 87% in control bars, p < 0.001.

  11. Laboratory testing of a saliva-alcohol test device by Enzymatics, Inc.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the accuracy of a new saliva-alcohol test device (Enzymatics, Inc. "Q.E.D.-A150") at nine different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) under three temperature conditions. However, it did not assess the saliva collection procedure...

  12. False-positive alarms for bacterial screening of platelet concentrates with BacT/ALERT new-generation plastic bottles: a multicenter pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hundhausen, T; Müller, T H

    2005-08-01

    The microbial detection system BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux) is widely used to monitor bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs). Recently, the manufacturer introduced polycarbonate culture bottles and a modified pH-sensitive liquid emulsion sensor as microbial growth indicator. This reconfigured assay was investigated in a routine setting. In each of eight transfusion centers, samples from 500 consecutive PCs were monitored for 1 week. For all PCs with a positive BacT/ALERT signal, retained samples and, if available, original PC containers and concomitant red blood cell concentrates were analyzed independently. Initially BacT/ALERT-positive PCs without bacterial identification in any sample were defined as false-positive. BacT/ALERT-positive PCs with bacteria in the first sample only were called potentially positive. PCs with bacteria in the first sample and the same strain in at least one additional sample were accepted as positive. Five PCs (0.13%) were positive, 9 PCs (0.23%) were potentially positive, and 35 PCs (0.9%) were false-positive. The rate of false-positive BacT/ALERT results varied substantially between centers (<0.2%-3.2%). Tracings from false-positive cultures lacked an exponential increase of the signal during incubation. Most of these false-positives were due to malfunctioning cells in various BacT/ALERT incubation units. Careful assessment of individual tracings of samples with positive signals helps to identify malfunctioning incubation units. Their early shutdown or replacement minimizes the high rate of unrectifiable product rejects attributed to false-positive alarms and avoids unnecessary concern of doctors and patients after conversion to a reconfigured BacT/ALERT assay.

  13. Demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing disparities in prevalence of alcohol-related injury among underserved trauma patients in a safety-net hospital.

    PubMed

    Nweze, Ikenna C; DiGiacomo, Jody C; Shin, Silvia S; Gupta, Camilla; Ramakrishnan, Rema; Angus, Lambros D G

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol-related trauma remains high among underserved patients despite ongoing preventive measures. Geographic variability in prevalence of alcohol-related injury has prompted reexamination of this burden across different regions. We sought to elucidate demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing the prevalence of alcohol-related trauma among underserved patients and determine alcohol effects on selected outcomes. A retrospective analysis examined whether patients admitted to a suburban trauma center differed according to their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on admission. Patients were stratified based on their BAC into four categories (undetectable BAC, BAC 1-99mg/dL, BAC 100-199mg/dL, and BAC ≥ 200mg/dL). T-tests and X2 tests were used to detect differences between BAC categories in terms of patient demographics and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the association between patient variables and selected outcomes while controlling for confounders. One third of 738 patients analyzed were BAC-positive, mean (SD) BAC was 211.4 (118.9) mg/dL, 80% of BAC-positive patients had levels ≥ 100mg/dL. After risk adjustments, the following patient characteristics were predictive of having highly elevated BAC (≥200mg/dL) upon admission to the Trauma Center; Hispanic patients (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-3.21), unemployment (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.09-2.78), Medicaid beneficiaries (OR=3.59, 95% CI: 1.96-6.59), and uninsured patients (OR=2.86, 95% CI: 1.60-5.13). Patients with BAC of 100-199mg/dL were likely to be more severely injured (P=0.016) compared to undetectable-BAC patients. There was no association between being intoxicated, and being ICU-admitted or having differences in length of ICU or hospital stay. Demographic and socioeconomic factors underlie disparities in the prevalence of alcohol-related trauma among underserved patients. These findings may guide targeted

  14. Alcohol consumption decreases lactate clearance in acutely injured patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Comer, Angela C.; Narayan, Mayur; Scalea, Thomas M.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Smith, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol, a common risk factor for injury, has direct toxic effects on the liver. The use of lactate clearance has been well described as an indicator of the adequacy of resuscitation in injured patients. We investigated whether acutely injured patients with positive blood alcohol content (+BAC) had less lactate clearance than sober patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of acutely injured patients treated at an urban Level 1 trauma centre between January 2010 and December 2012. Blood alcohol and venous lactate levels were measured on all patients at the time of arrival. Study subjects were patients transported directly from the scene of injury, who had an elevated lactate concentration on arrival (≥3.0 mmol/L) and at least one subsequent lactate measurement within 24 h after admission. Lactate clearance ([Lactate1 − Lactate2]/Lactate1) was calculated for all patients. Chi-squared tests were used to compare values from sober and intoxicated subjects. Lactate clearance was plotted against alcohol levels and stratified by age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results Serial lactate concentration measurements were obtained in 3910 patients; 1674 of them had +BAC. Patients with +BAC were younger (mean age: 36.6 [SD 14.7] vs 41.0 [SD 19.9] years [p = 0.0001]), were more often male (83.4% vs 75.9% [p = 0.0001]), had more minor injuries (ISS < 9) (33.8% vs 27.1% [p = 0.0001]), had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (1.4% vs 3.9% [p = 0.0001]), but also had lower average lactate clearance (37.8% vs 47.6% [p = 0.0001]). The lactate clearance of the sober patients (47.6 [SD 33.5]) was twice that of those with +BAC >400 (23.5 [SD 6.5]). Lactate clearance decreased with increasing BAC irrespective of age and ISS. Conclusions In a large group of acutely injured patients, a dose-dependent decrease in lactate clearance was seen in those with elevated BAC. This relationship will cause a falsely elevated lactate reading or prolong lactate

  15. The relative risk of involvement in fatal crashes as a function of race/ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.; de la Rosa, Mario; Lacey, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature presents a puzzling picture of Latinos being overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes, but not in noncrash drinking and driving. This report examines if, like other demographic variables in which some groups are at a higher crash risk than others (e.g., young drivers), different racial/ethnic groups face different crash risks Method This study compares blood-alcohol information from the 2006–2007 U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control data from the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Logistic regression, including a dual interaction between BAC and race/ethnicity, was used to estimate crash risk at different BAC levels. Results It was found that, although Hispanic and African-American drivers were less likely to be involved in single-vehicle crashes than their White counterparts, all drivers face similar BAC relative crash risk regardless of their group membership. The overrepresentation of Latino drivers in alcohol-related crashes could be explained by differences in patterns of consumption, driving exposure, lack of awareness of driving rules, and/or socioeconomics. PMID:24529097

  16. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-07-01

    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  17. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Correlation between driving-related skill and alcohol use in young-adults from six European countries: the TEN-D by Night Project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only few studies with small experimental samples investigated the impact of psychoactive substances on driving performance. We conducted a multicenter international cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation between alcohol use and driving-related skill as measured by brake reaction time (RT). Methods Before and after the entrance into randomly selected recreational sites from six European countries, all subjects aged 16-35 years, owning a driver license, were asked to compile a structured socio-demographic questionnaire and measure RT (SimuNomad3 driving simulator), breath alcohol concentration (BAC; Drager Alcoltest), and drug use (Oratect III saliva test, only at the exit). Mixed regression modeling was used to evaluate the independent association between RT and alcohol concentration or drug use. Results Before the entrance into the recreational site, 4534 subjects completed all assessments and composed the final sample. Their mean age was 23.1 ± 4.2y; 68.3% were males; 54.7% had BAC > 0 g/L (assumed alcoholics); 7.5% declared illegal drug assumption (mostly cannabis). After the exit, 3019 also completed the second assessment: 71.7% showed BAC > 0 g/L. Controlling for age, gender, educational level, occupation, driver license years, and drug use, BAC was positively associated with RT, achieving significance, however, only when BAC was higher than 0.49 g/L. Significant interaction terms were found between BAC and female gender or drug use, with highest RTs (> 1 sec.) recorded among drug users with BAC > = 1 g/L. Conclusions This field study confirms previous experimental data on the negative impact of alcohol use on driving-related skill, supporting regulations and educational campaigns aimed at discouraging driving after consumption of psychoactive substances. PMID:21722358

  19. Drugs and Alcohol: Their Relative Crash Risk

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Torres-Saavedra, Pedro; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether among sober (blood alcohol concentration [BAC] = .00%) drivers, being drug positive increases the drivers' risk of being killed in a fatal crash; (b) whether among drinking (BAC > .00%) drivers, being drug positive increases the drivers' risk of being killed in a fatal crash; and (c) whether alcohol and other drugs interact in increasing crash risk. Method: We compared BACs for the 2006, 2007, and 2008 crash cases drawn from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control drug and blood alcohol data from participants in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Only FARS drivers from states with drug information on 80% or more of the drivers who also participated in the 2007 National Roadside Survey were selected. Results: For both sober and drinking drivers, being positive for a drug was found to increase the risk of being fatally injured. When the drug-positive variable was separated into marijuana and other drugs, only the latter was found to contribute significantly to crash risk. In all cases, the contribution of drugs other than alcohol to crash risk was significantly lower than that produced by alcohol. Conclusions: Although overall, drugs contribute to crash risk regardless of the presence of alcohol, such a contribution is much lower than that by alcohol. The lower contribution of drugs other than alcohol to crash risk relative to that of alcohol suggests caution in focusing too much on drugged driving, potentially diverting scarce resources from curbing drunk driving. PMID:24411797

  20. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 2, Literature review report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Drinking and driving have been researched extensively, and the relationship between a drivers' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and crash risk is well understood. Unfortun...

  1. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Gulati, Natasha K; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration-particularly for those with low average eBACs-and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one's typical drinking pattern.

  2. Association between in vivo alcohol metabolism and genetic variation in pathways that metabolize the carbon skeleton of ethanol and NADH reoxidation in the alcohol challenge twin study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Penelope A; Macgregor, Stuart; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Whitfield, John B

    2012-12-01

    Variation in alcohol metabolism affects the duration of intoxication and alcohol use. While the majority of genetic association studies investigating variation in alcohol metabolism have focused on polymorphisms in alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenases, we have now tested for association with genes in alternative metabolic pathways that catalyze the carbon skeleton of ethanol (EtOH) and NADH reoxidation. Nine hundred fifty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 14 genes (ACN9, ACSS1, ACSS2, ALDH1A1, CAT, CYP2E1, GOT1, GOT2, MDH1, MDH2, SLC25A10, SLC25A11, SLC25A12, SLC25A13) were genotyped in 352 young adults who participated in an alcohol challenge study. Traits tested were blood alcohol concentration (BAC), breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), peak alcohol concentration, and rates of alcohol absorption and elimination. Allelic association was tested using quantitative univariate and multivariate methods. A CYP2E1 promoter SNP (rs4838767, minor allele frequency 0.008) exceeded the threshold for study-wide significance (4.01 × 10(-5) ) for 2 early BAC, 8 BrAC measures, and the peak BrAC. For each phenotype, the minor C allele was related to a lower alcohol concentration, most strongly for the fourth BrAC (p = 2.07 × 10(-7) ) explaining ~8% of the phenotypic variance. We also observed suggestive patterns of association with variants in ALDH1A1 and on chromosome 17 near SLC25A11 for aspects of blood and breath alcohol metabolism. An SNP upstream of GOT1 (rs2490286) reached study-wide significance for multivariate BAC metabolism (p = 0.000040). Overall, we did not find strong evidence that variation in genes coding for proteins that further metabolize the carbon backbone of acetaldehyde, or contribute to mechanisms for regenerating NAD from NADH, affects alcohol metabolism in our European-descent subjects. However, based on the breath alcohol data, variation in the promoter of CYP2E1 may play a role in preabsorptive or early hepatic alcohol metabolism

  3. Alcohol-related serious road traffic injuries between 2000 and 2010: A new perspective to deal with administrative data in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jason; Killian, Jessica; Lloyd, Belinda

    2017-05-01

    According to the most recent statistics from the World Health Organization, 1.2 million people die or are injured on the world's roads every year. Drink-driving continues to be a major risk factor for road traffic crashes, with 22% of serious road injuries (SRIs) in Victoria involving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equal to or above the legal driving limit of 0.05g/mL. Use of police and hospital data to determine alcohol involvement in SRIs is not reliable, with researchers using proxy measures such as high alcohol hours (HAH). This paper examines patterns of alcohol-related SRIs based on reported BAC versus the surrogate HAH measure. Trends over a 10year period (2000-2010) were examined, comparing four different SRI rates (low alcohol hours (LAH), LAH with positive BAC, HAH, HAH with positive BAC). Discontinuities in the data series were also examined. SRI data were drawn from the Road Networks Database of VicRoads containing information on all reported road crashes in Victoria. For the 10year period there were 52,286 reported SRIs relating to the driver. Of the incidents where a driver's reading was recorded, 44% had a recorded BAC exceeding Victoria's legal limit of 0.05% and a further 23% had a BAC below the legal limit. During the period over 17,000 (or 34%) SRIs occurred during HAH. Where a BAC had been recorded during HAH, almost 60% exceeded the legal limit and a further 20% had some positive recording of BAC. Where SRI drivers had a recorded BAC during LAH, 58% had a positive BAC (31% with a BAC over the legal limit). While it is likely that an SRI occurring during HAH will be associated with a positive BAC (80%), of which 60% will be above the legal limit, almost 60% of SRIs during LAH had a positive BAC, with 31% above the legal limit. There was no significant change in overall alcohol-related SRI rates between 2000 and 2010, suggesting that policies and procedures implemented to decrease drink-driving have not reduced alcohol-related SRI rates. In

  4. Are alcohol policies associated with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2014-07-01

    To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling. Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) data set. Individuals aged 18-65 years. Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency and total drinking volume; gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates. Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were associated inversely with all drinking variables (P < 0.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were associated inversely with alcohol consumption (P < 0.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not associated significantly with alcohol consumption. Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Hadland, Scott E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Heeren, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and identify socio-demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Methods Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010–12 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08%. Results Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01%–0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p < 0.001). Characteristics that were independent predictors of homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and non-firearm homicides. Conclusions Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the U.S., with substantial variation by state, demographic and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol-involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. PMID:27676334

  6. The effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) on subjective intoxication and alertness: results from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van de Loo, Aurora J A E; van Andel, Nienke; van Gelder, Charlotte A G H; Janssen, Boris S G; Titulaer, Joep; Jansen, Jimmy; Verster, Joris C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this double blind placebo controlled study was to examine if specific effects on subjective intoxication and alertness-sleepiness ratings could be demonstrated after consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) when compared to consuming alcohol only (AO). 56 healthy volunteers rated their subjective intoxication on a scale ranging from 0 (sober) to 10 (highly intoxicated) at baseline, breath alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0%, and at BAC 0.08%, 0.05%, and 0.02%. Alertness-sleepiness was assessed with the Karolinska sleepiness scale. Scores of the AMED and AO condition, at each BAC level, were compared. Subjective intoxication for AMED and AO did not differ significantly from each other at any BAC level, except for BAC 0.02%. A significant increase in sleepiness scores was found in the AO condition, whereas scores remained stable in the AMED condition. Sleepiness scores at BAC0.08% and 0.05% were significantly lower after AMED when compared to AO. However, the observed differences between AMED and AO were small and have no clinical relevance. Mixing alcohol with energy drink had no overall masking effect on subjective intoxication caused by alcohol, nor had a relevant effect on subjective alertness-sleepiness ratings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Impact of a New Law to Reduce the Legal Blood Alcohol Concentration Limit - A Poisson Regression Analysis and Descriptive Approach.

    PubMed

    Nistal-Nuño, Beatriz

    2017-03-31

    In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 lowered the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for impaired drivers from 0.1% to 0.08% and the BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.05% to 0.03%, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of this enactment on road traffic injuries and fatalities in Chile. A retrospective cohort study. Data were analyzed using a descriptive and a Generalized Linear Models approach, type of Poisson regression, to analyze deaths and injuries in a series of additive Log-Linear Models accounting for the effects of law implementation, month influence, a linear time trend and population exposure. A review of national databases in Chile was conducted from 2003 to 2014 to evaluate the monthly rates of traffic fatalities and injuries associated to alcohol and in total. It was observed a decrease by 28.1 percent in the monthly rate of traffic fatalities related to alcohol as compared to before the law (P<0.001). Adding a linear time trend as a predictor, the decrease was by 20.9 percent (P<0.001).There was a reduction in the monthly rate of traffic injuries related to alcohol by 10.5 percent as compared to before the law (P<0.001). Adding a linear time trend as a predictor, the decrease was by 24.8 percent (P<0.001). Positive results followed from this new 'zero-tolerance' law implemented in 2012 in Chile. Chile experienced a significant reduction in alcohol-related traffic fatalities and injuries, being a successful public health intervention.

  8. Energy Drinks and Alcohol: Links to Alcohol Behaviors and Consequences Across 56 Days

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196

  9. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Gulati, Natasha K.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. Method: College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results: Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration—particularly for those with low average eBACs—and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one’s typical drinking pattern. PMID:26751365

  11. Effects of alcohol on body-sway patterns in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Nieschalk, M; Ortmann, C; West, A; Schmäl, F; Stoll, W; Fechner, G

    1999-01-01

    The vestibulospinal aspects of vestibular function are commonly neglected in the evaluation of alcohol-induced intoxication. Thus, in the present study the effect of an acute intoxication with a low or moderate quantity of alcohol was examined with respect to the equilibrium in 30 healthy subjects. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured 30 min after the ingestion of the last alcohol, ranging between 0.22 and 1.59 per thousand. Stability of stance was quantified by static platform posturography in Romberg-test conditions with eyes open and eyes closed. Among other parameters, the average body sway path (SP) and area of body sway (SA) were assessed. Posturography revealed a significant increase in body sway. There was a positive correlation between SA (or SP) and BAC both with eyes open and eyes closed. Multiple group comparisons revealed that the large-alcohol-dose group (BAC > or = 1.0 per thousand) could be clearly differentiated from test cases with BAC lower than 0.8 per thousand. Sway area was the most sensitive parameter for detecting increased body sway after alcohol ingestion. The area increase, present not only with eyes closed but with eyes open, revealed an inadequate compensation of the ethanol-induced ataxia by visual stabilization. The Romberg's quotient, which denotes eyes closed relative to eyes open, remained constant. The increase in sway path with eyes closed showed an omnidirectional sway. A comparison of the sway pattern of subjects after acute ethanol ingestion with the data of patients with permanent cerebellar lesions suggested that the acute effect of alcohol resembles that of a lesion of the spinocerebellum. This finding contrasts with earlier studies, which postulated an acute effect of ethanol resembling that in patients with an atrophy of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum due to chronic alcohol abuse. In seven cases of the lower dose group (BAC < or = 0.8 per thousand), a reduction in body sway after alcohol ingestion was

  12. Alcohol-impaired speed and accuracy of cognitive functions: a review of acute tolerance and recovery of cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Tom A; Vogel-Sprott, Muriel

    2008-06-01

    Much research on the effects of a dose of alcohol has shown that motor skills recover from impairment as blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) decline and that acute tolerance to alcohol impairment can develop during the course of the dose. Comparable alcohol research on cognitive performance is sparse but has increased with the development of computerized cognitive tasks. This article reviews the results of recent research using these tasks to test the development of acute tolerance in cognitive performance and recovery from impairment during declining BACs. Results show that speed and accuracy do not necessarily agree in detecting cognitive impairment, and this mismatch most frequently occurs during declining BACs. Speed of cognitive performance usually recovers from impairment to drug-free levels during declining BACs, whereas alcohol-increased errors fail to diminish. As a consequence, speed of cognitive processing tends to develop acute tolerance, but no such tendency is shown in accuracy. This "acute protracted error" phenomenon has not previously been documented. The findings pose a challenge to the theory of alcohol tolerance on the basis of physiological adaptation and raise new research questions concerning the independence of speed and accuracy of cognitive processes, as well as hemispheric lateralization of alcohol effects. The occurrence of alcohol-induced protracted cognitive errors long after speed returned to normal is identified as a potential threat to the safety of social drinkers that requires urgent investigation.

  13. A review of the literature on the effects of low doses of alcohol on driving-related skills

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding the effects of alcohol on driving-related skills was conducted. The review covered 112 articles dated from 1981 to 1997. Results were indexed by blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and behavioral area and...

  14. Prevalence of alcohol among nonfatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centers in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2018-02-17

    Alcohol use is pervasive among motorists on the road in Ghana; however, we do not know the extent to which this behavior is implicated in road accidents in this country. The main objective of this research was to establish the prevalence of alcohol in the blood of nonfatally injured casualties in the emergency departments (EDs) in northern Ghana. Participants were injured road traffic crash victims, namely, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers seeking treatment at an ED. The study sites were 2 level III trauma centers located in Wa and Bolgatanga. Participants were screened for alcohol followed by breath tests for positive participants using breathalyzers. Two hundred and sixty-two accident victims visited EDs, 58% of whom were in Wa. Among the victims, 41% were hospitalized and 57% experienced slight injuries. The vast majority (76%) of the casualties were motorcyclists, 13% were pedestrians, 8% were cyclists, and 2% were drivers. Casualties who had detectable alcohol in their blood were predominantly vulnerable road users. In all, 34% of participants had detectable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and the mean BAC for all casualties who tested positive and could give definitive BACs was 0.2265 (226 mg/dl). The prevalence of alcohol use was 53% among cyclists, 34% among motorcyclists, 21% among pedestrians, and 17% among drivers. Male casualties were more likely to test positive for alcohol than females. In addition, the prevalence of alcohol was significantly higher among injured casualties in Bolgatanga compared to Wa. There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among nonfatally injured casualties in northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended.

  15. The effect of energy drinks on the urge to drink alcohol in young adults.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice

    2014-08-01

    Recently, Marczinski and colleagues (2013) showed that energy drinks combined with alcohol augment a person's desire to drink more alcohol relative to drinking alcohol alone. The current study replicates the findings of Marczinski and colleagues (2013) using a robust measure of alcohol craving. Seventy-five participants aged 18 to 30 years were assigned to an alcohol only or alcohol+energy drink condition in a double-blind randomized pre- versus posttest experiment. Participants received a cocktail containing either 60 ml of vodka and a Red Bull(®) Silver Edition energy drink (alcohol+energy drink condition) or 60 ml of vodka with a soda water vehicle (alcohol-only condition); both cocktails contained 200 ml of fruit drink. The primary outcome measure was the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire taken at pretest and at 20 minutes (posttest). Other measures taken at posttest were the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Questionnaire, the Drug Effects Questionnaire, and breath alcohol concentration (BAC). The alcohol+energy drink condition showed a greater pre- versus posttest increase in urge to drink alcohol compared with the alcohol-only condition (B = 3.24, p = 0.021, d = 0.44). Participants in the alcohol+energy drink condition had significantly higher ratings on liking the cocktail and wanting to drink more of the cocktail, and lower BACs, than the alcohol-only condition. When examined at specific BACs, the effect of the energy drink on the pre- to posttest increase in urge to drink was largest and only significant at BACs of 0.04-0.05 (cf. < 0.04 g/dl).There were no significant differences in stimulation, sedation, feeling the effects of the cocktail, or feeling high. Combining energy drinks with alcohol increased the urge to drink alcohol relative to drinking alcohol alone. More research is needed to understand what factors mediate this effect and whether it increases subsequent alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Acute alcohol intoxication among adolescents-the role of the context of drinking.

    PubMed

    Grüne, Bettina; Piontek, Daniela; Pogarell, Oliver; Grübl, Armin; Groß, Cornelius; Reis, Olaf; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Kraus, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    This study aims (1) to describe the context of drinking among adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) by gender, (2) to explore temporal changes in the context of drinking and (3) to analyse the association between the context of drinking and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). A retrospective chart review of 12- to 17-year-old inpatients with AAI (n = 1441) of the years 2000 to 2006 has been conducted in five participating hospitals in Germany. Gender differences in the context of drinking were tested with t test and chi 2 test. Differences over time were analysed using logistic regressions. Multivariate linear regression was used to predict BAC. Girls and boys differed in admission time, drinking situation, drinking occasion and admission context. No temporal changes in drinking situation and in admission to hospital from public locations or places were found. Higher BAC coincided with male gender and age. Moreover, BAC was higher among patients admitted to hospital from public places and lower among patients who drank for coping. The results suggest gender differences in the context of drinking. The context of drinking needs to be considered in the development and implementation of target group-specific prevention and intervention measures. What is known: • The context of drinking, e.g. when, where, why and with whom is associated with episodic heavy drinking among adolescents. What is new: • Male and female inpatients with acute alcohol intoxication differ with regards to the context of drinking, i.e. in admission time, drinking situation, drinking occasion and admission context. • Being admitted to hospital from public places is associated with higher blood alcohol concentration.

  17. Removing organic and nitrogen content from a highly saline municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate by UV/H2O2-BAC treatment.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Shovana; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

    2015-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate (ROC) streams generated from RO-based municipal wastewater reclamation processes pose potential health and environmental risks on their disposal to confined water bodies such as bays. A UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process followed by a biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment was evaluated at lab-scale for the removal of organic and nutrient content from a highly saline ROC (TDS 16 g L(-1), EC 23.5 mS cm(-1)) for its safe disposal to the receiving environment. Over the 230-day operation of the UV/H2O2-BAC process, the colour and UV absorbance (254 nm) of the ROC were reduced to well below those of the influent to the reclamation process. The concentrations of DOC and total nitrogen (TN) were reduced by approximately 60% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 60 min. The reduction in ammonia nitrogen by the BAC remained high under all conditions tested (>90%). Further investigation confirmed that the presence of residual peroxide in the UV/H2O2 treated ROC was beneficial for DOC removal, but markedly inhibited the activities of the nitrifying bacteria (i.e., nitrite oxidising bacteria) in the BAC system and hence compromised total nitrogen removal. This work demonstrated that the BAC treatment could be acclimated to the very high salinity environment, and could be used as a robust method for the removal of organic matter and nitrogen from the pre-oxidised ROC under optimised conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol Interventions for Mandated Students: Behavioral Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. Method: This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). Results: Results revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions. PMID:25486391

  19. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  20. Six years' experience of using the BacT/ALERT system to screen all platelet concentrates, and additional testing of outdated platelet concentrates to estimate the frequency of false-negative results.

    PubMed

    Larsen, C P; Ezligini, F; Hermansen, N O; Kjeldsen-Kragh, J

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 1 in every 2000 units of platelets is contaminated with bacteria. The BacT/ALERT automated blood culture system can be used to screen platelet concentrates (PCs) for bacterial contamination. Data were collected from May 1998 until May 2004. The number of PCs tested during this period was 36 896, most of which were produced from pools of four buffy-coats. On the day following blood collection or platelet apheresis, a 5-10 ml sample of the PC was aseptically transferred to a BacT/ALERT culture bottle for detection of aerobic bacteria. The sample was monitored for bacterial growth during the entire storage period of the PC (6.5 days). When a positive signal was generated, the culture bottle, the PC and the erythrocyte concentrates were tested for bacterial growth. In order to determine the frequency of false-negative BacT/ALERT signals, 1061 outdated PCs were tested during the period from May 2002 to May 2004. Eighty-eight positive signals were detected by the BacT/ALERT system, of which 12 were interpreted as truly positive. Fourteen signals were interpreted as truly false positive. Thirty-three signals were interpreted to be probably false positive. Two of 1061 outdated units tested positive, and Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively, were isolated from these PCs. Between 0.03% and 0.12% of the PCs were contaminated with bacteria. BacT/ALERT is an efficient tool for monitoring PCs for bacterial contamination; however, it is important to realize that false-negative results may occur.

  1. Effects of Acute Alcohol Tolerance on Perceptions of Danger and Willingness to Drive after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael T.; Morris, David H.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Drinking and driving is associated with elevated rates of motor vehicle accidents and fatalities. Previous research suggests that alcohol impairs judgments about the dangers of risky behaviors; however, how alcohol affects driving-related judgments is less clear. Impairments have also been shown to differ across limbs of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, which is known as acute tolerance. Objectives Examine whether perceptions about the dangerousness of driving after drinking and willingness to drive differed across ascending and descending limbs of the BAC curve. Test whether reductions in perceived danger were associated with willingness to drive on the descending limb. Methods Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate dose of alcohol (peak BAC = 0.10 g%) or placebo. We assessed perceived dangerousness and willingness to drive at matched BACs (~0.067-0.068 g%) on the ascending and descending limbs. Results Both perceived danger and willingness to drive showed acute tolerance in the alcohol group. Participants judged driving to be significantly less dangerous and were more willing to drive on the descending limb compared to the ascending limb. The magnitude of change in perceived danger significantly predicted willingness to drive on the descending limb. Conclusions Decreased impairment associated with acute tolerance may lead individuals to underestimate the dangerousness of driving after drinking and in turn make poor decisions regarding driving. This study further emphasizes the descending limb as a period of increased risk and offers support for enhancing prevention efforts by targeting drivers at declining BAC levels. PMID:24752657

  2. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  3. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  4. Characteristics of 1226 alcohol-positive drivers involved in nonfatal traffic crashes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingying; Huang, Zhibin; Zhao, Ziqin; Jiang, Yan; Ye, Yonghong; Yu, Tianfang; Rao, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to better characterize and evaluate drunk driving for governmental reference in order to further reduce alcohol-impaired driving. This article reports the characteristics of 1226 alcohol-positive drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or over the legal limit of 0.20 mg/mL involved in nonfatal traffic accidents in Shanghai, China, from 2008 to 2011. The mean BAC, age, and gender of these drivers are discussed as well as the vehicle types and times of day when the crashes occurred. The mean BAC was 1.41 mg/mL and the mean age was 38 years old, and the vast majority of drivers were male (96.9%). The mean BAC of male drivers (1.42 mg/mL) was higher than that of female drivers (1.20 mg/mL). The mean age of male drivers (38) was also higher than that of female drivers (33). Distributions of vehicle types involved were studied. Cars had the highest percentage of occurrences (56.4%), followed by motorcycles (32.8%), electric bicycles (6.8%), trucks (1.5%), and bicycles (0.8%). It was found that these alcohol-related traffic crashes most often occurred between 7:00 p.m. and 10:59 p.m., representing 48.1 percent (n = 590) of the 1226 cases. Single-vehicle crashes were overrepresented (70.3%) in all cases. The mean BAC in multivehicle crashes (1.69 mg/mL) was higher than that in single-vehicle crashes (1.30 mg/mL). The results indicated a notable need for more governmental attention that would prevent accidents caused by driving under the influence of alcohol.

  5. Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking

    PubMed Central

    Crabbe, John C.; Harris, R. Adron; Koob, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent and has serious biomedical consequences. In children, adolescents, and young adults, it is a prominent risk factor for later development of alcohol-use disorders. Many preclinical models have been employed to study the genetic risks for and biomedical consequences of alcohol drinking. However, these models historically did not result in blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) exceding 80 mg%; this relatively modest level is the threshold that currently defines a binge session, according to the NIAAA and CDC. Nevertheless, in alcohol-dependent rodents, binge drinking has been well documented. Key neurobiological substrates localized to brain reward and stress systems have been identified. Studies of newer models of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed here. In these models, rodents, non-human primates, and flies will drink enough to reach high BACs. They often display observable signs of intoxication. The neurobiological consequences of these episodes of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed, preliminary evidence for roles for GABA, glutamate, opioid peptides, and corticotropin releasing factor are discussed, as is the need for more work to identify the antecedents and consequences of binge drinking in both animal models and humans. PMID:21272009

  6. A comparison of the effect of mobile phone use and alcohol consumption on driving simulation performance.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sumie; Croft, Rodney J; Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; McKenzie, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of a variety of mobile phone usage conditions to different levels of alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a crossover design in which each participant completed a simulated driving task on 2 days, separated by a 1-week washout period. On the mobile phone day, participants performed the simulated driving task under each of 4 conditions: no phone usage, a hands-free naturalistic conversation, a hands-free cognitively demanding conversation, and texting. On the alcohol day, participants performed the simulated driving task at four different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels: 0.00, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.10. Driving performance was assessed by variables including time within target speed range, time spent speeding, braking reaction time, speed deviation, and lateral lane position deviation. In the BAC 0.07 and 0.10 alcohol conditions, participants spent less time in the target speed range and more time speeding and took longer to brake in the BAC 0.04, 0.07, and 0.10 than in the BAC 0.00 condition. In the mobile phone condition, participants took longer to brake in the natural hands-free conversation, cognitively demanding hands-free conversation and texting conditions and spent less time in the target speed range and more time speeding in the cognitively demanding, hands-free conversation, and texting conditions. When comparing the 2 conditions, the naturalistic conversation was comparable to the legally permissible BAC level (0.04), and the cognitively demanding and texting conversations were similar to the BAC 0.07 to 0.10 results. The findings of the current laboratory study suggest that very simple conversations on a mobile phone may not represent a significant driving risk (compared to legally permissible BAC levels), whereas cognitively demanding, hands-free conversation, and particularly texting represent significant risks to driving.

  7. Fire fatality and alcohol intake: analysis of key risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Dorothy; Ball, Michelle; Thomas, Ian R

    2011-09-01

    After a brief review of the literature on the role of alcohol in residential fire deaths, a comparison of different risk factors for residential fire fatality was undertaken by closely analyzing the circumstances of fire victims as a function of alcohol intake. Analyses were based on Australian coroners' fire fatality records for the state of Victoria (1998-2006) and considered demographic, behavioral, and environmental factors for the 95 adult fire victims who were tested for alcohol (64 male, 31 female). Most (58%) had a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test, with 31% of the total sample having a BAC of more than 0.20 gm per 100 ml. Odds ratio analyses showed that four variables were significantly more associated with victims who had consumed alcohol compared with sober victims. In descending odds ratio order, these variables were as follows: (a) being aged 18-60 years, (b) involving smoking materials (e.g. cigarettes, pipes), (c) having no conditions preventing escape, and (d) being male. An important new finding is that fire fatalities with positive BAC levels were more than three times less likely to have their clothing alight or exits blocked than sober fire victims. The risk of dying in a fire for alcohol-affected people who are capable of being alerted and escaping may be reduced if they can be alerted more quickly and effectively. Suitable measures for improving smoke alarms via interlinking and the use of an alarm signal demonstrated to be more effective at waking sleepers, including those who are alcohol affected, are discussed.

  8. Alcohol-related hospitalisations of trauma patients in Southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional study based on a trauma registry system

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Liu, Hang-Tsung; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Cho, Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of the demographic characteristics of patients with positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and to investigate the performance of brain CT scans in these patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants 2192 patients who had undergone a test for blood alcohol of 13 233 patients registered in the Trauma Registry System between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012. A BAC level of 50 mg/dL was defined as the cut-off value. Detailed information was retrieved from the patients with positive BAC (n=793) and was compared with information from those with a negative BAC (n=1399). Main outcome measures Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) as well as the performance and findings of obtained brain CT scans. Results Patients with positive BAC had a higher rate of face injury, but a lower GCS score, a lower rate of head and neck injury, a lower ISS and New Injury Severity Score. Alcohol use was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (8.6 vs 11.4 days, p=0.000) in patients with an ISS of <16. Of 496 patients with positive BAC who underwent brain CT, 164 (33.1%) showed positive findings on CT scan. In contrast, of 891 patients with negative BAC who underwent brain CT, 389 (43.7%) had positive findings on CT scan. The lower percentage of positive CT scan findings in patients with positive BAC was particularly evident in patients with an ISS <16 (18.0% vs 28.8%, p=0.001). Conclusions Patients who consumed alcohol tended to have a low GCS score and injuries that were less severe. However, given the significantly low percentage of positive findings, brain CT might be overused in these patients with less severe injuries. PMID:25361838

  9. Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, A; Feyer, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the relative effects on performance of sleep deprivation and alcohol.
METHODS—Performance effects were studied in the same subjects over a period of 28 hours of sleep deprivation and after measured doses of alcohol up to about 0.1% blood alcohol concentration (BAC). There were 39 subjects, 30 employees from the transport industry and nine from the army.
RESULTS—After 17-19 hours without sleep, corresponding to 2230 and 0100, performance on some tests was equivalent or worse than that at a BAC of 0.05%. Response speeds were up to 50% slower for some tests and accuracy measures were significantly poorer than at this level of alcohol. After longer periods without sleep, performance reached levels equivalent to the maximum alcohol dose given to subjects (BAC of 0.1%).
CONCLUSIONS—These findings reinforce the evidence that the fatigue of sleep deprivation is an important factor likely to compromise performance of speed and accuracy of the kind needed for safety on the road and in other industrial settings.


Keywords: sleep deprivation; performance; alcohol PMID:10984335

  10. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from...

  11. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from...

  12. Outcomes of a Technology-Based Social Norms Intervention to Deter Alcohol Use in Freshman Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Olds, R. Scott; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Casseday, Sarah; Glavin, Kevin; Berkowitz, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors tested a prototype intervention designed to deter alcohol use in residence halls. Participants: Approximately 384 freshmen participated in the study over a 2-year period. Methods: The authors devised a feedback method that assessed residents' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at night and allowed the readings to be retrieved…

  13. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an alcohol...

  14. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an alcohol...

  15. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: Sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990–2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important precursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. PMID:23773958

  16. Alcohol consumption in adolescent homicide victims in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2015-04-01

    To describe the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of adolescent homicide victims in Johannesburg, South Africa and to identify the victim and event characteristics associated with a positive BAC at the time of death. Logistic regression of mortality data collected by the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS). Johannesburg, South Africa. A total of 323 adolescent (15-19 years) homicide victims for the period 2001-9 who had been tested for the presence of alcohol. Data on the victims' BAC level, demographics, weapon or method used, scene, day and time of death were drawn from NIMSS. Alcohol was present in 39.3% of the homicide victims. Of these, 88.2% had a BAC level equivalent to or in excess of the South African limit of 0.05 g/100 ml for intoxication. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that a positive BAC in homicide victims was associated significantly with the victim's sex [male: odds ratio (OR) = 2.127; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.012-4.471], victim's age (18-19 years: OR = 2.364; CI = 1.343-4.163); weapon used (sharp instruments: OR = 2.972; CI = 1.708-5.171); and time of death (weekend: OR = 3.149; CI = 1.842-5.383; night-time: OR = 2.175; CI = 1.243-3.804). Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial proportion of adolescent homicides in Johannesburg, South Africa, and is more prevalent among male and older adolescent victims and in victims killed with sharp instruments over the weekends and during the evenings. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Association of State Alcohol Policies With Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Sarda, Vishnudas; Hadland, Scott E; Lira, Marlene C; Swahn, Monica H; Voas, Robert B; Heeren, Timothy C

    2018-05-29

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of mortality. However, the association between the restrictiveness of the alcohol policy environment (ie, based on multiple existing policies) and alcohol-related crash fatalities has not been characterized previously to date. To examine the association between the restrictiveness of state alcohol policy environments and the likelihood of alcohol involvement among those dying in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. This investigation was a repeated cross-sectional study in which state alcohol policies (operationalized by the Alcohol Policy Scale [APS]) from 1999 to 2014 were related to motor vehicle crash fatalities from 2000 to 2015 using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1-year lag). Alternating logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustering of multiple deaths within a crash and of multiple crashes occurring within states. The study also examined independent associations of mutually exclusive subgroups of policies, including consumption-oriented policies vs driving-oriented policies. The study setting was the 50 US states. Participants were 505 614 decedents aged at least 21 years from motor vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2015. Odds that a crash fatality was alcohol related (fatality stemmed from a crash in which ≥1 driver had a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] ≥0.08%). From 2000 to 2015, there were 505 614 adult motor vehicle crash fatalities in the United States, of which 178 795 (35.4%) were alcohol related. Each 10-percentage point increase in the APS score (corresponding to more restrictive state policies) was associated with reduced individual-level odds of alcohol involvement in a crash fatality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.91); results were consistent among most demographic and crash-type strata. More restrictive policies also had protective associations with alcohol involvement among crash fatalities

  18. Novice drivers' performance after different alcohol dosages and placebo in the divided-attention steering simulator (DASS).

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Wester, Anne E; Goorden, Maartje; van Wieringen, Jan-Peter; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

    2009-05-01

    The divided-attention steering simulator (DASS) is designed to measure lane-keeping (i.e., a tracking task using a steering wheel) while performing a secondary visual task (responding to digits that appear in the corners of the computer screen). Some studies have already used the DASS, but the magnitude of impairment is difficult to interpret because reference values are lacking. To examine the magnitude of impairment after administration of four different dosages of alcohol and placebo. Thirty-two healthy young adults participated in this randomized, single-blind crossover trial. Subjects received alcohol to gain a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.08%, and 0.10% or alcohol-placebo. Sixteen subjects performed a 30-min test in DASS (dual-task condition). Outcome measures were steering error, reaction time, and percentage of errors. Sixteen other subjects performed the test without performing the secondary peripheral task (single-task condition). Twenty-eight subjects (novice drivers; drivers' license up to 5 years) were included in the analyses. Dose-dependent impairment was found in both the single-task condition (F ((4,11)) = 10.86, p < 0.001) and the dual-task condition (F ((4,9)) = 5.58, p < 0.015). Performance at all BAC levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) from alcohol-placebo, except BAC 0.02%. With increasing BAC levels, subjects made more errors and reacted slower on the peripheral visual search task, but these effects did not reach significance. With increasing BAC, dose-dependent impairment was found. The DASS seems to be a suitable divided-attention task that is useful in psychopharmacological research and training of novice drivers.

  19. Role of alcohol in hospitalized road trauma in Viet nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Passmore, Jonathon; Tran, Lan Thi Ngoc; Luong, Anh Mai

    2013-01-01

    To assess the blood alcohol concentration (BAC; dependent variable) of patients with road traffic injuries (RTIs) presenting at 3 provincial and central hospitals in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam by age, sex, and road user type (independent variables). This survey formed part of the Viet Nam Road Traffic Injury Prevention Project, funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies. RTIs are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam, with 14,690 deaths and 143,940 injuries reported by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in 2010. Research estimates suggest that motorcycle riders and passengers account for 60 percent of fatalities. Alcohol has long been suspected of being a leading cause of road traffic collisions and injuries. However, until now data on this relationship have been limited. A descriptive cross-sectional study measuring BAC in all consenting patients with RTIs presenting at 3 provincial or central hospitals between July 2009 and September 2010. All results were anonymous and summary information on key variables was sent to MOH and the World Health Organization (WHO) on a monthly basis. Of the 36,418 patients with RTIs presenting to these 3 hospitals between July 2009 and September 2010, BAC analysis was completed on 14,990 patients (41.2%), representing all patients with RTIs 15 years of age and above who consented to anonymous testing. BAC results ranged from 0 to 0.589 g/dL blood, with a mean of 0.0441 g/dL being the average concentration among all tested patients. Of all patients tested, 56.8 percent had no detectable alcohol in their system. Motorcycle riders were most commonly represented in the tested sample (70.7%), with 27.8 percent having a BAC above the legal limit (0.05 g/dL). Car or other vehicle drivers represented 2.7 percent of the sample, with 63.4 percent tested having a BAC above 0 g/dL, the legal limit for these road users. The results of this preliminary study indicate that 29.1 percent of all car drivers and motorcycle riders presenting at

  20. 'Wide-awake drunkenness'? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night-time economy.

    PubMed

    Pennay, Amy; Miller, Peter; Busija, Lucy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Droste, Nicolas; Quinn, Brendan; Jones, Sandra C; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-02-01

    We tested whether patrons of the night-time economy who had co-consumed energy drinks or illicit stimulants with alcohol had higher blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels than patrons who had consumed only alcohol. Street intercept surveys (n = 4227) were undertaken between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. over a period of 7 months. Interviews were undertaken with patrons walking through entertainment precincts, queuing to enter venues or exiting venues in five Australian cities. The response rate was 92.1%; more than half the study sample was male (60.2%) and the median age was 23 years (range 18-72). Data were collected on demographics, length of drinking session, venue types visited, types and quantity of alcohol consumed and other substance use. A BAC reading was recorded and a subsample of participants was tested for other drug use. Compared with the total sample (0.068%), illicit stimulant consumers (0.080%; P = 0.004) and energy drink consumers (0.074%; P < 0.001) had a significantly higher median BAC reading, and were more likely to engage in pre-drinking (65.6, 82.1 and 77.6%, respectively, P < 0.001) and longer drinking sessions (4, 5 and 4.5 hours, respectively, P < 0.001). However, stimulant use was not associated independently with higher BAC in the final multivariable model (illicit stimulants P = 0.198; energy drinks P = 0.112). Interaction analyses showed that stimulant users had a higher BAC in the initial stages of the drinking session, but not after 4-6 hours. While stimulant use does not predict BAC in and of itself, stimulants users are more likely to engage in prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk-taking behaviours on a night out, which may explain higher levels of BAC among stimulants users, at least in the initial stages of the drinking session. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Obtaining continuous BrAC/BAC estimates in the field: A hybrid system integrating transdermal alcohol biosensor, Intellidrink smartphone app, and BrAC Estimator software tools.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Hawkins, Ashley L; Dai, Zheng; Wichmann, Raphael; Wang, Chunming; Rosen, I Gary

    2018-08-01

    Biosensors have been developed to measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), but converting TAC into interpretable indices of blood/breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC) is difficult because of variations that occur in TAC across individuals, drinking episodes, and devices. We have developed mathematical models and the BrAC Estimator software for calibrating and inverting TAC into quantifiable BrAC estimates (eBrAC). The calibration protocol to determine the individualized parameters for a specific individual wearing a specific device requires a drinking session in which BrAC and TAC measurements are obtained simultaneously. This calibration protocol was originally conducted in the laboratory with breath analyzers used to produce the BrAC data. Here we develop and test an alternative calibration protocol using drinking diary data collected in the field with the smartphone app Intellidrink to produce the BrAC calibration data. We compared BrAC Estimator software results for 11 drinking episodes collected by an expert user when using Intellidrink versus breath analyzer measurements as BrAC calibration data. Inversion phase results indicated the Intellidrink calibration protocol produced similar eBrAC curves and captured peak eBrAC to within 0.0003%, time of peak eBrAC to within 18min, and area under the eBrAC curve to within 0.025% alcohol-hours as the breath analyzer calibration protocol. This study provides evidence that drinking diary data can be used in place of breath analyzer data in the BrAC Estimator software calibration procedure, which can reduce participant and researcher burden and expand the potential software user pool beyond researchers studying participants who can drink in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Alcohol use by suicide victims in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raphael Eduardo Marques; Ponce, Júlio de Carvalho; Leyton, Vilma

    2018-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a serious public health issue, because drunkenness affects critical judgment and self-control which could trigger violent and self-harm behavior, with thus a potential association between alcohol consumption and suicide deaths. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between alcohol consumption and suicide deaths in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015, and its relationship with socio-demographic characteristics of the victims and the circumstances of the suicide. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted by collection of data from 1,700 suicide victims subjected to examination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from toxicology reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Alcohol was detected in blood samples of 30.2% of the victims and mean BAC levels were 1.73 ± 0.08 g/L. The mean age of the victims was 39.90 ± 0.75 years. The majority of the victims were male (74.6%) and the prevalence of positive BAC was higher amongst men (34.7%) than women (17.1%), p<0.05. The majority of the victims were white skinned (64.7%), but there was a higher proportion of victims with positive BAC among mulatto and black individuals, p<0.05. Hanging was the most prevalent suicide method in the sample (48.7%) and amongst men (55.4%), but amongst women it was jumping from a height (35%), p < 0.05. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Burden of alcohol-related injuries on radiology services at a level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman; Psoter, Kevin J; Mack, Christopher; Vavilala, Monica S; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the burden of alcohol-related injuries on a radiology department at a level 1 trauma center. We linked the trauma registry (2005-2009) of Harborview Medical Center to billing department data and extracted patient demographic and injury-related characteristics and the radiology services provided. Multivariate negative binomial analysis was used to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and CT and MRI utilization rates. A total of 125,776 CT and 4681 MRI examinations were performed on 27,274 patients during the study period. Higher BAC was generally associated with higher utilization rates for all types of CT even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Compared with patients with a BAC of 0, the greatest increases in utilization were observed in individuals with a BAC of 240 mg/dL or more for head CT (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.43; 95% CI, 1.32-1.54), cervical spine (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.32-1.58), and maxillofacial (IRR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.42-1.95), with no increase observed for MRI. This association was more prominent in less severely injured patients with utilization rates for head CT (IRR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.56-2.13), abdomen (IRR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.32-1.63), and thorax (IRR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.30-1.89) in individuals with a BAC of 240 mg/dL or more compared with those with a BAC of 0. Higher BAC was associated with increased CT utilization for most body region-specific CT scans and was more strongly associated in patients with less severe injuries. Any guideline that could potentially decrease unnecessary imaging for patients with alcohol-involved injuries would represent a cost-saving strategy.

  4. Results of the 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-01

    The 2007 NRS included, for the first time, measures to estimate the use of other potentially impairing drugs by drivers. Prior roadside surveys had collected breath samples to determine blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Due to developments in analyt...

  5. A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21–25 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1–3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024–.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

  6. Cycling injuries and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Noora K; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S; Kataja, J Matti; Kröger, Heikki P J; Lüthje, Peter M J

    2018-05-01

    Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of ≥ 1.2 g/L was measured in nearly 90% of all alcohol-related cases. A positive BAC result was more common among males than females (p < 0.001), and head injuries were more common among cyclists where alcohol was involved (AI) (60%) than among sober cyclists (29%) (p < 0.001). Two thirds (64%) of the cyclists with AI were not wearing a bicycle helmet. The figure for serious injuries (MAIS ≥ 3) was similar in both groups. Intoxication with an alcohol level of more than 1.5 g/L and the age of 15 to 24 years were found to be risk factors for head injuries. The mean cost of treatment was higher among sober cyclists than among cyclists with AI (€2143 vs. €1629), whereas in respect of the cost of work absence, the situation was the opposite (€1348 vs. €1770, respectively). Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve

  7. Effects of acute alcohol tolerance on perceptions of danger and willingness to drive after drinking.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael T; Morris, David H; McCarthy, Denis M

    2014-11-01

    Drinking and driving is associated with elevated rates of motor vehicle accidents and fatalities. Previous research suggests that alcohol impairs judgments about the dangers of risky behaviors; however, how alcohol affects driving-related judgments is less clear. Impairments have also been shown to differ across limbs of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, which is known as acute tolerance. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions about the dangerousness of driving after drinking and willingness to drive differed across the ascending and descending limbs of the BAC curve and to test whether reductions in perceived danger were associated with willingness to drive on the descending limb. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate dose of alcohol (peak BAC = 0.10 g%) or placebo. We assessed perceived dangerousness and willingness to drive at matched BACs (~0.067-0.068 g%) on the ascending and descending limbs. Both perceived danger and willingness to drive showed acute tolerance in the alcohol group. Participants judged driving to be significantly less dangerous and were more willing to drive on the descending limb compared to the ascending limb. The magnitude of change in perceived danger significantly predicted willingness to drive on the descending limb. Decreased impairment associated with acute tolerance may lead individuals to underestimate the dangerousness of driving after drinking and in turn make poor decisions regarding driving. This study further emphasizes the descending limb as a period of increased risk and offers support for enhancing prevention efforts by targeting drivers at declining BAC levels.

  8. Association between in vivo alcohol metabolism and genetic variation in pathways that metabolize the carbon skeleton of ethanol and NADH reoxidation in the Alcohol Challenge Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Penelope A; Macgregor, Stuart; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Whitfield, John B

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation in alcohol metabolism affects the duration of intoxication and alcohol use. While the majority of genetic association studies investigating variation in alcohol metabolism have focused on polymorphisms in alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenases, we have now tested for association with genes in alternative metabolic pathways that catalyze the carbon skeleton of ethanol and NADH reoxidation. Methods 950 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 14 genes (ACN9, ACSS1, ACSS2, ALDH1A1, CAT, CYP2E1, GOT1, GOT2, MDH1, MDH2, SLC25A10, SLC25A11, SLC25A12, SLC25A13) were genotyped in 352 young adults who participated in an alcohol challenge study. Traits tested were blood and breath alcohol concentration, peak alcohol concentration and rates of alcohol absorption and elimination. Allelic association was tested using quantitative univariate and multivariate methods. Results A CYP2E1 promoter SNP (rs4838767, minor allele frequency 0.008) exceeded the threshold for study-wide significance (4.01 × 10−5) for two early blood alcohol concentration (BAC), eight breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) measures and the peak BrAC. For each phenotype the minor C-allele was related to a lower alcohol concentration, most strongly for the fourth BrAC (P = 2.07 × 10−7) explaining ~8% of the phenotypic variance. We also observed suggestive patterns of association with variants in ALDH1A1 and on chromosome 17 near SLC25A11 for aspects of blood and breath alcohol metabolism. A SNP upstream of GOT1 (rs2490286) reached study-wide significance for multivariate BAC metabolism (P = 0.000040). Conclusions Overall, we did not find strong evidence that variation in genes coding for proteins that further metabolize the carbon backbone of acetaldehyde, or contribute to mechanisms for regenerating NAD from NADH, affects alcohol metabolism in our European-descent subjects. However, based on the breath alcohol data, variation in the promoter of CYP2E1 may play a role in pre

  9. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-10-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990-2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, that a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important pre-cursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring.

  11. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    PubMed Central

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring. PMID:27291059

  12. Passive alcohol sensors tested in 3 states for youth alcohol enforcement

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-05-01

    Passive alcohol sensors were tested in three states to determine their effectiveness in enforcing zero tolerance or low BAC laws for under 21 age drivers. The passive alcohol sensor was designed to sample the air immediately around the suspect for si...

  13. Children in fatal crashes: driver blood alcohol concentration and demographics of child passengers and their drivers.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Fisher, Deborah A; Tippetts, A Scott

    2002-11-01

    This study examines whether differences in two risk factors for crash-related injury for children-riding with a drinking driver and failure to use restraints-are related to various driver characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity and drinking. Data on driver blood alcohol concentration (BAC), use of restraints and certain demographics were drawn from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Ethnicity data came from the Multiple Cause of Death File and socioeconomic information from the US Census. The use of restraints by child passengers and the drinking of alcohol by adult drivers are examined as a function of age, gender and membership of five racial/ethnic groups: White American, Black American, Native American, Asian/Pacific Islander American and Hispanic American. This study covers 160,770 drivers and 12,266 children younger than 16 years killed in motor vehicle crashes from January 1,1990 to December 31,1996. As might be expected, analyses of fatally injured drivers showed that, compared with men, women were more likely to be accompanied by children at the time of their crash, but those children were more likely to be restrained than if travelling with men. Drivers who had been drinking at the time of their crash were less likely to be transporting children and those children were less likely to be restrained. Analyses of killed children indicated that some ethnic groups, compared with White drivers, were more likely to be BAC-positive and children were less likely to be restrained. These findings underscore the continuing need to understand cultural factors in traffic safety and develop and disseminate culturally appropriate education programs.

  14. Driving under the influence of alcohol in Cali, Colombia: prevalence and consumption patterns, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Herrera-López, Martha L; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Medina-Murillo, Jhon J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Naranjo-Lujan, Salome; Izquierdo, Edda P; Vanlaar, Ward; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2016-01-01

    This study's goal was to establish the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and alcohol consumption patterns among drivers in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. A cross-sectional study based on a roadside survey using a stratified and multi-stage sampling design was developed. Thirty-two sites were chosen randomly for the selection of drivers who were then tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and asked to participate in the survey. The prevalence of DUI was 0.88% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.26%-1.49%) with a lower prevalence when BAC was increasing. In addition, a higher prevalence was found during non-typical checkpoint hours (1.28, 95% CI -0.001%-0.03%). The overall prevalence is considered high, given the low alcohol consumption and vehicles per capita. Prevention measures are needed to reduce DUI during non-typical checkpoints and ongoing studies are required to monitor the trends and enable the assessment of interventions.

  15. Moderate alcohol intake and motor vehicle crashes: the conflict between health advantage and at-risk use.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth; Hargarten, Stephen; Layde, Peter; Craven, Andy; Zhu, Shankuan

    2006-01-01

    To review the evidence on moderate alcohol intake and motor vehicle crash (MVC) risk, and discuss the possible public health tension in balancing risk reduction and increment with respect to moderate alcohol intake. A Medline review was conducted on moderate alcohol intake, MVC, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moderate alcohol intake (24 g ethanol, two US standard drinks, or less a day) is associated with 20% reduction in risk of CVD. Public awareness of this may contribute to why rates of driving with blood alcohol content (BAC) <0.08 g/dl in the United States are static. Studies show 3- to 17-fold increased risk of a fatal MVC with BAC < 0.08 g/dl compared to sober drivers. The United States has 0.08 g/dl BAC laws, higher than that reached by a driver drinking two drinks per day or less. The public should be educated that although moderate alcohol drinking may not violate BAC laws, it still carries significant risk of MVC. Current BAC laws in some countries needs re-evaluation.

  16. A decision model applied to alcohol effects on driver signal light behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, S. H.; Allen, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A decision model including perceptual noise or inconsistency is developed from expected value theory to explain driver stop and go decisions at signaled intersections. The model is applied to behavior in a car simulation and instrumented vehicle. Objective and subjective changes in driver decision making were measured with changes in blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Treatment levels averaged 0.00, 0.10 and 0.14 BAC for a total of 26 male subjects. Data were taken for drivers approaching signal lights at three timing configurations. The correlation between model predictions and behavior was highly significant. In contrast to previous research, analysis indicates that increased BAC results in increased perceptual inconsistency, which is the primary cause of increased risk taking at low probability of success signal lights.

  17. Motorists' knowledge, attitudes and practices toward alcohol-impaired driving/riding in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-01-02

    The main objective of this study was to establish the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward drink driving/riding as a risk factor for road traffic crashes in 3 regional capitals in Ghana. The study used a face-to-face approach to randomly sample motorists who were accessing various services at fuel/gas stations, garages, and lorry terminals in 3 cities in Ghana. Over the previous 12 months, 24% of all motorists and 55% of motorists who were current alcohol users reported driving or riding a vehicle within an hour of alcohol intake. On average, motorists/riders who were current alcohol users consumed 4 standard drinks per drinking occasion. Generally, 83% of motorists who currently use alcohol walked, rode, or drove home after consuming alcohol away from their homes. Motorists/riders who reported drink driving were 4 times more likely to have had previous traffic violation arrests compared to those who reported no drink driving/riding (P =.001). Respondents were of the opinion that speeding was the major cause of traffic crashes, followed by driver carelessness, poor road conditions, inexperienced driving, and drink driving, in that order. Thirty-six percent of motorists who use alcohol had the perception that consuming between 6 and 15 standard drinks was the volume of alcohol that will take them to the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 0.08%. Compared to females, male motorists/riders were more likely to report drink driving (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31 to 11.47). Private motorists also reported a higher likelihood of drink driving compared to commercial drivers (AOR = 3.36; 95% CI, 1.88 to 6.02). Only 4% of motorists knew the legal BAC limit of Ghana and only 2% had ever been tested for drink driving/riding. The volumes of alcohol that motorists typically consume per drinking occasion were very high and their estimates of the number of drinks required to reach the legal BAC limit was also very high

  18. The combined effects of alcohol and cannabis on driving: Impact on crash risk.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Sacha; Mullen, Nadia; Weaver, Bruce; Bédard, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis alone is associated with increased crash risk. This study explores the combined influence of low levels of alcohol (BAC≤0.08) and cannabis on crash risk. Drivers aged 20 years or older who had been tested for both drugs and alcohol after involvement in a fatal crash in the United States (1991-2008) were examined using a case-control design. Cases were drivers with at least one potentially unsafe driving action (UDA) recorded in relation to the crash (e.g., weaving); controls had none recorded. We examined the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol, cannabis, and both agents, for drivers involved in a fatal crash. Adjusted odds ratios of committing an UDA for alcohol alone, THC alone, and their combined effect were computed via logistic regression and adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of THC and alcohol in car drivers involved in a fatal crash has increased approximately five-fold from below 2% in 1991 to above 10% in 2008. Each 0.01 BAC unit increased the odds of an UDA by approximately 9-11%. Drivers who were positive for THC alone had 16% increased odds of an UDA. When alcohol and THC were combined the odds of an UDA increased by approximately 8-10% for each 0.01 BAC unit increase over alcohol or THC alone. Drivers positive for both agents had greater odds of making an error than drivers positive for either alcohol or cannabis only. Further research is needed to better examine the interaction between cannabis concentration levels, alcohol, and driving. This research would support enforcement agencies and public health educators by highlighting the combined effect of cannabis at low BAC levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. We found support for several such findings: 1) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; 2) This association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and 3) Within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol’s relation with aggression. PMID:23421356

  20. Alcohol use by drivers fatally injured in motor vehicle collisions in Canada in 2007 and the previous 20 years

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-12-01

    This leaflet provides information on the blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of drivers fatally injured in motor vehicle collisions in the Canadian provinces and territories. The information is derived from the Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIR...

  1. Women’s Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women’s sexual arousal – especially genital arousal –received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed the same pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol’s impact on the variability of women’s sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  2. Precipitating Circumstances of Suicide and Alcohol Intoxication among U.S. Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; McFarland, Bentson H.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of nine different types of precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents, and examine the association between circumstances and post-mortem blood alcohol content (BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl.) across U.S. ethnic groups. Methods Data come from the restricted 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with post-mortem information on 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 17 states of the U.S. Results Among men, precipitating circumstances statistically associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl were physical health and job problems for Blacks, and experiencing a crisis, physical health problems and intimate partner problem for Hispanics. Among women, the only precipitating circumstance associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl was substance abuse problems other than alcohol for Blacks. The number of precipitating circumstances present before the suicide was negatively associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl for Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions Selected precipitating circumstances were associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl, and the strongest determinant of this level of alcohol intoxication prior to suicide among all ethnic groups was the presence of an alcohol problem. PMID:26173709

  3. Effects of low-dose alcohol exposure on simulated merchant ship piloting by maritime cadets.

    PubMed

    Howland, J; Rohsenow, D J; Cote, J; Gomez, B; Mangione, T W; Laramie, A K

    2001-03-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates on-the-job alcohol use by operators of certain categories of commercial transport. For aircraft, trains, and commercial vessels, operators are subject to sanctions for having > or = 0.04 g% blood alcohol concentration (BAC). This study examines the effects of alcohol (between 0.04 and 0.05 g% BAC) on simulated merchant ship handling. A two-group randomized factorial design was used to compare beverage alcohol to placebo while controlling for baseline performance on a previous day. The study was conducted in the Maritime Simulation Center at Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME. Participants were 38 volunteer deck officer cadets in their junior or senior year, at least 21 years of age, with previous experience on a bridge simulator. Following a baseline trial on Day 1, on Day 2 participants were randomized to receive alcohol (0.6 g/kg for males and 0.5 g/kg for females) or placebo. After allowing time for absorption, participants completed a bridge simulator task. For baseline and performance trials, participants were randomized to one of four bridge simulator scenarios, each representing passage of a fully loaded container vessel through a channel with commercial traffic. The aggregate scenario score given by blinded maritime educators measured performance. A main effect for alcohol was found indicating that performance was significantly impaired by this low dose of alcohol relative to performance in the placebo condition. These findings are consistent with current federal regulations that limit low-dose alcohol exposure for the operators of commercial transport vehicles. Further research is required to determine effects at lower BACs.

  4. Intervening to Decrease Alcohol Abuse at University Parties: Differential Reinforcement of Intoxication Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Angela K.; Ehrhart, Ian J.; Glindemann, Kent E.; Geller, E. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This quasi-experimental field study assessed whether an incentive/reward intervention can change the drinking behavior and the subsequent levels of intoxication among college students attending fraternity parties. A total of 356 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) assessments, using hand-held breathalyzers, were obtained at two baseline and at two…

  5. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Freydier, C; Berthelon, C; Bastien-Toniazzo, M; Gineyt, G

    2014-06-01

    The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to divided attention task and alcohol and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L, and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identification. Driving performance, response time and accuracy on the additional task were measured. ANOVA showed a driving impairment and a decrease in additional task performance from a BAC of 0.5 g/L, particularly for novice drivers. Indeed, the latter adopt more risky behavior such as tailgating. In the divided attention task, driving impairment was found for all drivers and impairment on information processing accuracy was highlighted, notably in peripheral vision. The divided attention task used here provides a relevant method for identifying the effects of alcohol on cognitive functions and could be used in psychopharmacological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Body mass index and alcohol consumption: family history of alcoholism as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R

    2009-06-01

    Recent research suggests that excess food consumption may be conceptualized as an addictive behavior. Much of the evidence comes from neurobiological similarities between drug and food consumption. In addition, an inverse relation between alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) has been observed. Previous research has hypothesized that this inverse relation is attributable to competition between food and alcohol for similar neurotransmitter receptors. The current study explored this neurobiological hypothesis further by examining the influence of an indicator of biological risk associated with alcohol problems (family history of alcoholism) on the relationship between alcohol and food intake. Data from 37,259 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were included in the study. BMI, family history of alcoholism, gender, and race/ethnicity were assessed as predictors of typical drinking frequency and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC). An inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and BMI was demonstrated. An attenuation of family history effects on drinking behavior was evident for obese compared to nonobese participants. The results suggest a neurobiological link between alcohol use and food consumption, consistent with theories characterizing excess food consumption as an addictive behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. When does alcohol hurt? A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Mark; Fischer, Josefine

    2017-12-01

    World-wide, alcohol is still a major cause of traffic accidents. The dose-related accident risk function has been found in a large number of risk studies. A plethora of laboratory studies has examined the effect of alcohol with regard to different information processing capabilities of drivers. Summarizing the results, alcohol effects occur at lower blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) the more complex the tasks get. However, in contrast, typical alcohol-related crashes are frequently single vehicle crashes but not so often crashes in complex situations like at intersections. It may be that the subjective assessment of the traffic situation and the adaptation of behavior under the influence of alcohol plays a major role in accident causation. In order to examine this hypothesis, two driving simulator studies were conducted at a target BAC of 0.5g/l comparing two (alcohol vs. placebo; n=48, Experiment 1) and three (sober, placebo and alcohol; n=63, Experiment 2) groups of subjects in two critical scenarios. The first scenario was a seemingly easy traffic situation and was supposed to lead to a relaxed driving behavior under alcohol. The second scenario involved a complex intersection situation where especially drivers under the influence of alcohol should try to concentrate and compensate their experienced alcohol effects. In all scenarios, a critical object appeared suddenly and the driver had to react fast in order to prevent a (simulated) accident. Overall, the results support the hypothesis. Accidents were more frequent for alcohol drivers as compared to placebo/sober drivers in the easy scenario, but not the complex one. The initial speed of the driver when entering the scenario seems to play a major role in the accident causation. Drivers under the influence of alcohol seem to lower their speed in complex scenarios, possibly to thus counteract alcohol effects. In seemingly easy scenarios this does not seem necessary for them and the arousing effect of alcohol

  8. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-08-05

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.

  9. Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Ming; Lo, Loong Chueng; Feng, Felicia; Gong, Ping; Li, Jian; Zhu, Ze Yuan; Lin, Grace; Yue, Gen Hua

    2008-03-25

    Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the mapping of BAC clones to the linkage map. This BAC library consisted of 49,152 clones with an average insert size of 98 kb, representing 6.9-fold haploid genome coverage. Screening the library with 24 microsatellites and 15 ESTs/genes demonstrated that the library had good genome coverage. In addition, 62 novel microsatellites each isolated from 62 BAC clones were mapped onto the first generation linkage map. A total of 86 BAC clones were anchored on the linkage map with at least one BAC clone on each linkage group. We have constructed the first BAC library for L. calcarifer and mapped 86 BAC clones to the first generation linkage map. This BAC library and the improved linkage map with 302 DNA markers not only supply an indispensable tool to the integration of physical and linkage maps, the fine mapping of QTL and map based cloning genes located in QTL of commercial importance, but also contribute to comparative genomic studies and eventually whole genome sequencing.

  10. The potential impact and legal feasibility of requiring alcohol testing of all drivers in fatal crashes in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses how the Code of Virginia can be changed to improve Virginia's rate of testing for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) among drivers involved in crashes where there is a fatality. Currently, the implied consent statute in the Code ...

  11. Public house patrons' engagement in hypothetical sexual assault: a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory in a field setting.

    PubMed

    Flowe, Heather D; Stewart, Jade; Sleath, Emma R; Palmer, Francesca T

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that drinking establishments are often antecedent to sexual aggression outcomes. In this study, male participants were randomly selected from public houses (i.e., "pubs") and asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical intimate encounter in which the female in the scenario stops consenting to sexual contact. Participants were given the option to continue making sexual advances up to and including sexual intercourse against the woman's will. It was hypothesized based on Alcohol Myopia Theory that participant blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels would be associated with hypothetical sexual aggression when stereotypical cues of a woman's sexual availability (revealing clothing and alcohol use) were present in the scenario. Men's engagement in hypothetical sexual aggression was associated with BAC levels, but only when the woman was wearing revealing clothing. The sobriety of the female actor was not associated with sexual aggression. Results indicate that Alcohol Myopia Theory generalizes to a field setting. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pilot Alcohol Violations Reported in U.S. Newspapers, 1990–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Chadd K.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol violations by airline pilots are rare yet remain a public concern. Such incidents often generate widespread news coverage. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of alcohol violation incidents involving airline pilots reported in U.S. newspapers. Methods The database of Lexis-Nexis™, which contains full-text articles for over 350 newspapers, was searched to identify alcohol violation incidents involving airline pilots in the U.S. between January 1990 and June 2006. Information pertaining to the pilot, flight, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and consequence was ascertained for each incident based on the newspaper coverage. Results During the study period, newspapers reported on a total of 13 incidents of alcohol violations involving 17 pilots. All but two of the incidents occurred during January 2002 through June 2006. The majority (85%) of the incidents were first identified by airport personnel, such as security screeners, based on suspicion of alcohol use by the pilot. Subsequent alcohol testing revealed a mean BAC of 90 mg/dL (ranging from 10 mg · dL−1 to 182 mg · dL−1). Of the 17 pilots, 6 were known to be prosecuted criminally, including 5 who were sentenced to jail terms. Discussion Incidents of alcohol violations by airline pilots reported in U.S. newspapers have increased in recent years. This increase is likely due in part to increased detection resulting from enhanced aviation security and enforcement following the September 2001 terrorist attacks. PMID:17183928

  13. Sensitivity of a critical tracking task to alcohol impairment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, J. A.; Thompson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A first order critical tracking task is evaluated for its potential to discriminate between sober and intoxicated performances. Mean differences between predrink and postdrink performances as a function of BAC are analyzed. Quantification of the results shows that intoxicated failure rates of 50% for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.1%, and 75% for BACs at or above 0.14%, can be attained with no sober failure rates. A high initial rate of learning is observed, perhaps due to the very nature of the task whereby the operator is always pushed to his limit, and the scores approach a stable asymptote after approximately 50 trials. Finally, the implementation of the task as an ignition interlock system in the automobile environment is discussed. It is pointed out that lower critical performance limits are anticipated for the mechanized automotive units because of the introduction of larger hardware and neuromuscular lags. Whether such degradation in performance would reduce the effectiveness of the device or not will be determined in a continuing program involving a broader based sample of the driving population and performance correlations with both BACs and driving proficiency.

  14. A pooled analysis of on-the-road highway driving studies in actual traffic measuring standard deviation of lateral position (i.e., "weaving") while driving at a blood alcohol concentration of 0.5 g/L.

    PubMed

    Jongen, S; Vermeeren, A; van der Sluiszen, N N J J M; Schumacher, M B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G

    2017-03-01

    The on-the-road highway driving test is generally regarded as a gold standard for assessing drug-induced driving impairment. The primary outcome measure is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of road tracking error or "weaving". The test has been calibrated for incremental doses of alcohol almost 30 years ago in order to define the impact of drug-induced impairment in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents. Drug-induced changes in SDLP exceeding 2.4 cm have been evaluated as clinically relevant ever since. The present analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the alcohol effect in a range of on-the-road driving studies which have been conducted since the initial alcohol calibration study. The present study pooled data of 182 participants from nine placebo-controlled crossover studies who performed the highway driving test, while their BAC was at or just below the legal limit for drivers (i.e., 0.5 g/L). Overall, mean SDLP increased with 2.5 cm (95% CI 2.0-2.9 cm). Equivalence testing showed that the clinical relevance criterion value of 2.4 cm fell well within the 95% CI in each individual study. Gender did not affect alcohol-induced changes in SDLP. These results demonstrate the robustness and validity of the clinical relevance criterion for SDLP as measured during on-the-road driving.

  15. Dose-Related Effects of Alcohol on Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Dry, Matthew J.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Nettelbeck, Ted; Farquharson, Aaron L.; White, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N = 56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18–45 years) were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%), employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention); the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory); Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding); the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization); the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function); and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function). Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties. PMID:23209840

  16. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    PubMed

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 53369 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... is [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Focus Group Review of Advanced Alcohol... when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is .08 grams per deciliter (g/ dL) or higher. These..., deaths and injuries by preventing drivers from driving while their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is...

  18. High-resolution chromosome mapping of BACs using multi-colour FISH and pooled-BAC FISH as a backbone for sequencing tomato chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Szinay, Dóra; Chang, Song-Bin; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Peters, Sander; Schijlen, Elio; Bai, Yuling; Stiekema, Willem J; van Ham, Roeland C H J; de Jong, Hans; Klein Lankhorst, René M

    2008-11-01

    Within the framework of the International Solanaceae Genome Project, the genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is currently being sequenced. We follow a 'BAC-by-BAC' approach that aims to deliver high-quality sequences of the euchromatin part of the tomato genome. BACs are selected from various libraries of the tomato genome on the basis of markers from the F2.2000 linkage map. Prior to sequencing, we validated the precise physical location of the selected BACs on the chromosomes by five-colour high-resolution fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping. This paper describes the strategies and results of cytogenetic mapping for chromosome 6 using 75 seed BACs for FISH on pachytene complements. The cytogenetic map obtained showed discrepancies between the actual chromosomal positions of these BACs and their markers on the linkage group. These discrepancies were most notable in the pericentromere heterochromatin, thus confirming previously described suppression of cross-over recombination in that region. In a so called pooled-BAC FISH, we hybridized all seed BACs simultaneously and found a few large gaps in the euchromatin parts of the long arm that are still devoid of seed BACs and are too large for coverage by expanding BAC contigs. Combining FISH with pooled BACs and newly recruited seed BACs will thus aid in efficient targeting of novel seed BACs into these areas. Finally, we established the occurrence of repetitive DNA in heterochromatin/euchromatin borders by combining BAC FISH with hybridization of a labelled repetitive DNA fraction (Cot-100). This strategy provides an excellent means to establish the borders between euchromatin and heterochromatin in this chromosome.

  19. Assessment of club patrons' alcohol and drug use: the use of biological markers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Branner, Amy C; Voas, Robert; Johnson, Mark B

    2013-11-01

    Young adulthood (ages 18-25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Data were collected anonymously during 2010-2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%-0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harm is indicated by the findings. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  20. Alcohol calibration of tests measuring skills related to car driving.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Stefan; Vuurman, Eric; Ramaekers, Jan; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2014-06-01

    Medication and illicit drugs can have detrimental side effects which impair driving performance. A drug's impairing potential should be determined by well-validated, reliable, and sensitive tests and ideally be calibrated by benchmark drugs and doses. To date, no consensus has been reached on the issue of which psychometric tests are best suited for initial screening of a drug's driving impairment potential. The aim of this alcohol calibration study is to determine which performance tests are useful to measure drug-induced impairment. The effects of alcohol are used to compare the psychometric quality between tests and as benchmark to quantify performance changes in each test associated with potentially impairing drug effects. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, four-way crossover study. Treatments were placebo and three different doses of alcohol leading to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 g/L. Main effects of alcohol were found in most tests. Compared with placebo, performance in the Divided Attention Test (DAT) was significantly impaired after all alcohol doses and performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Balance Test was impaired with a BAC of 0.5 and 0.8 g/L. The largest effect sizes were found on postural balance with eyes open and mean reaction time in the divided attention and the psychomotor vigilance test. The preferable tests for initial screening are the DAT and the PVT, as these tests were most sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol and being considerably valid in assessing potential driving impairment.

  1. Alcohol and its contributory role in fatal drowning in Australian rivers, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Peden, Amy E; Franklin, Richard C; Leggat, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Examine the prevalence of alcohol and its contributory role in unintentional fatal river drowning in Australia to inform strategies for prevention. Cases of unintentional fatal river drowning in Australia, 1-July-2002 to 30-June-2012, were extracted from the National Coronial Information System. Cases with positive alcohol readings found through autopsy or toxicology reports were retained for analysis. Discrete analysis was conducted on cases with a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) of ≥0.05% (0.05grams of alcohol in every 100 millilitres of blood). Alcohol was known to be involved in 314 cases (40.8%), 279 recorded a positive BAC, 196 (70.3%) recorded a BAC of ≥0.05%. 40.3% of adult victims had a BAC of ≥0.20%. Known alcohol involvement was found to be more likely for victims who drowned as a result of jumping in (χ 2 =7.8; p<0.01), identify as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (χ 2 =8.9; p<0.01) and drowned in the evening (χ 2 =7.8; p<0.01) and early morning (χ 2 =16.1; p<0.01) hours. The number of people who drown with alcohol in their bloodstream is concerning and challenging for prevention. To assist with the prevention of alcohol related river drowning improved data quality, as well as a greater understanding of alcohol's contribution and consumption patterns at rivers (especially those <18 years of age) is required. Alcohol contributes to fatal unintentional drowning in Australian rivers. Although prevention is challenging, better data and exposure studies are the next step to enhance prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BAC sequencing using pooled methods.

    PubMed

    Saski, Christopher A; Feltus, F Alex; Parida, Laxmi; Haiminen, Niina

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing and assembly of a large, complex genome can be both expensive and challenging to accurately reconstruct the true genome sequence. Repetitive DNA arrays, paralogous sequences, polyploidy, and heterozygosity are main factors that plague de novo genome sequencing projects that typically result in highly fragmented assemblies and are difficult to extract biological meaning. Targeted, sub-genomic sequencing offers complexity reduction by removing distal segments of the genome and a systematic mechanism for exploring prioritized genomic content through BAC sequencing. If one isolates and sequences the genome fraction that encodes the relevant biological information, then it is possible to reduce overall sequencing costs and efforts that target a genomic segment. This chapter describes the sub-genome assembly protocol for an organism based upon a BAC tiling path derived from a genome-scale physical map or from fine mapping using BACs to target sub-genomic regions. Methods that are described include BAC isolation and mapping, DNA sequencing, and sequence assembly.

  3. Impaired alcohol metabolism after gastric bypass surgery: a case-crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Downey, John; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Morton, John M

    2011-02-01

    Severe obesity remains the leading public health crisis of the industrialized world, with bariatric surgery the only effective and enduring treatment. Poor psychological adjustment has been occasionally reported postoperatively. In addition, evidence suggests that patients can metabolize alcohol differently after gastric bypass. Preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, 19 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients' breath alcohol content (BAC) was measured every 5 minutes after drinking 5 oz red wine to determine peak BAC and time until sober in a case-crossover design preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. Patients reported symptoms experienced when intoxicated and answered a questionnaire of drinking habits. The peak BAC in patients after RYGB was considerably higher at 3 months (0.059%) and 6 months (0.088%) postoperatively than matched preoperative levels (0.024%). Patients also took considerably more time to return to sober at 3 months (61 minutes) and 6 months (88 minutes) than preoperatively (49 minutes). Postoperative intoxication was associated with lower levels of diaphoresis, flushing, and hyperactivity and higher levels of dizziness, warmth, and double vision. Postoperative patients reported drinking considerably less alcohol, fewer preferred beer, and more preferred wine than before surgery. This is the first study to match preoperative and postoperative alcohol metabolism in gastric bypass patients. Post-RYGB patients have much higher peak BAC after ingesting alcohol and require more time to become sober. Patients who drink alcohol after gastric bypass surgery should exercise caution. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Control Characteristics of Alcohol-Impaired Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, Henry R.; McRuer, Duane T.; Allen, R. Wade; Klein, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Although the operation of vehicles like airplanes, cars, and bicycles involves a complex array of perceptual, decision and control activities, most accident statistics clearly show that intoxicated operators are a dominant cause of accidents, and not the difficulty of the task itself. This paper summarizes some recent research on the nature of the impairment of operator control under blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) up to above 0.16 percent. Alcohol toxicity is shown to be quite specific with respect to visual-motor functions involved in control of a vehicle, and experiments with a generalized workload task and special driving simulator show how these are reflected in terms of changes in operator control parameters such as response latency, gains, stability margins, and coherency.

  5. A comparison of breath- and blood-alcohol test results from real-life policing situations: a one-year study of data from the Central Hessian police district in Germany.

    PubMed

    Roiu, Immanuel; Birngruber, Christoph G; Spencer, Victoria C; Wollersen, Heike; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2013-10-10

    So far, studies investigating the comparability of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) have focused on the accuracy of BrAC testing instruments. The presented study, conducted with cases from the district of the Middle Hessian Police Headquarters, is to the best of our knowledge the first to compare both methods under real-life conditions in normal policing situations. For a 1-year period, alcohol-impaired drunk-driving suspects, who were by criminal procedure required to give a blood sample, were offered a voluntary, additional BrAC test with a "Dräger Alcotest 7110 Evidential". The BrAC test was to be administered as soon as possible after the suspect had been apprehended, without, however, delaying the collection of the blood sample. Ninety-two cases could be included in our study. In 30 cases, a blood sample was not taken; in 11 cases, a BrAC test could not be performed. In the remaining 51 cases, we found the following pairings of BrAC and BAC results: BrAC≥0.55 mg/l and BAC≥1.1‰ (n=39); 0.25 mg/l≤BrAC<0.55 mg/l and 0.5‰≤BAC<1.1‰ (n=5); BrAC≥0.55 mg/l and BAC<1.1‰ (n=4); BrAC<0.55 mg/l and BAC≥1.1‰ (n=3). The mean value for the conversion factor, Q, was 2.12‰l/mg. In accord with numerous other studies, our study results would suggest a value of 2.1‰ l/mg to German legislature as a new statutory value for Q. In borderline cases, of which there were already 7 in our study with 51 cases, suspects could benefit both from a BrAC test or a BAC test, with the benefit lastly depending more on early testing time than on the test method used. Our results support the call for the earliest possible measurement of alcohol concentration values after a drunk driving offense was committed. In some situations, this can probably only be accomplished with BrAC testing. A supplementary blood sample and BAC testing could compensate for the known weaknesses of BrAC testing. Thus, the complementary use of both methods

  6. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E; Coleman, Sharon M; Hadland, Scott E; Swahn, Monica H; Heeren, Timothy C

    2016-12-01

    Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this article was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and to identify socio demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010 to 2012 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01% and 0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥ 0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p < 0.001). Characteristics that were independent predictors of homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and nonfirearm homicides. Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the United States, with substantial variation by state, demographic, and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Examination of the role of the combination of alcohol and cannabis in South Australian road crashes.

    PubMed

    Baldock, M R J; Lindsay, V L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of cannabis in road crashes in South Australia, with a particular focus on the extent to which crashes involving cannabis also involve alcohol. Hospital data, police-reported crash data, and the results of forensic tests of blood samples for drugs and alcohol were collected for 1,074 crash participants (drivers or motorcyclists) admitted to hospital. A sample of 135 coroners' reports was also examined to determine the role of alcohol and cannabis in fatal crashes. The 3 years of linked data for hospital admission cases revealed that alcohol played a greater role in road crashes than other drugs. Approximately 1 in 5 drivers or motorcyclists had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above the legal limit of 0.05. Routine testing for cannabis, methamphetamine, and MDMA revealed a drug-positive rate of approximately 1 in 10 of those tested, with over half of these positive to cannabis. More than a third of cannabis cases also involved alcohol. The majority of those who were positive for alcohol had a BAC above 0.15 g/100 mL. BACs were similarly high among drivers positive for both alcohol and cannabis. The findings of the hospital data and the coroners' reports were consistent with each other in terms of providing confirmation that alcohol is still the drug associated with the greatest level of road trauma on South Australian roads. Furthermore, alcohol was also present in around half of the cannabis cases and, when present, tended to be present at very high levels. The results of this study emphasize that, although drug driving is clearly a problem, the most important form of impaired driving that needs to be the target of enforcement is drink driving. Roadside drug testing is important but should not be conducted in such a way that reduces the deterrent value of random breath testing.

  8. Gender Differences in Alcohol Beliefs and Usual Blood-Alcohol Concentration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Celia C.; Globetti, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Male (n=59) and female (n=65) high school students were interviewed concerning their beliefs about moderate and heavy drinking and their usual blood-alcohol concentrations were obtained. Results indicate that most heavy-drinking males believe that alcohol makes them lose physical and emotional control. Females who abstain or are light drinkers…

  9. Effect of different alcohol levels on take-over performance in conditionally automated driving.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Katharina; Naujoks, Frederik; Wörle, Johanna; Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Neukum, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Automated driving systems are getting pushed into the consumer market, with varying degrees of automation. Most often the driver's task will consist of being available as a fall-back level when the automation reaches its limits. These so-called take-over situations have attracted a great body of research, focusing on various human factors aspects (e.g., sleepiness) that could undermine the safety of control transitions between automated and manual driving. However, a major source of accidents in manual driving, alcohol consumption, has been a non-issue so far, although a false understanding of the driver's responsibility (i.e., being available as a fallback level) might promote driving under its influence. In this experiment, N = 36 drivers were exposed to different levels of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs: placebo vs. 0.05% vs. 0.08%) in a high fidelity driving simulator, and the effect on take-over time and quality was assessed. The results point out that a 0.08% BAC increases the time needed to re-engage in the driving task and impairs several aspects of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control, whereas 0.05% BAC did only go along with descriptive impairments in fewer parameters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of alcohol consumption with patient survival after organophosphate poisoning: a multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hwan; Oh, Young Taeck; Lee, Won Woong; Ahn, Hee Cheol; Sohn, You Dong; Ahn, Ji Yun; Min, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyun; Lim, Seung Wook; Lee, Kui Ja; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Park, Sang O; Park, Seung Min

    2017-06-01

    Organophosphate (OP) intoxication remains a serious worldwide health concern, and many patients with acute OP intoxication have also consumed alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the association of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) with mortality among patients with OP intoxication. We retrospectively reviewed records from 135 patients who were admitted to an emergency department (ED) for OP intoxication between January 2000 and December 2012. Factors that were associated with patient survival were identified via receiver operating characteristic curve, multiple logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Among 135 patients with acute OP poisoning, 112 patients survived (overall mortality rate: 17 %). The non-survivors also exhibited a significantly higher BAC, compared to the survivors [non-survivors: 192 mg/dL, interquartile range (IQR) 97-263 mg/dL vs. survivors: 80 mg/dL, IQR 0-166.75 mg/dL; p < 0.001]. A BAC cut-off value of 173 mg/dL provided an area under the curve of 0.744 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.661-0.815], a sensitivity of 65.2 %, and a specificity of 81.2 %. A BAC of >173 mg/dL was associated with a significantly increased risk of 6-month mortality in the multiple logistic regression model (odds ratio 4.92, 95 % CI 1.45-16.67, p = 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that a BAC of >173 mg/dL provided a hazard ratio of 3.07 (95 % CI 1.19-7.96, p = 0.021). A BAC of >173 mg/dL is a risk factor for mortality among patients with OP intoxication.

  11. Description and predictors of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences in the first year of college.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Clerkin, Elise M; Wood, Mark; Monti, Peter M; O'Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Corriveau, Donald; Fingeret, Allan; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences during the first year of college and to evaluate gender, race/ethnicity, time of year, alcohol use, and intoxication as predictors of consequences using frequent assessments. Participants (N = 1,053; 57.5% female) completed biweekly assessments of alcohol use and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences throughout the year. The majority of drinkers reported both positive and negative consequences. Having a good time and feeling less stressed were the most commonly reported positive consequences. Blackouts and getting physically sick were the most commonly endorsed negative consequences. At the weekly level, number of drinking days, drinks per drinking day, and estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC, reflecting intoxication) were significantly related to all consequences after controlling for demographics and time of year. Negative consequences had stronger associations with number of drinks and eBAC than positive consequences did. With each additional drink consumed on a drinking day, the incidence of negative consequences more than doubled (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.34, 95% CI [2.19, 2.50]), whereas the incidence of positive consequences increased by about half (IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.47, 1.56]). The consequence with the largest gender difference was regretted sex, with women reporting it more often. Few racial/ethnic differences were found in report of negative consequences. Greater positive and negative consequences were endorsed at the beginning of both academic semesters. As number of drinks and eBAC increase, the relative odds of a negative consequence are higher than that of a positive consequence. Alcohol interventions could promote greater awareness of the likelihood of specific consequences and could highlight that positive consequences are associated with lower levels of drinking.

  12. [An intercept survey on the status of driving after alcohol drinking among motor vehicle drivers in 6 counties of Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xin-wei; Song, Xiao-chun; Bao, Ping; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Yun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the status of driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers and to provide evidence for the development of specific interventions. A 7-day intercept survey on driving after alcohol drinking, having drinking habit or driving after getting drunk, among motor vehicle drivers, was conducted in 6 counties of Zhejiang province, 2010. 16 467 motor vehicle drivers were included in the survey. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol [blood alcohol concentration (BAC) > 0 mg/100 ml], having habit of drinking alcohol (20 mg/100 ml ≤ BAC < 80 mg/100 ml) and driving after being drunk (BAC ≥ 80 mg/100 ml), were 1.82%, 1.03% and 0.27% respectively. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol, having habit of drink alcohol and driving and drunk-driving among the drivers from urban areas were significantly higher than those of drivers from rural areas, and those rates of male drivers were significantly higher than female drivers as well. 60.20% of drivers after drinking alcohol, were 35 to 49 year-olds, and the three above said rates all increased along with age. The highest above said three rates were observed at 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Compared with other motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists possessed the highest rates of the three items, as 9.27%, 5.01% and 1.57% respectively. Driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers still prevailed in Zhejiang, especially between 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Drivers from the cities, being male or motorcyclists were among the high-risk populations that called for special attention to be paid in the future, including law enforcement and health promotion to fight against the problem.

  13. BAC to degeneration bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenesis for modeling basal ganglia neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Basal ganglia neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), are characterized by not only spectrum of motor deficits, ranging form hypokinesia to hyperkinesia, but also emotional, cognitive, and psychiatric manifestations. The symptoms and pathogenic mechanism of these disorders should be viewed as dysfunctions of specific cortico-subcortical neurocircuits. Transgenic approaches using large genomic inserts, such as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenesis, due to its capacity to propagate large-size genomic DNA and faithful production of endogenous-like gene expression pattern/lever, have provided an ideal basis for the generation of transgenic mice as model for basal ganglia neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the functional and structural analysis of neurocircuits. In this chapter, the basic concepts and practical approaches about application of BAC transgenic system are introduced. Existent major BAC transgenic mouse models for PD and HD are evaluated according to their construct, face, and predicative validity. Finally, considerations, possible solutions, and future perspectives of using BAC transgenic approach to study basal ganglia neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  14. Comparison of ethanol concentrations in venous blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking study.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Andersson, L

    2003-03-12

    Concentration-time profiles of ethanol were determined for venous whole blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking experiment in which healthy men (n=9) and women (n=9) drank 0.40-0.65 g ethanol per kg body weight in 20-30 min. Specimens of blood and breath were obtained for analysis of ethanol starting at 50-60 min post-dosing and then every 30-60 min for 3-6 h. This protocol furnished 130 blood-breath pairs for statistical evaluation. Blood-ethanol concentration (BAC, mg/g) was determined by headspace gas chromatography and breath-ethanol concentration (BrAC, mg/2l) was determined with a quantitative infrared analyzer (Intoxilyzer 5000S), which is the instrument currently used in Sweden for legal purposes. In 18 instances the Intoxilyzer 5000S gave readings of 0.00 mg/2l whereas the actual BAC was 0.08 mg/g on average (range 0.04-0.15 mg/g). The remaining 112 blood- and breath-alcohol measurements were highly correlated (r=0.97) and the regression relationship was BAC=0.10+0.91BrAC and the residual standard deviation (S.D.) was 0.042 mg/g (8.4%). The slope (0.91+/-0.0217) differed significantly from unity being 9% low and the intercept (0.10+/-0.0101) deviated from zero (t=10.2, P<0.001), indicating the presence of both proportional and constant bias, respectively. The mean bias (BAC - BrAC) was 0.068 mg/g and the 95% limits of agreement were -0.021 and 0.156 mg/g. The average BAC/BrAC ratio was 2448+/-540 (+/-S.D.) with a median of 2351 and 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of 1836 and 4082. We found no significant gender-related differences in BAC/BrAC ratios, being 2553+/-576 for men and 2417+/-494 for women (t=1.34, P>0.05). The mean rate of ethanol disappearance from blood was 0.157+/-0.021 mg/(g per hour), which was very close to the elimination rate from breath of 0.161+/-0.021 mg/(2l per hour) (P>0.05). Breath-test results obtained with Intoxilyzer 5000S (mg/2l) were generally less than the coexisting concentrations of ethanol in venous blood

  15. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries. PMID:28085105

  16. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts.

    PubMed

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G

    2017-01-12

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews ( n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  17. ALCOHOL USE AMONG FATALLY INJURED VICTIMS IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND HEALTH SERVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Leyton, Vilma; Lemos, Nikolas P.; Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Ye, Yu; Takitane, Juliana; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Reingold, Arthur L.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Most studies reporting alcohol use among fatally injured victims are subject to bias, particularly that related to sample selection and to absence of injury context data. We developed a research method to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and test correlates of alcohol use prior to fatal injuries, using the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil as a model. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study based on a probability sample of fatally injured adult victims (N=365) autopsied in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Victims were sampled within systematically selected 8-hour sampling blocks, generating a representative sample of fatal injuries occurring during all hours of the day for each day of the week between June 2014 and December 2015. Measurements The presence of alcohol and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were the primary outcomes evaluated according to victims’ socio-demographic, injury context data (type, day, time and injury place), and criminal history characteristics. Findings Alcohol was detected in 30.1% (CI 95%; 25.6–35.1) of the victims, with a mean BAC level of 0.11% w/v (CI 95%; 0.09–0.13) among alcohol-positive cases. Those black and mixed race presented a higher mean BAC than white victims (p=0.03). Less than one in every six suicides tested positive for alcohol, while almost half of traffic-related casualties were alcohol-positive. Having suffered traffic-related injuries, particularly those involving vehicle crashes, and injuries occurring during weekends and at night were significantly associated with alcohol use before injury (p<0.05). Conclusions Nearly one third of fatal injuries in Sao Paulo were alcohol-related, with traffic accidents showing a greater association with alcohol use than other injuries. The sampling methodology tested here, including the possibility of adding injury context data to improve population-based estimates of alcohol use before fatal injury, was found to be a reliable and lower cost

  18. Alcohol use among fatally injured victims in São Paulo, Brazil: bridging the gap between research and health services in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Leyton, Vilma; Lemos, Nikolas P; Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Ye, Yu; Takitane, Juliana; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Reingold, Arthur L; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa

    2017-04-01

    Most studies reporting alcohol use among fatally injured victims are subject to bias, particularly those related to sample selection and to absence of injury context data. We developed a research method to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and test correlates of alcohol use prior to fatal injuries. Cross-sectional study based on a probability sample of fatally injured adult victims (n = 365) autopsied in São Paulo, Brazil. Victims were sampled within systematically selected 8-hour sampling blocks, generating a representative sample of fatal injuries occurring during all hours of the day for each day of the week between June 2014 and December 2015. The presence of alcohol and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were the primary outcomes evaluated according to victims' socio-demographic, injury context data (type, day, time and injury place) and criminal history characteristics. Alcohol was detected in 30.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 25.6-35.1)] of the victims, with a mean blood alcohol level (BAC) level of 0.11% w/v (95% CI = 0.09-0.13) among alcohol-positive cases. Black and mixed race victims presented a higher mean BAC than white victims (P = 0.03). Fewer than one in every six suicides tested positive for alcohol, while almost half of traffic-related casualties were alcohol-positive. Having suffered traffic-related injuries, particularly those involving vehicle crashes, and injuries occurring during weekends and at night were associated significantly with alcohol use before injury (P < 0.05). Nearly one-third of fatal injuries in São Paulo between June 2014 and December 2015 were alcohol-related, with traffic accidents showing a greater association with alcohol use than other injuries. The sampling methodology tested here, including the possibility of adding injury context data to improve population-based estimates of alcohol use before fatal injury, appears to be a reliable and lower-cost strategy for avoiding biases common in death

  19. Urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    PubMed

    Mackus, M; Van de Loo, A J A E; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Van Neer, R H P; Wang, X; Nguyen, T T; Brookhuis, K A; Garssen, J; Verster, J C

    2017-03-01

    Congeners are substances, other than ethanol, that are produced during fermentation. Previous research found that the consumption of congener-rich drinks contributes to the severity of alcohol hangover. Methanol is such a congener that has been related to alcohol hangover. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers (22 females, 14 males), aged 18-30 years old, participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day (no alcohol consumed the previous day). N = 18 of them had regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claimed to be hangover-immune (hangover-immune group). Overall hangover severity was assessed, and that of 23 individual hangover symptoms. Urine methanol concentrations on the hangover and control days were compared, and correlated to hangover (symptom) severity. Urine methanol concentration was significantly higher on hangover days compared to control days (p = 0.0001). No significant differences in urine methanol concentration were found between the hangover group and hangover-immune group. However, urine methanol concentration did not significantly correlate with overall hangover severity (r = -0.011, p = 0.948), nor with any of the individual hangover symptoms. These findings were observed also when analyzing the data separately for the hangover-immune group. In the hangover group, a significant correlation with urine methanol concentration was found only with vomiting (r = 0.489, p = 0.037). No significant correlation was observed between urine methanol concentration and hangover severity, nor with individual core hangover symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transitioning to multiple imputation : a new method to impute missing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) values in FARS

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    The National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA) of the National Highway Traffic Safety : Administration (NHTSA) has undertaken several approaches to remedy the problem of missing blood alcohol : test results in the Fatality Analysis Reporting ...

  1. State Variation in Underreporting of Alcohol Involvement on Death Certificates: Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatalities as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Castle, I-Jen P; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Hingson, Ralph W; White, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crash fatalities as an example to examine the extent of underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates and state variations. Method: We compared MVT-related death certificates identified from national mortality data (Multiple Cause of Death [MCoD] data) with deaths in national traffic census data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Because MCoD data were not individually linked to FARS data, the comparisons were at the aggregate level. Reporting ratio of alcohol involvement on death certificates was thus computed as the prevalence of any mention of alcohol-related conditions among MVT deaths in MCoD, divided by the prevalence of decedents with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results (not imputed) of .08% or greater in FARS. Through bivariate analysis and multiple regression, we explored state characteristics correlated with state reporting ratios. Results: Both MCoD and FARS identified about 450,000 MVT deaths in 1999–2009. Reporting ratio was only 0.16 for all traffic deaths and 0.18 for driver deaths nationally, reflecting that death certificates captured only a small percentage of MVT deaths involving BAC of .08% or more. Reporting ratio did not improve over time, even though FARS indicated that the prevalence of BAC of at least .08% in MVT deaths increased from 19.9% in 1999 to 24.2% in 2009. State reporting ratios varied widely, from 0.02 (Nevada and New Jersey) to 0.81 (Delaware). Conclusions: The comparison of MCoD with FARS revealed a large discrepancy in reporting alcohol involvement in MVT deaths and considerable state variation in the magnitude of underreporting. We suspect similar underreporting and state variations in alcohol involvement in other types of injury deaths. PMID:24650824

  2. Influence of alcohol and other substances of abuse at the time of injury among patients in a Norwegian emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Eirin; Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Normann, Per Trygve; Ekeberg, Øivind; Bachs, Liliana

    2016-06-08

    The presence of alcohol or other substances of abuse in blood or urine from injured patients is often used as a proxy for substance influence at the time of injury. The aim of this study was to obtain an estimate of substance influence at the time of injury based on blood concentrations of alcohol and other substances of abuse, and to explore the relationship between the substance prevalence at the time of admittance to the hospital and the actual influence at the time of the injury. The study included all adult patients admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital during 1 year (n = 996). Quantification in blood was done by an enzymatic method for alcohol, and by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 28 other substances of abuse. Concentrations of alcohol and other substances in blood at the time of injury were calculated. The degree of influence was assessed on the basis of the calculated blood concentrations, with a threshold of influence set at a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.05 %, or a substance concentration leading to an influence similar to that of a BAC of 0.05 %. A total of 324 patients (32.5 %) were determined to be under the influence at the time of injury. In comparison, 394 patients (39.6 %) had one or more substances above the cut-off limit in blood at the time of admittance to the hospital. Alcohol was the most prevalent substance causing influence at 25.9 %. Among patients with violence-related injuries, almost 75 % were under the influence of alcohol and/or substances. Patients under the influence were younger, and men were more often under the influence than women. More patients were under the influence at nighttime and during weekends than at daytime and on weekdays. About one third of the injured patients were determined to be under the influence at the time of injury, with alcohol being the most prevalent substance causing influence. Approximately 98 % of the

  3. A pair of new BAC and BIBAC vectors that facilitate BAC/BIBAC library construction and intact large genomic DNA insert exchange.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue; Zeng, Haiyang; Xue, Yadong; Luo, Meizhong

    2011-10-11

    Large-insert BAC and BIBAC libraries are important tools for structural and functional genomics studies of eukaryotic genomes. To facilitate the construction of BAC and BIBAC libraries and the transfer of complete large BAC inserts into BIBAC vectors, which is desired in positional cloning, we developed a pair of new BAC and BIBAC vectors. The new BAC vector pIndigoBAC536-S and the new BIBAC vector BIBAC-S have the following features: 1) both contain two 18-bp non-palindromic I-SceI sites in an inverted orientation at positions that flank an identical DNA fragment containing the lacZ selection marker and the cloning site. Large DNA inserts can be excised from the vectors as single fragments by cutting with I-SceI, allowing the inserts to be easily sized. More importantly, because the two vectors contain different antibiotic resistance genes for transformant selection and produce the same non-complementary 3' protruding ATAA ends by I-SceI that suppress self- and inter-ligations, the exchange of intact large genomic DNA inserts between the BAC and BIBAC vectors is straightforward; 2) both were constructed as high-copy composite vectors. Reliable linearized and dephosphorylated original low-copy pIndigoBAC536-S and BIBAC-S vectors that are ready for library construction can be prepared from the high-copy composite vectors pHZAUBAC1 and pHZAUBIBAC1, respectively, without the need for additional preparation steps or special reagents, thus simplifying the construction of BAC and BIBAC libraries. BIBAC clones constructed with the new BIBAC-S vector are stable in both E. coli and Agrobacterium. The vectors can be accessed through our website http://GResource.hzau.edu.cn. The two new vectors and their respective high-copy composite vectors can largely facilitate the construction and characterization of BAC and BIBAC libraries. The transfer of complete large genomic DNA inserts from one vector to the other is made straightforward.

  4. Enhancing the efficacy of computerized feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: An exploratory randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Leavens, Eleanor L; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-02-01

    Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) have been associated with decreased alcohol consumption and related problems among college students; however, the necessary and sufficient components responsible for efficacy remain unclear. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of 3 computerized PFIs with differing content, the content-specific mechanisms of change within PFIs, and the moderating roles of comparison orientation and baseline risk in intervention outcomes. College students (N = 212) reporting alcohol use in a typical week completed an assessment prior to randomization (norms PFI, enhanced PFI, choice PFI, assessment only) and 1 month postintervention. Participants who received a PFI reported greater decreases in alcohol use, peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC), related problems, and perceptions of typical students' drinking than those in the control group. Neither tendency to compare oneself with others nor baseline risk moderated outcomes. PFIs influenced weekly alcohol use indirectly through changes in descriptive normative perceptions and alcohol-related consequences indirectly through changes in peak BAC. Computerized PFIs are more effective than assessment alone in decreasing alcohol use and related problems among college students. Normative comparisons may be sufficient to elicit behavior change, and inclusion of select additional components may not yield significant improvements in outcomes. However, the consistent benefit of including feedback on physical and monetary costs of drinking and moderation strategies, although nonsignificant, may warrant the negligible increase in time and money required to provide such information electronically. Computerized PFIs seem to be an ideal first step to the prevention and treatment of college alcohol misuse. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  6. Acute Alcohol Effects on Narrative Recall and Contextual Memory: An Examination of Fragmentary Blackouts

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of alcohol consumption on narrative recall and contextual memory among individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts in an attempt to better understand why some individuals experience alcohol-induced memory impairments whereas others do not, even at comparable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Standardized beverage (alcohol, no alcohol) administration procedures and neuropsychological assessments measured narrative recall and context memory performance before and after alcohol consumption in individuals with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) a history of fragmentary blackouts. Findings indicate acute alcohol intoxication led to impairments in free recall, but not next-day cued recall. Further, participants showed similar memory performance when sober, but individuals who consumed alcohol and had a positive history of fragmentary blackouts showed greater contextual memory impairments than those who had not previously experienced a fragmentary blackout. Thus, it appears that some individuals may have an inherent vulnerability to alcohol-induced memory impairments due to alcohol’s effects on contextual memory processes. PMID:21497445

  7. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  8. Perception of traffic accident risk and decision to drive under light alcohol consumption--a double-blind experimental study.

    PubMed

    Frick, U; Rehm, J; Knoll, A; Reifinger, M; Hasford, J

    2000-01-01

    Public traffic safety campaigns in Germany have focussed on the changing risk perception of young drivers. While there is some consensus that perceptions of risk affect driving, less is understood about the relationship and interaction of alcohol consumption and risk perception on the decision to drive. We examined the influence of light alcohol consumption on risk perception and decision to drive, and the interaction of alcohol consumption and cognitive feedback on the handicapping effect of alcohol on risk perception and decision to drive. In a double-blind block-randomized experimental study of 104 young drivers between 19 and 24 years of age, with two experimentally manipulated independent factors of alcohol consumption (three levels: 0% BAC, 0.015% BAC, 0.03% BAC) and feedback (positive or negative), we assessed three dependent variables: perception of traffic accident risk, subjective judgement about driving-relevant cognitive performance, decision to drive a car. Analyses of variance and covariance were used to analyze differences between levels of experimental factors. We found that persons with 0.015 BAC performed better than persons in both other alcohol conditions on the standardized risk perception task. Perceived handicap of driving was significantly more pronounced for negative feedback compared to positive feedback with no influence of the level of alcohol consumption. No significant influence on decision to drive was found of either level of alcohol consumption, feedback or sex. Decision to drive in young drivers could not be influenced by feedback or light consumption. Public health approaches have to find better determining factors.

  9. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  10. Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenhav, Asaf; Brodie, Ziv; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to validate our recently developed novel optical approach for extraction of remote vibration sources as a successful technique to estimate the alcohol concentration in blood stream. This technique is based on the tracking of temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when being illuminated by a laser beam. Since the skin's vibrations profile is changed due to the alcohol in the blood stream, the extraction of the vibration profile can be translated into the corresponding alcohol concentration values by means of defining several parameters acting as indicators for the presence of alcohol in the blood stream. We have conducted several experimental tests showing a good correlation with conventional breath alcohol concentration measurement device when determining alcohol concentration in blood. The presented preliminary results validate the proposed optical sensor as a potentially useful device for measuring alcohol in blood stream with subjects that can be car drivers inspected by police authorities or medically monitored patients.

  11. The Clinical Evaluation of Alcohol Intoxication Is Inaccurate in Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwini; Holloway, Travis; Cohn, Stephen M; Goodwiler, Gregory; Admire, John R

    2018-02-14

    Discharging patients from emergency centers based on the clinical features of intoxication alone may be dangerous, as these may poorly correlate with ethanol measurements. We determined the feasibility of utilizing a hand-held breath alcohol analyzer to aid in the disposition of intoxicated trauma patients by comparing serial breathalyzer (Intoximeter, Alco-Sensor FST, St. Louis, Missouri, USA] data with clinical assessments in determining the readiness of trauma patients for discharge. A total of 20 legally intoxicated (LI) patients (blood alcohol concentration (BAC) >80 mg/dL) brought to our trauma center were prospectively investigated. Serial breath samples were obtained using a breathalyzer as a surrogate measure of repeated BAC. A clinical exam (nystagmus, one-leg balance, heel-toe walk) was performed prior to each breath sampling. The enrollees were 85% male, age 30±10 (range 19-51), with a body mass index (BMI) of 29±7. The average initial body alcohol level (BAL) was 245±61 (range 162-370) mg/dL. Based on breath samples, the alcohol elimination rates varied from 21.5 mg/dL/hr to 45.7 mg/dL/hr (mean 28.5 mg/dL/hr). There were no significant differences in alcohol elimination rates by gender, age, or BMI. The clinical exam also varied widely among patients; only seven of 16 (44%) LI patients demonstrated horizontal nystagmus (suggesting sobriety when actually LI) and the majority of the LI patients (66%) were able to complete the balance tasks (suggesting sobriety). Intoxicated trauma patients have an unreliable clinical sobriety exam and a wide range of alcohol elimination rates. The portable alcohol breath analyzer represents a potential option to easily and inexpensively establish legal sobriety in this population.

  12. How can we reduce alcohol-related road crash deaths among young Australians?

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D; Wallace, Angela L; Cobiac, Linda J; Doran, Christopher M; Vos, Theo

    2010-04-19

    In the United States, policy experiments over a 20-year period have demonstrated that road crash deaths among young adults can be substantially reduced by raising the minimum legal drinking age to 21 years. A recent evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of policies for reducing alcohol-related harm in Australia found that, if the US experience were to be replicated in Australia, raising the minimum legal drinking age would be more cost-effective than random breath testing and drink-driving campaigns. Given the major political obstacles to increasing the minimum legal drinking age, we propose another policy that could achieve a similar reduction in road crash deaths - requiring licensed drivers to maintain a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of zero until at least the age of 21 years (close to the current policy of zero BAC until age 22 years in Victoria), and preferably until 25 years. This would allow young Australians to drink or drive but not to combine these activities for at least the first several years of driving. If all Australian jurisdictions had adopted this policy in 2003, 17 deaths could have been be averted among young Australians as they aged from 18 to 21 years and many more serious injuries could have been prevented each year. If we had enforced a zero BAC until age 25, the number of deaths averted until age 25 years could have been as high as 50.

  13. Endocannabinoid/GABA interactions in the entopeduncular nucleus modulates alcohol intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Caynas Rojas, Seraid; Gómez Armas, David; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a compulsive behavior driven by motivational systems and by a poor control of consummatory behavior. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) seems to be involved in the regulation of executive mechanisms, hence, in the expression of behavior. Endocannabinoids (eCB) are involved in alcohol intake mechanisms. The eCB receptor name cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is expressed in the EP in GABAergic terminals. The role of the eCB system (eCBs) of the EP in the modulation of alcohol seeking and intake behavior is unknown. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of the eCBs and its interaction with GABA transmission in rat EP, in the regulation of alcohol intake behavior. Rats were submitted to a 10-day period of moderate alcohol (10% in tap water) ingestion. No tap water was available. On day 11, either anandamide (AEA, CB1 receptor agonist), AM251 (CB1R inverse agonist), baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist), or CGP35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist) was administered into the EP. One bottle of water and one of alcohol (10% in water) were available ad libitum for the following 24 h, and consumption was quantified at the end of this period. Results show that administration of AEA into the EP decreased alcohol consumption while AM251 and BAC administered independently increased alcohol consumption. AEA prevented the increase induced by AM251 or BAC. Likewise, CGP35348 prevented alcohol ingestion induced by AM251. These data suggest that eCBs dysfunction in the EP may be playing a crucial role in the abuse and dependence of alcohol and other drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8%) had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005), lower age (p < 0.001), attending a local derby (p < 0.001), alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001), attending a weekend match (p < 0.001), and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001). About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  15. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p < .001), (b) drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely (36.3% vs. 17.0%, p < .001), and (c) be a passenger when they knew the driver had too much alcohol to drive safely (44.1% vs. 23.6%, p < .001). Combined users were significantly more likely (p < .001) to report indicators of high-risk alcohol use, such as larger number of drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  16. Visual search and urban driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lamers, C. T. J.; Ramaekers, J. G.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol, and their combination, on visual search at intersections and on general driving proficiency in the City Driving Test. Sixteen recreational users of alcohol and marijuana (eight males and eight females) were treated with these substances or placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer- and subject-blind design. On separate evenings, subjects received weight-calibrated doses of THC, alcohol or placebo in each of the following treatment conditions: alcohol placebo + THC placebo, alcohol + THC placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol. Alcohol doses administered were sufficient for achieving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.05 g/dl. Initial drinking preceded smoking by one hour. The City Driving Test commenced 15 minutes after smoking and lasted 45 minutes. The test was conducted over a fixed route within the city limits of Maastricht. An eye movement recording system was mounted on each subject's head for providing relative frequency measures of appropriate visual search at intersections. General driving quality was rated by a licensed driving instructor on a shortened version of the Royal Dutch Tourist Association's Driving Proficiency Test. After placebo treatment subjects searched for traffic approaching from side streets on the right in 84% of all cases. Visual search frequency in these subjects did not change when they were treated with alcohol or marijuana alone. However, when treated with the combination of alcohol and marijuana, the frequency of visual search dropped by 3%. Performance as rated on the Driving Proficiency Scale did not differ between treatments. It was concluded that the effects of low doses of THC (100 &mgr;g/kg) and alcohol (BAC < 0.05 g/dl) on higher-level driving skills as measured in the present study are minimal. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K.

    2003-12-01

    An FTIR spectrometer equipped with a long-path gas cell can be used to measure breath alcohol concentrations in an instrumental analysis laboratory course. Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash. They also calculate their blood alcohol levels immediately after chewing bread. The main goal of the experiment is to provide the students with an interesting laboratory exercise that teaches them about infrared spectrometers. While the results are meant to be only semiquantitative, they have compared well with results from other published studies. A reference is included that describes how to fabricate a long-path gas cell.

  18. Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).

    PubMed

    Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-11-16

    Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other

  19. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  20. Purification and partial characterization of a novel antibacterial agent (Bac1829) Produced by Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829.

    PubMed Central

    Crupper, S S; Iandolo, J J

    1996-01-01

    A novel antimicrobial agent from Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829, designated Bac1829, was purified by sequential steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified Bac1829 has a molecular mass of 6,418 +/- 2 Da. The peptide in heat stable, since full biological activity is retained after heating at 95 degrees C for 15 min, and it is destroyed by digestion with proteases. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed a high concentration of Ala and Gly residues, which respectively comprised 24 and 19% of the total amino acid content. Additionally, high levels of hydrophobic amino acids were present, accounting for the hydrophobic nature of Bac1829. Purified Bac1829 killed exponentially growing Corynebacterium renale in a dose-dependent manner by a bactericidal mode of action. A partial inhibitory spectrum analysis revealed that the following organisms were sensitive to the inhibitory activity of Bac1829: S. aureus RN4220, Streptococcus suis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, C. renale, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchoseptica, Moraxella bovis, and Pasteurella multocida. PMID:8795206

  1. Legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Green, Robert S; Kureshi, Nelofar; Erdogan, Mete

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of alcohol-impaired drivers injured in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) is a complex public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to describe the legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in a MVC and taken to a hospital or trauma center. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases from inception until August 2014. We included studies that reported legal consequences including charges or convictions of injured drivers taken to a hospital or trauma center after a MVC with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeding the legal limit.Results Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria; twenty studies were conducted in the USA, five in Canada, and one in Sweden. All were cohort studies (23 retrospective, 3 prospective) and included 11,409 patients overall. A total of 5,127 drivers had a BAC exceeding the legal limit, with legal consequences reported in 4937 cases. The median overall DUI/DWI conviction rate was 13% (range 0-85%). The median percentage of drivers with a previous conviction on their record for driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while intoxicated (DWI) was 15.5% (range 6-40%). The median percentage of drivers convicted again for DUI/DWI during the study period was 3.5% (range 2-10%). Heterogeneity between study designs, legal jurisdictions, institutional procedures and policies for obtaining a legally admissible BAC measurement precluded a meta-analysis. Conclusions The majority of intoxicated drivers injured in MVCs and seen in the emergency department are never charged or convicted. A substantial proportion of injured intoxicated drivers had more than one conviction for DUI/DWI on their police record. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug use among drivers who drank on alcohol outlets from Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Boni, Raquel B; Bastos, Francisco Inacio; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio; Oliveira, Fernanda; Limberger, Renata P; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence of multiple substances is a public health concern, but there is little epidemiological data about their combined use and putative impact on driving in low and middle-income countries where traffic crashes have been clustering in recent years. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use - as well as their associated factors - among drivers in the context of alcohol outlets (AOs). A probability three-stage sample survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Individuals who were leaving AO were screened, with the selection of 683 drivers who met the inclusion criteria. Drivers answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had their saliva collected for drug screening. Prevalences were assessed using domain estimation and logistic regression models assessed covariates associated with substance use. Benzodiazepines 3.9% (SE 2.13) and cocaine 3.8% (SE 1.3) were the most frequently detected drugs in saliva. Among drivers who were going to drive, 11% had at least one drug identified by the saliva drug screening, 0.4% two, and 0.1% three drugs in addition to alcohol. In multivariable analyses, having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)>0.06% was found to be associated with a 3.64 times (CI 95% 1.79-7.39) higher chance of drug detection, compared with interviewees with lower BACs. To drive under the influence of multiple substances is likely to be found in this setting, highlighting an association between harmful patterns of consume of alcohol and the misuse of other substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    PubMed

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-01-02

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute alcohol effects on narrative recall and contextual memory: an examination of fragmentary blackouts.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of alcohol consumption on narrative recall and contextual memory among individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts in an attempt to better understand why some individuals experience alcohol-induced memory impairments whereas others do not, even at comparable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Standardized beverage (alcohol and no alcohol) administration procedures and neuropsychological assessments measured narrative recall and context memory performance before and after alcohol consumption in individuals with (n=44) and without (n=44) a history of fragmentary blackouts. Findings indicate that acute alcohol intoxication led to impairments in free recall, but not next-day cued recall. Further, participants showed similar memory performance when sober, but individuals who consumed alcohol and had a positive history of fragmentary blackouts showed greater contextual memory impairments than those who had not previously experienced a fragmentary blackout. Thus, it appears that some individuals may have an inherent vulnerability to alcohol-induced memory impairments due to alcohol's effects on contextual memory processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  6. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  7. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  8. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  9. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  10. Can Progress in Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities Be Resumed?

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Beirness, Douglas J.; Voas, Robert B.; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20% to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. Methods The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB) Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, MA, on August 24–25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed eight effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top three strategies. Results Three strategies received the most support: Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = .05 to .08 g/dL.Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders.Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit

  11. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ajayi, P.A.

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it moremore » effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.« less

  12. Gender Differences in the Relationships Among Major Depressive Disorder, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.

  13. Gender Differences in the Relationships Among Major Depressive Disorder, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E.; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. Method: The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Results: Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. Conclusions: The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment. PMID:27340967

  14. How Should Remote Clinical Monitoring Be Used to Treat Alcohol Use Disorders?: Initial Findings From an Expert Round Table Discussion.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Alan; Jaffe, Adi; McLellan, A Thomas; Richardson, Gary; Skipper, Gregory; Sucher, Michel; Tirado, Carlos F; Urschel, Harold C

    Scientific evidence combined with new health insurance coverage now enable a chronic illness management approach to the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including regular monitoring of blood alcohol content (BAC), as a useful indicator of disease control. Recent technical advances now permit many different types of remote, real-time monitoring of BAC. However, there is no body of research to empirically guide clinicians in how to maximize the clinical potential of remote BAC monitoring.As an initial step in guiding and supporting such research, the manufacturer of one remote BAC monitoring system sponsored a group of experienced clinicians and clinical researchers to discuss 8 issues that generally affect remote, clinical BAC monitoring of "adults in outpatient AUD treatment."The expert panel unanimously agreed that remote BAC monitoring for at least 12 months during and after the outpatient treatment of AUD was a clinically viable deterrent to relapse. There was also consensus that positive test results (ie, recent alcohol use) should lead to intensified care and monitoring. However, there was no agreement on specific types of clinical intensification after a positive test. The panel agreed that sharing positive and negative test results with members of the patient support group was helpful in reinforcing abstinence, yet they noted many practical issues regarding information sharing that remain concerning. Significant differences within the panel on several important clinical issues underline the need for more clinical and implementation research to produce empirically-supported guidelines for the use of remote BAC monitoring in AUD treatment.

  15. How Should Remote Clinical Monitoring Be Used to Treat Alcohol Use Disorders?: Initial Findings From an Expert Round Table Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Alan; Jaffe, Adi; McLellan, A. Thomas; Richardson, Gary; Skipper, Gregory; Sucher, Michel; Tirado, Carlos F.; Urschel, Harold C.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence combined with new health insurance coverage now enable a chronic illness management approach to the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including regular monitoring of blood alcohol content (BAC), as a useful indicator of disease control. Recent technical advances now permit many different types of remote, real-time monitoring of BAC. However, there is no body of research to empirically guide clinicians in how to maximize the clinical potential of remote BAC monitoring. As an initial step in guiding and supporting such research, the manufacturer of one remote BAC monitoring system sponsored a group of experienced clinicians and clinical researchers to discuss 8 issues that generally affect remote, clinical BAC monitoring of “adults in outpatient AUD treatment.” The expert panel unanimously agreed that remote BAC monitoring for at least 12 months during and after the outpatient treatment of AUD was a clinically viable deterrent to relapse. There was also consensus that positive test results (ie, recent alcohol use) should lead to intensified care and monitoring. However, there was no agreement on specific types of clinical intensification after a positive test. The panel agreed that sharing positive and negative test results with members of the patient support group was helpful in reinforcing abstinence, yet they noted many practical issues regarding information sharing that remain concerning. Significant differences within the panel on several important clinical issues underline the need for more clinical and implementation research to produce empirically-supported guidelines for the use of remote BAC monitoring in AUD treatment. PMID:28157829

  16. Single- and dual-task performance during on-the-road driving at a low and moderate dose of alcohol: A comparison between young novice and more experienced drivers.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Stefan; van der Sluiszen, Nick N J J M; Brown, Dennis; Vuurman, Eric F P M

    2018-05-01

    Driving experience and alcohol are two factors associated with a higher risk of crash involvement in young novice drivers. Driving a car is a complex task involving multiple tasks leading to dividing attention. The aim of this study was to compare the single and combined effects of a low and moderate dose of alcohol on single- and dual-task performance between young novice and more experienced young drivers during actual driving. Nine healthy novice drivers were compared with 9 more experienced drivers in a three-way, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Driving performance was measured in actual traffic, with standard deviation of lateral position as the primary outcome variable. Secondary task performance was measured with an auditory word learning test during driving. Results showed that standard deviation of lateral position increased dose-dependently at a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.2 and 0.5 g/L in both novice and experienced drivers. Secondary task performance was impaired in both groups at a BAC of 0.5 g/L. Furthermore, it was found that driving performance in novice drivers was already impaired at a BAC of 0.2 g/L during dual-task performance. The findings suggest that young inexperienced drivers are especially vulnerable to increased mental load while under the influence of alcohol. © 2018 The Authors Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mobile phone brief intervention applications for risky alcohol use among university students: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Andersson, Claes

    2014-07-02

    Brief interventions via the internet have been shown to reduce university students' alcohol intake. This study tested two smartphone applications (apps) targeting drinking choices on party occasions, with the goal of reducing problematic alcohol intake among Swedish university students. Students were recruited via e-mails sent to student union members at two universities. Those who gave informed consent, had a smartphone, and showed risky alcohol consumption according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 had access to the Swedish government alcohol monopoly's app, Promillekoll, offering real-time estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) calculation; Group 2 had access to a web-based app, PartyPlanner, developed by the research group, offering real-time eBAC calculation with planning and follow-up functions; and Group 3 participants were controls. Follow-up was conducted at 7 weeks. Among 28574 students offered participation, 4823 agreed to join; 415 were excluded due to incomplete data, and 1932 fulfilled eligibility criteria for randomization. Attrition was 22.7-39.3 percent, higher among heavier drinkers and highest in Group 2. Self-reported app use was higher in Group 1 (74%) compared to Group 2 (41%). Per-protocol analyses revealed only one significant time-by-group interaction, where Group 1 participants increased the frequency of their drinking occasions compared to controls (p = 0.001). Secondary analyses by gender showed a significant difference among men in Group 1 for frequency of drinking occasions per week (p = 0.001), but not among women. Among all participants, 29 percent showed high-risk drinking, over the recommended weekly drinking levels of 9 (women) and 14 (men) standard glasses. Smartphone apps can make brief interventions available to large numbers of university students. The apps studied using eBAC calculation did not, however, seem to affect alcohol consumption among

  18. The host antimicrobial peptide Bac71-35 binds to bacterial ribosomal proteins and inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mardirossian, Mario; Grzela, Renata; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry; Gennaro, Renato; Mergaert, Peter; Scocchi, Marco

    2014-12-18

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules from innate immunity with high potential as novel anti-infective agents. Most of them inactivate bacteria through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, but others cross the membrane without damages and act inside the cells, affecting vital processes. However, little is known about their intracellular bacterial targets. Here we report that Bac71-35, a proline-rich AMP belonging to the cathelicidin family, can reach high concentrations (up to 340 μM) inside the E. coli cytoplasm. The peptide specifically and completely inhibits in vitro translation in the micromolar concentration range. Experiments of incorporation of radioactive precursors in macromolecules with E. coli cells confirmed that Bac71-35 affects specifically protein synthesis. Ribosome coprecipitation and crosslinking assays showed that the peptide interacts with ribosomes, binding to a limited subset of ribosomal proteins. Overall, these results indicate that the killing mechanism of Bac71-35 is based on a specific block of protein synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.34 Blood... evaluated as follows: (1) If the percentage of alcohol in the person's blood is less than 0.05 percent...

  20. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.34 Blood... evaluated as follows: (1) If the percentage of alcohol in the person's blood is less than 0.05 percent...

  1. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.34 Blood... evaluated as follows: (1) If the percentage of alcohol in the person's blood is less than 0.05 percent...

  2. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.34 Blood... evaluated as follows: (1) If the percentage of alcohol in the person's blood is less than 0.05 percent...

  3. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.34 Blood... evaluated as follows: (1) If the percentage of alcohol in the person's blood is less than 0.05 percent...

  4. Alcohol effects on motor vehicle crash injury.

    PubMed

    Waller, Patricia F; Hill, Elizabeth M; Maio, Ronald F; Blow, Frederic C

    2003-04-01

    Although alcohol is frequently present in injured patients, whether it exacerbates injury and whether tolerance to alcohol changes such a relationship is less clear. Most clinical studies do not consider other important predictors of injury, making interpretation of their findings problematic. To examine alcohol's role in injuries, taking into account other important factors, and to examine the effect of tolerance, if any. Prospective cohort study. University hospital and community hospital emergency departments and morgue. 1362 Motor Vehicle Crash patients age >/=18, treated and released, admitted, and deceased. Excess injury measured by Injury Severity Scale (ISS) 90, Weighted Revised Trauma Score (WRTS), and G-Score. Using regression analysis, the best predictors of injury severity were vehicle crush (TAD), safety belt use, and their interaction, and age. Alcohol use further predicted injury. Using the final regression model, the effect of alcohol was to increase ISS90, on average, by about 30% (from a predicted ISS90 of 5.1 to 6.8, all else being equal). The adjusted odds ratio for serious injury (ISS90>15), was 1.59 for a patient with a positive blood alcohol concentration (alc+) compared to a alc- patient. This potentiating effect is seen even for patients with low levels of alcohol (<22 mmol/liter; <0.100 BAC) but is not linear with increasing alcohol level. Tolerance to alcohol did not affect the potentiation of injury by alcohol. When other relevant variables are considered, alcohol increases injury, but the effects of alcohol level and alcohol tolerance are less clear. These findings have important implications for injury prevention, treatment, and research.

  5. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level.

    PubMed

    Gharani, Pedram; Suffoletto, Brian; Chung, Tammy; Karimi, Hassan A

    2017-12-13

    Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of "just-in-time" injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70%) of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN) was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  6. Validation of the tablet-administered Brief Assessment of Cognition (BAC App).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Alexandra S; Tseng, Tina; Vaughan, Adam; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Harvey, Philip; Patterson, Thomas; Narasimhan, Meera; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-03-01

    Computerized tests benefit from automated scoring procedures and standardized administration instructions. These methods can reduce the potential for rater error. However, especially in patients with severe mental illnesses, the equivalency of traditional and tablet-based tests cannot be assumed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical trials, and has normative data available for generating age- and gender-corrected standardized scores. A tablet-based version of the BACS called the BAC App has been developed. This study compared performance on the BACS and the BAC App in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Test equivalency was assessed, and the applicability of paper-based normative data was evaluated. Results demonstrated the distributions of standardized composite scores for the tablet-based BAC App and the pen-and-paper BACS were indistinguishable, and the between-methods mean differences were not statistically significant. The discrimination between patients and controls was similarly robust. The between-methods correlations for individual measures in patients were r>0.70 for most subtests. When data from the Token Motor Test was omitted, the between-methods correlation of composite scores was r=0.88 (df=48; p<0.001) in healthy controls and r=0.89 (df=46; p<0.001) in patients, consistent with the test-retest reliability of each measure. Taken together, results indicate that the tablet-based BAC App generates results consistent with the traditional pen-and-paper BACS, and support the notion that the BAC App is appropriate for use in clinical trials and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dexamphetamine with and without alcohol on simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Simons, Ries; Martens, Marieke; Ramaekers, Jan; Krul, Arno; Klöpping-Ketelaars, Ineke; Skopp, Gisela

    2012-08-01

    In party circuits dexamphetamine is frequently used in combination with alcohol. It is hypothesized that co-administration of dexamphetamine to alcohol might reduce the sedative effects of alcohol, but may potentiate risk-taking behaviour. The study was aimed at assessing the effects of alcohol, dexamphetamine and the combination of both on simulated driving and cognitive performance. Eighteen subjects participated in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study employing four conditions: 10 mg dexamphetamine, 0.8 g/kg alcohol, 10 mg dexamphetamine + 0.8 g/kg alcohol, and placebo. Fundamental driving skills and risk-taking behaviour were assessed in a driving simulator. Subjects also completed vigilance and divided attention tasks, and subjective ratings. Mean BAC levels during simulated driving were between 0.91‰ and 0.64‰. Subjects using alcohol showed a significantly larger mean standard deviation of lateral position and shorter accepted gap time and distance. Use of alcohol or dexamphetamine + alcohol was associated with a higher frequency of red light running and collisions than the dexamphetamine or placebo conditions. Performance of vigilance and divided attention tasks was significantly impaired in the alcohol condition and, to a lesser degree, in the dexamphetamine + alcohol condition. Single doses of 0.8 g/kg alcohol increased risk-taking behaviours and impaired tracking, attention and reaction time during a 3-h period after drinking when BACs declined from 0.9 to 0.2 mg/ml. The stimulatory effects of co-administration of dexamphetamine 10 mg were not sufficient to overcome the impairing effects of alcohol on skills related to driving.

  8. Toward an Integrated BAC Library Resource for Genome Sequencing and Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Simon, M. I.; Kim, U.-J.

    We developed a great deal of expertise in building large BAC libraries from a variety of DNA sources including humans, mice, corn, microorganisms, worms, and Arabidopsis. We greatly improved the technology for screening these libraries rapidly and for selecting appropriate BACs and mapping BACs to develop large overlapping contigs. We became involved in supplying BACs and BAC contigs to a variety of sequencing and mapping projects and we began to collaborate with Drs. Adams and Venter at TIGR and with Dr. Leroy Hood and his group at University of Washington to provide BACs for end sequencing and for mapping andmore » sequencing of large fragments of chromosome 16. Together with Dr. Ian Dunham and his co-workers at the Sanger Center we completed the mapping and they completed the sequencing of the first human chromosome, chromosome 22. This was published in Nature in 1999 and our BAC contigs made a major contribution to this sequencing effort. Drs. Shizuya and Ding invented an automated highly accurate BAC mapping technique. We also developed long-term collaborations with Dr. Uli Weier at UCSF in the design of BAC probes for characterization of human tumors and specific chromosome deletions and breakpoints. Finally the contribution of our work to the human genome project has been recognized in the publication both by the international consortium and the NIH of a draft sequence of the human genome in Nature last year. Dr. Shizuya was acknowledged in the authorship of that landmark paper. Dr. Simon was also an author on the Venter/Adams Celera project sequencing the human genome that was published in Science last year.« less

  9. Alcohol and drugs use among drivers injured in road accidents in Campania (Italy): A 8-years retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carfora, Anna; Campobasso, Carlo Pietro; Cassandro, Paola; Petrella, Raffaella; Borriello, Renata

    2018-05-09

    A recent update of the Italian Road Traffic Law (RTL 41/2016), established severe penal sanctions when drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) or drugs (DUID), are involved in road accident that results in death or injuries. A study was carried out to assess the trends of consumption of alcohol, illicit drugs or pharmaceutical among injured drivers suspected for DUI or DUID from 2009 to 2016 in the region of Campania (Italy). Confirmation toxicological analyses were performed on 780 blood samples and 1017 urine samples collected from 1797 injured drivers. These drivers all tested positive for alcohol or drug use through immunoassay screening applied at hospital emergency units and their biological samples transferred to the Forensic Reference Laboratory (FRL) for confirmation analysis. The GC/HS-FID methodology was used to test Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Qualitative and quantitative analyses for drugs were performed using the GC/MS or LC-MS/MS methodology. The BAC >0.5g/L was confirmed in 91.5% of drivers suspected for DUI cases and in 93% of DUID respectively. In DUI cases, results show an increasing incidence of road accidents involving drivers with BAC above 1.5g/L while at concentrations above 0.8g/L alcohol and drugs are both used. Among the suspected DUID cases, the intake of alcohol in association with drugs has consistently increased over time and positive results on blood samples was confirmed for multiple drugs (20%) or cannabis and cocaine alone (18%) followed by benzodiazepines (6%) and methadone (3.5%) respectively. The majority of injured drivers suspected for DUID (1017 cases) did not authorize blood sampling, therefore only urine was analyzed showing the prevalent use of cannabis, followed by multiple drug>cocaine>benzodiazepines>opiates. Among 1797 drivers, suspected at screening for DUI or DUID, 15.4% of cases (64 blood and 213 urine samples) were not confirmed by GC/HS, GC/MS or LC-MS/MS analysis. In forensic toxicological

  10. Alcohol and suicide in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Sumarokov, Yury A.; Brenn, Tormod; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.; Sidorenkov, Oleg; Nilssen, Odd

    2016-01-01

    Background High suicide rates in the Russian North are coupled with high alcohol consumption in the described populations. Objective To investigate the potential role of alcohol consumption on suicides in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in 2002–2012 and to compare this information with corresponding data from the neighboring Arkhangelsk Oblast (AO). Design Retrospective population-based mortality study. Methods Data from autopsy reports were used to identify 252 cases of suicide in the NAO and 1,198 cases in the AO in the period 2002–2012. Postmortem blood alcohol content (BAC) was available for 228 cases in the NAO and 1,185 cases in the AO. BAC as well as other selected variables were compared between the NAO and the AO among women and men, different age groups, ethnic groups, and selected variables of suicide. Results Alcohol was present in the blood of 74.1% of male and 82.9% of female suicide cases in the NAO, which was significantly higher than the proportions found in the AO (59.3% of male and 46.6% female cases). BAC<1.0‰ and between 2.0 and 3.0‰ were more frequently found among suicide cases in the NAO than those in the AO. Conclusions Our findings specify that alcohol drinking may be an essential risk factor for suicide in the NAO, and that this factor may be of greater importance in the indigenous population of the NAO than among Russians in the AO. PMID:27452190

  11. Creation of BAC genomic resources for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) for physical mapping of RGA containing BAC clones.

    PubMed

    Clément, D; Lanaud, C; Sabau, X; Fouet, O; Le Cunff, L; Ruiz, E; Risterucci, A M; Glaszmann, J C; Piffanelli, P

    2004-05-01

    We have constructed and validated the first cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) BAC library, with the aim of developing molecular resources to study the structure and evolution of the genome of this perennial crop. This library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 120 kb, representing approximately ten haploid genome equivalents. It was constructed from the genotype Scavina-6 (Sca-6), a Forastero clone highly resistant to cocoa pathogens and a parent of existing mapping populations. Validation of the BAC library was carried out with a set of 13 genetically-anchored single copy and one duplicated markers. An average of nine BAC clones per probe was identified, giving an initial experimental estimation of the genome coverage represented in the library. Screening of the library with a set of resistance gene analogues (RGAs), previously mapped in cocoa and co-localizing with QTL for resistance to Phytophthora traits, confirmed at the physical level the tight clustering of RGAs in the cocoa genome and provided the first insights into the relationships between genetic and physical distances in the cocoa genome. This library represents an available BAC resource for structural genomic studies or map-based cloning of genes corresponding to important QTLs for agronomic traits such as resistance genes to major cocoa pathogens like Phytophthora spp ( palmivora and megakarya), Crinipellis perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri.

  12. Event-level associations between objective and subjective alcohol intoxication and driving after drinking across the college years.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Event-Level Associations between Objective and Subjective Alcohol Intoxication and Driving after Drinking across the College Years

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of Web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PMID:21688876

  14. The effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Haga, Sondre; Gjernes, Mikjel Fredericson; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC] < 0.40 mg/L) vs. moderate (target BAC > 0.40 mg/L; ≈0.80 mg/L) amounts of alcohol]. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic variables, subjective intoxication, alcohol effects (stimulant and sedative), and gambling factors (behavior and problems, evaluation, and beliefs). Participants also gambled on a simulated slot machine. Results A significant main effect of beverage intake on subjective intoxication and alcohol effects was detected as expected. No significant main or interaction effects were detected for number of gambling sessions, bet size and variation, remaining credits at termination, reaction time, and game evaluation. Conclusion Alcohol expectancy and intake do not affect gambling persistence, dissipation of funds, reaction time, or gambling enjoyment.

  15. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  16. [Dose effect of alcohol on sex differences in blood alcohol metabolism--cases where healthy subjects with ALDH2*1/1 genotype drunk beer with meal].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shunji; Haseba, Takeshi; Masuda, Chiaki; Kakimi, Ema; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Ohno, Youkichi

    2013-06-01

    It is said that blood alcohol concentrations (BAG) are higher in female than in male due to the smaller distribution volume of alcohol in female, whereas the rate of alcohol metabolism is faster in female than in males due to a higher activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in female. However, it is also known that alcohol metabolism varies depending on drinking conditions. In this study, we evaluated the dose effect of alcohol on sex differences in alcohol metabolism in daily drinking conditions, where young adults (16 males, 15 females) with ALDH2*1/1 genotype drunk beer at a dose of 0.32g or 1.0g ethanol/kg body weight with a test meal (460kcal). This study was conducted using a randomized cross-over design. In the considerable drinking condition (1.0g/kg), BAG was significantly higher in females than in males, whereas the rate of alcohol metabolism (beta) was higher in female than in male. In the moderate drinking condition (0.32g/kg), however, no sex differences in alcohol metabolism including BAG were seen. These results suggest that an increased first pass metabolism through liver ADH in female, which may be caused by the reduction of gastric emptying rate due to the meal intake, contribute to the vanishing of sex difference in BAC in the moderate drinking condition.

  17. Rapid construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosomal (BAC) expression vector using designer DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xinqing; Jin, Yingyu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Suh, Joo-Won

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomal (BAC) vectors are increasingly being used in cloning large DNA fragments containing complex biosynthetic pathways to facilitate heterologous production of microbial metabolites for drug development. To express inserted genes using Streptomyces species as the production hosts, an integration expression cassette is required to be inserted into the BAC vector, which includes genetic elements encoding a phage-specific attachment site, an integrase, an origin of transfer, a selection marker and a promoter. Due to the large sizes of DNA inserted into the BAC vectors, it is normally inefficient and time-consuming to assemble these fragments by routine PCR amplifications and restriction-ligations. Here we present a rapid method to insert fragments to construct BAC-based expression vectors. A DNA fragment of about 130 bp was designed, which contains upstream and downstream homologous sequences of both BAC vector and pIB139 plasmid carrying the whole integration expression cassette. In-Fusion cloning was performed using the designer DNA fragment to modify pIB139, followed by λ-RED-mediated recombination to obtain the BAC-based expression vector. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this method by rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector with an insert of about 120 kb that contains the entire gene cluster for biosynthesis of immunosuppressant FK506. The empty BAC-based expression vector constructed in this study can be conveniently used for construction of BAC libraries using either microbial pure culture or environmental DNA, and the selected BAC clones can be directly used for heterologous expression. Alternatively, if a BAC library has already been constructed using a commercial BAC vector, the selected BAC vectors can be manipulated using the method described here to get the BAC-based expression vectors with desired gene clusters for heterologous expression. The rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector facilitates

  18. Breath Alcohol Concentrations of Designated Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Adam E.; Chaney, Beth H.; Stellefson, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study established breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) and alcohol-related behaviors of designated drivers (DDs) to determine (a) whether DDs are abstaining from drinking, (b) whether alcohol-related behaviors of non-DDs and DDs were different, and (c) whether the alcohol consumption of DDs resulted in BrAC levels that affected driving performance or caused psychomotor impairment. Method: We conducted six anonymous field studies during a 3-month period in a southeastern college community restaurant and bar district. Intercept interviews were conducted with 1,071 bar patrons. Alcohol-related behaviors, BrAC, and whether one was serving as a DD were measured. The sample was primarily White (72.7%), male (62.4%) college students (64.7%). Descriptive statistics and an independent sample t test compared the BrACs of DDs versus non-DDs. A one-way analysis of variance examined the differences in the alcohol-related behaviors (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–consumption [AUDIT-C] score) across DDs abstaining from drinking (BrAC = .00 g/210 L), drinking DDs (BrACs ≥ .02 and < .05 g/210 L), and impaired DDs (BrACs ≥ .05 g/210 L). A logistic regression assessed the impact of alcohol-related behaviors (AUDIT-C) on whether one was serving as a DD. Results: Of the 165 DDs, approximately 40% did not abstain from drinking. Approximately 17% of DDs had BrACs between .02 g/210 L and .049 g/210 L, whereas 18% recorded BrACs at .05 g/210 L or greater. The mean AUDIT-C score for impaired DDs significantly differed from both abstaining DDs and drinking DDs. Participants with greater AUDIT-C scores were more likely to serve as a DD and have a BrAC that significantly inhibited driving ability and psychomotor function. Conclusions: These findings identify the need for consensus across researcher, layperson, and communication campaigns that a DD must be someone who has abstained from drinking entirely. PMID:23739013

  19. 23 CFR 1225.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 210 liters of breath. (b) ALR means either administrative license revocation or administrative license suspension. (c) BAC means either blood or breath alcohol concentration. (d) BAC per se law means a law that...

  20. Back to BAC: The Use of Infectious Clone Technologies for Viral Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Robyn N.; Meers, Joanne; Fowler, Elizabeth; Mahony, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate the propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments in molecular biology studies for uses such as genome sequencing projects and genetic disease models. To facilitate these studies, methodologies have been developed to introduce specific mutations that can be directly applied to the mutagenesis of infectious clones (icBAC) using BAC technologies. This has resulted in rapid identification of gene function and expression at unprecedented rates. Here we review the major developments in BAC mutagenesis in vitro. This review summarises the technologies used to construct and introduce mutations into herpesvirus icBAC. It also explores developing technologies likely to provide the next leap in understanding these important viruses. PMID:22470833

  1. Fatal crash involvement and laws against alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Zador, P L; Lund, A K; Fields, M; Weinberg, K

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that in 1985 about 1,560 fewer drivers were involved in fatal crashes because of three types of drinking-driving laws. The laws studied were per se laws that define driving under the influence using blood alcohol concentration (BAC) thresholds; laws that provide for administrative license suspension or revocation prior to conviction for driving under the influence (often referred to as "administrative per se" laws); and laws that mandate jail or community service for first convictions of driving under the influence. It is estimated that if all 48 of the contiguous states adopted laws similar to those studied here, and if these new laws had effects comparable to those reported here, another 2,600 fatal driver involvements could be prevented each year. During hours when typically at least half of all fatally injured drivers have a BAC over 0.10 percent, administrative suspension/revocation is estimated to reduce the involvement of drivers in fatal crashes by about 9 percent; during the same hours, first offense mandatory jail/community service laws are estimated to have reduced driver involvement by about 6 percent. The effect of per se laws was estimated to be a 6 percent reduction during hours when fatal crashes typically are less likely to involve alcohol. These results are based on analyses of drivers involved in fatal crashes in the 48 contiguous states of the United States during the years 1978 to 1985.

  2. Alcohol affects executive cognitive functioning differentially on the ascending versus descending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Robert O; Paylan, Sheila S; Gentes-Hawn, Alyson; Hoaken, Peter N S

    2003-05-01

    Executive cognitive functioning (ECF), a construct that includes cognitive abilities such as planning, abstract reasoning, and the capacity to govern self-directed behavior, has been recently researched as an antecedent to many forms of psychopathology and has been implicated in alcohol-related aggression. This study was designed to examine whether differential ECF impairments can be noted on the ascending versus the descending limbs of the blood alcohol concentration curve. Forty-one male university students participated in this study. Twenty-one subjects were given 1.32 ml of 95% alcohol per kilogram of body weight, mixed with orange juice, and the remaining 20 were given a placebo. Participants were randomly assigned to either an ascending or descending blood alcohol group and were tested on six tests of ECF on their assigned limb. Subjective mood data were also collected. Intoxicated participants on both limbs demonstrated ECF impairment; the descending-limb group showed greater impairment than their ascending-limb counterparts. Intoxicated subjects were significantly more anxious at baseline than placebo subjects. The introduction of this covariate nullified any significant differences in subjective mood found on either limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve, but ECF impairments remained robust. Our results support the conclusion that alcohol negatively affects cognitive performance and has a differential effect on the descending versus the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve. The latter finding may have important ramifications relating to the detrimental consequences of alcohol intoxication.

  3. Daily relations among affect, urge, targeted naltrexone, and alcohol use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Bold, Krysten W; Fucito, Lisa M; Corbin, William R; DeMartini, Kelly S; Leeman, Robert F; Kranzler, Henry R; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n = 40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effects of daily affect, urge, and taking targeted medication on same-day risk of drinking to intoxication (defined as estimated blood-alcohol-concentration, BAC ≥ .08 g%). Results indicated urge significantly mediated within-person positive affect-drinking relations on a daily level. Specifically, positive affect was associated with greater urge to drink, which in turn was associated with greater odds of BAC ≥ .08 g%. Furthermore, days of greater positive affect and urge were associated with taking a targeted dose of medication, which reduced the likelihood of intoxication by nearly 23% in the naltrexone group compared to placebo. Gender and family history of alcohol dependence were examined as moderators of these daily level effects. These results provide further evidence of naltrexone's ability to reduce alcohol consumption in young adults and identify potential within-person risk processes related to heavy drinking that could inform alcohol-related interventions for this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Alcohol Dose Effects on Brain Circuits During Simulated Driving: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Astur, Robert S.; Turner, Beth M.; Ruopp, Kathryn; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated remains a major public health hazard. Driving is a complex task involving simultaneous recruitment of multiple cognitive functions. The investigators studied the neural substrates of driving and their response to different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a virtual reality driving simulator. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate spatially independent and temporally correlated driving-related brain circuits in 40 healthy, adult moderate social drinkers. Each subject received three individualized, separate single-blind doses of beverage alcohol to produce BACs of 0.05% (moderate), 0.10% (high), or 0% (placebo). 3 T fMRI scanning and continuous behavioral measurement occurred during simulated driving. Brain function was assessed and compared using both ICA and a conventional general linear model (GLM) analysis. ICA results replicated and significantly extended our previous 1.5T study (Calhoun et al. [2004a]: Neuropsychopharmacology 29:2097–2017). GLM analysis revealed significant dose-related functional differences, complementing ICA data. Driving behaviors including opposite white line crossings and mean speed independently demonstrated significant dose-dependent changes. Behavior-based factors also predicted a frontal-basal-temporal circuit to be functionally impaired with alcohol dosage across baseline scaled, good versus poorly performing drivers. We report neural correlates of driving behavior and found dose-related spatio-temporal disruptions in critical driving-associated regions including the superior, middle and orbito frontal gyri, anterior cingulate, primary/supplementary motor areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Overall, results suggest that alcohol (especially at high doses) causes significant impairment of both driving behavior and brain functionality related to motor planning and control, goal directedness, error monitoring, and memory. PMID

  5. Alcohol-related driving in China: Countermeasure implications of research conducted in two cities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Keqin; Fleiter, Judy; King, Mark; Sheehan, Mary; Ma, Wenjun; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-10-01

    Drunk driving (blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 80mg/100ml) was upgraded to become a criminal offence under China's Criminal Law in May 2011. While this had a major road safety benefit, there was still a high level of alcohol related crashes and fatalities. This paper develops recommendations based on a programme of research undertaken in 2012 that examined the perceptions of general motor vehicle drivers, convicted drunk driving offenders and traffic police about drinking and driving and law enforcement in the cities of Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Alcohol misuse problems were also explored using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). This paper integrates the findings to examine existing problems in alcohol management, law enforcement, education and rehabilitation and provides recommendations for addressing alcohol-related driving in China. A multi-study cross-sectional research programme was conducted in two Chinese cities involving general drivers, drunk driving offenders and traffic police. In total, 16 traffic police officers were interviewed and 105 traffic police officers were surveyed. In addition, 207 drunk driving offenders in detention facilities and 802 general motor vehicle drivers were surveyed. Traffic police resources including human resources and facilities such as breathalysers were reported as insufficient in both cities. There were problems reported in the process of law enforcement, and shortcomings in police knowledge of factors involved in drink/drunk driving and in the practice of conducting breath alcohol testing (BAT). Knowledge about legal BAC levels and how to keep under the legal limit was very low among general motor vehicle drivers and drunk driving offenders. Proportions with alcohol misuse problems in the two driver groups were high, especially among offenders. Recommendations to manage alcohol-related driving are proposed for the three groups of traffic police, general motor vehicle drivers and drunk driving offenders

  6. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-06-06

    Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to

  7. BAC Modification through Serial or Simultaneous Use of CRE/Lox Technology

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Mark; Unruh, Jay; Krumlauf, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) are vital tools in mouse genomic analyses because of their ability to propagate large inserts. The size of these constructs, however, prevents the use of conventional molecular biology techniques for modification and manipulation. Techniques such as recombineering and Cre/Lox methodologies have thus become heavily relied upon for such purposes. In this work, we investigate the applicability of Lox variant sites for serial and/or simultaneous manipulations of BACs. We show that Lox spacer mutants are very specific, and inverted repeat variants reduce Lox reaction rates through reducing the affinity of Cre for the site, while retaining some functionality. Employing these methods, we produced serial modifications encompassing four independent changes which generated a mouse HoxB BAC with fluorescent reporter proteins inserted into four adjacent Hox genes. We also generated specific, simultaneous deletions using combinations of spacer variants and inverted repeat variants. These techniques will facilitate BAC manipulations and open a new repertoire of methods for BAC and genome manipulation. PMID:21197414

  8. Time to Detection with BacT/Alert FA Plus Compared to BacT/Alert FA Blood Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Nutman, A; Fisher Even-Tsur, S; Shapiro, G; Braun, T; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-09-01

    Rapid identification of the causative pathogen in patients with bacteremia allows adjustment of antibiotic therapy and improves patient outcomes. We compared in vitro and real-life time to detection (TTD) of two blood culture media, BacT/Alert FA (FA) and BacT/Alert FA Plus (FA Plus), for the nine most common species of bacterial pathogens recovered from blood samples. Experimental data from simulated cultures was compared with microbiology records of TTD for both culture media with growth of the species of interest in clinical blood cultures. In the experimental conditions, median TTD was 3.8 hours (23.9 %) shorter using FA Plus media. The magnitude of reduction differed between species. Similarly, in real life data, FA Plus had shorter TTD than FA media; however, the difference between culture media was smaller, and median TTD was only 1 hour (8.5 %) less. We found shorter TTD with BacT/Alert FA Plus culture media, both experimentally and in real-life conditions and unrelated to antibiotic neutralization, highlighting the importance of appropriate blood culture media selection.

  9. An efficient approach to BAC based assembly of complex genomes.

    PubMed

    Visendi, Paul; Berkman, Paul J; Hayashi, Satomi; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Ruperao, Pradeep; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Montenegro, Juan; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Staňková, Helena; Batley, Jacqueline; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in the number of genome sequencing projects since the introduction of next generation DNA sequencing technologies. Genome projects have increasingly involved assembly of whole genome data which produces inferior assemblies compared to traditional Sanger sequencing of genomic fragments cloned into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). While whole genome shotgun sequencing using next generation sequencing (NGS) is relatively fast and inexpensive, this method is extremely challenging for highly complex genomes, where polyploidy or high repeat content confounds accurate assembly, or where a highly accurate 'gold' reference is required. Several attempts have been made to improve genome sequencing approaches by incorporating NGS methods, to variable success. We present the application of a novel BAC sequencing approach which combines indexed pools of BACs, Illumina paired read sequencing, a sequence assembler specifically designed for complex BAC assembly, and a custom bioinformatics pipeline. We demonstrate this method by sequencing and assembling BAC cloned fragments from bread wheat and sugarcane genomes. We demonstrate that our assembly approach is accurate, robust, cost effective and scalable, with applications for complete genome sequencing in large and complex genomes.

  10. Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081

  11. Hybrid process of BAC and sMBR for treating polluted raw water.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jia-yu; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yang, Yan-ling; Liang, Heng; Nan, Jun; Wang, Zhao-zhi; Li, Gui-bai

    2009-12-01

    The hybrid process of biological activated carbon (BAC) and submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) was evaluated for the drinking water treatment from polluted raw water, with the respective hydraulic retention time of 0.5 h. The results confirmed the synergetic effects between the BAC and the subsequent sMBR. A moderate amount of ammonium (54.5%) was decreased in the BAC; while the total removal efficiency was increased to 89.8% after the further treatment by the sMBR. In the hybrid process, adsorption of granular activated carbon (in BAC), two stages of biodegradation (in BAC and sMBR), and separation by the membrane (in sMBR) jointly contributed to the removal of organic matter. As a result, the hybrid process managed to eliminate influent DOC, UV(254), COD(Mn), TOC, BDOC and AOC by 26.3%, 29.9%, 22.8%, 27.8%, 57.2% and 49.3%, respectively. Due to the pre-treatment effect of BAC, the membrane fouling in the downstream sMBR was substantially mitigated.

  12. Effect of ethylic alcohol on attentive functions involved in driving abilities.

    PubMed

    Bivona, Umberto; Garbarino, Sergio; Rigon, Jessica; Buzzi, Maria Gabriella; Onder, Graziano; Matteis, Maria; Catani, Sheila; Giustini, Marco; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Formisano, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The burden of injuries due to drunk drivers has been estimated only indirectly. Indeed, alcohol is considered one of the most important contributing cause of car crash injuries and its effect on cognitive functions needs to be better elucidated. Aims of the study were i) to examine the effect of alcohol on attentive abilities involved while driving, and ii) to investigate whether Italian law limits for safe driving are sufficiently accurate to prevent risky behaviours and car crash risk while driving. We conducted a cross-over study at IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia Rehabilitation Hospital in Rome. Thirty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in this experiment. Participants were submitted to an attentive test battery assessing attention before taking Ethylic Alcohol (EA-) and after taking EA (EA+). In the EA+ condition subjects drank enough wine until the blood alcohol concentration, measured by means of Breath Analyzer, was equal to or higher than 0.5 g/l. Data analysis revealed that after alcohol assumption, tonic and phasic alertness, selective, divided attention and vigilance were significantly impaired when BAC level was at least 0.5 g/l. These data reveal that alcohol has a negative effect on attentive functions which are primarily involved in driving skills and that Italian law limits are adequate to prevent risky driving behaviour.

  13. Partial Diversity Generates Effector Immunity Specificity of the Bac41-Like Bacteriocins of Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Strains.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jun; Ike, Yasuyoshi; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is the plasmid-encoded bacteriocin produced by the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis Its genetic determinant consists of bacL1 (effector), bacL2 (regulator), bacA (effector), and bacI (immunity). The secreted effectors BacL1 and BacA coordinate to induce the lytic cell death of E. faecalis Meanwhile, the immunity factor BacI provides self-resistance to the Bac41 producer, E. faecalis, against the action of BacL1 and BacA. In this study, we demonstrated that more than half of the 327 clinical strains of E. faecalis screened had functional Bac41 genes. Analysis of the genetic structure of the Bac41 genes in the DNA sequences of the E. faecalis strains revealed that the Bac41-like genes consist of a relatively conserved region and a variable region located downstream from bacA Based on similarities in the variable region, the Bac41-like genes could be classified into type I, type IIa, and type IIb. Interestingly, the distinct Bac41 types had specific immunity factors for self-resistance, BacI1 or BacI2, and did not show cross-immunity to the other type of effector. We also demonstrated experimentally that the specificity of the immunity was determined by the combination of the C-terminal region of BacA and the presence of the unique BacI1 or BacI2 factor. These observations suggested that Bac41-like bacteriocin genes are extensively disseminated among E. faecalis strains in the clinical environment and can be grouped into at least three types. It was also indicated that the partial diversity results in specificity of self-resistance which may offer these strains a competitive advantage. Bacteriocins are antibacterial effectors produced by bacteria. In general, a bacteriocin-coding gene is accompanied by a cognate immunity gene that confers self-resistance on the bacteriocin-producing bacterium itself. We demonstrated that one of the bacteriocins, Bac41, is disseminated among E. faecalis clinical strains and the Bac41 subtypes with

  14. BacDive--The Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase in 2016.

    PubMed

    Söhngen, Carola; Podstawka, Adam; Bunk, Boyke; Gleim, Dorothea; Vetcininova, Anna; Reimer, Lorenz Christian; Ebeling, Christian; Pendarovski, Cezar; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-01-04

    BacDive-the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) provides strain-linked information about bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. The range of data encompasses taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. The majority of data is manually annotated and curated. Currently (with release 9/2015), BacDive covers 53 978 strains. Newly implemented RESTful web services provide instant access to the content in machine-readable XML and JSON format. Besides an overall increase of data content, BacDive offers new data fields and features, e.g. the search for gene names, plasmids or 16S rRNA in the advanced search, as well as improved linkage of entries to external life science web resources. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Alterations in brain glucose utilization accompanying elevations in blood ethanol and acetate concentrations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pawlosky, Robert J; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Srivastava, Shireesh; King, Michael T; Crutchfield, Calvin; Volkow, Nora; Kunos, George; Li, Ting-Kai; Veech, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that alcohol consumption decreased the rate of brain glucose utilization. We investigated whether the major metabolite of ethanol, acetate, could account for this observation by providing an alternate to glucose as an energy substrate for brain and the metabolic consequences of that shift. Rats were infused with solutions of sodium acetate, ethanol, or saline containing (13)C-2-glucose as a tracer elevating the blood ethanol (BEC) and blood acetate (BAcC) concentrations. After an hour, blood was sampled and the brains of animals were removed by freeze blowing. Tissue samples were analyzed for the intermediates of glucose metabolism, Krebs' cycle, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) compounds, and amino acids. Mean peak BEC and BAcC were approximately 25 and 0.8 mM, respectively, in ethanol-infused animals. Peak blood BAcC increased to 12 mM in acetate-infused animals. Both ethanol and acetate infused animals had a lower uptake of (13)C-glucose into the brain compared to controls and the concentration of brain (13)C-glucose-6-phosphate varied inversely with the BAcC. There were higher concentrations of brain malonyl-CoA and somewhat lower levels of free Mg(2+) in ethanol-treated animals compared to saline controls. In acetate-infused animals the concentrations of brain lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and fumarate were higher. Moreover, the free cytosolic [NAD(+)]/[NADH] was lower, the free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] and [CoQ]/[CoQH(2)] were oxidized and the DeltaG' of ATP lowered by acetate infusion from -61.4 kJ to -59.9 kJ/mol. Animals with elevated levels of blood ethanol or acetate had decreased (13)C-glucose uptake into the brain. In acetate-infused animals elevated BAcC were associated with a decrease in (13)C-glucose phosphorylation. The co-ordinate decrease in free cytosolic NAD, oxidation of mitochondrial NAD and Q couples and the decrease in DeltaG' of ATP was similar to administration of uncoupling agents indicating that the

  16. Alterations in Brain Glucose Utilization Accompanying Elevations in Blood Ethanol and Acetate Concentrations in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Pawlosky, Robert J.; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Srivastava, Shireesh; King, Michael T.; Crutchfield, Calvin; Volkow, Nora; Kunos, George; Li, Ting-Kai; Veech, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies in humans have shown that alcohol consumption decreased the rate of brain glucose utilization. We investigated whether the major metabolite of ethanol, acetate, could account for this observation by providing an alternate to glucose as an energy substrate for brain and the metabolic consequences of that shift. Methods Rats were infused with solutions of sodium acetate, ethanol, or saline containing 13C-2-glucose as a tracer elevating the blood ethanol (BEC) and blood acetate (BAcC) concentrations. After an hour, blood was sampled and the brains of animals were removed by freeze blowing. Tissue samples were analyzed for the intermediates of glucose metabolism, Krebs’ cycle, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) compounds, and amino acids. Results Mean peak BEC and BAcC were approximately 25 and 0.8 mM, respectively, in ethanol-infused animals. Peak blood BAcC increased to 12 mM in acetate-infused animals. Both ethanol and acetate infused animals had a lower uptake of 13C-glucose into the brain compared to controls and the concentration of brain 13C-glucose-6-phosphate varied inversely with the BAcC. There were higher concentrations of brain malonyl-CoA and somewhat lower levels of free Mg2+ in ethanol-treated animals compared to saline controls. In acetate-infused animals the concentrations of brain lactate, α-ketoglutarate, and fumarate were higher. Moreover, the free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] was lower, the free mitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] and [CoQ]/[CoQH2] were oxidized and the ΔG′ of ATP lowered by acetate infusion from −61.4 kJ to −59.9 kJ/mol. Conclusions Animals with elevated levels of blood ethanol or acetate had decreased 13C-glucose uptake into the brain. In acetate-infused animals elevated BAcC were associated with a decrease in 13C-glucose phosphorylation. The co-ordinate decrease in free cytosolic NAD, oxidation of mitochondrial NAD and Q couples and the decrease in ΔG′ of ATP was similar to administration of uncoupling agents

  17. Behavioral effects of the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks on alcohol hangover in an experimental mice model.

    PubMed

    Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2018-03-23

    In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Collegiate-based emergency medical service: impact on alcohol-related emergency department transports at a small liberal arts college.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Joshua B; Olson, Mark H; Kelly, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). The frequency of students receiving transportation to a hospital ED and the reported blood alcohol content (BAC) levels during the initial operational semester of the CBEMS were compared to those values over the same time period the previous year. More than twice the number of students was transported to the ED following the introduction of CBEMS. There was no change in mean BAC levels. CBEMS could promote a culture conducive to increased reporting behavior, which makes the campus safer. Similar BAC levels suggest that the degree of intoxication was similar for the 2 reporting periods, but students sought emergency assistance more frequently following the inception of CBEMS.

  20. Effects of alcohol on attention orienting and dual-task performance during simulated driving: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wester, Anne E; Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Böcker, Koen B E; Kenemans, J Leon

    2010-09-01

    Driving is a complex task and is susceptible to inattention and distraction. Moreover, alcohol has a detrimental effect on driving performance, possibly due to alcohol-induced attention deficits. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and attention orienting and allocation, as assessed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirty-two participants completed two test runs in the Divided Attention Steering Simulator (DASS) with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.00%, 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.08% and 0.10%. Sixteen participants performed the second DASS test run with a passive auditory oddball to assess alcohol effects on involuntary attention shifting. Sixteen other participants performed the second DASS test run with an active auditory oddball to assess alcohol effects on dual-task performance and active attention allocation. Dose-dependent impairments were found for reaction times, the number of misses and steering error, even more so in dual-task conditions, especially in the active oddball group. ERP amplitudes to novel irrelevant events were also attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. The P3b amplitude to deviant target stimuli decreased with blood alcohol concentration only in the dual-task condition. It is concluded that alcohol increases distractibility and interference from secondary task stimuli, as well as reduces attentional capacity and dual-task integrality.

  1. Polymorphisms of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine D4 receptor genes and subjective responses to alcohol in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lara A; Miranda, Robert; Tidey, Jennifer W; McGeary, John E; MacKillop, James; Gwaltney, Chad J; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Swift, Robert M; Monti, Peter M

    2010-02-01

    Polymorphisms of the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genes are associated with subjective responses to alcohol and urge to drink under laboratory conditions. This study examined these associations in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers (n = 112, 52% female, 61% alcohol dependent) who enrolled in a study of naltrexone effects on craving and drinking in the natural environment. Data were culled from 5 consecutive days of drinking reports prior to medication randomization. Analyses revealed that, after drinking, carriers of the Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 gene reported higher overall levels of vigor and lower levels negative mood, as compared to homozygotes for the Asn40 variant. Carriers of the long allele (i.e., >or=7 tandem repeats) of the DRD4 endorsed greater urge to drink than homozygotes for the short allele. Effects of OPRM1 and DRD4 variable-number-of-tandem-repeats genotypes appear to be alcohol dose-dependent. Specifically, carriers of the DRD4-L allele reported slight decreases in urge to drink at higher levels of estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC), and Asp40 carriers reported decreases in vigor and increases in negative mood as eBAC rose, as compared to carriers of the major allele for each gene. Self-reported vigor and urge to drink were positively associated with alcohol consumption within the same drinking episode. This study extends findings on subjective intoxication, urge to drink, and their genetic bases from controlled laboratory to naturalistic settings.

  2. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  3. Begin at the beginning: A BAC-end view of the passion fruit (Passiflora) genome.

    PubMed

    Santos, Anselmo Azevedo; Penha, Helen Alves; Bellec, Arnaud; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Bergès, Hélène; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2014-09-26

    The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a tropical crop of economic importance both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The juice is also used in concentrate blends that are consumed worldwide. However, very little is known about the genome of the species. Therefore, improving our understanding of passion fruit genomics is essential and to some degree a pre-requisite if its genetic resources are to be used more efficiently. In this study, we have constructed a large-insert BAC library and provided the first view on the structure and content of the passion fruit genome, using BAC-end sequence (BES) data as a major resource. The library consisted of 82,944 clones and its levels of organellar DNA were very low. The library represents six haploid genome equivalents, and the average insert size was 108 kb. To check its utility for gene isolation, successful macroarray screening experiments were carried out with probes complementary to eight Passiflora gene sequences available in public databases. BACs harbouring those genes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridizations and unique signals were detected for four BACs in three chromosomes (n=9). Then, we explored 10,000 BES and we identified reads likely to contain repetitive mobile elements (19.6% of all BES), simple sequence repeats and putative proteins, and to estimate the GC content (~42%) of the reads. Around 9.6% of all BES were found to have high levels of similarity to plant genes and ontological terms were assigned to more than half of the sequences analysed (940). The vast majority of the top-hits made by our sequences were to Populus trichocarpa (24.8% of the total occurrences), Theobroma cacao (21.6%), Ricinus communis (14.3%), Vitis vinifera (6.5%) and Prunus persica (3.8%). We generated the first large-insert library for a member of Passifloraceae. This BAC library provides a new resource for genetic and genomic studies, as well as it represents a valuable tool for future whole genome

  4. Taking alcohol by deception: an analysis of ethanol concentration of "paraga" an alcoholic herbal mixture in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Oluwadiya S; Adegoke, Akinola E

    2012-03-06

    Alcohol related road traffic injuries are on the rise in Nigeria. A sizable proportion of the alcohol intake is disguised as herbal medicines which are commonly available at motor parks in most urban centres. This study aims to determine the ethanol concentration of the herbal preparations and the vendors' knowledge about their preparation and use. Twenty-eight samples of the paraga mixtures were obtained for analysis from 22 paraga vendors. The vendors were interviewed in the motor parks using a semi-structured questionnaire. All the paraga outlets were located in or near motor parks. Commercial motor drivers and motorcyclists accounted for most customers. There were no formal recipes, production involved no calibrations or weighing and thus the components and concentration of different batches varied. The alcohol by volume (ABV) of the samples ranged between 1.20% and 20.84%. Nine samples were weaker than beers (Alcohol By Volume (ABV) of 1-3.1%). Ten were equivalent to beer (ABV:3-8%) and the rest were equivalent to wine (ABV:8-12%) or stronger (ABV: 18-20%). Paraga should be classified as alcoholic beverages, and its sale restricted as such. The production should come under scrutiny, because the haphazard ways they are prepared may pose other health risks apart from those due to their alcoholic contents.

  5. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krishnamurti, R.

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24%more » lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.« less

  6. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Sarah E.; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem which may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Methods Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 wk) and adult (10 wk) male C57BL/6J mice for 2-4 h/day for 16 d. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Results Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. Conclusions These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kg body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking, and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge

  7. The protective role of low-concentration alcohol in high-fructose induced adverse cardiovascular events in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqi; Pan, Bo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Lingjuan; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice. From the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio and the expression of hypertrophic marker ANP, we found high-fructose result in myocardial hypertrophy and the low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy from happening. In addition, we observed low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit mitochondria swollen induced by high-fructose. The elevated levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol in high-fructose group were reduced by low concentration alcohol. Low expression levels of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ induced by high-fructose were significantly elevated when fed with low-concentration alcohol. The histone lysine 9 acetylation (acH3K9) level was decreased in PPAR-γ promoter in high-fructose group but elevated when intake with low concentration alcohol. The binding levels of histone deacetylase SIRT1 were increased in the same region in high-fructose group, while the low concentration alcohol can prevent the increased binding levels. Overall, our study indicates that low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit high-fructose related myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac mitochondria damaged and disorders of glucose-lipid metabolism. Furthermore, these findings also provide new insights into histone acetylation-deacetylation mechanisms of low-concentration alcohol treatment that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease induced by high

  8. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  9. M25. Development and Validation of the Brief Assessment of Validation in Schizophrenia (BAC-App)

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Alexandra; Tseng, Tina; Vaughan, Adam; Harvey, Philip; Narasimhan, Meera; Patterson, Tom; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical trials, and has normative data available for generating age- and gender-corrected standardized scores. A tablet-based version of the BACS called the BAC App has been developed to allow standardized presentation of task instructions and stimuli, audio-recording of subject responses, and automatized scoring and data management. Development of the BAC App was aimed at reducing rater burden and variability. Our validation study compared performance on the traditional BACS and the BAC App in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Test equivalency was assessed, and the applicability of paper-based normative data was evaluated. An ongoing follow-up study examines BAC App performance in large-scale census-matched normative sample. Methods: Participants in the validation study included 48 patients (23 female) with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls (25 female) recruited from 3 academic sites including the University of California-San Diego, the University of Miami—Miller School of Medicine, and the University of South Carolina. All participants were assessed with the standard pen-and-paper BACS and the BAC App. Ongoing normative evaluation of the BAC App will include a community sample of 650 individuals matched to the US census on age, education, race and gender. Results: In the validation study, distributions of standardized composite scores for the tablet-based BAC App and the pen-and-paper BACS were indistinguishable in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Between-methods mean differences were not statistically significant. The discrimination between patients and controls was similarly robust with the BAC App (d = 1.34) and the BACS (d = 1.24). The between-methods correlations for individual measures in patients were r > .70 except Token Motor (r

  10. Preparation of BAC libraries from marine microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Sabehi, Gazalah; Béjà, Oded

    2013-01-01

    A protocol is presented here for the construction of BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) libraries from planktonic microbial communities collected in marine environments. The protocol describes the collection and preparation of the planktonic microbial cells, high molecular weight DNA purification from those cells, the preparation of the BAC vector, and the special ligation and electrotransformation procedures required for successful library preparation. With small modifications, this protocol can be applied to microbes collected from other environments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol Oxidation at Platinum–Gas and Platinum–Liquid Interfaces: The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Size, Water Coadsorption, and Alcohol Concentration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tatsumi, Hironori; Liu, Fudong; Han, Hui-Ling

    Platinum nanoparticles size range from 1 to 8 nm deposited on mesoporous silica MCF-17 catalyzed alcohol oxidations were studied in the gas and liquid phases. Among methanol, ethanol, 2- propanol and 2-butanol reactions, the turnover frequency increased with Pt nanoparticle size for all the alcohols utilized. The activation energies for the oxidations were almost same among all alcohol species, but higher in the gas phase than those in the liquid phase. Water coadsorption poisoned the reaction in the gas phase, while it increased the reaction turnover rates in the liquid phase. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies and DFTmore » calculations revealed that the alcohol molecules pack horizontally on the metal surface in low concentrations and stand up in high concentrations, which affect the dissociation of β-hydrogen of the alcohols as the critical step in alcohol oxidations.« less

  12. Alcohol Oxidation at Platinum–Gas and Platinum–Liquid Interfaces: The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Size, Water Coadsorption, and Alcohol Concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Tatsumi, Hironori; Liu, Fudong; Han, Hui-Ling; ...

    2017-03-21

    Platinum nanoparticles size range from 1 to 8 nm deposited on mesoporous silica MCF-17 catalyzed alcohol oxidations were studied in the gas and liquid phases. Among methanol, ethanol, 2- propanol and 2-butanol reactions, the turnover frequency increased with Pt nanoparticle size for all the alcohols utilized. The activation energies for the oxidations were almost same among all alcohol species, but higher in the gas phase than those in the liquid phase. Water coadsorption poisoned the reaction in the gas phase, while it increased the reaction turnover rates in the liquid phase. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies and DFTmore » calculations revealed that the alcohol molecules pack horizontally on the metal surface in low concentrations and stand up in high concentrations, which affect the dissociation of β-hydrogen of the alcohols as the critical step in alcohol oxidations.« less

  13. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving: Implications for Evaluating Driver Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing—after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an

  14. Establishment of the Tree Shrew as an Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Model for the Study of Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals’ suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  15. Extension of the simulated drinking game procedure to multiple drinking games.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jennifer M; Leon, Matthew R; Correia, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    The present study extended the Simulated Drinking Game Procedure (SDGP) to obtain information about different types of drinking games. Phase I participants (N = 545) completed online screening questionnaires assessing substance use and drinking game participation. Participants who met the selection criteria for Phase II (N = 92) participated in laboratory sessions that consisted of three different periods of drinking game play. Sixty-two percent (N = 57) of the sample was female. Data from these sessions was used to estimate the peak Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) a participant would achieve if they consumed alcohol while participating in the SDGP. Total consumption and estimated BAC varied as a function of game type. The total consumption and estimated BAC obtained while playing Beer Pong and Memory varied significantly as a function of group. Total ounces consumed while playing Three Man varied significantly as a function of group; however, the variation in estimated BAC obtained while playing Three Man was not significant. Results indicated that estimated BACs were higher for female participants across game type. Previous experience playing the three drinking games had no impact on total drink consumption or estimated BAC obtained while participating in the SDGP. The present study demonstrated that the SDGP can be used to generate estimates of how much alcohol is consumed and the associated obtained BAC during multiple types of drinking games. In order to fully examine whether previous experience factors in to overall alcohol consumption and BAC, future research should extend the SDGP to incorporate laboratory administration of alcohol during drinking game participation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Impact of providing drinkers with "know your limit" information on drinking and driving: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark B; Clapp, John D

    2011-01-01

    Given that most effective alcohol harm-reduction laws specify the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) that constitutes illegal behavior (e.g., the .08% breath alcohol concentration legal limit), interventions that allow drinkers to accurately estimate their BACs, and thus better assess their risk, have potential importance to long-term driving-under-the-influence prevention efforts. This study describes a field experiment designed to test the impact on drinking of providing "Know Your Limit" (KYL) BAC estimation cards to individuals in a natural drinking environment. We randomly sampled 1,215 U.S. residents as they entered Mexico for a night of drinking, interviewed them, and randomly assigned them to one of six experimental conditions. Participants were reinterviewed and breath-tested when they returned to the United States. The experimental conditions included providing generic warnings about drinking and driving, giving out gender-specific BAC calculator cards (KYL cards), and providing incentives to moderate their drinking. Cueing participants about the risks of drunk driving resulted in significantly lower BACs (relative to control) for participants who indicated that they would drive home. Providing KYL matrixes did not reduce BACs, and, in fact, some evidence suggests that KYL cards undermined the effect of the warning. KYL information does not appear to be an effective tool for reducing drinking and driving. Implications for prevention and future research are discussed.

  17. Heterologous Complementation Reveals a Specialized Activity for BacA in the Medicago-Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    diCenzo, George C; Zamani, Maryam; Ludwig, Hannah N; Finan, Turlough M

    2017-04-01

    The bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm2011 forms N 2 -fixing root nodules on alfalfa and other leguminous plants. The pSymB chromid contains a 110-kb region (the ETR region) showing high synteny to a chromosomally located region in Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 and related rhizobia. We recently introduced the ETR region from S. fredii NGR234 into the S. meliloti chromosome. Here, we report that, unexpectedly, the S. fredii NGR234 ETR region did not complement deletion of the S. meliloti ETR region in symbiosis with Medicago sativa. This phenotype was due to the bacA gene of NGR234 not being functionally interchangeable with the S. meliloti bacA gene during M. sativa symbiosis. Further analysis revealed that, whereas bacA genes from S. fredii or Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 failed to complement the Fix - phenotype of a S. meliloti bacA mutant with M. sativa, they allowed for further developmental progression prior to a loss of viability. In contrast, with Melilotus alba, bacA from S. fredii and R. leguminosarum supported N 2 fixation by a S. meliloti bacA mutant. Additionally, the S. meliloti bacA gene can support N 2 fixation of a R. leguminosarum bacA mutant during symbiosis with Pisum sativum. A phylogeny of BacA proteins illustrated that S. meliloti BacA has rapidly diverged from most rhizobia and has converged toward the sequence of pathogenic genera Brucella and Escherichia. These data suggest that the S. meliloti BacA has evolved toward a specific interaction with Medicago and highlights the limitations of using a single model system for the study of complex biological topics.

  18. Alcohol pharmacokinetics and risk-taking behaviour following exercise-induced dehydration.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Christopher; Goodwin, Alison; Leveritt, Michael; Davey, Andrew K; Desbrow, Ben

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of exercise-induced dehydration on alcohol pharmacokinetics, subjective ratings of impairment, and risk-taking behaviours. Twelve male volunteers participated in 3 experimental trials completed in a randomised cross over design separated by at least 7 days. In one trial, participants exercised to cause dehydration of ~2.5% body weight loss. For the other trials, participants were required to be in a rested and euhydrated state. A set volume of alcohol was then consumed in each trial and participants were monitored over a 4h period. Blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol samples were collected throughout and analysed to calculate pharmacokinetic variables associated with the blood alcohol curve. Total urine production, estimates of BrAC, and subjective ratings of intoxication and impairment were also recorded throughout each trial. No difference was found in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol between any of the trial conditions. BrACs were higher than BACs for 2h following alcohol consumption, but lower at measures taken 3 and 4 h post ingestion. Participants' ratings of confusion and intoxication were significantly lower, and they were more willing to drive in the dehydration trial compared with one of the euhydration trials. These findings suggest that dehydration or other physiological changes associated with exercise may have an ability to influence the subjective effects of alcohol and increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviours such as drink-driving. However, further research is required to examine the effects of alcohol under conditions of exercise-induced fluid loss in order to clarify these findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Taking alcohol by deception: an analysis of ethanol concentration of "paraga" an alcoholic herbal mixture in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol related road traffic injuries are on the rise in Nigeria. A sizable proportion of the alcohol intake is disguised as herbal medicines which are commonly available at motor parks in most urban centres. This study aims to determine the ethanol concentration of the herbal preparations and the vendors' knowledge about their preparation and use. Twenty-eight samples of the paraga mixtures were obtained for analysis from 22 paraga vendors. The vendors were interviewed in the motor parks using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results All the paraga outlets were located in or near motor parks. Commercial motor drivers and motorcyclists accounted for most customers. There were no formal recipes, production involved no calibrations or weighing and thus the components and concentration of different batches varied. The alcohol by volume (ABV) of the samples ranged between 1.20% and 20.84%. Nine samples were weaker than beers (Alcohol By Volume (ABV) of 1-3.1%). Ten were equivalent to beer (ABV:3-8%) and the rest were equivalent to wine (ABV:8-12%) or stronger (ABV: 18-20%). Conclusions Paraga should be classified as alcoholic beverages, and its sale restricted as such. The production should come under scrutiny, because the haphazard ways they are prepared may pose other health risks apart from those due to their alcoholic contents. PMID:22394987

  20. Disruptions in Functional Network Connectivity during Alcohol Intoxicated Driving

    PubMed Central

    Rzepecki-Smith, Catherine I.; Meda, Shashwath A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Stevens, Michael C.; Jafri, Madiha J.; Astur, Robert S.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Driving while under the influence of alcohol is a major public health problem whose neural basis is not well understood. In a recently published fMRI study (Meda et al, 2009), our group identified five, independent critical driving-associated brain circuits whose inter-regional connectivity was disrupted by alcohol intoxication. However, the functional connectivity between these circuits has not yet been explored in order to determine how these networks communicate with each other during sober and alcohol-intoxicated states. Methods: In the current study, we explored such differences in connections between the above brain circuits and driving behavior, under the influence of alcohol versus placebo. Forty social drinkers who drove regularly underwent fMRI scans during virtual reality driving simulations following two alcohol doses, placebo and an individualized dose producing blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.10%. Results: At the active dose, we found specific disruptions of functional network connectivity between the frontal-temporal-basal ganglia and the cerebellar circuits. The temporal connectivity between these two circuits was found to be less correlated (p <0.05) when driving under the influence of alcohol. This disconnection was also associated with an abnormal driving behavior (unstable motor vehicle steering). Conclusions: Connections between frontal-temporal-basal ganglia and cerebellum have recently been explored; these may be responsible in part for maintaining normal motor behavior by integrating their overlapping motor control functions. These connections appear to be disrupted by alcohol intoxication, in turn associated with an explicit type of impaired driving behavior. PMID:20028354

  1. Creativity on tap? Effects of alcohol intoxication on creative cognition

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Panzierer, Lisa; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports link alcohol intoxication to creativity, while cognitive research highlights the crucial role of cognitive control for creative thought. This study examined the effects of mild alcohol intoxication on creative cognition in a placebo-controlled design. Participants completed executive and creative cognition tasks before and after consuming either alcoholic beer (BAC of 0.03) or non-alcoholic beer (placebo). Alcohol impaired executive control, but improved performance in the Remote Associates Test, and did not affect divergent thinking ability. The findings indicate that certain aspects of creative cognition benefit from mild attenuations of cognitive control, and contribute to the growing evidence that higher cognitive control is not always associated with better cognitive performance. PMID:28705663

  2. Genomic and transcriptomic insights into how bacteria withstand high concentrations of benzalkonium chloride biocides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K; Weigand, Michael R; Krishnan, Raj; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-04-13

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are commonly used biocides in broad-spectrum disinfectant solutions. How microorganisms cope with BAC exposure remains poorly understood, despite its importance for disinfection and disinfectant-induced antibiotic resistance. To provide insights into these issues, we exposed two isolates of an opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , to increasing concentrations of BAC. One isolate was pre-adapted to BAC as it originated from a bioreactor fed with sub-inhibitory concentrations of BAC for 3 years, while the other originated from a bioreactor that received no BAC. Replicated populations of both isolates were able to survive high concentrations of BAC, up to 1200 and 1600mg/L for the non- and pre-adapted ones, respectively, exceeding typical application doses. RNA-seq analysis revealed up-regulation of efflux pump genes and decreased expression of porins related to BAC transport as well as reduced growth rate. Increased expression of spermidine (a polycation) synthase genes and mutations in the pmrB (polymyxin resistance) gene, which cause a reduction in membrane negative charge, suggested that a major adaptation to exposure to the cationic surfactant BAC was to actively stabilize cell surface charge. Collectively, these results revealed that P. aeruginosa adapts to BAC exposure by a combination of mechanisms, and provided genetic markers to monitor BAC-resistant organisms that may have applications in the practice of disinfection. Importance Benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are widely used as biocides in disinfectant solutions, food processing lines, domestic households, and healthcare facilities. Due to their wide use and mode of action, there has been rising concern that BAC may promote antibiotic resistance. Consistently, at least 40 outbreaks have been attributed to infection by disinfectant- and antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that bacteria deal with BAC

  3. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were <0.02% (w/v). Subjects in the study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  4. Evaluation of enhanced sanctions for higher BACs : summary of states' laws

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-nine states have a stature, regulation, or rule that provides for additional or more severe sanctions for driving under the influence (DUI) offenders with a "high" BAC. States vary in terms of the high-BAC threshold, which ranges from .15 to ....

  5. Analysis of BAC end sequences in oak, a keystone forest tree species, providing insight into the composition of its genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the key goals of oak genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of forests to increase their health and productivity. Deep-coverage large-insert genomic libraries are a crucial tool for attaining this objective. We report herein the construction of a BAC library for Quercus robur, its characterization and an analysis of BAC end sequences. Results The EcoRI library generated consisted of 92,160 clones, 7% of which had no insert. Levels of chloroplast and mitochondrial contamination were below 3% and 1%, respectively. Mean clone insert size was estimated at 135 kb. The library represents 12 haploid genome equivalents and, the likelihood of finding a particular oak sequence of interest is greater than 99%. Genome coverage was confirmed by PCR screening of the library with 60 unique genetic loci sampled from the genetic linkage map. In total, about 20,000 high-quality BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated by sequencing 15,000 clones. Roughly 5.88% of the combined BAC end sequence length corresponded to known retroelements while ab initio repeat detection methods identified 41 additional repeats. Collectively, characterized and novel repeats account for roughly 8.94% of the genome. Further analysis of the BESs revealed 1,823 putative genes suggesting at least 29,340 genes in the oak genome. BESs were aligned with the genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Populus trichocarpa. One putative collinear microsyntenic region encoding an alcohol acyl transferase protein was observed between oak and chromosome 2 of V. vinifera. Conclusions This BAC library provides a new resource for genomic studies, including SSR marker development, physical mapping, comparative genomics and genome sequencing. BES analysis provided insight into the structure of the oak genome. These sequences will be used in the assembly of a

  6. Bacterial contamination of platelet components not detected by BacT/ALERT®.

    PubMed

    Abela, M A; Fenning, S; Maguire, K A; Morris, K G

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the possible causes for false negative results in BacT/ALERT ® 3D Signature System despite bacterial contamination of platelet units. The Northern Ireland Blood Transfusion Service (NIBTS) routinely extends platelet component shelf life to 7 days. Components are sampled and screened for bacterial contamination using an automated microbial detection system, the BacT/ALERT ® 3D Signature System. We report on three platelet components with confirmed bacterial contamination, which represent false negative BacT/ALERT ® results and near-miss serious adverse events. NIBTS protocols for risk reduction of bacterial contamination of platelet components are described. The methodology for bacterial detection using BacT/ALERT ® is outlined. Laboratory tests, relevant patient details and relevant follow-up information are analysed. In all three cases, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the platelet residue and confirmed on terminal sub-culture using BacT/ALERT ® . In two cases, S. aureus with similar genetic makeup was isolated from the donors. Risk reduction measures for bacterial contamination of platelet components are not always effective. Automated bacterial culture detection does not eliminate the risk of bacterial contamination. Visual inspection of platelet components prior to release, issue and administration remains an important last line of defence. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Smartphone-based colorimetric analysis for detection of saliva alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngkee; Kim, Jinhee; Awofeso, Olumide; Kim, Huisung; Regnier, Fred; Bae, Euiwon

    2015-11-01

    A simple device and associated analytical methods are reported. We provide objective and accurate determination of saliva alcohol concentrations using smartphone-based colorimetric imaging. The device utilizes any smartphone with a miniature attachment that positions the sample and provides constant illumination for sample imaging. Analyses of histograms based on channel imaging of red-green-blue (RGB) and hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space provide unambiguous determination of blood alcohol concentration from color changes on sample pads. A smartphone-based sample analysis by colorimetry was developed and tested with blind samples that matched with the training sets. This technology can be adapted to any smartphone and used to conduct color change assays.

  8. Witnesses' memory for events and faces under elevated levels of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Altman, Christopher M; Schreiber Compo, Nadja; McQuiston, Dawn; Hagsand, Angelica V; Cervera, Jiselle

    2018-08-01

    Research on alcohol and witness memory has burgeoned over the last decade. However, most studies have tested participants at relatively low breath alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, unrepresentative of those encountered by officers in the field. To examine how higher intoxication levels might impair witness memory for events and faces, the current research tested participants' ability to recall a mock crime at elevated BAC levels (>.08%). The BAC levels of bar patrons (N = 138) were recorded before witnessing a video-taped mock crime. Participants were then interviewed using free recall and cued questions and shown a six-person target-present or target-absent lineup. Results show that alcohol negatively affected both the quantity and quality of recall. Regardless of question format, alcohol also reduced the percentage of accurate information elicited from witnesses; however, only cued questions increased the percentage of inaccurate information reported. Intoxication had no effect on identification accuracy. These findings suggest that the encoding and storage systems for faces and events may be impacted differently by alcohol. Our results also highlight the importance of including higher BAC levels when examining the effects of alcohol on witness memory.

  9. Science and alcohol policy: a case study of the EU Strategy on Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rebecca; Anderson, Peter

    2011-03-01

    To describe the extent to which the content of the European Commission's Communication on alcohol reflects public health-based scientific evidence. Document retrieval and content analysis. European Union. Background documents leading up to the European Commission's Communication on alcohol, the Communication itself and implementation actions following the Communication. Documents were read and analyzed for evidence-based alcohol policy content. Although the Communication acknowledges and supports existing interventions which have high evidence for effectiveness, such as enforcing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers, it extensively promotes other interventions which have been shown to be ineffective; for example, recommending education and persuasion strategies as a measure across all its five priority areas. Measures to influence price are mentioned only once in relation to sales in drinking venues limiting two-for-one drinks offers. Measures to control physical availability are mentioned infrequently. The Communication reflects the science, in that it acknowledges the significance of alcohol as a social and health determinant in Europe. However, it places more emphasis on policy actions with less evidence for effectiveness than on those with strong evidence. It also focuses its efforts more on mapping member state actions and coordinating knowledge exchange than on providing concrete recommendations for action or developing Europe-wide policy measures. This may be a compromise between the rights of Member States to develop national policy and legislation and the obligation of the European Union as a collaborative body to protect health. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the European Union's roots as a trading block emphasizes collaboration with industry stakeholders and this influences the ability to prioritize health over trade considerations. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, David R; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Almeida Santimano, Nerissa M L; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-12-29

    only for those analyses for which heterogeneity across delivery modes is not substantial (I(2) < 50%).Alcohol-related problems at four or more months: IFF standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.24 to -0.04 (participants = 2327; studies = 11; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 1.28 points in the 69-point alcohol problems scale score. No effects were found for WF or MF.Binge drinking at four or more months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.02 (participants = 11,292; studies = 16; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to 2.7% fewer binge drinkers if 30-day prevalence is 43.9%.Drinking quantity at four or more months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.04 (participants = 21,169; studies = 32; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a reduction of 0.9 drinks consumed each week, from a baseline of 13.7 drinks per week.Drinking frequency at four or more months: WF SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.04 (participants = 9929; studies = 10; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.17 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk; IFF SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.10 (participants = 1464; studies = 8; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.32 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk. No effects were found for GFF or MC.Estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at four or more months: peak BAC results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.00 (participants = 7198; studies = 11; low quality evidence), equivalent to a reduction in peak BAC from an average of 0.144% to 0.135%. No effects were found for typical BAC with IFF. The results of this review indicate that no substantive meaningful benefits are associated with social norms interventions for prevention of alcohol misuse among college/university students. Although some significant effects were found, we interpret the effect sizes as too

  11. Alcohol consumption reduces HbA1c and glycated albumin concentrations but not 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    PubMed

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    Background The effect of alcohol consumption on glycaemic control indicators is not well known. In this study, we studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the plasma glucose and glycaemic control indicators in non-diabetic men. Methods The study enrolled 300 non-diabetic men who received a complete medical checkup (age: 52.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index: 24.4 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). The subjects were divided into four groups by the amount of alcohol consumed, and the plasma glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations of the groups were compared. Results As the level of alcohol consumption increased, significantly high concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were observed, and the oral glucose tolerance test 2-h plasma glucose concentrations tended to rise. While no significant effect of alcohol consumption on HbA1c, 1,5-AG, and the 1,5-AG/FPG ratio was observed, the HbA1c/FPG ratio, GA and the GA/FPG ratio exhibited significantly low values as the level of alcohol consumption increased. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, alcohol consumption was a significant negative independent variable for HbA1c and GA, but not for 1,5-AG. Conclusions As the level of alcohol consumption increased, the plasma glucose concentrations rose, but the HbA1c and GA concentrations were lower compared with the plasma glucose concentrations. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce HbA1c and GA concentrations, but not 1,5-AG.

  12. The BepiColombo Archive Core System (BACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Osuna, P.; Pérez-López, F.; Vallejo, J. C.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Casale, M.

    2015-09-01

    BepiColombo is an interdisciplinary ESA mission to explore the planet Mercury in cooperation with JAXA. The mission consists of two separate orbiters: ESA's Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and JAXA's Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which are dedicated to the detailed study of the planet and its magnetosphere. The MPO scientific payload comprises 11 instruments covering different scientific disciplines developed by several European teams. The MPO science operations will be prepared by the MPO Science Ground Segment (SGS) located at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Madrid. The BepiColombo Archive Core System (BACS) will be the central archive in which all mission operational data will be stored and is being developed by the Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) also at ESAC. The BACS will act as one of the modular subsystems within the BepiColombo Science Operations Control System (BSCS), (Vallejo 2014; Pérez-López 2014) which is under the responsibility of the SGS, with the purpose of facilitating the information exchange of data and metadata between the other subsystems of the BSCS as well as with the MPO Instrument Teams. This paper gives an overview of the concept and design of the BACS and how it integrates into the science ground segment workflow.

  13. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  14. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish. PMID:20105308

  15. Creativity on tap? Effects of alcohol intoxication on creative cognition.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Panzierer, Lisa; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2017-11-01

    Anecdotal reports link alcohol intoxication to creativity, while cognitive research highlights the crucial role of cognitive control for creative thought. This study examined the effects of mild alcohol intoxication on creative cognition in a placebo-controlled design. Participants completed executive and creative cognition tasks before and after consuming either alcoholic beer (BAC of 0.03) or non-alcoholic beer (placebo). Alcohol impaired executive control, but improved performance in the Remote Associates Test, and did not affect divergent thinking ability. The findings indicate that certain aspects of creative cognition benefit from mild attenuations of cognitive control, and contribute to the growing evidence that higher cognitive control is not always associated with better cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Costs of Alcohol-Involved Crashes, United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.; Blincoe, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates total and unit costs of alcohol-involved crashes in the U.S. in 2010. With methods from earlier studies, we estimated costs per crash survivor by MAIS, body part, and fracture/dislocation involvement. We multiplied them times 2010 crash incidence estimates from NHTSA data sets, with adjustments for underreporting of crashes and their alcohol involvement. The unit costs are lifetime costs discounted at 3%. To develop medical costs, we combined 2008 Health Care Utilization Program national data for hospitalizations and ED visits of crash survivors with prior estimates of post-discharge costs. Productivity losses drew on Current Population Survey and American Time Use Survey data. Quality of life losses came from a 2011 AAAM paper and property damage from insurance data. We built a hybrid incidence file comprised of 2008–2010 and 1984–86 NHTSA crash surveillance data, weighted with 2010 General Estimates System weights. Fatality data came from the 2010 FARS. An estimated 12% of 2010 crashes but only 0.9% of miles driven were alcohol-involved (BAC > .05). Alcohol-involved crashes cost an estimated $125 billion. That is 22.5% of the societal cost of all crashes. Alcohol-attributable crashes accounted for an estimated 22.5% of US auto liability insurance payments. Alcohol-involved crashes cost $0.86 per drink. Above the US BAC limit of .08, crash costs were $8.37 per mile driven; 1 in 788 trips resulted in a crash and 1 in 1,016 trips in an arrest. Unit costs for crash survivors by severity are higher for impaired driving than for other crashes. That suggests national aggregate impaired driving cost estimates in other countries are substantial underestimates if they are based on all-crash unit costs. PMID:24406941

  17. Expression and bioactivity of human α-fetoprotein in a Bac-to-Bac system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wenting; Li, Wei; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lu, Yan; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    α-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in foetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumour-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system. Two key factors affecting the expression of recombinant human AFP (R-AFP), namely the infectious baculovirus inoculum volume and the culturing time post-infection, were optimized to maximize the yield. We achieved a high yield of approximately 1.5 mg/l of harvested medium with a 72–96 h incubation period after infection and an inoculum volume ratio of 1:100. We also assessed the role of R-AFP in the proliferation of the human liver cancer cell line Bel 7402, and the results indicated that R-AFP promoted the growth of hepatoma cells. We concluded that this method can produce high yields of R-AFP, which can be used for studies related to AFP. PMID:27913752

  18. Expression and bioactivity of human α-fetoprotein in a Bac-to-Bac system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wenting; Li, Wei; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lu, Yan; Guo, Junli; Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Mengsen

    2017-02-28

    α-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in foetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumour-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system. Two key factors affecting the expression of recombinant human AFP (R-AFP), namely the infectious baculovirus inoculum volume and the culturing time post-infection, were optimized to maximize the yield. We achieved a high yield of approximately 1.5 mg/l of harvested medium with a 72-96 h incubation period after infection and an inoculum volume ratio of 1:100. We also assessed the role of R-AFP in the proliferation of the human liver cancer cell line Bel 7402, and the results indicated that R-AFP promoted the growth of hepatoma cells. We concluded that this method can produce high yields of R-AFP, which can be used for studies related to AFP. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH). Results First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.64 times longer than the 850 Mb potato genome. Genome heterozygosity and incomplete merging of BAC contigs are two factors that can explain this map inflation. The contig information of both physical maps was united in a single table that describes hybrid potato physical map. Conclusions The AFLP physical map has already been used by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium for sequencing 10% of the heterozygous genome of clone RH on a BAC-by-BAC basis. By layering a new WGP physical map on top of the AFLP physical map, a genetically anchored genome-wide framework of 322434 sequence tags has been created. This reference framework can be used for anchoring and ordering of genomic

  20. Alcohol consumption and the intention to engage in unprotected sex: systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin D; Joharchi, Narges; Shuper, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    To review and analyse in experimentally controlled studies the impact of alcohol consumption on intentions to engage in unprotected sex. To draw conclusions with respect to the question of whether alcohol has an independent effect on the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies examined the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and self-perceived likelihood of using a condom during intercourse. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to internationally standardized protocols (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: PRISMA). The meta-analysis included an estimate of the dose-response effect, tests for publication bias and sensitivity analyses. Of the 12 studies included in the quantitative synthesis, our pooled analysis indicated that an increase in BAC of 0.1 mg/ml resulted in an increase of 5.0% (95% CI: 2.8-7.1%) in the indicated likelihood (indicated by a Likert scale) of engaging in unprotected sex. After adjusting for potential publication bias, this estimate dropped to 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0-3.9%). Thus, the larger the alcohol intake and the subsequent level of BAC, the higher the intentions to engage in unsafe sex. The main results were homogeneous, persisted in sensitivity analyses and after correction for publication bias. Alcohol use is an independent risk factor for intentions to engage in unprotected sex, and as risky sex intentions have been shown to be linked to actual risk behavior, the role of alcohol consumption in the transmission of HIV and other STIs may be of public health importance. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. An Efficient Method for High-Fidelity BAC/PAC Retrofitting with a Selectable Marker for Mammalian Cell Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zunde; Engler, Peter; Longacre, Angelika; Storb, Ursula

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale genomic sequencing projects have provided DNA sequence information for many genes, but the biological functions for most of them will only be known through functional studies. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) are large genomic clones stably maintained in bacteria and are very important in functional studies through transfection because of their large size and stability. Because most BAC or PAC vectors do not have a mammalian selection marker, transfecting mammalian cells with genes cloned in BACs or PACs requires the insertion into the BAC/PAC of a mammalian selectable marker. However, currently available procedures are not satisfactory in efficiency and fidelity. We describe a very simple and efficient procedure that allows one to retrofit dozens of BACs in a day with no detectable deletions or unwanted recombination. We use a BAC/PAC retrofitting vector that, on transformation into competent BAC or PAC strains, will catalyze the specific insertion of itself into BAC/PAC vectors through in vivo cre/loxP site-specific recombination. PMID:11156622

  2. Using phone sensors and an artificial neural network to detect gait changes during drinking episodes in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Suffoletto, Brian; Gharani, Pedram; Chung, Tammy; Karimi, Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Phone sensors could be useful in assessing changes in gait that occur with alcohol consumption. This study determined (1) feasibility of collecting gait-related data during drinking occasions in the natural environment, and (2) how gait-related features measured by phone sensors relate to estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC). Ten young adult heavy drinkers were prompted to complete a 5-step gait task every hour from 8pm to 12am over four consecutive weekends. We collected 3-axis accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from phone sensors, and computed 24 gait-related features using a sliding window technique. eBAC levels were calculated at each time point based on Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of alcohol use. We used an artificial neural network model to analyze associations between sensor features and eBACs in training (70% of the data) and validation and test (30% of the data) datasets. We analyzed 128 data points where both eBAC and gait-related sensor data were captured, either when not drinking (n=60), while eBAC was ascending (n=55) or eBAC was descending (n=13). 21 data points were captured at times when the eBAC was greater than the legal limit (0.08mg/dl). Using a Bayesian regularized neural network, gait-related phone sensor features showed a high correlation with eBAC (Pearson's r>0.9), and >95% of estimated eBAC would fall between -0.012 and +0.012 of actual eBAC. It is feasible to collect gait-related data from smartphone sensors during drinking occasions in the natural environment. Sensor-based features can be used to infer gait changes associated with elevated blood alcohol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Desorption of isopropyl alcohol from adsorbent with non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Chen Han; Pan, Kuan Lun; Yu, Sheng Jen; Yan, Shaw Yi; Chang, Moo Been

    2017-09-01

    Effective desorption of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) from adsorbents with non-thermal plasma is developed. In this system, IPA is effectively adsorbed with activated carbon while dielectric barrier discharge is applied to replace the conventional thermal desorption process to achieve good desorption efficiency, making the treatment equipment smaller in size. Various adsorbents including molecular sieves and activated carbon are evaluated for IPA adsorption capacity. The results indicate that BAC has the highest IPA adsorption capacity (280.31 mg IPA/g) under the operating conditions of room temperature, IPA of 400 ppm, and residence time of 0.283 s among 5 adsorbents tested. For the plasma desorption process, the IPA selectivity of 89% is achieved with BAC as N 2 is used as desorbing gas. In addition, as air or O 2 is used as desorbing gas, the IPA desorption concentration is reduced, because air and O 2 plasmas generate active species to oxidize IPA to form acetone, CO 2 , and even CO. Furthermore, the results of the durability test indicate that the amount of IPA desorbed increases with increasing desorption times and plasma desorption process has a higher energy efficiency if compared with thermal desorption. Overall, this study indicates that non-thermal plasma is a viable process for removing VOCs to regenerate adsorbent.

  4. Drinking Levels Defined

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary ... of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL. This typically occurs ...

  5. A controlled comparison of the BacT/ALERT® 3D and VIRTUO™ microbial detection systems.

    PubMed

    Totty, H; Ullery, M; Spontak, J; Viray, J; Adamik, M; Katzin, B; Dunne, W M; Deol, P

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the next-generation BacT/ALERT® VIRTUO™ Microbial Detection System (VIRTUO™, bioMérieux Inc., Hazelwood, MO) was compared to the BacT/ALERT® 3D Microbial Detection System (3D, bioMérieux Inc., Durham, NC) using BacT/ALERT® FA Plus (FA Plus), BacT/ALERT® PF Plus (PF Plus), BacT/ALERT® FN Plus (FN Plus), BacT/ALERT® Standard Aerobic (SA), and BacT/ALERT® Standard Anaerobic (SN) blood culture bottles (bioMérieux Inc., Durham, NC). A seeded limit of detection (LoD) study was performed for each bottle type in both systems. The LoD studies demonstrated that both systems were capable of detecting organisms at nearly identical levels [<10 colony-forming units (CFU) per bottle], with no significant difference. Following LoD determination, a seeded study was performed to compare the time to detection (TTD) between the systems using a panel of clinically relevant microorganisms inoculated at or near the LoD with 0, 4, or 10 mL of healthy human blood. VIRTUO™ exhibited a faster TTD by an average of 3.5 h, as well as demonstrated a significantly improved detection rate of 99.9% compared to 98.8% with 3D (p-value <0.05).

  6. Effect of alcohol dose on deliberate self-harm in men and women.

    PubMed

    Berman, Mitchell E; Fanning, Jennifer R; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; Bullock, Joshua; Nadorff, Michael R; McCloskey, Michael S

    2017-09-01

    Nonexperimental survey and field research support the notion that alcohol use may be associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) across the spectrum of lethality, from nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through suicide. Nonexperimental studies, however, provide limited information about potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and DSH. Two previous experiments showed that a relatively high-dose of alcohol increases the likelihood of engaging in DSH in men, with DSH defined by the self-administration of a "painful" shock (the self-aggression paradigm [SAP]; Berman & Walley, 2003; McCloskey & Berman, 2003). In this study, we examined whether (a) lower doses of alcohol also elicit DSH, (b) this effect occurs for women as well as men, and (c) individual differences in past nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) moderate alcohol's effects on DSH. Nonalcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) were assigned either to .00%, .05%, .075%, or .100% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) drink conditions and completed a self-rating scale of NSSI (the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory [DSHI]; Gratz, 2001). As in previous SAP studies, DSH was operationalized by shock setting behavior during a competitive reaction time (RT) game. Overall, a greater proportion of participants in the .075% and .100% (but not .050%) alcohol conditions self-selected a "painful" shock to administer compared to participants in the placebo condition. NSSI predicted self-administration of painful shocks, but did not moderate the alcohol effect. Results provide experimental evidence to support the notion that interventions for self-harm should include processes to monitor and limit alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A non-autonomous insect piggyBac trasposable element is mobile in tobacco

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The piggyBac transposable element, originally isolated from a virus in an insect cell line, is a valuable molecular tool for transgenesis and mutagenesis of invertebrates. For heterologous transgenesis in a variety of mammals, transfer of the piggyBac transposable element from an ectopic plasmid onl...

  8. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanolmore » via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.« less

  9. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series data to assess outcomes of a South American road traffic alcohol policy change.

    PubMed

    Nistal-Nuño, Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 decreased the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving while impaired from 1 to 0.8 g/l and the legal BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.5 to 0.3 g/l. The goal is to assess the impact of this new law on mortality and morbidity outcomes in Chile. A review of national databases in Chile was conducted from January 2003 to December 2014. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used for analyzing the data. In a series of multivariable linear regression models, the change in intercept and slope in the monthly incidence rate of traffic deaths and injuries and association with alcohol per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated from pre-intervention to postintervention, while controlling for secular changes. In nested regression models, potential confounding seasonal effects were accounted for. All analyses were performed at a two-sided significance level of 0.05. Immediate level drops in all the monthly rates were observed after the law from the end of the prelaw period in the majority of models and in all the de-seasonalized models, although statistical significance was reached only in the model for injures related to alcohol. After the law, the estimated monthly rate dropped abruptly by -0.869 for injuries related to alcohol and by -0.859 adjusting for seasonality (P < 0.001). Regarding the postlaw long-term trends, it was evidenced a steeper decreasing trend after the law in the models for deaths related to alcohol, although these differences were not statistically significant. A strong evidence of a reduction in traffic injuries related to alcohol was found following the law in Chile. Although insufficient evidence was found of a statistically significant effect for the beneficial effects seen on deaths and overall injuries, potential clinically important effects cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  10. A Blumeria graminisf.sp. hordei BAC library--contig building and microsynteny studies.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Carsten; Wu, Boqian; Giese, Henriette

    2002-11-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, containing 12,000 clones with an average insert size of 41 kb, was constructed. The library represents about three genome equivalents and BAC-end sequencing showed a high content of repetitive sequences, making contig-building difficult. To identify overlapping clones, several strategies were used: colony hybridisation, PCR screening, fingerprinting techniques and the use of single-copy expressed sequence tags. The latter proved to be the most efficient method for identification of overlapping clones. Two contigs, at or close to avirulence loci, were constructed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed from BAC-end sequences to link the contigs to the genetic maps. Two other BAC contigs were used to study microsynteny between B. graminis and two other ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus fumigatus. The library provides an invaluable tool for the isolation of avirulence genes from B. graminis and for the study of gene synteny between this fungus and other fungi.

  11. Driving while alcohol impaired : a preliminary exploration of the issues and possible approaches.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    Under current Virginia law, a driver who has been drinking but does not have a BAC of 0.10% will likely not be arrested even if his/her driving ability is visibly impaired. A "driving while alcohol impaired" (DWAI) statute would provide law enforceme...

  12. Detection of iso-α-acids to confirm beer consumption in postmortem specimens.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-01-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAAs) can be used as markers for the consumption of beer. Postmortem specimens from a range of coronial cases were analyzed for IAAs in order to determine the prevalence of beer consumption and any correlation to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A total of 130 cases were included in this study including those where beer was mentioned in the case circumstances, cases where beer was not mentioned specifically but alcohol was detected, and cases where neither beer was mentioned nor a positive BAC was present. Available blood, serum, vitreous humour and urine specimens were analyzed. Of the 50 cases where beer was mentioned, 86% had one or more IAAs detected. In cases that only had a positive BAC (n = 60), 57% of these cases also showed the presence of these beer markers. IAAs were detected in specimens obtained from traumatized, burnt, and decomposed cases with a mention of beer consumption or where BAC was positive in blood. No IAAs were detected in cases where BAC was negative. There was little or no correlation between blood IAA concentrations and BAC. This study demonstrates the possible detection of IAAs as a marker for beer consumption. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Alcohol Acute Effects in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    South Africe Figure 2. Country codes used in graphs. \\~i F]Fi~~ 100. Wine Consumption 70. 60. K3 Italy 50 E France 40 X M USSR 30 E3 West Germany 2...breakdown products are carbon dioxide and water. There are no minerals or vitamins in alcohol; hence, apart from calories, there is no nutritional value...when the BAC has decreased to 0 mg% (but normally only after it had peaked previously at an intoxicated level). Vitamin deficiencies and dehydration

  14. Comparison of biological activated carbon (BAC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) for pollutants removal in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, J Y; Chen, Z L; Liang, H; Li, X; Wang, Z Z; Li, G B

    2009-01-01

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) were systematically compared for the drinking water treatment from slightly polluted raw water under the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.5 h. MBR exhibited excellent turbidity removal capacity due to the separation of the membrane; while only 60% of influent turbidity was intercepted by BAC. Perfect nitrification was achieved by MBR with the 89% reduction in ammonia; by contrast, BAC only eliminated a moderate amount of influent ammonia (by 54.5%). However, BAC was able to remove more dissolved organic matter (DOM, especially for organic molecules of 3,000 approximately 500 Daltons) and corresponding disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) in raw water than MBR. Unfortunately, particulate organic matter (POM) was detected in the BAC effluent. On the other hand, BAC and MBR displayed essentially the same capacity for biodegradable organic matter (BOM) removal. Fractionation of DOM showed that the removal efficiencies of hydrophobic neutrals, hydrophobic acids, weakly hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic organic matter through BAC treatment were 11.7%, 8.8%, 13.9% and 4.8% higher than that through MBR; while MBR achieved 13.8% higher hydrophobic bases removal as compared with BAC.

  15. A nucleolus-predominant piggyBac transposase, NP-mPB, mediates elevated transposition efficiency in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Bon; Chou, Fu-Ju; Ku, Amy T; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3-4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells.

  16. The effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the cognitive mechanisms underlying false facial recognition.

    PubMed

    Colloff, Melissa F; Flowe, Heather D

    2016-06-01

    False face recognition rates are sometimes higher when faces are learned while under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol myopia theory (AMT) proposes that acute alcohol intoxication during face learning causes people to attend to only the most salient features of a face, impairing the encoding of less salient facial features. Yet, there is currently no direct evidence to support this claim. Our objective was to test whether acute alcohol intoxication impairs face learning by causing subjects to attend to a salient (i.e., distinctive) facial feature over other facial features, as per AMT. We employed a balanced placebo design (N = 100). Subjects in the alcohol group were dosed to achieve a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.06 %, whereas the no alcohol group consumed tonic water. Alcohol expectancy was controlled. Subjects studied faces with or without a distinctive feature (e.g., scar, piercing). An old-new recognition test followed. Some of the test faces were "old" (i.e., previously studied), and some were "new" (i.e., not previously studied). We varied whether the new test faces had a previously studied distinctive feature versus other familiar characteristics. Intoxicated and sober recognition accuracy was comparable, but subjects in the alcohol group made more positive identifications overall compared to the no alcohol group. The results are not in keeping with AMT. Rather, a more general cognitive mechanism appears to underlie false face recognition in intoxicated subjects. Specifically, acute alcohol intoxication during face learning results in more liberal choosing, perhaps because of an increased reliance on familiarity.

  17. Determining concentrations of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and dibromopropene in ground water using quantitative methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panshin, Sandra Y.

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining levels of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 2,3-dibromopropene from ground-water samples using liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were extracted from the water using three aliquots of dichloromethane. The aliquots were combined and reduced in volume by rotary evaporation followed by evaporation using a nitrogen stream. The extracts were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. Estimated method detection limits were 30 nanograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 10 nanograms per liter for 2,3-dibromopropene. Recoveries were determined by spiking three matrices at two concentration levels (0.540 and 5.40 micrograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol; and 0.534 and 5.34micro-grams per liter for dibromopropene). For seven replicates of each matrix at the high concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.9 to 64.9 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 87.5 to 99.3 percent for dibromopropene. At the low concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.8 to 95.2 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 71.3 to 84.9 percent for dibromopropene.

  18. The Role of Immigrant Concentration Within and Beyond Residential Neighborhoods in Adolescent Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Aubrey L.; Browning, Christopher R.; Krivo, Lauren J.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Washington, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhoods are salient contexts for youth that shape adolescent development partly through informal social controls on their behavior. This research examines how immigrant concentration within and beyond the residential neighborhood influences adolescent alcohol use. Residential neighborhood immigrant concentration may lead to a cohesive, enclave-like community that protects against adolescent alcohol use. But heterogeneity in the immigrant concentrations characterizing the places residents visit as they engage in routine activities outside of the neighborhood where they live may weaken the social control benefits of the social ties and shared cultural orientations present in enclave communities. This study investigates whether the protective influence of residential neighborhood immigrant concentration on adolescent alcohol consumption diminishes when youth live in communities where residents collectively are exposed to areas with more diverse immigrant concentrations. This study tests this contention by analyzing survey and geographic routine activity space data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, and the 2000 census. The sample includes 793 adolescents (48.7% female, 16.5% foreign-born Latino, 42.5% US-born Latino, 11.0% black, 30% white/other) between the ages of 12 and 17 who live in 65 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Immigrant concentration among these neighborhoods derives primarily from Latin America. The results from multilevel models show that immigrant concentration protects against adolescent alcohol use only when there is low neighborhood-level diversity of exposures to immigrant concentration among the contexts residents visit outside of their residential neighborhood. This research highlights the importance of considering the effects of aggregate exposures to non-home contexts on adolescent wellbeing. PMID:26215378

  19. Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, David R; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Almeida Santimano, Nerissa M L; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-01-26

    = 1065; studies = 7; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 1.5 points in the 69-point alcohol problems scale score. No effects were found for WF or MF. Binge drinking at 4+ months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.02 (participants = 11,292; studies = 16; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to 2.7% fewer binge drinkers if 30-day prevalence is 43.9%. Drinking quantity at 4+ months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.05 (participants = 20,696; studies = 33; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a reduction of 0.9 drinks consumed each week, from a baseline of 13.7 drinks per week. Drinking frequency at 4+ months: WF SMD -0.12, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.05 (participants = 9456; studies = 9; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.19 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk; IFF SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.10 (participants = 1464; studies = 8; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.32 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk. No effects were found for GFF or MC. Estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at 4+ months: peak BAC results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.00 (participants = 7198; studies = 13; low quality of evidence), equivalent to a reduction in peak PAC from an average of 0.144% to 0.135%. No effects were found for typical BAC with IFF. The results of this review indicate that no substantive meaningful benefits are associated with social norms interventions for prevention of alcohol misuse among college/university students. Although some significant effects were found, we interpret the effect sizes as too small, given the measurement scales used in the studies included in this review, to be of relevance for policy or practice. Moreover, the statistically significant effects are not consistent for all misuse measures, heterogeneity was a problem in some analyses and bias cannot be

  20. 23 CFR 1225.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... above a specified level. (e) Citations to State law means citations to all sections of the State's law... suspension. (c) BAC means either blood or breath alcohol concentration. (d) BAC per se law means a law that... begun to implement the law. (g) Operating a motor vehicle means driving or being in actual physical...

  1. Differential Effects of Alcohol on Memory Performance in Adolescent Men and Women with a Binge Drinking History.

    PubMed

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Talk, Andrew; Montañés, Adriana; Duque, Aránzazu; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is characterized by intermittent consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods. This pattern of drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and has been associated with undermined learning and memory ability. This study investigates the relationships between a history of BD and the effects of acute exposure to alcohol on learning and memory performance in adolescent men and women. A high, acute dose of alcohol or control refreshment was administered to a sample of 172 adolescent undergraduate students, some of which had a history of BD and others of which had refrained from alcohol consumption. Subsequently, immediate visual memory (IVM) and working memory (WM) was measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale in females and males with different BAC (Experiment 1) and similar BAC (Experiment 2). In both experiments, IVM was reduced after acute alcohol consumption and there was no significant main effect of Drinking Pattern. Furthermore, an effect of cognitive alcohol tolerance on IVM was observed in women but not in men. WM was not affected by alcohol, but a gender difference was evident in that performance was superior in men than in women. In adolescents, IVM is more sensitive than WM to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, since the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in BD women but not in BD men. These findings emphasize the need to investigate the neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescent women. In adolescents, immediate visual memory (IVM) is more sensitive than working memory to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, because the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in binge drinking (BD) women but not in BD men. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequencing, annotation and comparative analysis of nine BACs of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; Cai, Jing; Li, JianWen; Li, Bo; Lin, Runmao; Tian, Feng; Wang, XiaoLing; Wang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    A 10-fold BAC library for giant panda was constructed and nine BACs were selected to generate finish sequences. These BACs could be used as a validation resource for the de novo assembly accuracy of the whole genome shotgun sequencing reads of giant panda newly generated by the Illumina GA sequencing technology. Complete sanger sequencing, assembly, annotation and comparative analysis were carried out on the selected BACs of a joint length 878 kb. Homologue search and de novo prediction methods were used to annotate genes and repeats. Twelve protein coding genes were predicted, seven of which could be functionally annotated. The seven genes have an average gene size of about 41 kb, an average coding size of about 1.2 kb and an average exon number of 6 per gene. Besides, seven tRNA genes were found. About 27 percent of the BAC sequence is composed of repeats. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-join algorithm across five species, including giant panda, human, dog, cat and mouse, which reconfirms dog as the most related species to giant panda. Our results provide detailed sequence and structure information for new genes and repeats of giant panda, which will be helpful for further studies on the giant panda.

  3. Exploring the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genome by BAC sequencing and Cot analysis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Dinum; Magbanua, Zenaida V; Thummasuwan, Supaphan; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Arick, Mark; Chouvarine, Philippe; Nairn, Campbell J; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Dean, Jeffrey F D; Peterson, Daniel G

    2018-07-15

    Loblolly pine (LP; Pinus taeda L.) is an economically and ecologically important tree in the southeastern U.S. To advance understanding of the loblolly pine (LP; Pinus taeda L.) genome, we sequenced and analyzed 100 BAC clones and performed a Cot analysis. The Cot analysis indicates that the genome is composed of 57, 24, and 10% highly-repetitive, moderately-repetitive, and single/low-copy sequences, respectively (the remaining 9% of the genome is a combination of fold back and damaged DNA). Although single/low-copy DNA only accounts for 10% of the LP genome, the amount of single/low-copy DNA in LP is still 14 times the size of the Arabidopsis genome. Since gene numbers in LP are similar to those in Arabidopsis, much of the single/low-copy DNA of LP would appear to be composed of DNA that is both gene- and repeat-poor. Macroarrays prepared from a LP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library were hybridized with probes designed from cell wall synthesis/wood development cDNAs, and 50 of the "targeted" clones were selected for further analysis. An additional 25 clones were selected because they contained few repeats, while 25 more clones were selected at random. The 100 BAC clones were Sanger sequenced and assembled. Of the targeted BACs, 80% contained all or part of the cDNA used to target them. One targeted BAC was found to contain fungal DNA and was eliminated from further analysis. Combinations of similarity-based and ab initio gene prediction approaches were utilized to identify and characterize potential coding regions in the 99 BACs containing LP DNA. From this analysis, we identified 154 gene models (GMs) representing both putative protein-coding genes and likely pseudogenes. Ten of the GMs (all of which were specifically targeted) had enough support to be classified as intact genes. Interestingly, the 154 GMs had statistically indistinguishable (α = 0.05) distributions in the targeted and random BAC clones (15.18 and 12.61 GM/Mb, respectively

  4. piggyBac Transposon-Mediated Transgenesis in the Apicomplexan Parasite Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Su, Huali; Liu, Xianyong; Yan, Wenchao; Shi, Tuanyuan; Zhao, Xinxin; Blake, Damer P.; Tomley, Fiona M.; Suo, Xun

    2012-01-01

    piggyBac, a type II transposon that is useful for efficient transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis, has been used for effective and stable transfection in a wide variety of organisms. In this study we investigate the potential use of the piggyBac transposon system for forward genetics studies in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella. Using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) method, E. tenella sporozoites were electroporated with a donor plasmid containing the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) gene flanked by piggyBac inverted terminal repeats (ITRs), an Asc I-linearized helper plasmid containing the transposase gene and the restriction enzyme Asc I. Subsequently, electroporated sporozoites were inoculated into chickens via the cloacal route and transfected progeny oocysts expressing EYFP were sorted by flow cytometry. A transgenic E. tenella population was selected by successive in vivo passage. Southern-blotting analysis showed that exogenous DNA containing the EYFP gene was integrated into the parasite genome at a limited number of integration sites and that the inserted part of the donor plasmid was the fragment located between the 5′ and 3′ ITRs as indicated by primer-specific PCR screening. Genome walking revealed that the insertion sites were TTAA-specific, which is consistent with the transposition characteristics of piggyBac. PMID:22768223

  5. Susceptibility to Alcohol Hangovers: The Association with Self-Reported Immune Status.

    PubMed

    van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Mackus, Marlou; van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Brookhuis, Karel A; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2018-06-18

    Increasing evidence points at a role for the immune system in the genesis of the alcohol hangover. This study investigated the association between self-reported immune function and experiencing hangovers. Dutch students aged 18 to 30 years old were invited to complete an online survey. Eighteen items on immune-related complaints were completed to assess self-reported immune function. Alcohol consumption in the past month (with respect to usual consumption and the occasion of heaviest drinking) was also recorded. Subjects with an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) of 0.18% or higher on their heaviest drinking occasion in the prior month were included in the analyses. Self-reported immune function was compared between drinkers with a hangover and those who claimed to be hangover resistant. In total, of 481 subjects (79.2% women) with a mean (SD) age of 21.1 (1.9) years old were included in the analysis. Of these, 83.3% ( n = 400) reported having hangovers and 16.8% ( n = 81) claimed to be hangover resistant. Drinkers with hangovers had significantly higher self-reported overall immune function scores when compared to hangover-resistant drinkers (mean ± SD = 10.5 ± 3.6 versus 13.1 ± 4.9, p = 0.0001), indicating a poorer immune status. In conclusion, experiencing alcohol hangovers is associated with significantly poorer self-reported immune function.

  6. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  7. Effectuation of adaptive stability and postural alignment strategies are decreased by alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hafström, A; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-06-01

    Human stability control is a complex process comprising contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feed-forward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs these functions and is recognized as a major contributor to fall traumas. The study aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication at .06% and .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the movement spans and control of posture alignment. The angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip and knees relative to the ankles were measured with a 3D motion analysis system in 25 healthy adults during standing with eyes open or closed and with or without vibratory balance perturbations. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased the movement spans of the head, shoulders, hip and knees in anteroposterior and lateral directions during quiet stance (p < or = .047 and p < or = .003) and balance perturbations (p<.001, both directions). Alcohol intoxication also decreased the ability to reduce the movement spans through adaptation in both anteroposterior (p < or = .011) and lateral (p < or = .004) directions. When sober and submitted to balance perturbations, the subjects aligned the head, shoulders, hip and knees more forward relative to the ankle joint (p < .001), hence adopting a more resilient posture increasing the safety margin for backward falls. Alcohol intoxication significantly delayed this forward realignment (p < or = .022). Alcohol intoxication did not cause any significant posture realignment in the lateral direction. Thus, initiation of adaptive posture realignments to alcohol or other disruptions might be context dependent and associated with reaching a certain level of stability threats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of EDTA-functionalized bamboo activated carbon (BAC) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dan; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Jiasheng; Yang, Kunlun; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel bamboo activated carbon (BAC) with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) functionality was prepared by direct grafting in the presence of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a crosslinking agent. The BAC@SiO2-EDTA was characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA, FTIR, XPS and its adsorption property for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) under various experimental conditions was also investigated. The characterization results reflected that EDTA was successfully assembled on the surface of the BAC and average pore size increased from 4.10 to 4.83 nm as BAC grafted with EDTA. Adsorption data fitted very well in Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As compared with the raw BAC, the maximum adsorption capacities of BAC@SiO2-EDTA for the Pb(II) and Cu(II) increased from 45.45 to 123.45 mg g-1 and from 6.85 to 42.19 mg g-1, since the existence of EDTA on modified BAC promoted the formation of chemical complex. The removal of heavy metal ions mainly depended on the complexation with EDTA and the electrostatic attractions with negatively charged surface of BAC@SiO2-EDTA. The adsorption of Pb(II)/Cu(II) on the BAC@SiO2-EDTA was pH dependent and pH 5-6 was considered an optimum. However, lower temperature favored the adsorption and the maximum adsorption was recorded at 20 °C. In addition, BAC@SiO2-EDTA had an excellent reusability with about 40% decline in the adsorption capacity for Pb(II) after fifth reuse. Insignificant influences of co-existing cations and natural organic matter (NOM) were found on the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II). All the results demonstrate that BAC@SiO2-EDTA is a potential adsorbent for metal ions in wastewater.

  9. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  10. Use of BAC clones as standardized reagents for Marek’s disease virus research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cloning of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone have led to major advances through our ability to study individual gene function by making precise insertions and deletions in the viral genome. We believe that MDV BAC clones will repl...

  11. Determination of breath alcohol value after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Poggia, F; Foglio-Bonda, A; Mantovani, C; Pattarino, F; Giglietta, A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breath alcohol value and blood alcohol concentration after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in a panel of healthy young adults. To determine zeroing time of these values and if subjects' body mass index or gender influenced it. Breathalyzer test is a practice performed to detect alcohol-impaired-drivers that can be penalized. Sometimes Italian judges revoke the penalty justifying that the presence of residual ethanol in the oral cavity can cause false positive values. Our study involved 40 young adult volunteers; the cohort was composed of University students aged between 21 and 30 years. They underwent a medical examination to evaluate BMI. We selected four alcoholic mouthwashes available on the market with a different ethanol amount and an ethanol/ water (10/90) mixture as a reference. Breath alcohol concentration values were collected using a portable breathalyzer immediately after the rinse (T0), after 10 and 20 minutes (T10 and T20). We evaluated blood alcohol concentration 5 minutes after the rinse. All T10 values are lower than 0.5 g/L (Italian BAC driving limit). Differences between average values at T0-T10 are statistically significant (p < 0.05). Correlations between BAV and BMI are not statistically significant respectively at T0 (A: p = 0.54. B: p = 0.96. C: p = 0.93. D: p = 0.53) and T10 (A: p = 0.42. C: p = 0.99. D: p = 0.66). Differences between male and female groups aren't statistically significant (A: p = 0.49; B: p = 0.79; C: p = 0.97; D: p = 0.06). High BAV values determined at T-0 are a consequence of residual ethanol present in the oral cavity, the zeroing time of these ones (oppure thereof) is very swift. Our study shows that rinsing with an alcoholic mouthwash before undergoing the breathalyzer test does not realistically influence the result.

  12. Evaluating the biosafety of conventional and O3-BAC process and its relationship with NOM characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Zou, Rusen; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Baoling; Zhou, Zhenming; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2018-01-01

    It is the priority to guarantee biosafety for drinking water treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of widely applied conventional and ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) advanced treatment technology on biosafety of drinking water. The items, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) and the microorganism community structures, were used to evaluate the biosafety. Moreover, their relationships with molecular weights (MWs) and fluorescence intensity of dissolved organic matter were investigated. The results indicated that the technology provided a considerable gain in potable water quality by decreasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC, from 5.05 to 1.71 mg/L), AOC (from 298 to 131 μg/L), BDOC (from 1.39 to 0.24 mg/L) and HPCs (from 275 to 10 CFU/mL). Ozone brought an increase in DOC with low MW <1 kDa, which accompanies with an increase in AOC/BDOC concentration, which could be reduced effectively by subsequent BAC process. The formation of AOC/BDOC was closely related to DOC with low MWs and aromatic protein. Bacteria could be released from BAC filter, resulting in an increase in HPC and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in effluent, while the post sand filter could further guarantee the biosafety of finished water.

  13. Characterizing a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 for potential biological control application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: Identify and characterize a bacterial strain from suppressive soil, BAC03, evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Streptomyces scabies and other microorganisms, and characterize an antimicrobial substance produced by this strain. Methods and Results: Bacterial strain BAC03 (isolated from ...

  14. DiBAC4(3) hits a “sweet spot” for the activation of arterial large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels independently of the β1-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Scornik, Fabiana S.; Bucciero, Ronald S.; Wu, Yuesheng; Selga, Elisabet; Bosch Calero, Cristina; Brugada, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    The voltage-sensitive dye bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4(3)] has been reported as a novel large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel activator with selectivity for its β1- or β4-subunits. In arterial smooth muscle, BK channels are formed by a pore-forming α-subunit and a smooth muscle-abundant regulatory β1-subunit. This tissue specificity has driven extensive pharmacological research aimed at regulating arterial tone. Using animals with a disruption of the gene for the β1-subunit, we explored the effects of DiBAC4(3) in native channels from arterial smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that, in native BK channels, activation by DiBAC4(3) relies mostly on its α-subunit. We studied BK channels from wild-type and transgenic β1-knockout mice in excised patches. BK channels from brain arteries, with or without the β1-subunit, were similarly activated by DiBAC4(3). In addition, we found that saturating concentrations of DiBAC4(3) (∼30 μM) promote an unprecedented persistent activation of the channel that negatively shifts its voltage dependence by as much as −300 mV. This “sweet spot” for persistent activation is independent of Ca2+ and/or the β1–4-subunits and is fully achieved when DiBAC4(3) is applied to the intracellular side of the channel. Arterial BK channel response to DiBAC4(3) varies across species and/or vascular beds. DiBAC4(3) unique effects can reveal details of BK channel gating mechanisms and help in the rational design of BK channel activators. PMID:23542916

  15. Relationship Quality and Alcohol-Related Social Reinforcement during Couples Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Testa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are unhappy in their intimate partnerships are at risk for developing alcohol problems. But little is known about the mechanisms underlying this link. One possibility is that couples with poor relationship quality gain more reinforcement from alcohol in certain contexts-a possibility that has never previously been empirically examined. In the current study, 304 individuals (152 couples) were assigned to receive alcohol (target BAC .08%) or a non-alcoholic beverage. They then engaged in a conflict-resolution interaction with their partners. Videotaped interactions were coded by trained observers. Results revealed a significant interaction between alcohol and relationship quality across multiple measures. Alcohol decreased negative behaviors, decreased negative reciprocity, and enhanced self-reported experience to a greater extent during interactions involving individuals reporting low relationship quality and had comparatively little effect among those reporting high relationship quality. Findings point to a potential mechanism underlying problem drinking among couples with poor relationship quality.

  16. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  17. What Should We Do When Participants Report Dangerous Drinking? The Impact of Personalized Letters Versus General Pamphlets as a Function of Sex and Controlled Orientation.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Pedersen, Eric R; Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Walter, Theresa

    Research in which participants report potentially dangerous health-related behaviors raises ethical and professional questions about what to do with that information. Policies and laws regarding reportable behaviors vary across states and Institutional Review Boards (IRB). In alcohol research, IRBs often require researchers to respond to participants who report dangerous drinking practices. Researchers have little guidance regarding how best to respond in such cases. Personalized feedback or general nonpersonalized information may prove differentially effective as a function of gender and/or level of self-determination. This study evaluated response strategies for reducing peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) among participants reporting dangerous BACs (≥ .35%) in the context of a two-year longitudinal intervention trial with 818 heavy drinking college students. After each assessment, participants who reported drinking to estimated BACs at or greater than .35% were sent either a personalized letter expressing concern and indicating their reported BAC or a nonpersonalized pamphlet that included general information about alcohol and other substances, referral information, and a BAC handout. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that both strategies were associated with reduced peak BAC when controlling for previous BAC. The personalized letter was more effective for women and for students who tend to regulate their behavior based on others' expectations and contingencies in the environment. This research provides some guidance for researchers considering appropriate responses to participants who report dangerous health behavior in the context of a research trial.

  18. Cytogenetic Analysis of Populus trichocarpa - Ribosomal DNA, Telomere Repeat Sequence, and Marker-selected BACs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Gunter, Lee E; DiFazio, Stephen P

    The 18S-28S rDNA and 5S rDNA loci in Populus trichocarpa were localized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Two 18S-28S rDNA sites and one 5S rDNA site were identified and located at the ends of 3 different chromosomes. FISH signals from the Arabidopsis -type telomere repeat sequence were observed at the distal ends of each chromosome. Six BAC clones selected from 2 linkage groups based on genome sequence assembly (LG-I and LG-VI) were localized on 2 chromosomes, as expected. BACs from LG-I hybridized to the longest chromosome in the complement. All BAC positions were found to be concordant with sequencemore » assembly positions. BAC-FISH will be useful for delineating each of the Populus trichocarpa chromosomes and improving the sequence assembly of this model angiosperm tree species.« less

  19. Estimating the impact of alcohol policies on youth suicides.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Sara; Chatterji, Pinka; Kaestner, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the most important risk factors for youth suicide. Previous research has shown a strong, empirical link between alcohol use and suicide. If alcohol use is a contributing factor in determining suicidal behaviors, then policies designed to reduce the alcohol consumption may succeed in reducing youth suicides as well. This paper looks at the role of alcohol-related policies in reducing completed suicides by American youths and young adults. This hypothesis comes from two well established relationships: i) the observed correlation between alcohol consumption and incidents of suicide, and ii) the negative relationship between the full price of alcohol and consumption. The alcohol policies examined are excise taxes on beer, measures of alcohol availability, and drunk driving laws. Data on completed suicides for each state in the United States are analyzed for the period 1976-1999. Negative binomial regressions are used to estimate a reduced form model of youth suicide. Suicides are analyzed by gender and age groups (ages 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24). The results indicate that increases in the excise tax on beer are associated with a reduced number of male suicides. This tax, however, has no impact on female suicides. Suicides by males ages 20-24 are positively related to the availability of alcohol, and negatively related to the presence of a 0.08 BAC (blood alcohol concentration) law and a zero tolerance law for drunk driving. Female suicides are not impacted by the availability of alcohol, although the drunk driving laws may impact suicides by teenage females. Policies designed to reduce alcohol consumption may have the unintended benefit of reducing suicides, particularly among young males. While this research shows that alcohol policies may be successful in reducing male suicides, such policies have little impact on female suicides. Future research should explore other potential types of policies and programs to reduce

  20. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    PubMed

    Van de Loo, Aurora; Mackus, Marlou; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; Brookhuis, Karel; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claim to be hangover immune (hangover-immune group). On each test day at 9.30 am, urine samples were collected. Participants rated their overall hangover severity on a scale from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme), as well as 18 individual hangover symptoms. Urine ethanol concentration was significantly higher on the hangover day when compared to the control day (p = 0.006). On the hangover day, urine ethanol concentration was significantly lower in the hangover-immune group when compared to the hangover group (p = 0.027). In the hangover-immune group, none of the correlations of urine ethanol concentration with individual hangover symptoms was significant. In contrast, in the hangover group, significant correlations were found with a variety of hangover symptoms, including nausea, concentration problems, sleepiness, weakness, apathy, sweating, stomach pain, thirst, heart racing, anxiety, and sleep problems. Urine ethanol levels are significantly associated with the presence and severity of several hangover symptoms.

  1. Insulated piggyBac vectors for insect transgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Abhimanyu; Atapattu, Asela; Belikoff, Esther J; Heinrich, Jörg C; Li, Xuelei; Horn, Carsten; Wimmer, Ernst A; Scott, Maxwell J

    2006-01-01

    Background Germ-line transformation of insects is now a widely used method for analyzing gene function and for the development of genetically modified strains suitable for pest control programs. The most widely used transposable element for the germ-line transformation of insects is piggyBac. The site of integration of the transgene can influence gene expression due to the effects of nearby transcription enhancers or silent heterochromatic regions. Position effects can be minimized by flanking a transgene with insulator elements. The scs/scs' and gypsy insulators from Drosophila melanogaster as well as the chicken β-globin HS4 insulator function in both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Results To minimize position effects we have created a set of piggyBac transformation vectors that contain either the scs/scs', gypsy or chicken β-globin HS4 insulators. The vectors contain either fluorescent protein or eye color marker genes and have been successfully used for germ-line transformation of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of the scs/scs' vectors contains the coral reef fluorescent protein marker genes AmCyan, ZsGreen and DsRed that have not been optimized for translation in human cells. These marker genes are controlled by a combined GMR-3xP3 enhancer/promoter that gives particularly strong expression in the eyes. This is also the first report of the use of the ZsGreen and AmCyan reef fluorescent proteins as transformation markers in insects. Conclusion The insulated piggyBac vectors should protect transgenes against position effects and thus facilitate fine control of gene expression in a wide spectrum of insect species. These vectors may also be used for transgenesis in other invertebrate species. PMID:16776846

  2. Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Danielle; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-01-02

    Fatal vision goggles (FVGs) are image-distorting equipment used within driver education programs to simulate alcohol-related impairment. However, there is no empirical evidence comparing the behavioral effects associated with wearing FVGs to alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of FVGs in producing alcohol-related impairment in simulated driving. Twenty-two healthy males (age: 23 ± 3 years, mean ± SD) participated in a placebo-controlled crossover design study involving 4 experimental trials. In each trial, participants completed a baseline level simulated driving task followed by an experimental driving task, involving one of 4 treatments: (1) a dose of alcohol designed to elicit 0.080% breath alcohol concentration (BrAC; AB), (2) an alcohol placebo beverage (PB), (3) FVG (estimated % blood alcohol concentration [BAC] 0.070-0.100+), and (4) placebo goggles (PGs). The driving tasks included 3 separate scenarios lasting ∼5 min each; these were a simple driving scenario, a complex driving scenario, and a hazard perception driving scenario. Selected lateral control parameters (standard deviation of lane position [SDLP]; total number of lane crossings [LCs]) and longitudinal control parameters (average speed; standard deviation of speed [SDSP]; distance headway; minimum distance headway) were monitored during the simple and complex driving scenarios. Latency to 2 different stimuli (choice reaction time [CRT]) was tested in the hazard perception driving scenario. Subjective ratings of mood and attitudes toward driving were also provided during each of the trials. Neither placebo treatment influenced simulated driving performance. Mean BrAC was 0.060 ± 0.010% at the time of driving on the AB trial. Lateral control: In the simple driving scenario, SDLP and LC were not affected under any of the experimental treatments. However, in the complex driving scenario, significantly greater SDLP was observed on both the FVG and AB

  3. The impact of alcohol policies on alcohol-attributable diseases in Taiwan-A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chang, Koyin

    2017-11-01

    Taiwan has some of the strictest alcohol-related driving laws in the world. However, its laws continue to be toughened to reduce the ever-increasing social cost of alcohol-related harm. This study assumes that alcohol-related driving laws show a spillover effect such that behavioral changes originally meant to apply behind the wheel come to affect drinking behavior in other contexts. The effects of alcohol driving laws and taxes on alcohol-related morbidity are assessed; incidence rates of alcohol-attributable diseases (AAD) serve as our measure of morbidity. Monthly incidence rates of alcohol-attributable diseases were calculated with data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 1996 to 2011. These rates were then submitted to intervention analyses using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average models (ARIMA) with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). ARIMA is well-suited to time series analysis while MARS helps fit the regression model to the cubic curvature form of the irregular AAD incidence rates of hospitalization (AIRH). Alcoholic liver disease, alcohol abuse and dependence syndrome, and alcohol psychoses were the most common AADs in Taiwan. Compared to women, men had a higher incidence of AADs and their AIRH were more responsive to changes in the laws governing permissible blood alcohol. The adoption of tougher blood alcohol content (BAC) laws had significant effects on AADs, controlling for overall consumption of alcoholic beverages. Blood alcohol level laws and alcohol taxation effectively reduced alcohol-attributable morbidities with the exception of alcohol dependence and abuse, a disease to which middle-aged, lower income people are particularly susceptible. Attention should be focused on this cohort to protect this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Italy between drinking culture and control policies for alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Voller, Fabio; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Cipriani, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on whether the on-going dramatic decrease in alcohol consumption in Italy, especially of wine, during 1961-2008, was associated with which parallel sociodemographic and economic changes and with alcohol control policies. The study, using both time series (TS) and artificial neural network (ANN)-based analyses documents that its selected sociodemographic and economic factors, and particularly urbanization, had a definite connection with wine consumption decrease, spirits decrease, and the increase in beer consumption over time. On the other hand, control policies showed no effect on the decline in alcohol consumption, since no alcohol control policy existed in Italy between 1960 and 1987. A few policies introduced since 1988 (BAC and sale restrictions during mass events) may have contributed to reducing or to maintaining the on-going reduction. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  5. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Insect transformation with piggyBac: getting the number of injections just right

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, N. I.; Shimeld, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The insertion of exogenous genetic cargo into insects using transposable elements is a powerful research tool with potential applications in meeting food security and public health challenges facing humanity. piggyBac is the transposable element most commonly utilized for insect germline transformation. The described efficiency of this process is variable in the published literature, and a comprehensive review of transformation efficiency in insects is lacking. This study compared and contrasted all available published data with a comprehensive data set provided by a biotechnology group specializing in insect transformation. Based on analysis of these data, with particular focus on the more complete observational data from the biotechnology group, we designed a decision tool to aid researchers' decision‐making when using piggyBac to transform insects by microinjection. A combination of statistical techniques was used to define appropriate summary statistics of piggyBac transformation efficiency by species and insect order. Publication bias was assessed by comparing the data sets. The bias was assessed using strategies co‐opted from the medical literature. The work culminated in building the Goldilocks decision tool, a Markov‐Chain Monte‐Carlo simulation operated via a graphical interface and providing guidance on best practice for those seeking to transform insects using piggyBac. PMID:27027400

  7. Toward a Molecular Cytogenetic Map for Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by Landed BAC/BIBAC Clones

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (∼100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC- fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)−derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources. PMID:23316437

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels.

    PubMed

    Guilhermetti, M; Marques Wiirzler, L A; Castanheira Facio, B; da Silva Furlan, M; Campo Meschial, W; Bronharo Tognim, M C; Botelho Garcia, L; Luiz Cardoso, C

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, several commercial alcohol-based hand gels have appeared on the market to improve the hand-cleansing compliance of healthcare workers. Although the antimicrobial efficacy of these products has been reported in different countries, few studies have investigated this subject in Brazil. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of 12 alcohol-based hand gels produced in Brazil, containing 70% w/w or v/v ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient, according to the European Standard EN 1500 (EN 1500). The following alcohol gels were tested: Hand Gel, Voga Gel, Solumax Solugel, Doctor Clean, Rio Gel, Clear Gel, Sevengel, Hand CHC, Gel Bac, WBL-50 Gel, Sanigel and Soft Care Gel. In addition, 70% w/w ethyl alcohol and three alcohol-based hand rubs (Sterillium, Sterillium Gel, and Spitaderm), commonly used in Europe and effective according to EN 1500, were also tested. All the products tested, except for two, were approved by the EN 1500 test protocol with a 60s application. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of the majority of the alcohol gels produced in Brazil for hand hygiene of healthcare workers. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impairment due to combined sleep restriction and alcohol is not mitigated by decaying breath alcohol concentration or rest breaks.

    PubMed

    Manousakis, Jessica E; Anderson, Clare

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory-based driving simulator studies have shown the detrimental impact of moderate, legal levels of alcohol consumption on driving performance in sleepy drivers. As less is known about the time course of decaying alcohol alongside performance impairment, our study examined impairment and recovery of performance alongside decaying levels of alcohol, with and without sleep restriction. Sixteen healthy young males (18-27 years) underwent 4 counterbalanced conditions: Baseline, Alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] < 0.05%), Sleep Restriction (5 hr time in bed), and Combined. Participants consumed alcohol (or control drink) ~4.5 hr post wake (12:30 p.m.). To test on the descending limb of alcohol, attention and vigilance test batteries commenced 1 hr after consumption and were completed every 30 min for 2 hr (1:30 p.m.-3:30 p.m.). The Combined condition impaired subjective and objective sleepiness. Here, performance deficits peaked 90 min after alcohol consumption or 30 min after the BrAC peak. Performance did not return to baseline levels until 2.5 hr following consumption, despite receiving rest breaks in between testing. These findings suggest that (a) falling BrACs are an inadequate guide for performance/safety and (b) rest breaks without sleep are not a safety measure for mitigating performance impairment when consuming alcohol following restricted sleep. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Official blame for drivers with very low blood alcohol content: there is no safe combination of drinking and driving.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David P; Sousa, Ana Luiza R; Moshfegh, Rebecca T

    2015-04-01

    Some laboratory studies find that driving is impaired even at blood alcohol content (BAC)=0.01%. However, no real-world traffic studies have investigated whether minimally 'buzzed' drivers (BAC=0.01%) are more likely to be blamed for a crash than are the sober drivers they collide with. To determine whether official blame for a crash increases significantly at BAC=0.01%. We examined the relationship between the driver's BAC and the degree to which he or she was assigned sole official blame (SOB) for the crash. We analysed an official, exhaustive, nationwide US database (Fatality Analysis Reporting System; n=570 731), covering 1994-2011. Even minimally 'buzzed' drivers are 46% (24-72%) more likely to be officially blamed for a crash than are the sober drivers they collide with (χ(2)=20.45; p=0.000006). There is no threshold effect-no sudden transition from blameless to blamed drivers at BAC=0.08% (the US legal limit). Instead, SOB increases smoothly and strongly with BAC (r=0.98 (0.96-0.99) for male drivers, p<0.000001; r=0.99 (0.97-0.99) for female drivers, p<0.000001). This near-linear SOB-to-BAC relationship begins at BAC=0.01% and ends around BAC=0.24%. Our findings persist after controlling for many confounding variables. There appears to be no safe combination of drinking and driving-even minimally 'buzzed' drivers pose increased risk to themselves and to others. Concerns about drunk driving should also be extended to 'buzzed' driving. US legislators should reduce the legal BAC limit, perhaps to 0.05%, as in most European countries. Lowering the legal BAC limit is likely to reduce injuries and save lives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Cross-species bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library screening via overgo-based hybridization and BAC-contig mapping of a yield enhancement quantitative trait locus (QTL) yld1.1 in the Malaysian wild rice Oryza rufipogon.

    PubMed

    Song, Beng-Kah; Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Romanov, Michael N; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2005-01-01

    The construction of BAC-contig physical maps is an important step towards a partial or ultimate genome sequence analysis. Here, we describe our initial efforts to apply an overgo approach to screen a BAC library of the Malaysian wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. Overgo design is based on repetitive element masking and sequence uniqueness, and uses short probes (approximately 40 bp), making this method highly efficient and specific. Pairs of 24-bp oligos that contain an 8-bp overlap were developed from the publicly available genomic sequences of the cultivated rice, O. sativa, to generate 20 overgo probes for a 1-Mb region that encompasses a yield enhancement QTL yld1.1 in O. rufipogon. The advantages of a high similarity in melting temperature, hybridization kinetics and specific activities of overgos further enabled a pooling strategy for library screening by filter hybridization. Two pools of ten overgos each were hybridized to high-density filters representing the O. rufipogon genomic BAC library. These screening tests succeeded in providing 69 PCR-verified positive hits from a total of 23,040 BAC clones of the entire O. rufipogon library. A minimal tilling path of clones was generated to contribute to a fully covered BAC-contig map of the targeted 1-Mb region. The developed protocol for overgo design based on O. sativa sequences as a comparative genomic framework, and the pooled overgo hybridization screening technique are suitable means for high-resolution physical mapping and the identification of BAC candidates for sequencing.

  12. An expected utility maximizer walks into a bar…

    PubMed

    Burghart, Daniel R; Glimcher, Paul W; Lazzaro, Stephanie C

    2013-06-01

    We conducted field experiments at a bar to test whether blood alcohol concentration (BAC) correlates with violations of the generalized axiom of revealed preference (GARP) and the independence axiom. We found that individuals with BACs well above the legal limit for driving adhere to GARP and independence at rates similar to those who are sober. This finding led to the fielding of a third experiment to explore how risk preferences might vary as a function of BAC. We found gender-specific effects: Men did not exhibit variations in risk preferences across BACs. In contrast, women were more risk averse than men at low BACs but exhibited increasing tolerance towards risks as BAC increased. Based on our estimates, men and women's risk preferences are predicted to be identical at BACs nearly twice the legal limit for driving. We discuss the implications for policy-makers.

  13. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum) Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25%) would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65%) would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji. PMID:28239094

  14. Bis(amino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) catalyzed aza-benzoin reaction.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Myron M D; Gravel, Michel

    2014-10-17

    A bis(amino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) catalyzed aza-benzoin reaction between aldehydes and phosphinoyl imines has been developed. The reaction is general with a wide range of aromatic aldehydes and aromatic imines. The reaction displays excellent chemoselectivity favoring aza-benzoin products over homobenzoin products.

  15. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Van Luong, Vo; Minh, Truong Tan

    2010-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1% female respondents ever consumed alcohol. Males reporting sexual behaviors (vaginal, anal, oral sex) had a significantly higher calculated peak BAC of 0.151 compared to 0.082 for males reporting no sexual intimacy (p < .0001). Females reporting sexual behaviors had a peak BAC of 0.072 compared to 0.027 for those reporting no sexual intimacy (p = .016). Fifty percent of (33/66) males and 30.4% (7/23) females report event specific drinking and engagement in sexual behaviors. Males reporting 11+ drinks in 30 days had more sexual partners than those reporting 1 to 10 drinks (p = .037). Data suggest different physical and psychosocial mediators between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors by gender. PMID:21373363

  16. Size matters: versatile use of PiggyBac transposons as a genetic manipulation tool.

    PubMed

    Kim, Adele; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2011-08-01

    Transposons have been promising elements for gene integration, and the Sleeping Beauty (SB) system has been the major one for many years, although there have been several other transposon systems available, for example, Tol2. However, recently another system known as PiggyBac (PB) has been introduced and developed for fulfilling the same purposes, for example, mutagenesis, transgenesis and gene therapy and in some cases with improved transposition efficiency and advantages over the Sleeping Beauty transposon system, although improved hyperactive transposase has highly increased the transposition efficacy for SB. The PB systems have been used in many different scientific research fields; therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe some of these versatile uses of the PiggyBac system to give readers an overview on the usage of PiggyBac system.

  17. High-Risk Drinking among College Fraternity Members: A National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Barry D.; Crosse, Scott B.; Campbell, Bernadette; Howard, Jan; Luckey, Bill; Blane, Howard T.

    2006-01-01

    This survey, with its 85% response rate, provides an extensive profile of drinking behaviors and predictors of drinking among 3406 members of one national college fraternity, distributed across 98 chapters in 32 states. Multiple indexes of alcohol consumption measured frequency, quantity, estimated blood alcohol concentration levels (BACs), and…

  18. Mobile Phone Apps for University Students With Hazardous Alcohol Use: Study Protocol for Two Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Berman, Anne H; Gajecki, Mikael; Fredriksson, Morgan; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes

    2015-12-22

    About 50% of university students overconsume alcohol, and drinking habits in later adulthood are to some extent established during higher educational studies. Several studies have demonstrated that Internet-based interventions have positive effects on drinking habits among university students. Our recent study evaluated two mobile phone apps targeting drinking choices at party occasions via personalized feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) for students with hazardous drinking. No changes in drinking parameters were found over a seven-week period apart from an increase in number of drinking occasions among men for one of the apps tested. Up to 30% of the study participants drank at potentially harmful levels: higher than the national recommended number of standard drinks per week (a maximum of 9 for women and 14 for men) in Sweden. (1) To evaluate improved versions of the two mobile phone apps tested in our prior trial, in a new, 3-armed randomized controlled trial among university students with at least hazardous drinking habits according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT; Study 1). (2) After 6 weeks, to target study participants showing alcohol consumption higher than the national recommended levels for standard drinks per week by offering them participation in a second, 2-armed randomized trial evaluating an additional mobile phone app with skill enhancement tasks (Study 2). (3) To follow participants at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after recruitment to Study 1 and at 6 and 12 weeks after recruitment to Study 2. Two randomized controlled trials are conducted. Study 1: Students are recruited at four Swedish universities, via direct e-mail and advertisements on Facebook and student union web sites. Those who provide informed consent, have a mobile phone, and show at least hazardous alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT (≥6 for women; ≥8 points for men) are randomized into three groups. Group 1 has access to the Swedish

  19. Mobile Phone Apps for University Students With Hazardous Alcohol Use: Study Protocol for Two Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Fredriksson, Morgan; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Background About 50% of university students overconsume alcohol, and drinking habits in later adulthood are to some extent established during higher educational studies. Several studies have demonstrated that Internet-based interventions have positive effects on drinking habits among university students. Our recent study evaluated two mobile phone apps targeting drinking choices at party occasions via personalized feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) for students with hazardous drinking. No changes in drinking parameters were found over a seven-week period apart from an increase in number of drinking occasions among men for one of the apps tested. Up to 30% of the study participants drank at potentially harmful levels: higher than the national recommended number of standard drinks per week (a maximum of 9 for women and 14 for men) in Sweden. Objective (1) To evaluate improved versions of the two mobile phone apps tested in our prior trial, in a new, 3-armed randomized controlled trial among university students with at least hazardous drinking habits according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT; Study 1). (2) After 6 weeks, to target study participants showing alcohol consumption higher than the national recommended levels for standard drinks per week by offering them participation in a second, 2-armed randomized trial evaluating an additional mobile phone app with skill enhancement tasks (Study 2). (3) To follow participants at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after recruitment to Study 1 and at 6 and 12 weeks after recruitment to Study 2. Methods Two randomized controlled trials are conducted. Study 1: Students are recruited at four Swedish universities, via direct e-mail and advertisements on Facebook and student union web sites. Those who provide informed consent, have a mobile phone, and show at least hazardous alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT (≥6 for women; ≥8 points for men) are randomized into three groups. Group 1

  20. [Ethical and legal implications of the determination of blood alcohol content in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Real de Asúa, Diego; González-Cajal, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is the most widely consumed toxic in Spain. Excessive alcohol intake is responsible for a significant number of visits to emergency departments (EDs), and what occurs may not only have severe medical consequences, but also serious legal implications. Most Spanish EDs lack specific protocols concerning the correct determination of blood alcohol content (BAC). The present work aims to review the technical, ethical and legal problems surrounding this test. Since ethanol is metabolized in peripheral blood, blood extraction should be standardized in order to preserve the proper chain of custody. An emergency test for BAC should be performed in two scenarios: patients with an altered level of consciousness of unknown origin (when health-care professionals act for the good of the patient), and situations which may be penalized by law (when health-care professionals act for the good of the community). The latter would include traffic controls and traffic accidents, job-related accidents, criminal activities or harmful domestic behaviour. Health-care professionals are responsible for treating patients' clinical information with due respect and confidentiality. However, professional secrecy may be overridden by legal imperative in certain situations. It is necessary to promote conscious ethical decision-taking by the health-care professional, so that this responsibility does not solely depend on the juridical context.

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of minimum legal drinking age and zero tolerance laws in the United States.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Tippetts, A Scott; Fell, James C

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the extent to which the decline in alcohol-related highway deaths among drivers younger than age 21 years can be attributed to raising the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) and establishing zero tolerance (0.02% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for drivers younger than age 21 years) laws. Data on all drivers younger than age 21 years involved in fatalities in the United States from 1982 to 1997 were used in the study. Quarterly ratios of BAC-positive to BAC-negative drivers in each of the 50 states where analyzed in a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis. After accounting for differences among the 50 states in various background factors, changes in economic and demographic factors within states over time, and the effects of other related laws, results indicated substantial reductions in alcohol-positive involvement in fatal crashes were associated with the two youth-specific laws. The policy of limiting youth access to alcohol through MLDA laws and reinforcing this action by making it illegal for underage drivers to have any alcohol in their system appears to have been effective in reducing the proportion of fatal crashes involving drinking drivers.

  2. Genetic analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti bacA gene: functional interchangeability with the Escherichia coli sbmA gene and phenotypes of mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Ichige, A; Walker, G C

    1997-01-01

    The Rhizobium meliloti bacA gene encodes a function that is essential for bacterial differentiation into bacteroids within plant cells in the symbiosis between R. meliloti and alfalfa. An Escherichia coli homolog of BacA, SbmA, is implicated in the uptake of microcin B17, microcin J25 (formerly microcin 25), and bleomycin. When expressed in E. coli with the lacZ promoter, the R. meliloti bacA gene was found to suppress all the known defects of E. coli sbmA mutants, namely, increased resistance to microcin B17, microcin J25, and bleomycin, demonstrating the functional similarity between the two proteins. The R. meliloti bacA386::Tn(pho)A mutant, as well as a newly constructed bacA deletion mutant, was found to show increased resistance to bleomycin. However, it also showed increased resistance to certain aminoglycosides and increased sensitivity to ethanol and detergents, suggesting that the loss of bacA function causes some defect in membrane integrity. The E. coli sbmA gene suppressed all these bacA mutant phenotypes as well as the Fix- phenotype when placed under control of the bacA promoter. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the BacA and SbmA proteins are functionally similar and thus provide support for our previous hypothesis that BacA may be required for uptake of some compound that plays an important role in bacteroid development. However, the additional phenotypes of bacA mutants identified in this study suggest the alternative possibility that BacA may be needed for membrane integrity, which is likely to be critically important during the early stages of bacterial differentiation within plant cells. PMID:8982000

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of KirBac1.1 Mutants Reveal Global Gating Changes of Kir Channels.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tobias; Wang, Shizhen; Zangerl-Plessl, Eva-Maria; Nichols, Colin G; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2015-04-27

    Prokaryotic inwardly rectifying (KirBac) potassium channels are homologous to mammalian Kir channels. Their activity is controlled by dynamical conformational changes that regulate ion flow through a central pore. Understanding the dynamical rearrangements of Kir channels during gating requires high-resolution structure information from channels crystallized in different conformations and insight into the transition steps, which are difficult to access experimentally. In this study, we use MD simulations on wild type KirBac1.1 and an activatory mutant to investigate activation gating of KirBac channels. Full atomistic MD simulations revealed that introducing glutamate in position 143 causes significant widening at the helix bundle crossing gate, enabling water flux into the cavity. Further, global rearrangements including a twisting motion as well as local rearrangements at the subunit interface in the cytoplasmic domain were observed. These structural rearrangements are similar to recently reported KirBac3.1 crystal structures in closed and open conformation, suggesting that our simulations capture major conformational changes during KirBac1.1 opening. In addition, an important role of protein-lipid interactions during gating was observed. Slide-helix and C-linker interactions with lipids were strengthened during activation gating.

  4. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  5. An expected utility maximizer walks into a bar…

    PubMed Central

    Glimcher, Paul W.; Lazzaro, Stephanie C.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted field experiments at a bar to test whether blood alcohol concentration (BAC) correlates with violations of the generalized axiom of revealed preference (GARP) and the independence axiom. We found that individuals with BACs well above the legal limit for driving adhere to GARP and independence at rates similar to those who are sober. This finding led to the fielding of a third experiment to explore how risk preferences might vary as a function of BAC. We found gender-specific effects: Men did not exhibit variations in risk preferences across BACs. In contrast, women were more risk averse than men at low BACs but exhibited increasing tolerance towards risks as BAC increased. Based on our estimates, men and women’s risk preferences are predicted to be identical at BACs nearly twice the legal limit for driving. We discuss the implications for policy-makers. PMID:24244072

  6. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  7. 23 CFR 1275.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having an alcohol concentration above the permitted limit as established by each State, or an equivalent non-BAC intoxicated driving offense. (d...

  8. Library Resources for Bac End Sequencing. Final Technical Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pieter J. de Jong

    2000-10-01

    Studies directed towards the specific aims outlined for this research award are summarized. The RPCI II Human Bac Library has been expanded by the addition of 6.9-fold genomic coverage. This segment has been generated from a MBOI partial digest of the same anonymous donor DNA used for the rest of the library. A new cloning vector, pTARBAC1, has been constructed and used in the construction of RPCI-II segment 5. This new cloning vector provides a new strategy in identifying targeted genomic regions and will greatly facilitate a large-scale analysis for positional cloning. A new maleCS7BC/6J mouse BAC library has beenmore » constructed. RPCI-23 contain 576 plates (approx 210,000 clones) and represents approximately 11-fold coverage of the mouse genome.« less

  9. A Deep-Coverage Tomato BAC Library and Prospects Toward Development of an STC Framework for Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Budiman, Muhammad A.; Mao, Long; Wood, Todd C.; Wing, Rod A.

    2000-01-01

    Recently a new strategy using BAC end sequences as sequence-tagged connectors (STCs) was proposed for whole-genome sequencing projects. In this study, we present the construction and detailed characterization of a 15.0 haploid genome equivalent BAC library for the cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Heinz 1706. The library contains 129,024 clones with an average insert size of 117.5 kb and a chloroplast content of 1.11%. BAC end sequences from 1490 ends were generated and analyzed as a preliminary evaluation for using this library to develop an STC framework to sequence the tomato genome. A total of 1205 BAC end sequences (80.9%) were obtained, with an average length of 360 high-quality bases, and were searched against the GenBank database. Using a cutoff expectation value of <10−6, and combining the results from BLASTN, BLASTX, and TBLASTX searches, 24.3% of the BAC end sequences were similar to known sequences, of which almost half (48.7%) share sequence similarities to retrotransposons and 7% to known genes. Some of the transposable element sequences were the first reported in tomato, such as sequences similar to maize transposon Activator (Ac) ORF and tobacco pararetrovirus-like sequences. Interestingly, there were no BAC end sequences similar to the highly repeated TGRI and TGRII elements. However, the majority (70.3%) of STCs did not share significant sequence similarities to any sequences in GenBank at either the DNA or predicted protein levels, indicating that a large portion of the tomato genome is still unknown. Our data demonstrate that this BAC library is suitable for developing an STC database to sequence the tomato genome. The advantages of developing an STC framework for whole-genome sequencing of tomato are discussed. [The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library under accession nos. AQ367111–AQ368361.] PMID:10645957

  10. Influence of alcohol use on mortality and expenditure during hospital admission: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Cheng, Ya-Ai; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to investigate the effect of alcohol intoxication on clinical presentation of hospitalised adult trauma patients at a Level I trauma centre using propensity score matching. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants Detailed data of 929 hospitalised adult trauma patients with alcohol intoxication, aged 20–65 years, and 10 104 corresponding patients without alcohol intoxication were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Alcohol intoxication was defined as a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥50 mg/dL. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality and expenditure. Results Patients with alcohol intoxication presented with significantly higher short-term mortality (OR: 3.0, 95% CI 2.0 to 4.4; p<0.001) than patients without alcohol intoxication. However, on comparison with propensity score-matched patients with respect to sex, age, comorbidity, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injury region based on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), alcohol intoxication did not significantly influence mortality (OR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.4; p=0.563). This implied that the higher mortality of alcohol-intoxicated patients was attributable to patient characteristics such as a higher injury severity rather than alcohol intoxication. Even on comparison with sex-matched, age-matched and comorbidity-matched patients without alcohol intoxication, patients with alcohol intoxication still had significantly higher total expenditure (17.4% higher), cost of operation (40.3% higher), cost of examination (52.8% higher) and cost of pharmaceuticals (38.3% higher). Conclusions The associated higher mortality of adult trauma patients with alcohol intoxication was completely attributable to other patient characteristics and associated injury severity rather than the effects of alcohol. However, patients with alcohol intoxication incurred significantly higher expenditure than

  11. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in South Africa: a third study.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; Marais, Anna-Susan; Hendricks, Loretta S; Snell, Cudore L; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Stellavato, Chandra; Buckley, David G; Brooke, Lesley E; Viljoen, Denis L

    2008-05-01

    This is a third exploration of risk factors for the two most severe forms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and Partial FAS (PFAS), in a South African community with the highest reported prevalence of FAS in the world. In a case control design, interview and collateral data concerning mothers of 72 first grade children with FAS or PFAS are compared with 134 randomly selected maternal controls of children from the same schools. Significant differences were found between the mothers of FASD children and controls in socio-economic status, educational attainment, and a higher prevalence of FASD among rural residents. The birth order of the index children, gravidity, and still birth were significantly higher among mothers of FASD children. Mothers of children with a FASD are less likely to be married and more likely to have a male partner who drank during the index pregnancy. Current and gestational alcohol use by mothers of FASD children is bingeing on weekends, with no reduction in drinking reported in any trimester in 75 to 90% of the pregnancies that resulted in an FAS child or during 50 to 87% of PFAS-producing pregnancies. There was significantly less drinking among the controls in the second and third trimesters (11 to 14%). Estimated peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC)s of the mothers of PFAS children range from 0.155 in the first trimester to 0.102 in the third, and for mothers of FAS children the range is from 0.197 to 0.200 to 0.191 in the first, second, and third. Smoking percentage during pregnancy was significantly higher for mothers of FASD children (82 to 84%) than controls (35%); but average quantity smoked is low in the 3 groups at 30 to 41 cigarettes per week. A relatively young average age of the mother at the time of FAS and PFAS births (28.8 and 24.8 years respectively) is not explained by early onset of regular drinking (mean = 20.3 to 20.5 years of age). But the mean years of alcohol consumption is

  12. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the rainbow trout genome

    PubMed Central

    Palti, Yniv; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Hu, Yuqin; Genet, Carine; You, Frank M; Vallejo, Roger L; Thorgaard, Gary H; Wheeler, Paul A; Rexroad, Caird E

    2009-01-01

    Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. This resource will also facilitate efforts to obtain and assemble a whole-genome reference sequence for this species. Results The physical map was constructed from DNA fingerprinting of 192,096 BAC clones using the 4-color high-information content fingerprinting (HICF) method. The clones were assembled into physical map contigs using the finger-printing contig (FPC) program. The map is composed of 4,173 contigs and 9,379 singletons. The total number of unique fingerprinting fragments (consensus bands) in contigs is 1,185,157, which corresponds to an estimated physical length of 2.0 Gb. The map assembly was validated by 1) comparison with probe hybridization results and agarose gel fingerprinting contigs; and 2) anchoring large contigs to the microsatellite-based genetic linkage map. Conclusion The production and validation of the first BAC physical map of the rainbow trout genome is described in this paper. We are currently integrating this map with the NCCCWA genetic map using more than 200 microsatellites isolated from BAC end sequences and by identifying BACs that harbor more than 300 previously mapped markers. The availability of an integrated physical and genetic map will enable detailed comparative genome analyses, fine mapping of

  13. Online alcohol interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross

    2010-12-19

    There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems. A systematic review of the research evidence underpinning these programs is timely. Our objective was to review the efficacy of online interventions for alcohol misuse. Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were conducted for English abstracts (excluding dissertations) published from 1998 onward. Search terms were: (1) Internet, Web*; (2) online, computer*; (3) alcohol*; and (4) E\\effect*, trial*, random* (where * denotes a wildcard). Forward and backward searches from identified papers were also conducted. Articles were included if (1) the primary intervention was delivered and accessed via the Internet, (2) the intervention focused on moderating or stopping alcohol consumption, and (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol-related screen, assessment, or intervention. The literature search initially yielded 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 17 of which met inclusion criteria. Of these 17 studies, 12 (70.6%) were conducted with university students, and 11 (64.7%) specifically focused on at-risk, heavy, or binge drinkers. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 3216 (median 261), with 12 (70.6%) studies predominantly involving brief personalized feedback interventions. Using published data, effect sizes could be extracted from 8 of the 17 studies. In relation to alcohol units per week or month and based on 5 RCTs where a measure of alcohol units per week or month could be extracted, differential effect sizes to posttreatment ranged from 0.02 to 0.81 (mean 0.42, median 0.54). Pre-post effect sizes for brief personalized feedback interventions ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, and in 2 multi-session modularized interventions, a pre-post effect size of 0.56 was obtained in both. Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect size of 0.66. The available

  14. Online Alcohol Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems. A systematic review of the research evidence underpinning these programs is timely. Objectives Our objective was to review the efficacy of online interventions for alcohol misuse. Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were conducted for English abstracts (excluding dissertations) published from 1998 onward. Search terms were: (1) Internet, Web*; (2) online, computer*; (3) alcohol*; and (4) E\\effect*, trial*, random* (where * denotes a wildcard). Forward and backward searches from identified papers were also conducted. Articles were included if (1) the primary intervention was delivered and accessed via the Internet, (2) the intervention focused on moderating or stopping alcohol consumption, and (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol-related screen, assessment, or intervention. Results The literature search initially yielded 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 17 of which met inclusion criteria. Of these 17 studies, 12 (70.6%) were conducted with university students, and 11 (64.7%) specifically focused on at-risk, heavy, or binge drinkers. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 3216 (median 261), with 12 (70.6%) studies predominantly involving brief personalized feedback interventions. Using published data, effect sizes could be extracted from 8 of the 17 studies. In relation to alcohol units per week or month and based on 5 RCTs where a measure of alcohol units per week or month could be extracted, differential effect sizes to posttreatment ranged from 0.02 to 0.81 (mean 0.42, median 0.54). Pre-post effect sizes for brief personalized feedback interventions ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, and in 2 multi-session modularized interventions, a pre-post effect size of 0.56 was obtained in both. Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect

  15. Simulated Driving Performance of Adults with ADHD: Comparisons with Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Camarillo, Daniel; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard; Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that adults with ADHD are more likely to experience driving-related problems, which suggests that they may exhibit poorer driving performance. However, direct experimental evidence of this hypothesis is limited. The current study involved two experiments that evaluated driving performance in adults with ADHD in terms of the types of driving decrements typically associated with alcohol intoxication. Experiment 1 compared the simulated driving performance of 15 adults with ADHD to 23 adult control participants, who performed the task both while sober and intoxicated. Results showed that sober adults with ADHD exhibited decrements in driving performance compared to sober controls, and that the profile of impairment for the sober ADHD group did in fact resemble that of intoxicated drivers at the BAC level for legally impaired driving in the United States. Driving impairment of the intoxicated individuals was characterized by greater deviation of lane position, faster and more abrupt steering maneuvers, and increased speed variability. Experiment 2 was a dose-challenge study in which 8 adults with ADHD and 8 controls performed the driving simulation task under three doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Results showed that driving performance in both groups was impaired in response to alcohol, and that individuals with ADHD exhibited generally poorer driving performance than did controls across all dose conditions. Together the findings provide compelling evidence to suggest that the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with ADHD might impair driving performance in such a manner as to resemble that of an alcohol intoxicated driver. Moreover, alcohol might impair the performance of drivers with ADHD in an additive fashion that could considerably compromise their driving skill even at blood alcohol concentrations below the legal limit. PMID:18540785

  16. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  17. The detection of DWI at BACs below 0.10

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the research described in this report has been to develop training materials to assist law enforcement officers in the accurate detection of motorists who are driving while impaired (DWI) at the 0.08 BAC level. The project was compos...

  18. Genome-wide target profiling of piggyBac and Tol2 in HEK 293: pros and cons for gene discovery and gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA transposons have emerged as indispensible tools for manipulating vertebrate genomes with applications ranging from insertional mutagenesis and transgenesis to gene therapy. To fully explore the potential of two highly active DNA transposons, piggyBac and Tol2, as mammalian genetic tools, we have conducted a side-by-side comparison of the two transposon systems in the same setting to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages for use in gene therapy and gene discovery. Results We have observed that (1) the Tol2 transposase (but not piggyBac) is highly sensitive to molecular engineering; (2) the piggyBac donor with only the 40 bp 3'-and 67 bp 5'-terminal repeat domain is sufficient for effective transposition; and (3) a small amount of piggyBac transposases results in robust transposition suggesting the piggyBac transpospase is highly active. Performing genome-wide target profiling on data sets obtained by retrieving chromosomal targeting sequences from individual clones, we have identified several piggyBac and Tol2 hotspots and observed that (4) piggyBac and Tol2 display a clear difference in targeting preferences in the human genome. Finally, we have observed that (5) only sites with a particular sequence context can be targeted by either piggyBac or Tol2. Conclusions The non-overlapping targeting preference of piggyBac and Tol2 makes them complementary research tools for manipulating mammalian genomes. PiggyBac is the most promising transposon-based vector system for achieving site-specific targeting of therapeutic genes due to the flexibility of its transposase for being molecularly engineered. Insights from this study will provide a basis for engineering piggyBac transposases to achieve site-specific therapeutic gene targeting. PMID:21447194

  19. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  20. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, p<0.05) and without (258 vs. 89 μmol/l, p<0.05) alcohol ingestion. From 2 min onwards there were no significant differences in the decreasing salivary acetaldehyde concentration, which remained above the level of carcinogenicity still at 10 min. The systemic alcohol distribution from blood to saliva had no additional effect on salivary acetaldehyde after sipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MacroBac: New Technologies for Robust and Efficient Large-Scale Production of Recombinant Multiprotein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gradia, Scott D; Ishida, Justin P; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Jeans, Chris; Tainer, John A; Fuss, Jill O

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant expression of large, multiprotein complexes is essential and often rate limiting for determining structural, biophysical, and biochemical properties of DNA repair, replication, transcription, and other key cellular processes. Baculovirus-infected insect cell expression systems are especially well suited for producing large, human proteins recombinantly, and multigene baculovirus systems have facilitated studies of multiprotein complexes. In this chapter, we describe a multigene baculovirus system called MacroBac that uses a Biobricks-type assembly method based on restriction and ligation (Series 11) or ligation-independent cloning (Series 438). MacroBac cloning and assembly is efficient and equally well suited for either single subcloning reactions or high-throughput cloning using 96-well plates and liquid handling robotics. MacroBac vectors are polypromoter with each gene flanked by a strong polyhedrin promoter and an SV40 poly(A) termination signal that minimize gene order expression level effects seen in many polycistronic assemblies. Large assemblies are robustly achievable, and we have successfully assembled as many as 10 genes into a single MacroBac vector. Importantly, we have observed significant increases in expression levels and quality of large, multiprotein complexes using a single, multigene, polypromoter virus rather than coinfection with multiple, single-gene viruses. Given the importance of characterizing functional complexes, we believe that MacroBac provides a critical enabling technology that may change the way that structural, biophysical, and biochemical research is done. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of artificial sweeteners on breath alcohol concentrations in male and female social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol is often mixed with various nonalcoholic beverages. While consumption of food with alcohol will decrease peak breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC), recent evidence has suggested that mixing alcohol with diet beverages can result in higher BrAC when compared with mixing the same amount of alcohol with sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine this phenomenon using two different moderate alcohol doses. Twenty participants (10 males) attended five sessions where they received 1 of 5 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka+3.64 ml/kg of diet soda, 0.91 ml/kg vodka+3.64 of regular soda, 1.82 ml/kg vodka+7.28 ml/kg diet soda, 1.82 ml/kg vodka+7.28 ml/kg regular soda, and a placebo beverage). BrAC was recorded repeatedly up to 180 min after dose administration. Participants had significantly higher BrAC when the mixer was diet as compared to regular for both alcohol dose conditions. No gender differences were observed. Mixing alcohol with diet beverages can result in higher BrAC when compared to the same amount of alcohol administered with a similar sweetened beverage. Individuals who consume diet mixers with alcohol may reduce caloric intake but increase the harms associated with higher BrACs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  4. Toward National Estimates of Alcohol Use Disorders among Drivers: Results from the National Roadside Survey Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo; Smart, Mieka

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether drivers contacted at the roadside can be screened for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Secondarily, to produce preliminary estimates of AUDs among drivers and estimate the relationship between AUD status and BAC measured at the roadside. Methods A two-phase survey program was undertaken. In phase 1, 206 motorists were interviewed at the roadside using a 15-item AUD Survey derived from a condensed version of the AUDADIS and the AUDIT-C. One hundred sixty-seven of these motorists were invited, for a $25 incentive, to call the research team within 48 hours of the roadside assessment to repeat the questionnaire and complete a more detailed AUD assessment. Phase 2 involved a six-state pilot test of the AUD Survey as an add-on to the 2005 National Roadside Survey Pilot Program. The setting for both phases of the survey program was U.S. roadways on weekends between 10 p.m. and 3 a.m. Results Ninety-seven percent of all eligible drivers completed the AUD questionnaire. The correlation between roadside and telephone interview results was 0.3 for alcohol abuse, 0.6 for alcohol dependence and heavy drinking, and 0.7 for binge drinking. Alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses had 0.6 and 0.7 correlation with diagnoses derived from the full AUDADIS and the AUDIT-C had a 0.8 correlation with the full AUDIT. There was also a statistically significant and positive relationship between having a positive BAC at the roadside and meeting criteria for heavy drinking. Conclusions AUD status can be effectively measured at the roadside. The poor reliability for alcohol abuse is related to underreporting of drinking and driving during roadside assessments, compared to telephone follow up. Other measures of hazardous alcohol use should be used in the roadside context to measure alcohol abuse. PMID:19746302

  5. The C-terminal coiled-coil of the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel NaChBac is not essential for tetramer formation, but stabilizes subunit-to-subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Mio, Muneyo; Arisaka, Fumio; Sato, Masahiko; Sato, Chikara

    2010-09-01

    The NaChBac is a prokaryotic homologue of the voltage-gated sodium channel found in the genome of the alkalophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125. Like a repeating cassette of mammalian sodium channel, the NaChBac possesses hydrophobic domains corresponding to six putative transmembrane segments and a pore loop, and exerts channel function by forming a tetramer although detailed mechanisms of subunit assembly remain unclear. We generated truncated mutants from NaChBac, and investigated their ability to form tetramers in relation to their channel functions. A mutant that deletes almost all of the C-terminal coiled-coil structure lost its voltage-dependent ion permeability, although it was properly translocated to the cell surface. The mutant protein was purified as a tetramer using a reduced concentration of detergent, but the association between the subunits was shown to be much weaker than the wild type. The chemical cross-linking, blue native PAGE, sedimentation velocity experiments, size exclusion chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and electron microscopy all supported its tetrameric assembly. We further purified the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain alone and confirmed its self-oligomerization. These data suggest that the C-terminal coiled-coil structure stabilizes subunit-to-subunit interactions of NaChBac, but is not critical for their tetramer formation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BAC-end sequence-based SNP mining in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) utilizing re-sequencing data, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequences for Gossypium hirsutum L. have recently been developed. Here we report on genomic-based genome-wide SNP mining utilizing re-sequencing data with a BAC-end sequence reference for twelve G. hirsutum L. lines, one G. barbadense L. li...

  7. Integrating field methodology and web-based data collection to assess the reliability of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).

    PubMed

    Celio, Mark A; Vetter-O'Hagen, Courtney S; Lisman, Stephen A; Johansen, Gerard E; Spear, Linda P

    2011-12-01

    Field methodologies offer a unique opportunity to collect ecologically valid data on alcohol use and its associated problems within natural drinking environments. However, limitations in follow-up data collection methods have left unanswered questions regarding the psychometric properties of field-based measures. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the reliability of self-report data collected in a naturally occurring environment - as indexed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) - compared to self-report data obtained through an innovative web-based follow-up procedure. Individuals recruited outside of bars (N=170; mean age=21; range 18-32) provided a BAC sample and completed a self-administered survey packet that included the AUDIT. BAC feedback was provided anonymously through a dedicated web page. Upon sign in, follow-up participants (n=89; 52%) were again asked to complete the AUDIT before receiving their BAC feedback. Reliability analyses demonstrated that AUDIT scores - both continuous and dichotomized at the standard cut-point - were stable across field- and web-based administrations. These results suggest that self-report data obtained from acutely intoxicated individuals in naturally occurring environments are reliable when compared to web-based data obtained after a brief follow-up interval. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the feasibility, utility, and potential of integrating field methods and web-based data collection procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing measures of fatigue using an alcohol comparison to validate the effects of fatigue on performance.

    PubMed

    Williamson, A M; Feyer, A M; Mattick, R P; Friswell, R; Finlay-Brown, S

    2001-05-01

    The effects of 28 h of sleep deprivation were compared with varying doses of alcohol up to 0.1% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in the same subjects. The study was conducted in the laboratory. Twenty long-haul truck drivers and 19 people not employed as professional drivers acted as subjects. Tests were selected that were likely to be affected by fatigue, including simple reaction time, unstable tracking, dual task, Mackworth clock vigilance test, symbol digit coding, visual search, sequential spatial memory and logical reasoning. While performance effects were seen due to alcohol for all tests, sleep deprivation affected performance on most tests, but had no effect on performance on the visual search and logical reasoning tests. Some tests showed evidence of a circadian rhythm effect on performance, in particular, simple reaction time, dual task, Mackworth clock vigilance, and symbol digit coding, but only for response speed and not response accuracy. Drivers were slower but more accurate than controls on the symbol digit test, suggesting that they took a more conservative approach to performance of this test. This study demonstrated which tests are most sensitive to sleep deprivation and fatigue. The study therefore has established a set of tests that can be used in evaluations of fatigue and fatigue countermeasures.

  9. [Regulation of equilibrium in acute alcoholic intoxication with the craniocorpography method].

    PubMed

    Seidl, S; Müller, M; Reinhardt, G

    1994-05-01

    Twenty young male volunteers carried out a drinking experiment during which they underwent the Romberg standing test and the Unterberger treading test. These tests were carried out three times each in a sober state, 25 minutes and 2 hours after alcohol consumption. The balance tests were recorded, evaluated and documented by means of a Cranio-Corpo-Graphy. The Romberg standing test proved to be the more sensitive indicator of impaired balance, even when only slightly under the influence of alcohol. Both the degree of anterior-posterior and of lateral swaying increased according to the BAC and decreased after the end of absorption. Only lateral swaying was similarly recorded with the Unterberger test.

  10. Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n = 40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that

  11. Concentration of the macrolide antibiotic tulathromycin in broncho-alveolar cells is influenced by comedication of rifampicin in foals.

    PubMed

    Venner, Monica; Peters, Jette; Höhensteiger, Nina; Schock, Birthe; Bornhorst, Alexa; Grube, Markus; Adam, Ulrike; Scheuch, Eberhard; Weitschies, Werner; Rosskopf, Dieter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Siegmund, Werner

    2010-02-01

    Macrolide antibiotics penetrate in the lung against steep concentration gradients into the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and broncho-alveolar cells (BAC). Since they interact with ABCB1, ABCC2, and organic anion transporting proteins (OATPs), which are localized to lung tissue, pulmonary concentration may be influenced by rifampicin (RIF), an inducer and modulator of efflux and uptake transporters. We measured concentrations of tulathromycin (TM) in plasma, ELF and BAC in 21 warm-blooded foals 24 and 192 h after first and last intramuscular injection of 2.5 mg/kg TM once weekly for 6 weeks. In 11 foals, TM was combined with RIF (10 mg/kg twice daily), and mRNA expression of ABCB1 and ABCC2 in BAC was assessed before and after RIF. Affinity of TM to ABCB1 and ABCC2 was measured by transport assays using cell monolayers and membrane vesicles of MDCKII and 2008 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCC2, respectively. At steady state, TM concentrated manifold in ELF and BAC. Comedication of RIF significantly decreased the AUC of TM (18.5 +/- 4.0 versus 24.4 +/- 3.7 microg x h/ml, p < 0.05) and lowered its concentrations in plasma (24 h, 0.17 +/- 0.05 versus 0.24 +/- 0.05 microg/ml; 192 h, 0.05 +/- 0.01 versus 0.06 +/- 0.01 microg/ml) and BAC (24 h, 0.84 +/- 0.36 versus 1.56 +/- 1.02 microg/ml; 192 h, 0.60 +/- 0.23 versus 1.23 +/- 0.90 microg/ml, all p < 0.05). Treatment with rifampicin did not markedly induce ABCB1 and ABCC2 expression. TM had no affinity to ABCB1 and ABCC2 in vitro. Concentration of TM in the lung of foals was significantly lowered by comedication of rifampicin most likely caused by extrapulmonary mechanisms leading to lower plasma concentrations.

  12. Dynamic behavior of pump light radiation induced photo-bleaching effect on BAC-Si in bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingjie; Luo, Yanhua; Wen, Jianxiang; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2018-02-01

    Ultra-wide emission in bismuth doped optical fiber has been extremely studied for the development of the laser and amplifier working at near infrared band. In our homemade bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber, bismuth active center associated with silica (BAC-Si) has been found that when pumping at its resonant wavelength at 830 nm the NIR emission could be partially bleached. In addition, a self-recovery process has been observed at room temperature. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the photo-bleaching effect on the BAC-Si via the pump power, pump wavelength and temperature dependence. Based on analyzing the result using stretched exponential function, it shows that the bleaching effect on BAC-Si has a strong link with the excitation process of Bi ion in BAC-Si. A potential energy curve model is used to illustrate the BAC-Si photo-bleaching process.

  13. BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D – Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Positional cloning in bread wheat is a tedious task due to its huge genome size (~17 Gbp) and polyploid character. BAC libraries represent an essential tool for positional cloning. However, wheat BAC libraries comprise more than million clones, which make their screening very laborious. Here we pres...

  14. Smartphone application for unhealthy alcohol use: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; McNeely, Jennifer; Kushnir, Vlad; Cunningham, John A

    2017-01-01

    Technology-delivered interventions are useful tools for addressing unhealthy alcohol use. Smartphones in particular offer opportunities to deliver interventions at the user's convenience. A smartphone application with 5 modules (personal feedback, self-monitoring of drinking, designated driver tool, blood alcohol content [BAC] calculator, information) was developed. Its acceptability and associations between use and drinking outcomes were assessed. One hundred thirty adults with unhealthy alcohol use (>14 [men]/>7 [women] drinks/week or ≥1 episode/month with 6 or more drinks) recruited in Switzerland (n = 70) and Canada (n = 60) were offered to use the application. Follow-up occurred after 3 months. Appreciation, usefulness, and self-reported frequency of use of the modules, and drinking outcomes (drinks/week, binge drinking) were assessed. Associations between application use and drinking at 3 months were evaluated with negative binomial and logistic regression models, adjusted for baseline values and gender. Of the participants, 48% were women, mean (SD) age: 32.8 (10.0). Follow-up rate: 86.2%. There were changes from baseline (BL) to follow-up (FU) in number of drinks/week, BL: 15.0 (16.5); FU: 10.9 (10.5), P = .01, and binge drinking, BL: 95.4%; FU: 64.3%, P < .0001. All modules had median ratings between 6 and 8 (scale of 1-10). Among the participants, 77% used the application, 76% used the personal feedback module, 41% the self-monitoring of drinking, 22% the designated driver tool, 53% the BAC calculator, and 31% the information module. Participants using the application more than once reported significantly fewer drinks/week at follow-up: Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR), number of drinks per week = 0.70 (0.51; 0.96). A smartphone application for unhealthy alcohol use appears acceptable and useful (although there is room for improvement). Without prompting, its use is infrequent. Those who used the application more than once reported less weekly drinking than

  15. Construction and sequence sampling of deep-coverage, large-insert BAC libraries for three model lepidopteran species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengcang; Proestou, Dina; Carter, Dorothy; Nicholson, Erica; Santos, Filippe; Zhao, Shaying; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Goldsmith, Marian R

    2009-01-01

    Background Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, and Heliconius erato represent three widely-used insect model species for genomic and fundamental studies in Lepidoptera. Large-insert BAC libraries of these insects are critical resources for many molecular studies, including physical mapping and genome sequencing, but not available to date. Results We report the construction and characterization of six large-insert BAC libraries for the three species and sampling sequence analysis of the genomes. The six BAC libraries were constructed with two restriction enzymes, two libraries for each species, and each has an average clone insert size ranging from 152–175 kb. We estimated that the genome coverage of each library ranged from 6–9 ×, with the two combined libraries of each species being equivalent to 13.0–16.3 × haploid genomes. The genome coverage, quality and utility of the libraries were further confirmed by library screening using 6~8 putative single-copy probes. To provide a first glimpse into these genomes, we sequenced and analyzed the BAC ends of ~200 clones randomly selected from the libraries of each species. The data revealed that the genomes are AT-rich, contain relatively small fractions of repeat elements with a majority belonging to the category of low complexity repeats, and are more abundant in retro-elements than DNA transposons. Among the species, the H. erato genome is somewhat more abundant in repeat elements and simple repeats than those of M. sexta and H. virescens. The BLAST analysis of the BAC end sequences suggested that the evolution of the three genomes is widely varied, with the genome of H. virescens being the most conserved as a typical lepidopteran, whereas both genomes of H. erato and M. sexta appear to have evolved significantly, resulting in a higher level of species- or evolutionary lineage-specific sequences. Conclusion The high-quality and large-insert BAC libraries of the insects, together with the identified BACs

  16. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of

  17. Development of the piggyBac transposable system for Plasmodium berghei and its application for random mutagenesis in malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genome of a number of species of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) has been sequenced in the hope of identifying new drug and vaccine targets. However, almost one-half of predicted Plasmodium genes are annotated as hypothetical and are difficult to analyse in bulk due to the inefficiency of current reverse genetic methodologies for Plasmodium. Recently, it has been shown that the transposase piggyBac integrates at random into the genome of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum offering the possibility to develop forward genetic screens to analyse Plasmodium gene function. This study reports the development and application of the piggyBac transposition system for the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei and the evaluation of its potential as a tool in forward genetic studies. P. berghei is the most frequently used malaria parasite model in gene function analysis since phenotype screens throughout the complete Plasmodium life cycle are possible both in vitro and in vivo. Results We demonstrate that piggyBac based gene inactivation and promoter-trapping is both easier and more efficient in P. berghei than in the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. Random piggyBac-mediated insertion into genes was achieved after parasites were transfected with the piggyBac donor plasmid either when transposase was expressed either from a helper plasmid or a stably integrated gene in the genome. Characterization of more than 120 insertion sites demonstrated that more than 70 most likely affect gene expression classifying their protein products as non-essential for asexual blood stage development. The non-essential nature of two of these genes was confirmed by targeted gene deletion one of which encodes P41, an ortholog of a human malaria vaccine candidate. Importantly for future development of whole genome phenotypic screens the remobilization of the piggyBac element in parasites that stably express transposase was demonstrated. Conclusion These data demonstrate

  18. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  19. Improving understanding of alcohol impairment and BAC levels, and their relationship to highway accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-05-01

    The report summarizes work completed on an extensive analysis of the attitudes of the judicial community (judges, prosecutors, and potential jurors) toward alcohol's impairment of driving abilities, and in the preparation of educational materials for...

  20. Determination of alcohol and extract concentration in beer samples using a combined method of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and refractometry.

    PubMed

    Castritius, Stefan; Kron, Alexander; Schäfer, Thomas; Rädle, Matthias; Harms, Diedrich

    2010-12-22

    A new approach of combination of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and refractometry was developed in this work to determine the concentration of alcohol and real extract in various beer samples. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression, as multivariate calibration method, was used to evaluate the correlation between the data of spectroscopy/refractometry and alcohol/extract concentration. This multivariate combination of spectroscopy and refractometry enhanced the precision in the determination of alcohol, compared to single spectroscopy measurements, due to the effect of high extract concentration on the spectral data, especially of nonalcoholic beer samples. For NIR calibration, two mathematical pretreatments (first-order derivation and linear baseline correction) were applied to eliminate light scattering effects. A sample grouping of the refractometry data was also applied to increase the accuracy of the determined concentration. The root mean squared errors of validation (RMSEV) of the validation process concerning alcohol and extract concentration were 0.23 Mas% (method A), 0.12 Mas% (method B), and 0.19 Mas% (method C) and 0.11 Mas% (method A), 0.11 Mas% (method B), and 0.11 Mas% (method C), respectively.

  1. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meizhong; Kim, Hyeran; Kudrna, Dave; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Lee, So-Jeong; Mueller, Christopher; Collura, Kristi; Zuccolo, Andrea; Buckingham, E Bryan; Grim, Suzanne M; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Flajnik, Martin F; Wing, Rod A; Ohta, Yuko

    2006-05-03

    Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 x 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6-28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50-90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  2. Presence of psychoactive substances in injured Belgian drivers.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Silverans, Peter; de Paepe, Peter; Buylaert, Walter; Verstraete, Alain G

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the percentage of drivers involved in a traffic crash in Belgium who have alcohol and drugs in their blood. Blood samples of the drivers injured in a traffic crash and admitted to the emergency departments of 5 hospitals in Belgium between January 2008 and May 2010 were analyzed for ethanol (with an enzymatic method) and 22 other psychoactive substances (with ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). One thousand seventy-eight drivers were included in the study. Alcohol (≥0.1 g/L) was the most common substance (26.2%). A large majority of the drivers (64%) who were positive for alcohol had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥1.3 g/L (legal limit in Belgium: 0.5 g/L). These high BACs were most frequent among male injured drivers. Cannabis was the most prevalent illicit drug (5.3%) and benzodiazepines (5.3%) were the most prevalent medicinal drugs. Approximately 1 percent of the drivers were positive for cocaine and amphetamines. No drivers tested positive for illicit opioids. Medicinal drugs were more likely to be found among female drivers and drivers older than 35 years, and alcohol and illicit drugs were more likely to be found among male drivers and drivers younger than 35 years. A high percentage of the injured drivers were positive for a psychoactive substance at the time of injury. Alcohol was the most common substance, with 80 percent of the positive drivers having a BAC ≥0.5 g/L. Compared to a roadside survey in the same area, drivers/riders with high BACs and combinations of drugs were overrepresented. Efforts should be made to increase alcohol and drug enforcement. The introduction of a categorization and labeling system might reduce driving under the influence of medicinal drugs by informing health care professionals and patients.

  3. Models of Voltage-Dependent Conformational Changes in NaChBac Channels

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Yinon; Durell, Stewart R.; Guy, H. Robert

    2008-01-01

    Models of the transmembrane region of the NaChBac channel were developed in two open/inactivated and several closed conformations. Homology models of NaChBac were developed using crystal structures of Kv1.2 and a Kv1.2/2.1 chimera as templates for open conformations, and MlotiK and KcsA channels as templates for closed conformations. Multiple molecular-dynamic simulations were performed to refine and evaluate these models. A striking difference between the S4 structures of the Kv1.2-like open models and MlotiK-like closed models is the secondary structure. In the open model, the first part of S4 forms an α-helix, and the last part forms a 310 helix, whereas in the closed model, the first part of S4 forms a 310 helix, and the last part forms an α-helix. A conformational change that involves this type of transition in secondary structure should be voltage-dependent. However, this transition alone is not sufficient to account for the large gating charge movement reported for NaChBac channels and for experimental results in other voltage-gated channels. To increase the magnitude of the motion of S4, we developed another model of an open/inactivated conformation, in which S4 is displaced farther outward, and a number of closed models in which S4 is displaced farther inward. A helical screw motion for the α-helical part of S4 and a simple axial translation for the 310 portion were used to develop models of these additional conformations. In our models, four positively charged residues of S4 moved outwardly during activation, across a transition barrier formed by highly conserved hydrophobic residues on S1, S2, and S3. The S4 movement was coupled to an opening of the activation gate formed by S6 through interactions with the segment linking S4 to S5. Consistencies of our models with experimental studies of NaChBac and Kv channels are discussed. PMID:18641074

  4. Predictors of breath alcohol concentrations in college parties.

    PubMed

    Croff, Julie M; Leavens, Eleanor; Olson, Kathleen

    2017-03-30

    Alcohol use and subsequent consequences are harmful for individual college students. Other students and the university can also be negatively impacted by the consequences of alcohol use. A field-based study was used to assess the alcohol use environment at college parties. Researchers replicated a previous study by driving and walking a route to identify parties primarily on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evenings between 9:00 PM and 1:00 AM across an academic year. Parties were randomly sampled. Hosts were asked for permission to enter the party at each sampled location. A census of partygoers was attempted at each party. Participants were asked to complete a brief survey and give a breath sample. All participants were recruited into a follow-up survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of individual-level and party-level factors associated with intoxication are presented. The research team identified 29 parties: 16 were approached, and 12 were surveyed. Overall, 112 participants were surveyed for a response rate of approximately 28.7% of partygoers. Controlling for demographic characteristics, consumption of shots of liquor/spirits was significantly associated with a five times greater risk for intoxication. Notably, drinking games were protective of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) risk in this model. Individuals who reported engaging in drinking games were 74% less likely to report a BrAC above the U.S. legal limit, while controlling for underage drinking in the model. Several party characteristics were identified that increased overall BrAC at the parties, including whether the party was themed, if it was a Greek life party, and whether there were illicit drugs present. Notably, when intoxication is examined by gender and party theme, women are significantly more likely to be intoxicated at themed parties: 75% were above 0.08 at themed parties compared to 35% above 0.08 at non-themed parties. Field-based data collection methods can, and should, be

  5. A comparison of alcohol and drug use by random motor vehicle drivers in Brazil and Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Sousa, Tanara R; De Boni, Raquel; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Limberger, Renata P; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Oiestad, Elisabeth L; Normann, Per T; Mørland, Jørg; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    A large proportion of road traffic crashes are related to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the use of alcohol, illegal drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs among random drivers in Brazil and Norway, two countries with the same legal limit for drunk driving, but with marked differences in legislation history, enforcement and penalties for DUI, and to discuss any differences found. Roadside surveys were conducted on Fridays and Saturdays between noon and midnight. Samples of oral fluid were collected for analysis of drugs, whereas alcohol was determined by breath testing or by analysis of oral fluid. High participation rates of 94-97% were obtained in both countries. The weighted prevalence of driving with alcohol concentrations in breath or oral fluid equivalent to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) above 0.2g/L was 2.7% (95% CI 2.2-3.3) in Brazil and 0.2% (95% CI 0.0-0.5) in Norway. Stimulants (amphetamines or cocaine) were found in samples from 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) of drivers in Brazil and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.7) in Norway. The prevalence of amphetamines was highest among Brazilian truck drivers (3.6%; 95% CI 2.0-6.4). Tetrahydrocannabinol was found in samples from 0.5% (95% CI 0.3-0.8) of drivers in Brazil and 1.0% (95% CI 0.6-1.5) in Norway, whereas benzodiazepines or zopiclone were found in 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) of the samples from Brazil and Norway, respectively. The difference in the prevalence of alcohol may be related to the fact that Norway has implemented steps to reduce drunk driving since 1936, whereas Brazil has attempted to do the same for only a few years. Differences for drugs may be related to different patterns in the use of stimulants, cannabis and medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What proof is in your Christmas pudding? Is caring under the influence possible?

    PubMed

    Brieger, Daniel G; Amir, Amaleena B; Punch, Gratian J; Lim, Christopher S H; Toh, James

    2014-12-11

    To determine the ethanol concentration of commonly available Christmas puddings, and to extrapolate the blood alcohol content (BAC) of typical health care professionals after Christmas lunch at the hospital. We conducted fractional distillation of Christmas puddings and analysed the distillate for ethanol content. We then applied standard pharmacological and physiological assumptions to assess predicted BAC in typical male and female health care professionals at our hospital. Ethanol concentration of each pudding; estimated BAC of health care professionals after ingestion and at the end of a 30-minute lunch break. The concentration of ethanol in common Christmas puddings ranged from 0.260 to 1.685 g per 125 mg slice. The concentration of ethanol per pudding was not greater than the stipulated specifications on the packaging, where shown. After pudding ingestion, the theoretical BAC of a typical 70 kg male and 60 kg female health care professional ranged from 0.001 to 0.004 g/dL and from 0.001 to 0.006 g/dL, respectively. Neither male nor female staff had a predicted BAC > 0.000 g/dL by the end of the lunch break. Christmas puddings contain ethanol that does not all evaporate during the cooking process. However, the rise in BAC after ingestion of a typical slice of Christmas pudding was negligible and unlikely to affect work performance or safety or impair a health care worker's ability to make complex decisions.

  7. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    PubMed

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  8. Zero tolerance enforcement varies with laws and practices among U.S. states

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-03-11

    All states now have zero tolerance laws prohibiting people younger than 21 from driving with any positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Congress made zero tolerance a national standard in 1995, passing a law to withhold highway funds from states...

  9. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  10. Cannabis and crash responsibility while driving below the alcohol per se legal limit.

    PubMed

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B; Camp, Bayliss

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest in how extensively the use of marijuana by drivers relates to crash involvement. While cognitive, lab-based studies are consistent in showing that the use of cannabis impairs driving tasks, epidemiological, field-based studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents. There is ample evidence that the presence of cannabis among drivers with a BAC≥0.08g/dL highly increases the likelihood of a motor vehicle crash. Less clear, however, is the contribution of cannabis to crash risk when drivers have consumed very little or no alcohol. This effort addresses this gap in knowledge. We took advantage of a unique database that merged fatal crashes in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which allows for a precise identification of crash responsibility. To account for recent increase in lab testing, we restricted our sample to cover only the years 1993-2009. A total of 4294 drivers were included in the analyses. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were run to model the contribution of alcohol and drugs to the likelihood of being responsible in a fatal crash. We found evidence that compared with drivers negative for alcohol and cannabis, the presence of cannabis elevates crash responsibility in fatal crashes among drivers at zero BACs (OR=1.89) and with 0<BAC<0.05g/dL (OR=3.42), suggesting that emphasis on curbing impaired driving should not be solely focused on heavy-drinking drivers. Data limitations however caution about the generalizability of study findings. Special efforts to understand the effect of cannabis on fatal crashes, in particular in the absence of alcohol, are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A C9ORF72 BAC mouse model recapitulates key epigenetic perturbations of ALS/FTD.

    PubMed

    Esanov, Rustam; Cabrera, Gabriela Toro; Andrade, Nadja S; Gendron, Tania F; Brown, Robert H; Benatar, Michael; Wahlestedt, Claes; Mueller, Christian; Zeier, Zane

    2017-06-12

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with identified genetic causes representing a significant minority of all cases. A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) mutation within the C9ORF72 gene has recently been identified as the most frequent known cause of ALS. The expansion leads to partial heterochromatinization of the locus, yet mutant RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) are still produced in sufficient quantities to confer neurotoxicity. The levels of these toxic HRE products positively correlate with cellular toxicity and phenotypic severity across multiple disease models. Moreover, the degree of epigenetic repression inversely correlates with some facets of clinical presentation in C9-ALS patients. Recently, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) have been used to generate transgenic mice that harbor the HRE mutation, complementing other relevant model systems such as patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). While epigenetic features of the HRE have been investigated in various model systems and post-mortem tissues, epigenetic dysregulation at the expanded locus in C9-BAC mice remains unexplored. Here, we sought to determine whether clinically relevant epigenetic perturbations caused by the HRE are mirrored in a C9-BAC mouse model. We used complementary DNA methylation assessment and immunoprecipitation methods to demonstrate that epigenetic aberrations caused by the HRE, such as DNA and histone methylation, are recapitulated in the C9-BAC mice. Strikingly, we found that cytosine hypermethylation within the promoter region of the human transgene occurred in a subset of C9-BAC mice similar to what is observed in patient populations. Moreover, we show that partial heterochromatinization of the C9 HRE occurs during the first weeks of the mouse lifespan, indicating age-dependent epigenetic repression. Using iPSC neurons, we found that preventing R-loop formation did not impede

  12. BAC-end sequence-based SNPs and Bin mapping for rapid integration of physical and genetic maps in apple.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuepeng; Chagné, David; Gasic, Ksenija; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Beever, Jonathan E; Gardiner, Susan E; Korban, Schuyler S

    2009-03-01

    A genome-wide BAC physical map of the apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., has been recently developed. Here, we report on integrating the physical and genetic maps of the apple using a SNP-based approach in conjunction with bin mapping. Briefly, BAC clones located at ends of BAC contigs were selected, and sequenced at both ends. The BAC end sequences (BESs) were used to identify candidate SNPs. Subsequently, these candidate SNPs were genetically mapped using a bin mapping strategy for the purpose of mapping the physical onto the genetic map. Using this approach, 52 (23%) out of 228 BESs tested were successfully exploited to develop SNPs. These SNPs anchored 51 contigs, spanning approximately 37 Mb in cumulative physical length, onto 14 linkage groups. The reliability of the integration of the physical and genetic maps using this SNP-based strategy is described, and the results confirm the feasibility of this approach to construct an integrated physical and genetic maps for apple.

  13. Comparison of 'time to detection' values between BacT/ALERT VIRTUO and BacT/ALERT 3D instruments for clinical blood culture samples.

    PubMed

    Congestrì, Francesco; Pedna, Maria Federica; Fantini, Michela; Samuelli, Michela; Schiavone, Pasqua; Torri, Arianna; Bertini, Stefania; Sambri, Vittorio

    2017-09-01

    The early detection of bacteraemia and fungemia is of paramount importance to guide antimicrobial therapy in septic patients. In this study the 'time to detection' (TTD) value for the new blood culture system BacT/ALERT VIRTUO (VIRTUO) was evaluated in 1462 positive clinical bottles and compared with the TTD for 1601 positive clinical bottles incubated in the BacT/ALERT 3D system (BTA-3D). The most representative microorganisms isolated from bottles incubated in both blood culture systems were divided into eight categories (in order of frequency): coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae (other than E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, viridans group streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp. The comparison of TTD values for the two blood culture systems strongly indicated that growth of the first five groups listed above was detected earlier with VIRTUO than with BTA-3D (p < 0.05). The new VIRTUO blood culture system can reduce the TTD for more than 75% of isolated microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among motor vehicle crash victims admitted to a trauma center.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J Michael; Flegel, Ron; Cangianelli, Leo A; Atkins, Randolph; Soderstrom, Carl A; Kerns, Timothy J

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to (1) determine the incidence and prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among motor vehicle crash (MVC) victims admitted to a regional Level-I trauma center, and (2) to examine the utility of using a rapid point-of-collection (POC) drug-testing device to identify MVC patients with drug involvement. Blood and urine specimens were routinely collected per clinical protocol for each MVC victim at the time of admission. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were determined per standard clinical protocol. Clinical urine specimens were routinely split so that a POC drug-testing device for the detection of commonly abused drugs (Marijuana, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamines, and Opiates) could be compared to that of the standard hospital laboratory analysis of each urine specimen (which also included Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines). In the six-month period of this study, nearly two-thirds of trauma center admissions were victims of motor vehicle crashes. During this time, blood and urine was collected from 322 MVC victims. Toxicology results indicated that 59.3% of MVC victims tested positive for either commonly abused drugs or alcohol. More patients tested positive for drug use than tested positive for alcohol, with 33.5% testing positive for drug use only, 15.8% testing positive for alcohol use only, and 9.9% testing positive for both drugs and alcohol. Less than half (45.2%) of the substance-abusing patients in this study would have been identified by an alcohol test alone. After alcohol, marijuana and benzodiazepines were the most frequently detected drugs. Point of collection (POC) test results correlated well with laboratory results and provide important information to initiate rapid intervention/treatment for substance use problems among injured patients.

  15. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at